Sie sind auf Seite 1von 35

a

r
X
i
v
:
0
7
1
0
.
3
0
7
9
v
3


[
m
a
t
h
-
p
h
]


1
5

N
o
v

2
0
0
8
Fedosov Quantization of LagrangeFinsler
and HamiltonCartan Spaces and Einstein
Gravity Lifts on (Co) Tangent Bundles
Mihai Anastasiei

Faculty of Mathematics, University Al. I. Cuza Iasi,


11, Carol I Boulevard, Iasi, Romania, 700506
and
Mathematical Institute O. Mayer, Romanian Academy Iasi Branch,
8, Carol I Boulevard, Iasi, Romania, 700506
Sergiu I. Vacaru

The Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Science


222 College Street, 2d Floor, Toronto M5T 3J1, Canada
and
Faculty of Mathematics, University Al. I. Cuza Iasi,
11, Carol I Boulevard, Iasi, Romania, 700506
November 9, 2008
Abstract
We provide a method of converting Lagrange and Finsler spaces
and their Legendre transforms to Hamilton and Cartan spaces into
almost Kahler structures on tangent and cotangent bundles. In partic-
ular cases, the Hamilton spaces contain nonholonomic lifts of (pseudo)
Riemannian / Einstein metrics on eective phase spaces. This allows
us to dene the corresponding Fedosov operators and develop deforma-
tion quantization schemes for nonlinear mechanical and gravity models
on Lagrange and HamiltonFedosov manifolds.
Keywords: Deformation quantization; quantum gravity; Finsler,
Lagrange, Hamilton and Cartan spaces, almost Kahler geometry.

