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Women still face too many barriers to realising their full potential.

Angela Merkel, the German chancellor, has pointed to womens under-representation in top jobs, arguing that this must be corrected to help Europe become the worlds most dynamic economy. In the UK, a government-appointed commission on women and work has reported that the country could gain 23bn or 2% of gross domestic product (GDP) by better harnessing womens skills. Many women are working, day-in, day-out, far below their abilities and this waste of talent is a national outrage at a time when the UK is facing some of its strongest competition from around the globe, said Baroness Margaret Prosser, who chaired the commission. Why Women Mean Business takes these powerful economic arguments for change to the heart of the corporate world. We analyse the opportunities open to companies which really understand what motivates women in the workplace and the marketplace. We explain the impact of national cultures on womens participation in the labour force. We show how corporate policies that make women welcome will help business respond to the challenge of an ageing workforce and the demands of the next generation of knowledge workers. We examine why many of the current approaches to gender have not worked and why we need a new perspective: one that sees women not as a problem but as a solution and that treats them not as a mythical minority but as full partners in leadership. With the new perspective, we offer companies and managers a step-by-step guide on how to integrate women successfully into their growth strategies. Gender is a business issue, not a womens issue. The underuse of womens talent has an impact on the bottom line. Taking action to address this will require sustained courage and conviction from todays corporate leadership. This is an oppotunity that must notbe missed.

The single most unique challenge of globalization is managing the myriad work and management styles companies face across geographies, businesses, functions and projects. When global work styles clash, organizations can become dysfunctional and productivity can suffer. These clashes can cause social distance, which results in lower performance and lost revenues. Managers who are attuned to global work style differences can develop effective strategies to minimize the risks and maximize the opportunities present in the global marketplace. A global leader is one who can effectively lead and manage organizations and teams across multiple geographies and cultures. This course focuses on the mindset and the competencies required to leverage cultural and geographical diversity to create global competitive advantage. There are some issues that you must take into consideration when you are working across culture. You need to pay attention to each point, unless you wan to clinch the deal!

Develop an awareness of the cultural differences between your own culture and target cultures Understand cultures influence on behaviors and expectations and how cultural differences impact
your business

Understand why cultural differences cannot be ignored and why cultural training is a MUST HAVE
not just nice to have

Gain practical skills in cross cultural communication and teamwork

Understand global communication styles and why companies site communication breakdown and
misunderstanding as a major problem

Learn how to develop communication strategies and how to communicate effectively through
technology Develop a realistic personal action plan

Curs Business Etiquette


De cele mai multe ori, seriozitatea si competenta noastra profesionala sunt interpretate prin calitatea protocolului afisat. Cu totii stim cat de important este sa faci o prima impresie de nota 10, dar este esential sa ne pastram aceasta imagine pentru totdeauna. Eticheta in business are rolul de a-ti oferi o imagine profesionala impecabila. Eticheta in afaceri inseamna mai mult decat "cei sapte ani de acasa", de la a sti cum sa te imbraci la o intalnire cu un client, cum sa te comporti la petrecerea de firma pana la a cunoaste ce e permis si ce nu intr-o conversatie. Cursul Business Etiquette te ajuta sa-ti imbunatatesti imaginea, atat cea personala si si a companiei pe care o reprezinti. Vino alaturi de noi pentru a afla care sunt elementele esentiale de eticheta in afaceri, si cum pot acestea sa te transforme intr-o persoana de succes. Obiectivul cursului: Constientizarea impactului pe care imaginea personala o are in relatiile de business, si dobandirea abilitatilor necesare unei persoane de succes. Beneficii. La finalul training-ului: Vei stii cum sa te pregatesti pentru o intalnire de afaceri; Vei putea sa faci o prima impresie de nota 10; Vei stii cum sa te imbraci si sa te comporti adecvat fiecarei situatii; Vei putea pastra si dezvolta relatiile cu partenerii de afaceri. Agenda de curs: Imaginea spre excelenta Imaginea care inspira putere Prezenta profesionala nonverbala Comunicarea si imaginea Tinuta de business Garderoba de baza Caracteristici ale hainelor la birou Eticheta in dinning Introduceri si aspecte generale de politete Comunicare sociala Situatii de dinning Traditii internationale de business Limbajul nonverbal si gesturi tabu Saluturi si introduceri Barbati si femei in business Practici de success in business Comunicare si conversatii Conversatii tabu Metode folosite: Curs deschis Joc de rol filmat Studii de caz si exemple practice Metode experientiale Cursul este interactiv, partea practica reprezentand 70% din timpul cursului.

