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Chapter 5 Material Balance

Derivation of the General Material Balance Equation


The reservoir may have an initial vapor phase and an initial liquid phase. The gas is allowed to dissolve in the liquid phase. The oil can be volatile in the vapor phase. Water is allowed to invade the reservoir from the aquifer during production. The water and rock are compressible

The initial gas in place is divided up into two parts G = Gfgi + NfoiRsi The initial oil in place is similarly divided up into two parts N = GfgiRvi + Nfoi

At some time later after having produced Np STB of oil and Gp SCF of gas the remaining oil and gas in place is given by: Nfo + GfgRv = N - Np NfoRs + Gfg = G - Gp

Rearranging gives Nfo = N - Np - GfgRv Gfg = G - Gp - NfoRs Solving these two simultaneous equations gives Gfg = (G - Gp - (N-Np)Rs)/(1-RsRv) Nfo = (N - Np - (G-Gp)Rv)/(1-RsRv)

Gfg = (Gfgi+NfoiRsi-Gp - (Nfoi+GfgiRvi-Np)Rs)/(1-RsRv) Nfo = (Nfoi+GfgiRvi-Np - (Gfgi+NfoiRsi-Gp)Rv)/(1-RsRv) These Equations express the current standard volumes of oil and gas in the reservoir in terms of the initial standard volumes and the produced standard volumes. The change in volumes of all phases in the control volume during production must balance. Hence: Voil + Vgas + Vwater + Vrock = 0

Initial reservoir volume of the oil phase = NfoiBoi Current reservoir volume of the oil phase = initial oil - current oil in the gas phase - produced oil = (Nfoi + GfgiRvi - GfgRv - Np)Bo Hence: Voil = NfoiBoi - (Nfoi + GfgiRvi - GfgRv - Np)Bo

Similarly, Initial reservoir volume of the gas phase = GfgiBgi Current reservoir volume of the gas phase = initial gas - current gas in the oil phase produced gas = (Gfgi + NfoiRsi - NfoRs - Gp)Bg Hence: Vgas = GfgiBgi - (Gfgi + NfoiRsi - NfoRs - Gp)Bg

The change in the water phase is due to the compressibility of the water, the water influx from the aquifer and the water production. If W is the initial reservoir water volume and Vf is the initial void space volume then: W = VfSwi Vwater = Initial water in place - Final water in place Final water = Water invaded from aquifer - Produced water - final volume of initial water Then Vwater = -We +BwWp - VfSwicwp

The change in the rock volume is the negative of the change in the void space volume. Hence Vrock = - Vfcfp Because Vf is the total initial void space, it can be expressed as Vf = (NfoiBoi+ GfgiBgi)/(1-Swi)

Substituting, the following equation is obtained : NfoiBoi - (Nfoi + GfgiRvi - GfgRv - Np)Bo + GfgiBgi - (Gfgi + NfoiRsi - NfoRs - Gp)Bg + -We +BwWp - (NfoiBoi+ GfgiBgi)cTp = 0 where
CT = c f + cw S wi 1 S wi

The General Material Balance Equation

Bo Rs Bg Bg Rv Bo Bo Boi + Bg ( Rsi Rs ) + Rv ( Boi Rs Bo Rsi ) Np + Gp = N foi 1 Rv Rs 1 Rv Rs 1 Rv Rs Swi cw + c f Bg Bgi + Bo ( Rvi Rv ) + Rs ( Bgi Rv Bg Rvi ) + Gfgi + We BwWp + ( N foi Boi + Gfgi Bgi ) 1 Rv Rs 1 Sw p

Generalized Material Balance Equation


F = NfoiEo + GfgiEg + W + (NfoiBoi+ GfgiBgi)Efw
Where:

Bo Rs Bg Bg Rv Bo F = Np + Gp 1 Rv Rs 1 Rv Rs
or

Bo (1 Rv R p ) + ( R p Rs ) Bg F = Np 1 Rv Rs

Where: Eo = Bto - Boi Eg = Btg - Bgi W = We - BwWp


Bo (1 Rv Rsi ) + ( Rsi Rs ) Bg Bto = 1 Rv Rs
B g (1 Rs Rvi ) + ( Rvi Rv ) Bo Btg = 1 Rv R s

Plot 1 for Wet and Dry Gas


F = GfgiEg + GfgiBgiEfw Hence a plot of: F versus Eg + BgiEfw Slope = Gfgi

Plot 2, Under-saturated Oil


F = NfoiEo + NfoiBoiEfw Hence a plot of: F versus Eo + BoiEfw Slope = Nfoi

Plots 3a&3b, Gas Cap Reservoir


F = NfoiEo + GfgiEg + (NfoiBoi+GfgiBgi)Efw rearranging
E g + B gi E fw F = N foi + G fgi E o + Boi E fw E o + Boi E fw

E o + Boi E fw F = G fgi + N foi E g + B gi E fw E og + B gi E fw

F E o + Boi E fw

versus

E g + B gi E fw E o + Boi E fw

slope = Gfgi and intercept = Nfoi

or

F E g + Bgi E fw

versus

E o + Boi E fw E g + B gi E fw

slope = Nfoi and intercept = Gfgi

Water Drive Diagnostic Plots


Plot 4a: In dry gas and gas condensate reservoirs with a water drive Rearrange Gas Material Balance as:

F W = G fgi + E g + Bgi E fw E g + Bgi E fw

Water Drive Diagnostic Plots for Gas and Condensate Reservoirs Hence plot:

F E g + Bgi E fw

versus time (or cumulative production)

Water Drive Diagnostic Plots


Plot 4b: In under-saturated oil reservoirs with a water drive Rearrange Oil Material Balance as:

F W = N foi + E o + Boi E fw E o + Boi E fw

Water Drive Diagnostic Plots for undersaturated oil Reservoirs Hence plot:

F E o + Boi E fw

versus time (or cumulative production)

Pirson Drive Indices


DDI = Nfoi Eo/ F (depletion drive index) SDI = Gfgi Eg/ F (segregation drive index) WDI = W / F (water drive index) FDI = (NfoiBoi + GfgiBgi)Efw/F (formation drive index) Applying these to the GMBE gives DDI + SDI + WDI + FDI = 1