anastas@uaic.ro

Sergiu.Vacaru@gmail.com ; http://www.scribd.com/people/view/1455460-sergiu
1
MSC: 83C99, 53D55, 53B40, 53B35
PACS: 04.20.-q, 02.40.-k, 02.90.+g, 02.40.Yy
1 Introduction
To construct a quantum theory for a given classical model is usually under-
stood that it is necessary to elaborate a quantization procedure adapted to
certain fundamental eld equations and corresponding Lagrangians/ Hamil-
tonians and theirs symmetries, constraints and locality. In various attempts
to develop quantum versions of gravity and nonlinear physical theories, one
provided dierent computation schemes when it is supposed that all con-
straints can be solved, gauge symmetries can be represented by shift sym-
metries and there are certain canonical forms for the Poisson brackets. Nev-
ertheless, such quantization usually destroy global symmetries, locality and
may result into violation of local Lorentz symmetry.
There were proposed dierent sophisticate constructions with formal and
partial solutions for quantum gravity and eld interactions theories. We
cite here the BRST quantization methods for nonAbelian and open gauge
algebras [1, 2, 3, 4], deformation quantization [5, 6, 7, 8], quantization of
general Lagrange structures and, in general, BRST quantization without
Lagrangians and Hamiltonians [9, 10], Wgeometry and Moyal deformations
of gravity via strings and branes [11, 12, 13] and quantum loops and spin
networks [14, 15, 16].
In the abovementioned approaches, it is necessary to quantize curved
phase spaces in a manner that is explicitly covariant on phasespace coordi-
nates. Indeed, for instance, the key ingredients of Fedosov and BRST meth-
ods, see [9, 10, 17, 18] and references therein, is the embedding of the system
into the cotangent bundle over its phase space. There were also elaborated
such models following standard geometric constructions over Riemannian
manifolds and formal schemes with symplectic groupoids and contravariant
connections [17, 19].
A rigorous geometric approach to deformation quantization of gravity,
gauge theories and geometric mechanics models with constraints and related
generalized LagrangeFinsler theories, see [20, 21, 22, 23, 24], shows that the
quantization schemes have to be developed for nonholonomic manifolds
1
and tangent and cotangent bundles endowed with nonlinear connection (N
connection) structure. The natural step in this direction is to apply the
1
i.e. manifolds endowed with nonholonomic (equivalent, anholonomic, or non-
integrable distributions), see details and references in [25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30]
2
methods of the geometry of Hamilton and Cartan spaces and generalizations
[31, 32] (such spaces are respectively dual to the Lagrange and Finsler spaces
and generalizations [33, 34]).
The aim of this work is to show how Karabegovs approach to Fedosov
deformation quantization [19, 35, 36] can be naturally extended for almost
K ahler manifolds endowed with canonical geometric structures generated
by semiRiemannian and/or Einstein metrics and LagrangeFinsler and
HamiltonCartan fundamental generating functions.
This paper is motivated by the following results: In Refs. [30, 21, 22,
37, 29], we concluded that classical and quantum gravity models on (co)
tangent bundles positively result in generalized Finsler like theories with vi-
olation of local Lorentz symmetry. The conclusion was supported also by a
series of works on denition of spinors and eld interactions on (in general,
higher order) locally anisotropic spacetimes [38, 39], on low energy limits of
(super) string theory [40, 41, 42] and possible Finsler like phenomenological
implications and symmetry restriction of quantum gravity [43, 44, 45]. Here,
we emphasize that the nonholonomic quantum deformation formalism can
be redened for nonholonomic (pseudo) Riemannian, or RiemannCartan,
manifolds with bred structure. Such nonholonomic spaces, under well de-
ned conditions and for corresponding LagrangeFinsler variables, possess
local Lorentz invariance for classical theories and seem to preserve it for
nonholonomic quantum deformations, see results from [23, 24].
The work is organized as follows: In Section 2 we recall the basis of
the LagrangeFinsler and HamiltonCartan geometry, nonholonomic lifts of
Einstein metrics on cotangent bundles and almost K ahler models of such
spaces. We also collect there some geometric constructions that we need
for further considerations. Section 3 is devoted to the formalism of canon-
ical nonlinear connections and distinguished connections induced by La-
grange and Hamilton fundamental functions. We introduce the concept of
HamiltonFedosov spaces and dene the corresponding almost symplectic
structures. In Section 4 we consider a generalization of the concept of con-
nection to that of connectionpair resulting in FedosovHamilton operators
pairs which is necessary for denition of deformation quantization models
being invariant under symplectic morphisms and Legendre transform. We
provide Fedosovs theorems for connectionpairs which allows us to develop
an approach to geometric quantization of Hamilton and Einstein (general-
ized on cotangent bundles) spaces in Section 5. We speculate on possible
quantum generalizations of gravitational eld equations on phase spaces and
their deformation quantization. Finally, in Section 6 we conclude the results.
3
2 LagrangeFinsler and HamiltonCartan Geom-
etry and Einstein Spaces
In this section, we outline some results from the geometry of Lagrange
Finsler [33, 34] and HamiltonCartan [31, 32] spaces.
2.1 Canonical geometric objects on Lagrange and Hamilton
spaces
Let us consider a real suciently smooth manifold M, dimM = n 2. We
label the local coordinates x = {x
i
}, with base indices i, j, ... = 1, 2, ...n,
and write by TM and T

M, respectively, the total spaces of tangent and


cotangent bundles : TM M and

: T

M M, with local coordinates


u = (x, y) = {u

= (x
i
, y
a
)}, for ber indices a, b, ... = n + 1, ..., n + n on
any local cart U TM, and

u = (x, p) = {

= (x
i
, p
a
)} on any local cart

U T

M, when p
a
are dual to y
a
. In order to apply the Einstein summation
rule for contracting base and ber indices, we shall use identications of type
y
i
y
n+i
, i.e. we suppose that indices like a, b, ... can split into respective
n +i, n +j.
Denition 2.1 A generalized Hamilton space is dened by a pair GH
n
=
(M, g
ij
(x, p)), where g
ij
(x, p) is a contravariant symmetric tensor eld, non-
degenerate and of constant signature on

T

M = T

M/{0}, for {0} being the


null section of T

M.
We note that a contravariant tensor of type
g
ij
(x, p) = e
i
i
(x, p)e
j
j

(x, p)g
i

(x) (1)
includes, for some vielbein elds e
i
i

, the dual tensor g


i

(x) as the inverse of


a (semi) Riemann metric g
i

j
(x) on M. In this paper, we consider that any
classical solution of the Einstein equations denes a space-time manifold
M and a corresponding deformation quantization procedure on T