Participanti: orice persoana care doreste sa-si imbunatateasca imaginea sociala. Durata: 1 zi. Trainer: Catalina Mariuta. Trainer certificat la nivel national, cu experienta semnificativa in training si business. Expertiza si experienta in training cuprinde: Prezentari de Impact, Tehnici de Comunicare, Managementul Timpului, Formare de Formatori. Are o experienta de peste 8 ani in companii nationale si internationale unde a ocupat pozitii de Sales Manager, Executive Manager, General Manager. Locatie: Bd Iuliu Maniu Nr 7, Corp A, Et 3.

www.visionconsulting.ro www.programe-teambuilding.ro telefon: 031 / 425 55 70 e-mail: office@visionconsulting.ro

Supporting Refugee Entrepreneurs Refugee Start-up Guide: Business Culture

CULTURALDIVERSITY The United Kingdom (UK) is comprised of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. It is important not only to be aware of these geographical distinctions but also the strong sense of identity and nationalism felt by the populations of these four countries. The terms English and British are not interchangeable. British denotes someone who is from England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. English refers to people from England. People from Scotland are referred to as Scots. People from England are not likely to take offence at being called English, whereas a Welsh, Scots, or Northern Irish person will. Cultural Diversity Formerly a very homogenous society, since World War II, Britain has become increasingly diverse as it has accommodated large immigrant populations. The mixture of ethnic groups and cultures make it difficult to define British as looking or acting in one particular manner. People may sound British and retain the cultural heritage of their forefathers while others may become more British than someone who can trace his/her lineage to the 5th century. The fact that the nations favourite dish is now a curry sums up the cultural mish-mash that is modern day Britain. Doing business in the UK

The British are rather formal. Many from the older generation still prefer to work with people and companies they know or who are known to their associates. Younger businesspeople do not need longstanding personal relationships before they do business with people and do not require an intermediary to make business introductions. Nonetheless, networking and relationship building are often key to long-term business success.

British communication styles


The British have an interesting mix of communication styles encompassing both understatement and direct communication. Many older businesspeople or those from the 'upper class' rely heavily upon formal use of established protocol. Most British are masters of understatement and do not use effusive language. If anything, they have a marked tendency to qualify their statements with such as 'perhaps' or 'it could be'. When communicating with people they see as equal to themselves in rank or class, the British are direct, but modest. If communicating with someone they know well, their style may be more informal, although they will still be reserved.

Business meetings
Punctuality is a very British trait. It is especially important in business situations. In most cases, the people you are meeting will be on time. Always call if you will be even 5 minutes later than agreed. If you are kept waiting a few minutes, do not make an issue of it. How meetings are conducted is often determined by the composition of people attending. If everyone is at the same level, there is generally a free flow of ideas and opinions. If there is a senior ranking person in the room, that person will do most of the speaking. In general, meetings will be rather formal and always have a clearly defined purpose, which may include an agenda. There will be a brief amount of small talk before getting down to the business at hand. If you make a presentation, avoid making exaggerated claims. Make certain your presentation and any materials provided appear professional and well thought out. Be prepared to back up your claims with facts and figures. The British rely on facts, rather than emotions, to make decisions. Maintain eye contact and a few feet of personal space. After a meeting, send a letter summarising what was decided and the next steps to be taken.

