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420 550 kV Gas-insulated Substations Transmission networks are evolving into Smart Grids, integrating multiple energy sources, optimising energy efciency, and providing higher reliability and availability. Alstom Grid T155 GIS offer solutions to face these new challenges.
The ALSTOM GRID T155 gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) is ideal for such applications on 420 and 550 kV networks. The T155 derives its extensive benets from ALSTOM GRID's active involvement in SF6 switchgear technology for over 44 years, during which over 20 000 GIS bays have been sold and installed around the world to the entire satisfaction of operators. The T155 is continuously being upgraded, reliably achieving all guaranteed ratings and providing state-of-the-art technology.

Sustained improvements
ALSTOM anticipates the new requirements resulting from changing market conditions and customer priorities. Research and development continuously aims at improving the quality, performance and reliability of products. Using internationally recognised KEMA, CESI and CERDA test laboratories, ALSTOM closely follows-up technological developments and contributes to the technological transformations of the future.

The ALSTOM quality-assurance system is assessed and certied according to ISO 9001 and EN 29001 standards. It is subject to unceasing improvements and is considered an essential management tool throughout the company. Machining and manufacturing facilities use the most modern technologies and ensure the highest quality levels. From receipt of order to delivery, thorough production and engineering-ow planning associated with computerised data-processing ensures that deadlines and commitments are fully met.

Customer benets High operational reliability Superior availability Excellent accessibility Modular design Increased compactness




Key system advantages

Proven design
T155 switchgear, based on its proven and reliable ancestors, provides key customer benets. The main implemented technologies for enclosures, gaskets, insulators and conductors have been validated by several decades of eld experience.

Field-proven design principles44 years Long-term experience over with GIS and over 50 years with circuit
ISO 9001 system certied quality assurance Comprehensive tory testing. development and laboraLife cycle costs are dropped down to the lowest. breaker (CB) spring mechanisms

Proper sizing of transport convenient handling units allows Most low voltage plug-in connectorscables are tted with Comprehensive factory tests ensure equipment is ready-to-operate. that

Accessible components Optimal solutions

T155 switchgear is optimally suitable for all types of single-line diagrams, arrangements, building dimensions, environments and site constraints. All components have been designed to give the T155 the highest exibility: Individual customer solutions Clear and simple layouts Minimum space requirements Reduced substation construction costs. The switchgear arrangement and the location of the operating mechanisms (circuitbreakers, disconnectors and earthing switches) denitely provide the highest degree of accessibility, thus bringing many advantages: Safe operation Easy servicing with no use of heavy equipment Convenient retrots, changes and further extensions Short dismantling and equipment adjustment times, thanks to busbar coupling elements.

Short manufacturing, installation and commissioning times

T155 advanced concepts make it possible to reduce engineering, manufacturing, installation and commissioning times. Amongst other reasons for these time reductions, the following points deserve mentioning: Components and arrangements are highly standardised, thus reducing engineering lead times Support frames are simply bolted to the concrete slab or oor by means of classical anchoring bolts, with no need of embedded sectional rails, thanks to minimum dynamic stresses Very little structural steelwork is necessary

Reliable operation
The T155's reliability can be attributed to the following reasons: Professional experience and training of all people involved in the industrial process, from research and development designers to site installation supervisors Minimum number of components and parts

Not only is the T155 the ideal product to design substations according to any singleline diagram (single busbar, double busbar, one circuit-breaker and a half, etc.), but it is also optimal for gas-insulated modules. OPTIGIM T155 gas-insulated modules enable the creation and/or extension of airinsulated substations with lower space requirements, while benetting from safer and more reliable gas-insulated switchgear. The T155 GIS is also suitable for future modications and extensions, thus optimising capital costs.

1 Circuit breaker 2 Spring-operated mechanism 3 Disconnector 4 High-speed earthing switch 5 Low-speed earthing switch 6 Current transformer 7 Cable connection 2



Adapted aluminium enclosures
Enclosures are made of aluminium alloys, cast or welded, each material being selected for different reasons: Low electrical resistance, which minimises touch voltage, creates an efcient electromagnetic shielding (return current and primary current are nearly equal) and reduces resistive losses Non-magnetic behaviour which entails no magnetic losses High resistance to corrosion, making it unnecessary to paint enclosures and internal surfaces and ensuring long-term gas tightness and ange-to-ange contact resistance quality (despite there being no technical need to do so, external surfaces are painted regardless, for a long-lasting attractive look) Light weight, which makes handling easy, minimises static loads and reduces civil works.

