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Biology review:

Diversity Review
You should be able to explain all of the following terms: Binomial Nomenclature: naming system Taxonomy: categorizing animals Dichotomous Keys: a series of choices that lead to a new resultend result organism is identified. Prokaryotic/Eukaryote : no nucleus/nucleus Natural Selection Biodiversity: the number of different species of all living organisms in a given area Species: a group of organisms that look similar and are able to breed fertile offspring Adaptation: a mutation to adjust to the environment/ animals way of living Unicellular/Multi: one celled organism/multi celled organism Heterotroph: does not create its own food, gets energy from autotrophs Niche: an animals role or place in an ecosystem Warm/cold blooded: Radial/Bilateral symmetry: symmetry around a central axis/divisible by half on a certain plane Hermaphrodites: sharing both female and male sex cells/organs External fertilization : fertilization occurs outside of the females body Habitat : where the animal lives Speciation: formation of new species What are the 7 taxonomic divisions? Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species How are organisms Scientifically named? Bionomial nomenclature What are the characteristics of a species? What are dichotomous keys and know how to make/use one. Why are Plants and Fungi no longer in the same Kingdom? What makes the Animal Kingdom different than the Kingdom Protista? Why do we need a system for classification? Considering that 98% of the species that have even existed on the earth are extinct why is extinction considered a bad thing? Where on earth can you find the greatest diversity? The least? Why? How did all the different animals and plants come to be? 11U Evolution Worksheet

You should understand all the following terms. -Natural Selection -Phylogeny -Homologous -Analogous -Species -Biome -Continental Drift -Competition

-Coevolution -Big Bang Theory -Convergent Evolution -Speciation -Adaptation -Louis Pasteur -Taxonomy -Niche -Creation -Biodiversity -Pangea -Vestigial Organ -Eugenics -Embryology

1) Who were Charles Darwin, Lyell, Lamarck and Pasteur? 2) Explain several reasons why the species on the Galapagos Islands evolved so differently than those in South America. 3) How is adaptation different than evolution? 4) Explain the theory of evolution. 5) Can creationist also believe in evolution? 6) Explain 3 types of evidence that provide proof of evolution. 7) Explain WHY the earth has such biodiversity. 8) What is meant by the ultimate organism cannot exist? 9) Explain one theory why marsupials are only found in Australia. 10) Baboons (no tails and live on the ground) and monkeys (have tails and live in trees) can live in the same forest. Explain why they might be related and suggest a theory of how the 2 different species came to be. 11) Why is it that an organism as tough and powerful as a Sarcosucus died off? 12) What are the advantages of sexual reproduction? 13) If 2 very different plants live in the same area how can they keep from pollinating each other by accident? 14) Why does a rainforest have greater biodiversity than a temperate forest? 15) Whales have a hip bone but no legs. a. What is this remnant organ called for whales? b. How would Darwin explain the existence of the hip bone? c. How would Lamarck explain the hip bone?

11U Genetics Review You should understand all the following terms: -DNA -Base Pairs -Life Cycle of a cell -Adenine -Multiple alleles -Guanine

-Cytosine -Thymine -DNA Replication -Meiosis -Cell Cycle -Gametes -Autosomal -Sex linked -Gene -Trait -Hybrid -Monohybrid -Punnett square -Test cross -Heterozygous -Dominant -Genotype -Phenotype -Co dominance - Incomplete dominance -Carrier -Purebred -Chromosome/tid/tin -Mutation -Genetic engineering/therapy -Spermatogenesis/Oogenesis

-Polymerase -Mitosis -Zygote -Allele -Characteristic -Dihybrid -Homozygous -Recessive -Pedigrees - P1, F1, F2 -Multiple alleles -Cancer -Karyotype