Basic Etiquette Tips:


Business Dress * Business attire is conservative. * Men should wear a dark coloured, conservative business suit. * Women should wear either a business suit or a conservative dress. Greetings * Shake hands with everyone at a meeting upon arrival. * Maintain eye contact during the greeting. Titles * Only medical doctors and the clergy use their professional or academic titles in business. * Most people use the courtesy titles or Mr, Mrs or Miss and their surname. (Mr and Mrs are words in the United Kingdom and do not require a period after them as they are not abbreviations.) * If someone has been knighted, they are called 'Sir' followed by their first and surnames or 'Sir' followed simply by their first name. * Wait until invited before moving to a first-name basis. People under the age of 35 may make this move more rapidly than older British. Business Cards * Business cards are exchanged at the initial introduction without formal ritual. * The business card may be put away with only a cursory glance. Business Gifts Business gift giving is not part of the business culture. If you choose to give a gift, make certain it is small and tasteful. Good gifts include desk accessories, a paperweight with your company logo, or a book about your home country. Inviting someone out for a meal can be viewed as a gift.

Business Culture in the UK


Doing business in the UK may be different to what you have experienced in your home country. Here are some tips on what you may expect and how to respond. How is it different? In interviews with refugees who had set up businesses in the UK they identified these areas as leading to possible misunderstanding: Greetings and conversation Making appointments Meetings Written agreements Importance of facts Negotiation Personal information Giving gifts Employing family and friends

Equality of opportunity

You may find other areas lead to misunderstanding, but the advice below should help give you a sense of business culture in the UK. Remember in any society not everyone follows exactly the same rules, therefore, you will need to decide what you think works best in a particular situation. INTRODUCTION Greetings and conversation Shaking hands is considered the polite way to greet someone you have just been introduced to and you will often hear people say How do you do, to which an appropriate reply is also How do you do. A less formal greeting is How are you? and the usual answer is Im fine, thank you. And you? Before discussing business matters, people usually make small talk (have a short chat). This is often on a topic such as the weather, transport or sport. Humour is often used! Making appointments Usually: Meetings are normally arranged some days in advance. Meetings are within normal office working hours 09:00 am to 17:00 pm. Be aware the hour lunch break can be any time usually between 12:00 pm to 14:00 pm you will need to check if it is OK to meet during this time.

In the last few decades the intercultural communications field has increasingly gained importance within politics, trade and commerce. Both international and national companies are now realising that a clash of cultures can and does have an adverse affect on business success. This clash takes place both on an international level, with staff frequently being sent abroad to conduct business and on a domestic level, with an increasingly diverse and multi-cultural UK workforce. The interdependent, global and multi-cultural marketplace of the 21st century brings with it new challenges. Intercultural communication training aims to reduce the negative impact culture can have on business transactions. With differences in areas such as values, beliefs, norms, manners and etiquette there is plenty of room for misunderstandings and poor communication. Intercultural awareness seeks to minimise such consequences and maximise the potential of businesses by equipping them with the appropriate tools to communicate across cultures effectively. Many will ask what intercultural differences impact upon business. By way of highlighting this it may be useful to briefly look at UK business culture. If a foreigner were to come to work or conduct business in the UK what areas may they find different? Let us consider punctuality. Most North American and European countries are 'clock conscious'. Time is money, being late for an appointment is the height of bad etiquette and coming in late to work is unprofessional. However, in many other countries this is not so. Being late for work or an appointment is acceptable and would not have harmful repercussions.

Compared with other countries, the UK office can be a reasonably relaxed and informal environment. Conversations can become personal, humour is seen as a positive and relationships frequently switch between that of friends and colleagues depending on the situation. A new German or Japanese colleague may at first find this unprofessional and lacking in professionalism. Brainstorming, gaining consensus and objective criticism are all part of the British business meeting. However, in hierarchical cultures none of the above would take place. Meetings are usually the forum for decisions to be conveyed rather than made, criticising or challenging the ideas of colleagues and seniors would be completely unacceptable and would result in the loss of honour and face. These brief examples are but three of numerous illustrations of business culture that a foreigner may need to understand before working with the British. If a person came to the UK and was unaware of such issues they may very well be misunderstood if they were constantly late, never contributed in meetings or did not join in with office banter. Intercultural awareness training aims at familiarising people with a culture they (are going to) work with. The end result is stronger relationships, enhanced communication and an environment where culture becomes a vehicle to success. Far from wanting to stereotype nationalities and offer definitive, concrete definitions of their culture and society, intercultural awareness training offers a framework that can act as a safety net for those dealing with different cultures by offering guidelines and boundaries in order to minimise the negative impact of intercultural differences. CONCLUSION Kwintessential Ltd

Culture is the residue of past group success (in that the group has proven durable) stored in the form of collective assumptions, or mental models that are unquestionably accepted as representing reality. Groups tend to hold onto those things that have worked for them in the past, and over time,
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we come to pass those on to new generations as part of their heritage, a gift of our representation of how things work. This representation gains status with repetition, until it is so tightly held it is not something we question.