Safe insulators
Conductors and live parts are tted to cast epoxy-resin insulators, made of special high-quality materials and manufactured in ALSTOM's own workshops. Optimized shapes and long creepage distances jointly ensure the highest long-term voltage withstand, within resin and gas.

Adequate SF6 accessories

Each SF6 compartment has a lling valve, moisture absorber, safety pressure relief valve and a temperature-compensated density switch or sensor. Density thresholds can be tested without depressurising the main gas compartment. Digital monitoring systems offer valuable solutions for SF6 management and trend analysis.

State-of-the-art circuit breaker

Each T155 circuit breaker pole is equipped with its own spring mechanism. Each pole contains two breaking chambers. The chambers use high-performance breaking technology with an optimum combination of both puffer and thermal effects. The use of two interrupting units per pole ensures full compliance with the IEC's latest and most stringent standards, even for high-level ratings such as 550 kV and 63 kA. The circuit breaker has been fully type-tested under all operating conditions and consequently can be used for all types of networks and applications. Grading capacitors ensure uniform voltage distribution between the interrupting elements. Design, manufacture, assembly and quality control provide the highest levels of both mechanical and electrical endurance, which means that no reconditioning is required before at least 25 years, under normal operating conditions.

Perfect SF6 sealing

The ALSTOM sealing system uses original patented gaskets, which actually provide three concentric seals and ensure that substations gas leakage rate is less than 0.5% per year. Design, manufacturing and testing is performed in accordance with most stringent international standards, ensuring the highest mechanical withstand and degree of safety. Technical data Rated voltage Rated frequency Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Rated power frequency withstand voltage Rated current for busbars or feeders Rated short time current (3 s) Rated breaking current Application Other values on request

kV Hz kV kV A A kA kA

420 550 50/60 1425 1550 650 710 up to 6300 up to 4000 up to 63 up to 63 Indoor/ Outdoor

High quality conductors

Connecting conductors are made of tubular aluminium with high-grade, silver-plated contacts at the ends. The sliding feature allows thermal expansion without transmitting mechanical stress to insulators. Specic design provides ample angular deection for easier and shorter assembling or dismantling operations.



Superior spring mechanisms

ALSTOMs experience with circuit breaker spring mechanisms spans over 70 years and amounts to more than 90000 units produced customers have repeatedly expressed their deep satisfaction with them. These mechanisms are called full-spring mechanisms since they have no pressurised (hydraulic or pneumatic) driving uid. Contrary to hydraulic or pneumatic mechanisms (even when the uid is used for transmission only), ALSTOMs spring mechanisms are not likely to leak, they forever store their energy and do not prematurely age due to frequent motor starts and pressure top-ups. Operation times do not depend on temperature and pressure, thus making the right use of synchronising relays (see below). The use of a spring mechanism at such voltages and ratings is only possible due to ALSTOM's long-term experience in the elds of spring-operated mechanisms and circuit breakers.

Control of switching surges

Depending on overhead line (OHL) parameters and network ratings, OHL switching surges may be mitigated by using one or several of the following means: Synchronising relay Additional surge arresters Insertion closing resistor.

High power earthing switches

Earthing switches (ES) may have switching capabilities or not. Those with these capabilities are fast-operated (high-speed type), not only on closing but also on opening, by means of a spring released at the end of both operations. High-speed ES are therefore capable, not only of making the full short-circuit current, but also of interrupting (according to most stringent standard specications) currents associated with parallel overhead lines. The latter capability is widely and reliably achieved thanks to the specic high-speed opening feature of the T155 earthing switch. Properly selected ES, either high or low-speed, may be electrically insulated from the enclosures by removing an external link, thus conveniently enabling current or voltage injection tests for timing, resistance measurement or protection check purposes. All three ES poles are connected to a common 3-pole electrical mechanism via a sturdy mechanical linkage. The contact position indicator, which is common to the three poles of low-speed ES and tted to each pole of high-speed ES, is reliable and clearly visible at operating level.

For reactor switching, a synchronising relay may be associated with the mandatory surge arresters required for protection of this sensitive equipment. Thanks to its spring mechanism, the T155 circuit breaker features perfect timing stability, a pre-requisite to its association with a synchronising relay.

Safe disconnectors
All three disconnector (DS) poles are connected to a common 3-pole electrical mechanism via a sturdy mechanical linkage. Clear and safe indication of the main contacts position is provided by a reliable indicator directly tted to the linkage. This indicator is well-visible from the operating level. Totally safe insulation between energised and de-energised sections of the substation is provided thanks to long gaps between open contacts and proper dielectric design. Disconnectors reliably switch capacitive currents which occur when switchgear sections are energised or de-energised, as well as commutation currents caused by busbar transfers. All performances have been demonstrated according to the latest applicable standards.

