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Measuring and Using Numbers

KPLI SCIENCE MINOR LESSON NOTES BY SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN SMD, KTTC

What?
Measuring and using numbers is a process of observing quantitatively using numbers and standard or standardised measuring tools as the reference unit

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You are measuring and using numbers when you are.


Able to count and compare quantity of items in different groups Able to recognize the pattern from a table of numbers Using numbers to record phenomenon Using scales and explaining ratios Compare objects using numbers Using measuring tools correctly Recording unit correctly Choosing and using standard unit Comparing time, distance, area and volume with relevant units Determining the accuracy in measurements

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PHYSICAL QUANTITY
KUANTITI ASAS FIZIKAL (BASIC PHYSICAL QUANTITIES) Physical Quantity (Basic) Length Mass Time Temperature Electrical current Quantity Symbol l m t T I Unit Meter Kilogram Second Kelvin Ampere Unit symbol m kg s K A

KUANTITI TERBITAN (DERIVED PHYSICAL QUANTITIES) Area, Volume, Velocity, Acceleration, Density

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PREFIXES (For quantities larger or smaller than the basic unit)


Systeme Internationale dUnites (International System of Units) or SI PREFIX Tera Giga Mega Kilo Hecto * Deca * Deci Centi Mili Mikro Nano Piko SYMBOL T G M k h da d c m n p VALUE 1012 109 106 103 102 101 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12

* Not frequently used


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EXERCISES
10 100 1000 1 meter = _____ decimeter = _____ centimeter = ______ millimeters

1/100 or 0.01 1/1000 or 0.001 1/10 or 0.1 1 mm = _____________ m = ____________ dm = _____________ cm

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If you want to measure Long distances (eg. City to city)

You should use a metric odometer

And measure in kilometers (km)

map with a metric scale


metric stick metric tape metric measuring wheel

Average distances (eg. One step, football field) Short distances (eg. Width of a finger, a step)

meters (m)

metric ruler

centimeters (cm)

metric ruler Very small distances (eg. Width of a fingernail) Vernier callipers

Micrometer screw gauge

millimeters (mm)

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If you want to measure Mass of relatively large objects (eg. A boulder) Mass of relatively small objects (eg. Coin)

You should use a a scale or compare with known masses Triple beam balance equal-arm balance triple beam balance

And measure in kilograms (kg)

grams (g)

Very small masses (eg. Pills, tablets)

a very sensitive equalarm balance

milligrams (mg)

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If you want to measure Volume of relatively large amounts of liquid (eg. Large cans of paints) Volume of relatively small amounts of liquid (eg. Tiny bottles of perfume) Volume of relatively large solids or amounts of space (eg. Load of lumber, a room) Volume of relatively small solids or amounts of space (eg. A rock sample, air in a small area)

You should use a


liter measure

And measure in liters (L)

cylinder beaker graduated cylinder in millileters v = l x hx w amount of water the solid displaces

milliliters (mL)

cubic meters (m3)

v = l x hx w

amount of water the solid displaces using graduated measurer

cubic centimeters (cm3)

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