The early learning provided as part of our cultural inheritance establishes a framework against what all new information is compared. Quite simply, it is exceedingly difficult to accept something that seems to conflict with our culturally imposed filters. Our beliefs about what is right, how things have to be done, what people are like, etc. are founded upon our group's past, and we generally are not even aware of conflicting information. Psychological mechanisms operate to prevent such awareness, unless we consciously take up the challenge (a process we might refer to as reflection). The business setting can be seen as a microcosm of the broader community with respect to culture. Each business develops its own unique culture with the passage of time. One of the things we would like to accomplish is to have adaptable organizations, but often the organizational culture stands in opposition to the change necessary in adapting to the rapidlychanging business environment. When this is the case, managers generally would like to change the organizational culture. However, such change is difficult, because cultures are generally very stable. A culture is hard to alter, and particularly so in groups that have long standing, because a culture represents the accumulated learning about how to think, feel and perceive the world that has contributed to the durability of the group. How many of us really understand why we think in certain ways, or perhaps even what we think? What are the roots of your feelings? Do you walk through daily life analyzing the origins of your perceptions of other people and the environment? In general, most of us spend relatively little time in such pursuits. We simply accept what we learned long ago as proper and proceed. It is the very nature of our tacit acceptance of our cultural heritage that the important parts of culture that drive our behavior, be the culture national, ethnic or organizational, are not easily discerned. The shared mental models that rest at the fundament of our cultural immersion are taken for granted, leading to behavior that may appear aberrant if viewed by someone from outside our culture. It is only through awareness, an awareness that may come about only as individuals and groups learn to spend time in deep reflective exploration of how they think, that we can begin

to understand how our cultural heritage shapes our responses to various situations. Just what are the cultural imperatives you invoke in various settings, and under the myriad of situations you routinely encounter? How do these assumptions affect your interactions with people who bring a different heritage (culture) to a particular situation? To question our cultural heritage in a given situation is not to say cultures are all bad. Indeed, we invoke our earlier understanding in a situation because it simplifies the process of deciding how to respond. Our acculturation gives us access to far more learning than we have at hand purely by our own experience, and its invocation often represents a short cut to what may even be life or group saving action. However, there is a potential problem with the application of the short cut in that the model invoked does not fit the current situation. In the complex world of today's business environment, our models do not keep pace with reality, and models by their very nature are at best simplifications of real situations. Thus, we can correctly assume our mental models will not accurately reflect the reality at any given moment. This does not mean we should ignore culture, but instead, we must understand it and its limitations. Indeed, one of the best approaches to understanding modern business problems is to seek to utilize the power of mental models by bringing multiple perspectives to the investigation of these problems. By bringing together people who have different sets of mental models, i.e., diversity in thought, we can gain a fuller image of complex circumstances, but only if we actually explore the differences in our thinking in a true spirit of exploration (as opposed to persuasion). How is it that acculturation occurs? The simple answer is that by association with a given group we assimilate into the culture, but more specifically, the time-honored technology for sowing the seeds of a culture is by the telling of stories about life in that culture. For example, in a business, we hear about the heroes of the past and their exploits, and this tells us about what is valued in that specific organization. We also hear about the way work is really accomplished within the organization, which often contrasts sharply with how the policies and procedures dictate it should be done. We hear about what the group respects and what garners disdain. In short, we learn how to be a part of our immediate group and we learn how to fit into the organization. The same process occurs in our communities, states, regions and nations. Obviously, we are each a member of numerous groups, and if we really work at it, we can probably recall unique stories that tell about each of these cultures. In the final analysis, changing how groups think and function, including that special case of a group organized around conducting economic activities we call a business, represents an extremely difficult task. In promoting such changes we are asking groups to give up on some of their past successes. We are potentially invalidating the hard-gained knowledge of any group we seek to breathe new life into, and the uncertainty engendered in such a leap from established "truth" to a future yet to be established is certain to scare people. The natural human reaction to fear is aggression, which can range from the passive form in resistance, to an active fight to oust the proponent of change. Your skills in utilizing cultural differences in the search for better ends, and in the promotion of transformations in cultures that advance greater adaptability will substantially shape your legacy as a manager. Michael E. Smith, Ph. D., is an Assistant Professor of Management at Western Carolina University in Cullowhee, NC.
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Facts and Statistics Location: Western Europe, islands including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, northwest of France Capital: London Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast Population: 60,776,238 (July 2007 est.) Ethnic Make-up: white (of which English 83.6%, Scottish 8.6%, Welsh 4.9%, Northern Irish 2.9%) 92.1%, black 2%, Indian 1.8%, Pakistani 1.3%, mixed 1.2%, other 1.6% (2001 census) Religions: Christian (Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 71.6%, Muslim 2.7%, Hindu 1%, other 1.6%, unspecified or none 23.1% (2001 census) Government: constitutional monarchy Language in the UK The United Kingdom does not have a constitutionally defined official language. English is the main language (being spoken monolingually by more than 70% of the UK population) and is thus the de facto official language. Other native languages to the Isles include Welsh, Irish, Ulster Scots, Cornish, Gaelic and British Sign Language. Immigrants have naturally brought many foreign languages from across the globe. British Society, People and Culture The United Kingdom The United Kingdom is comprised of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. It is important not only to be aware of these geographical distinctions, but also the strong sense of identity and nationalism felt by the populations of these four nations.