Field-proven busducts
Tens of kilometres of ALSTOM gas-insulated busducts are installed around the world, thus demonstrating an unsurpassable eld experience. Not only can these busducts match all physical constraints, but the GIS and its high voltage terminations can also be arranged in the most suitable way.

ALSTOM spring mechanisms have few moving parts, require almost no maintenance, need no on-site adjustment and stand out due to their long service life. Sturdy design assures superior reliability. Adapted travel curve and damping entail low dynamic loads on the oor and adjacent GIS components. Therefore, mechanical ageing is sharply reduced and civil works are less expensive. 4



Busducts can be installed either above ground, or in trenches, tunnels, or shafts. This makes it possible to locate HV substations within underground power plants for instance, thus enabling operators to locate step-up power transformers underground too. Thermal expansion is dealt with by means of suitable sliding supports, bellows, special steel frames, etc.

Integrated surge arresters

Gas-insulated surge arresters minimise substation footprints, improve equipment reliability and reduce the number of outdoor insulators. Thousands of units are installed in high and extra-high voltage air and gas-insulated substations. T155 zinc-oxide resistors have very high ratings which minimise residual voltages, thus perfectly protecting the equipment and dissipating the very high energies associated with the longest lines and cables. Proper grading of the electrical eld inside the enclosure is achieved with special stress shields. A leakage current meter and/or a discharge counter may also be connected.

Composite insulators are also explosionproof and thus bring a valuable safety feature.

Direct connection to power transformers

In order to remove any air-insulated part, the T155 can be directly connected to power transformers and reactors by means of gas-insulated busducts and a specic enclosure which houses the gas-tight oil-SF6 bushing. The latter is provided by the transformer or reactor manufacturer and must be as per IEC standards. Proper design easily manages the positioning tolerances of the power transformer or reactor. The transformer or reactor may be disconnected from the substation via a removable connection during GIS high voltage tests.

Customised current and voltage transformers

T155 current and/or voltage transformers are suitable for all protection and metering purposes and cover a very large range of ratings. Most often, instrument transformers are conventional, inductive types. Non-conventional instrument transformers (NCIT) can also be provided. The ALSTOM non-conventional current transformer is based on the Rogowski principle, which avoids any magnetic saturation concerns. Thanks to ALSTOM's original design, even the most demanding metering ratings, up to 0.2 accuracy class, can be achieved with very low primary currents. The non-conventional voltage transformer is a capacitive-type and may even be combined with the CT. The ALSTOM NCIT delivers standard analog and/or digital signals.

High-voltage terminations
The T155 can be directly connected to high voltage cables, transformers and/or overhead lines.

Standard HV cable connection

A specic enclosure is used to connect the switchgear to the cable termination, whose insulator provided by the cable supplier must be as per IEC standards. Such a termination ts any type of HV cable, irrespective of insulation type (XLPE, paper-oil, etc.) or conductor section. The cable can be disconnected from the switchgear via a removable conductor, to allow separate GIS and cable high voltage tests. Tools and testing means for HV cable testing must be provided by the cable supplier.

Reliable SF6-air bushings

The GIS connects to overhead lines by means of busducts and SF6-air bushings, the insulator of which, (porcelain or composite) is lled with SF6 at substation rated pressure. Electric eld grading is natural, based on sole SF6 insulation, which provides an excellent voltage surge withstand. This limits the risk of ageing too. A range of insulators allows external creepage distances to meet specic customer requirements.



Condition monitoring
Despite its superior reliability, T155 switchgear availability can be further enhanced by means of condition monitoring systems which have the following features: Predictive, instead of preventive maintenance Early warnings Time-tagged event recording.

UHF monitoring
Internal partial discharges may be signs of possible problems. It may be therefore useful to monitor the ultra-high frequency (UHF) electromagnetic waves generated by the partial discharges. Associated with the high voltage tests, this is the most effective way to ensure full GIS integrity after installation or heavy maintenance. UHF sensors transmit electromagnetic waves, the frequency of which may reach 1 GHz. Sensors

SF6 , circuit breaker and partial discharge monitoring are the most valuable systems.

(i.e. antennas) are properly located inside the enclosures. On commissioning staged and regular inspections, sensors are connected to a portable UHF analyser. A trained operator may then observe the signals and determine switchgear status. A more sophisticated online monitoring system may also be supplied for more critical installations, for the permanent supervision of switchgear dielectric conditions.