M de-
nes the values e
i
i

and other fundamental quantum geometric objects (like


almost symplectic structure and generalized connection) with nontrivial de-
pendence on variables p
a
. In general, we shall provide our constructions for
(pseudo) Riemannian spaces with (co) metrics of type g
i

(x) and g
ij
(x, p)
and discuss if there are any important particular properties for Einstein
manifolds (spaces) when g
i

j
(x) is subjected to the condition to solve on M
the gravitational eld equations with nonzero cosmological constant ,

R
i

j
(x) = g
i

j
(x), (2)
4
where

R
i

j
(x) is the Ricci tensor for the LeviCivita connection =
{

(x)} completely dened by g


i

j
.
For simplicity, we shall work with a more particular class of spaces when
g
ij
(x, p) is dened by a Hamilton function H(x, p) :
Denition 2.2 A Hamilton space H
n
= (M, H(x, p)) is dened by a func-
tion T

M (x, p) H(x, p) R, i.e. by fundamental Hamilton func-


tion, which is dierentiable on

T

M and continuous on the null section

: T

M M and such that the (Hessian, equivalently, fundamental)


tensor eld

g
ab
(x, p) =

2
H
p
a
p
b
(3)
is non-degenerate and of constant signature on

T

M.
Let L(x, y) be a regular dierentiable Lagrangian on U TM, with
non-degenerate Hessian (equivalently, fundamental tensor eld)
g
ab
(x, y) =

2
L
y
a
y
b
. (4)
Denition 2.3 A Lagrange space L
n
= (M, L(x, y)) is dened by a function
TM (x, y) L(x, p) R, i.e. a fundamental Lagrange function, which is
dierentiable on

TM and continuous on the null section of : TM M
and such that the (Hessian) tensor eld g
ab
(x, y) (4) is non-degenerate and
of constant signature on

TM.
We can dene the Legendre transform L H,
H(x, p) = p
a
y
a
L(x, y), (5)
where y = {y
a
} are solutions of the equations p
a
= L(x, y)/y
a
, and
(inversely) the Legendre transform H L,
L(x, y) = p
a
y
a
H(x, p), (6)
where p = {p
a
} is the solution of the equations y
a
= H(x, p)/p
a
.
2
2
In some monographs (for instance, see [34, 31]), it is considered the factor 1/2 in the
right sides of (3) and (4). We emphasize that in this paper (for simplicity) the Hamilton
and Lagrange functions will be supposed to be regular and related mutually by Legendre
transforms.
5
Following terminology from [31], we say that N
a
i
(14 ) and

N
ij
(15)
are Ldual if L and H are related by Legendre transform (5), or (6). In the
following constructions, we shall consider that to Legendre transform there
are associated the dieomorphisms
: TM U

U T

M, (x
i
, y
a
)
_
x
i
, p
a
=
L(x, y)
y
a
_
and
: T

M

U U TM, (x
i
, p
a
)
_
x
i
, y
a
=
H(x, p)
p
a
_
,
allowing to dene respectively pullback and pushforward of geometric ob-
jects (functions, vectors, dierential forms, connections, tensors...) from

U to U and from U to

U, i.e. we dene Ldual geometric objects. For
instance, for a dierentiable function
1
f on U, we dene a dierentiable
function
1
f

1
f =
1
f
1
on

U and (inversely) for a dierentiable
function
2
f on

U, we have a dierentiable
_
2
f
_
0

2
f =
2
f
1
on U. Note that H = L
1
and L = H
1
. Similarly, for any vector
eld X on U, we get a vector eld

X T X
1
= T
1
X
on

U and (inversely) for a vector eld

X on

U, we get a vector eld

X T X
1
= T
1


X on U, where, for example, T is the
tangent map to . Dualizing the vector constructions, we obtain that for
any 1form on U, there is 1-form

(T)


1
= (T
1
)


on

U and (inversely) for any form

on

U, we can consider


(T)



1
= (T
1
)

on U, where, for example, (T)

denotes the cotangent map to (T).