1) What were some of the important things Mendel did in his experiments that few others had done? 2) What are Mendels 2 laws? Explain them. 3) In Horses long ears (L) are dominant over short. Determine the phenotypic and genotypic ratios for the following crosses: a) Homozygous dominant with heterozygous b) Homozygous recessive with heterozygous c) Homozygous dominant with homozygous recessive. 4) If a horse has long ears how could you determine if its genotype was homozygous or heterozygous? Explain. 5) In Guinea Pigs brown is dominant over white. A brown Guinea Pig is crossed with a white one. In the F1 generation there are 16 pups: 12 are brown and 4 are white. What must the genotype of the brown Guinea Pig be? Why? 6) If Mendel was to cross 2 bean plants with the following genotypes what could the F1 generation look like (phenotypes)? a) RrYy with RRyy b) TtRr with TTRR c) tt Yy with Ttyy 7) Explain Codominance in terms of human blood types or flower colours. 8) If you were to cross red roses with white ones and looked at the offspring how could you tell if: a) Normal rules of dominance apply. b) Incomplete dominance was occurring. c) Codominance was occurring. 9) A man has blood type AO and his wife has blood type AB. What are all the possible blood types of their children? 10) Use a pedigree to determine genotype and if a trait is sex linked or autosomal. 11) Explain 5 things about 2 genetic disorders or uses of genetic technology. 12) What are the advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual? 13) What are some problems that may arise if we were to genetically alter some humans in our society?

11U Biology Respiration/Circulation Review You should understand/know all the following terms: -Diaphragm -Intercostal -Trachea -Esophagus -Bronchi -Bronchioles -Nasal cavity -Oral cavity -Turbinates -Pharynx -Larynx -Epiglottis -Alveoli -Respirometer -Inhalation -Exhalation -Breathing -Gas exchange -Pneumonia -Smoking -Nicotine -Cancer -Malignant -Benign -Asthma -Cilia -Mucus -Capillaries -Plasma -Arteries -Platelets -Stroke -Atherosclerosis -Aorta -Vena Cava -Atrium -Ventricle -Pulmonary Artery -Heart Attack -Septum -Systole and Diastole -Coronary artery -ECG -Erythrocytes -Lymphocytes -Varicose Veins -Blood Pressure -Pooling of blood -Tracheal system -Hemoglobin -Heart Rate -Carotid Artery 1) Label a diagram of the heart and lungs. 2) Explain how we breath in and out. 3) If someone is having a heart attack, what is happening? 4)How do you measure blood pressure? What are you measuring? What is the average blood pressure and heart rate? 5) How does exercise affect heart rate and blood pressure? 6) What do we need a transport system for? 7) Explain the flow of blood through the heart and a part of the body. 8) Compare veins, arteries and capillaries. 9) What does blood transport? 10) Explain gas exchange including the lungs, heart and cells. 11) How does smoking affect your body? Heart, lungs, cells, ... 12) Why do people start smoking? 13) How is the heart of a frog, worm and fish different than a human heart? 15) Why is the heart considered to be a double circuit tread mill? 16) How are veins designed to return blood to the heart against gravity? 17) How is circulation in a house fly different than a whale? 18) Why must insects be small? 19) How is the air inhaled different than the air exhaled?

Plant/Fungi Review Sheet Here are some sample questions. 1) How are photosynthesis and respiration related? 2) How are plants and fungi different? 3) How are plants and fungi similar? 4) What roles do fungi play in the environment? 5) Explain how guard cells open and close stomata. 6) You should be able to draw/label flower, seed, leaf, stem and root cross sections. 7) What are the differences between moncots and dicots (5)? 8) How are stems and roots different? 9) What 3 factors contribute to the ability of plants to get water all the way up to the top of the tree? 10) What are some special adaptations of plants to their environment and seed dispersal? 11) Compare the adaptations of a venus flytrap and pine tree to their environments. 12) How do annular rings form? 13) How do leaves, stems and roots work together in a plant? 14) What are the steps in the germination of a seed? 15) Explain how materials produced in the leaf are transported to other parts of the plant. 16) What conditions are required for seed germination? 17) Why are leaves broad and flat? Under what conditions might they not be? 18) Explain the differences between xylem and phloem. 19) What are the main tissues in plants and explain each of their functions. 20) What are the main groups of vascular plants? What makes them different from each other?