Precise circuit breaker monitoring

Circuit breaker monitoring can be provided too. Travel curves and electrical wear are recorded and can report on circuit-breaker conditions in order to trigger servicing only when it is strictly necessary. For both SF6 and CB monitoring, ALSTOM deploys modular electronic devices, whose reliability is supported by hundreds of thousands in operation around the world in all types of critical industrial processes. These devices are permanently self-monitoring and any failure is immediately signalled. These devices have successfully undergone extremely severe and extensive qualication tests. Due to their proximity to high voltage and high current equipment, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) withstand is thoroughly checked: not only do these devices fully comply with the upper class of the tests (electromagnetic elds, fast transients, electrostatic discharges, radiated radio waves, etc.) dened in IEC 1000/EN 61000 standards, but they also experience no misoperation during the same tests. Display is provided by user-friendly human-machine interfaces.

Complete SF6 monitoring

Apart from the usual density thresholds (relling request and minimum operating density), ALSTOM SF6 monitoring can also provide many valuable functions: Accurate density display Filling overpressure alarm SF6 liquefaction detection Sensor status control Early warning Calculation of leakage rate Internal failure detection Historical record. remote monitoring communication monitoring gateway

Control room
LAN communication with control equipment

These functions help operators to make proper decisions and dramatically increase substation availability.

condition monitoring module(s)

bay gateway & SF6 monitoring module

digital links A/D D/A converters digital SF6 analogue sensors sensors

digital position sensors

on/off inputs on/off Switchgear outputs



Local control
A local control cubicle is generally associated to each T155 circuit breaker bay. This cubicle may provide all or part of the following functions: Control, i.e. means of opening and closing all switches (circuit breaker, disconnectors and earthing switches) LV supply protection Display of switch position Alarm display (SF6 thresholds, supply voltage, etc.) Safety electrical interlocks (using CB, DS and ES auxiliary contacts) Current / voltage meters Interfacing terminals for remote control.

The implemented technology can be conventional (based on electromechanical relays) or digital (based on electronic microprocessors). The ALSTOM local control cubicle may also incorporate the bay control unit (BCU) of a substation digital control system (DCS) and/or the protection relays themselves.

Assembly & maintenance

Reliable type and routine tests
Type tests are carried out according to latest IEC standards. For some features, IEC requirements are even supplemented by additional tests, or more severe conditions, to meet ALSTOMs own superior standards of quality. Despite our modern workshops, which include a dustfree assembly hall, the same rigorous policy is applied for routine tests. For instance, partial discharge measurement is performed at a much higher voltage than required by IEC standards.

Simple transport and on-site tests

Shipping units are lled with SF6 or N2 gas at a slight overpressure, to prevent moisture and dust ingress during transport. After site erection, the equipment undergoes rigorous inspections to ensure all required performances. Site tests include severe resistance measurements and mechanical and voltage withstand tests.

Minimal maintenance
The T155 has a near-zero maintenance concept where reliability and availability mean inspections at distant intervals and where long life duration for mechanical and electrical parts is guaranteed. The ALSTOM Service team remains at the customers disposal for any assistance and service, however. An inspection and maintenance plan can also be established to support the equipment throughout its entire life cycle.

Comprehensive services
ALSTOM provides a global service offer, supported by local resources: Network consulting Equipment expertise and diagnosis Erection and commissioning supervision Maintenance and spare parts management Repairs and emergency support Renovation and refurbishment

Dedication to customer satisfaction is ALSTOMs rst guideline to its employees, a testimony to the will of shapping a better future. 7


Building width 10 m, length 34 m

Building width 10 m, length 25 m

Alstom Grid Worldwide Contact Centre Tel: +44 (0) 1785 250 070 Hybrid module Displayed OPTIGIM includes one circuit breaker with: 1 current transformer 1 earthing switch 1 disconnector 1 SF6 -air bushing on both sides. Length 10 m Bushing terminal height 7.5 m

Double busbar layout with 6 feeders and 1 coupler

One circuit breaker and a half substation with 4 feeders


Grid-Products-L3-T155_Range-70627-2010_12 - EN Copyrights Alstom 2010, the Alstom logo and any alternative version thereof are trademarks and service marks of Alstom. The other names mentioned, registered or not, are the property of their respective companies. The technical and other data contained in this document are provided for Information only. Neither Alstom, its ofcers nor employees accept responsibility for or should be taken as making any representation or warranty (whether express or implied) as to the accuracy or compIeteness of such data or the achievements of any projected performance criteria where these are indicated. No liability is accepted for any reliance placed upon the information contained in this brochure. AIstom reserves the right to revise or change these data at any time without further notice. Printed of paper made with pure ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free) ecological cellulose produced from trees grown in production forests under responsible management, and selected recycled three-layer bres.