The terms 'English' and 'British' do not mean the same thing. 'British' denotes someone who is from England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. 'English' refers to people from England. People from Scotland are 'Scots', from Wales Welsh and from Northern Ireland Irish. Be sure not to call someone Welsh, Scots, or Northern Irish

English. The Class System Although in the past few decades, people from varied backgrounds have had greater access to higher education, wealth distribution is changing and more upward/downward mobility is occurring, the British class system is still very much intact although in a more subconscious way. The playing field is levelling but the British still seem to pigeonhole people according to class. Class is no longer simply about wealth or where one lives; the British are able to suss out someones class through a number of complex variables including demeanour, accent, manners and comportment. A Multicultural Society Formerly a very homogenous society, since World War II, Britain has become increasingly diverse as it has accommodated large immigrant populations, particularly from its former colonies such as India, Pakistan and the West Indies. The mixture of ethnic groups and cultures make it difficult to define Britishness nowadays and a debate rages within the nation as to what now really constitutes being a Briton. The Stiff Upper Lip The British have been historically known for their stiff upper lip and blitz spirit as demonstrated during the German bombings of World War II. This grin and bear attitude in the face of adversity or embarrassment lives on today.

As a nation, the Brits tend not to use superlatives and may not appear terribly animated when they speak. This does not mean that they do not have strong emotions; merely that they do not choose to put them on public display. They are generally not very openly demonstrative, and, unless you know someone well, may not appreciate it if you put your arm around their shoulder. Kissing is most often reserved for family members in the privacy of home, rather than in public. You'll see that the British prefer to maintain a few feet of distance between themselves and the person to whom they are speaking. If you have insulted someone, their facial expression may not change. The British are very reserved and private people. Privacy is extremely important. The British will not necessarily give you a tour of their home and, in fact, may keep most doors closed. They expect others to respect their privacy. This extends to not asking personal questions. The question, Where are you from? may be viewed as an attempt to place the person on the social or class scale. Even close friends do not ask pointedly personal questions, particularly pertaining to ones financial situation or relationships. There is a proper way to act in most situations and the British are sticklers for adherence to protocol. The British are a bit more contained in their body language and hand gestures while speaking. They are generally more distant and reserved than North and South Americans and Southern Europeans, and may not initially appear to be as open or friendly. Friendships take longer to build; however, once established they tend to be deep and may last over time and distance.

