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I. INTRODUCTION Metals, group of chemical elements that exhibit all or most of the following physical qualities: they are solid at ordinary temperatures; opaque, except in extremely thin films; good electrical and thermal conductors; lustrous when polished; and have a crystalline structure when in the solid state. Metals and nonmetals are separated in the periodic table by a diagonal line of elements. Elements to the left of this diagonal are metals, and elements to the right are nonmetals. Elements that make up this diagonalboron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatinehave both metallic and nonmetallic properties. The common metallic elements include the following: aluminum, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iridium, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, osmium, palladium, platinum, potassium, radium, rhodium, silver, sodium, tantalum, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Metallic elements can combine with one another and with certain other elements, either as compounds, as solutions, or as intimate mixtures. A substance composed of two or more metals, or a substance composed of a metal and certain nonmetals such as carbon are called alloys. Alloys of mercury with other metallic elements are known as amalgams. Within the general limits of the definition of a metal, the properties of metals vary widely. Most metals are grayish in color, but bismuth is pinkish, copper is red, and gold is yellow. Some metals display more than one color, a phenomenon called pleochroism. The melting points of metals range from about -39 C (about -38 F) for mercury to 3410 C (6170 F) for tungsten. Osmium and iridium (specific gravity 22.6) are the most dense metals, and lithium (specific gravity 0.53) is the least dense. The majority of metals crystallize in the cubic system, but some crystallize in the hexagonal and tetragonal systems. Bismuth has the lowest electrical conductivity of the metallic elements, and silver the highest at ordinary temperatures. The conductivity of most metals can be lowered by alloying. All metals expand when heated and contract when cooled, but certain alloys, such as platinum and iridium alloys, have extremely low coefficients of expansion.


TYPES Five Primary Types of Metals Aluminum: aluminum roof and wall systems of commercial buildings. Copper: Long life and low maintenance Steel Terne: Terne is produced by coating metals such as carbon steel and stainless steel which contains 80% led and 20% tin. Zinc: Zinc is a natural material that never fades and retains its look over its entire life span. It is also a noncorrosive, environmentally friendly product with a 100%-clear water runoff.


COMPOSITION Metals are shiny, malleable substances that conduct heat and electricity. They comprise the largest class of elements in the Periodic Table. All metals except mercury are solids at room temperature. Solid metals can be melted at sufficiently high temperatures. Once melted, metals can be mixed with other metals to produce alloys, whose properties are different from those of the individual metals. Bronze (an alloy of copper and tin) and brass (copper and zinc) are two examples. Both bronze and brass are harder than pure copper and thus more useful in applications where strength is needed.



PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS: Strong & Hard Shines when Polished (Luster Solid State (except Mercury) in room temperature Heat Conductors Electric Conductors Dense

Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Metals have higher density than non-metals; this is because of the tightly packed crystals in the metal structure. Metal Density is a very important factor in structures, vehicles or machines as it requires balance, right weight etc. Malleable Ductile Sonorous sound High Melting Points High Boiling Points


Mechanical Properties of metals describes the different characteristics or properties of metals when subjected to forces or load. This is used by mechanical engineers to calculate different conditions of metals (like deformity). This is very important especially to those who are building structures or vehicles or machines, whats important is that the properties of the metals remain safe for humans while they operate or stay in the structure.

Mechanical Properties of Metals: Hardness Hardness is the resistance to deformation, penetration, abrasion, cutting or distortion. The hardness of metals can be measured using standard tests where a ball is pressed against the material and the size of the dent is the measurement. The different tests are:

Rockwell Brinell Vickers

Hardness of a metal can be adjusted by simply using different treatments such as the heat treatment and the cold working. Metals used in structures are formed from a soft state then heated to retain the finished shape.


Brittleness is the property of metals to bend or deform without breaking or shattering the metal. The opposite of this is ductility which is the ability to deform without breaking or shattering the metal, while a brittle metal would break or crack without a change of shape. Examples of Brittle metals are: Cast Iron Cast Aluminum Hard Steel etc.

Brittle metals are not suitable for heavy loads, as it could break easily and can cause damages. Malleability Malleability is the materials ability to deform under stress without breaking or cracking. Malleable metals are formed into thin sheets thru hammering, rolling or pressing. These sheets of metals are then used to form shapes for structural, vehicular or mechanical needs. Examples of Malleable metals are:

Copper Gold Magnesium

Ductility Ductility is a physical and mechanical property of metals that allows the metal to be deformed, drawn, bent or twisted into different shapes without fracture or breaking. It is opposite to Brittleness and is somehow similar to malleability. Ductile metals are vital in creating wire or tubing because of its ease in forming while remaining intact. Examples of Ductile metals are: Platinum Tungsten Copper Steel etc.


Elasticity is the property of metals to be able to return to its original shape after it has been deformed. The amount of deformation is measured and is called strain. Every metal has an elastic limit, in which if it is exceeded then it would become a permanent deformity and cannot return to its original shape. Toughness

Toughness (Mechanical Property of metal) is the ability of the metal not to break in pressures applied such as tearing, shearing, stretching, bending or deformity. Toughness of a metal should be able to absorb the energy up to the fracture. Tough metals are desirable to vehicles, machines and structures.



Fusibility is a mechanical property of metals to be liquefied by heating. This process is called welding, where metals are liquefied and joined together, when it hardens it becomes one piece. Steels liquefy at 2500F, while aluminum alloys at 1,110F. Conductivity Because of the free electrons that are present in the metals, it becomes a good electrical conductor. Contraction & Expansion Metals are heated or cooled, either contracts or expands. When metals are heated (at a high degree) it expands and becomes larger, while cooling metals causes it to contract or shrink in size. This is very important for metals that are used outdoors, to consider temperature changes and how it affects metals.


TEST/S Steel Bar Tensile Strength Bending


USES a. The strength of metals is useful when building robust structures. b. The lightness and strength of some metals are useful for boats and aircraft. c. The ability to form wire from metals is applied in many different objects from copper wiring to jewellery. d. Electricity is transmitted by metals in both home and industry. e. Metals can be used to make diverse objects which can be moulded and shaped.


TYPE OF DEFECTS FOUND IN METALS 1. Structural Defect - Damage to the load-bearing portion of a home that affects the use of the home for dwelling purposes. Includes damage from shifting soil not due to earthquake or flood. 2. Corrosion is the damage caused to metals due to the reaction of metals with oxygen, moisture, carbon dioxide etc. 3. Dislocation is a crystallographic defect, or irregularity, within a crystal structure. 4. Substitutional defects are produced when one atom is replaced by a different type of atom. 5. Etc.