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Five major factors have contributed significantly to the ocurrence and the timing of the third-wave transitions to democracy: 1. The deepening legitimacy problems of authoritarian regimes in a world where democratic values were widely accepted, the consequent dependence of these regimes on successful performance, and their inability to maintain performance legitimacy due to economic (and sometimes military) failure.11
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ce se pot ntinde pe mai multe pagini. 10 Nota studentului: JOSEPH SCHUMPETER, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London: Allen and Unwin, 1943. p. 269. n original:
[T]he democratic method is that institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the peoples vote.

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11 SAMUEL P. HUNTIGTON Democracys Third Wave., in BERNARD E. BROWNROY C. MACRIDIS Comparative Politics. Notes and Readings. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1996. pp. 169170.

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12 Nota studentului: SAMUEL P. HUNTIGTON Democracys Third Wave., in BERNARD E. BROWNROY C. MACRIDIS Comparative Politics. Notes and Readings. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1996. pp. 169170. Citatul n original: [t]he deepening of legitimacy problems of authoritarian regimes in a world where democratic values were widely accepted. 13 Pentru simplitate, notele din text au fost omise.

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[T]hus various authors refer to cleavages as political or cultural, as structural or non-structural, as institutionalised or uninstitutionalised, and so on, a practice which, while often clarifying what is meant by the individual author, inevitably tends to deprive the concept itself of its own independent theoretical value. Authors such as Dahl, for example who speak of
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16 STEFANO BARTOLINIPETER MAIR Identity, Competition and Electoral Availability: The Stabilisation of European Electorates 18851985. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. p. 218. (Italice n original.)



political cleavages which are primarily defined in terms of political attitudes and behaviour, and who thus attempt to free the concept from an emphasis on the link to social structural variables, end up by failing to distinguish the notion of political cleavage from other concepts such as political opposition or political division.17
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First, the choice of players in a democratic order raises the question of citizenship. Citizenship defines the range of players who are entitled to enjoy the universal rights of participation conferred on members of a political system. Political divisions about ethnicity, race, and regional collective identities usually involve distributive alternatives and conflicts about rules of political decision making but are primarily focused on alternative views of citizenship. At one end of the spectrum are demands for an inclusive definition of citizenship, calling for the acceptance of individuals as members of the polity regardless of ascriptive economic, cultural or racial attributes. At the other end is an exclusive definition of citizenship based on the cultural and socioeconomic homogeneity of a politys citizenry.18

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17 Ibid. p. 213. (Italice n original.) 18 HERBERT KITSCHELT The Formation of Party Systems in East Central Europe., in Politics and Society, vol. 20 (March 1992) no. 1, p. 12. (Italice n original.)

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BIBLIOGRAFIE: QGUHSWDU RUWRJUDILF RUWRHSLF L GH SXQFWXDLH Ed. a IV-D %XFXUHWL (GLWXUD *** Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romnia, 1983. *** Plagiarism: What It Is and How to Recognize and Avoid It., [http://www.indiana.edu/%7Ewts/pamphlets/plagiarism.shtml@ GHVFUFDW OD data de 3 ianuarie 2005. BABBIE, EARL Survey Research Methods. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1990. The Practice of Social Research. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1998. ECO, UMBERTO 1996. Hogyan rjunk szakdolgozatot? [Cum V VFULHP R OXFUDUH GH OLFHQ"@Budapest: Kairosz Kiad. TRIVEDI, LISAW ILLIAMS, SHARON Using Sources, [http://www.hamilton.edu/ academics/resource/wc/usingsources.html@ GHVFUFDW OD GDWD GH  LDQXDULH 2005.