British Etiquette and Customs


Meeting and Greeting The handshake is the common form of greeting. The British might seem a little stiff and formal at first. Avoid prolonged eye contact as it makes people feel uncomfortable. There is still some protocol to follow when introducing people in a business or more formal social situation. This is often a class distinction, with the 'upper class' holding on to the long-standing traditions: Introduce a younger person to an older person.

Introduce a person of lower status to a person of higher status. When two people are of similar age and rank, introduce the one you know better to the other person. Gift Giving Etiquette The British exchange gifts between family members and close friends for birthdays and Christmas. The gift need not be expensive, but it should usually demonstrate an attempt to find something that related to the recipients interests. If invited to someone's home, it is normal to take along a box of good chocolates, a good bottle of wine or flowers. Gifts are opened when received. Dining Etiquette Unlike many European cultures, the British enjoy entertaining in people their homes. Although the British value punctuality, you may arrive 10-15 minutes later than invited to dinner. However, if going to a restaurant be on time. Table manners are Continental, i.e. the fork is held in the left hand and the knife in the right while eating. The fork is held tines down so food is scooped on to the back of the fork. This is a skill that takes time to master. Remain standing until invited to sit down. You may be shown to a particular seat. Do not rest your elbows on the table. If you have not finished eating, cross your knife and fork on your plate with the fork over the knife.

Indicate you have finished eating by laying your knife and fork parallel across the right side of your plate. Toasts are given at formal meals. When in a pub, it is common practice to pay for a round of drinks for everyone in your group. If invited to a meal at a restaurant, the person extending the invitation usually pays. Do not argue about the check; simply reciprocate at a later time.

Business Etiquette and Protocol

Business cards are exchanged at the initial introduction without formal ritual. The business card may be put away with only a cursory glance so dont be offended if not much attention is paid to it. The British Communication Style The British have an interesting mix of communication styles encompassing both understatement and direct communication. Many older businesspeople or those from the 'upper class' rely heavily upon formal use of established protocol. Most British are masters of understatement and do not use effusive language. If anything, they have a marked tendency to use qualifiers such as 'perhaps', possibly or 'it could be'. When communicating with people they see as equal to themselves in rank or class, the British are direct, but modest. If communicating with someone they know well, their style may be more informal, although they will still be reserved.

Written communication follows strict rules of protocol. How a letter is closed varies depending upon how well the writer knows the recipient. Written communication is always addressed using the person's title and their surname. First names are not generally used in written communication, unless you know the person well. E-mail is now much more widespread, however the communication style remains more formal, at least initially, than in many other countries. Most British will not use slang or abbreviations and will think negatively if your communication appears overly familiar. Building Relationships The British can be quite formal and sometimes prefer to work with people and companies they know or who are known to their associates. The younger generation however is very different; they do not need long-standing personal relationships before they do business with people and do not require an intermediary to make business introductions. Nonetheless, networking and relationship building are often key to longterm business success. Most British look for long-term relationships with people they do business with and will be cautious if you appear to be going after a quick deal. Business Meetings If you plan to use an agenda, be sure to forward it to your British colleagues in sufficient time for them to review it and recommend any changes. Punctuality is important in business situations. In most cases, the people you are meeting will be on time. Scots are extremely punctual. Call if you will be even 5 minutes later than agreed. Having said that, punctuality is often a matter of personal style and emergencies do arise. If you are kept waiting a few minutes, do not make an issue of it. Likewise, if you know that you will be late it is a good idea to telephone and offer your apologies. How meetings are conducted is often determined by the composition of people attending: If everyone is at the same level, there is generally a free flow of ideas and opinions. If there is a senior ranking person in the room, that person will do most of the speaking.

In general, meetings will be rather formal: Meetings always have a clearly defined purpose, which may include an agenda. There will be a brief amount of small talk before getting down to the business at hand. If you make a presentation, avoid making exaggerated claims. Make certain your presentation and any materials provided appear professional and well thought out. Be prepared to back up your claims with facts and figures. The British rely on facts, rather than emotions, to make decisions. Maintain eye contact and a few feet of personal space. After a meeting, send a letter summarizing what was decided and the next steps to be taken.

Britain