Let vTM and vT

M be the vertical distributions on TM and T

M,
respectively.
Denition 2.4 Any Whitney sums
TTM = hTM vTM (7)
and
TT

M = hT

M vT

M (8)
dene respectively nonlinear connection (Nconnection) structures paramet-
rized by the local vector elds
e
i
=

x
i
N
a
i
(x, y)

y
a
on TM
6
and

e
i
=

x
i
+

N
ia
(x, p)

p
a
on T

M.
One says that a Nconnection denes on TM, or T

M, a conventional
horizontal (h) and vertical (v) splitting (decomposition).
Let consider a regular curve c() with real parameter , when c :
[0, 1] x
i
() U. It can be lifted to
1
(U)

TM as c() : [0, 1]
_
x
i
(), y
i
() =
dx
i
d
_
since the vector eld
dx
i
d
does not vanish on

TM. Fol-
lowing techniques from variational calculus, one proves:
Theorem 2.1 The EulerLagrange equations,
d
d
L
y
i

L
x
i
= 0, (9)
are equivalent to the HamiltonJacobi equations,
dx
i
d
=
H
p
i
and
dp
i
d
=
H
x
i
, (10)
and to the nonlinear geodesic (semispray) equations
d
2
x
i
d
2
+ 2G
i
(x, y) = 0, (11)
where
G
i
=
1
2
g
ij
_

2
L
y
j
x
k
y
k

L
x
j
_
,
for g
ij
being the inverse to g
ij
(4).
Let us consider on T

M the canonical symplectic structure


dp
i
dx
i
. (12)
The Hamiltonian H denes an unique vector eld on T

M:
X
H
=
H
p
i

x
i

H
x
i

p
i
by the equation
i
X
H
= dH,
where i
X
H
denotes the interior product by X
H
. The same holds for any
function on T

M.
By Theorem 2.1 one has:
7
Corollary 2.1 The HamiltonJacobi equations (10) are equivalent to
dx
i
d
= {H, x
i
} and
dp
a
d
= {H, p
a
},
where the Poisson structure is dened by brackets
{
1
f,
2
f} = (X 1
f
, X 2
f
) (13)
for any functions
1
f(x, p) and
2
f(x, p) on T

M.
Proof. It can be obtained by a standard calculus in geometric mechan-
ics.
The following theorem holds:
Theorem 2.2 The are canonical Nconnections dened respectively by reg-
ular Lagrange L(x, y) and/ or Hamilton H(x, p) fundamental functions:
N
a
i

G
a
y
i
(14)
and

N
ij

1
2
_
{

g
ij
, H}

2
H
p
k
x
(i

g
j)k
_
, (15)
where,

g
ij
is the inverse to

g
ij
(3) and, for instance, a
(ij)
= a
ij
+a
ji
denotes
symmetrization of indices.
Proof. We can verify respectively that on any open sets U TM and
U

M coecients (14) and (15) satisfy the conditions of Denition


2.4. For details see Ch. 9 in [34] and Ch. 5 in [31].
On (co) tangent bundles endowed with Nconnection structure, it is
convenient to elaborate a covariant calculus adapted to this structure, i.e.
preserving the conventional splitting of tensors and other geometric objects
(like connections, dierential forms etc) into horizontal (h) and vertical (v)
components. In brief, such distinguished (by Nconnection) components
are called respectively dobjects, deld (for some physical elds of ten-
sor, spinor nature ...), dtensors, dvectors, dforms, dconnections etc, see
details in Refs. [31, 32, 33, 34, 38, 29].
8
Proposition 2.1 There are canonical frame structures (local Nadapted
(co)bases ) dened by canonical Nconnections:
e

= (e
i
=

x
i
N
a
i

y
a
, e
b
=

y
b
), on TM, (16)

= (

e
i
=

x
i
+

N
ia

p
a
,

e
b
=

p
b
), on T

M, (17)
and their dual (coframe) structures
e

= (e
i
= dx
i
, e
b
= dy
b
+N
b
i
dx
i
), on (TM)

, (18)

= (

e
i
= dx
i
,

e
p
= dp
b


N
ib
dx
i
), on (T

M)

, (19)
when e

and

e

, where by we note the interior


products and

being the Kronecker delta symbol.


Proof. It follows by construction under the condition that such frames
should depend linearly on coecients of respective Nconnections.
One says that certain geometric objects are dened on TM (or T

M)
in Nadapted form [equivalently, in distinguished form, in brief, dform]
if they are given by coecients dened with respect to frames e

(16) and
coframes e

(18) and their tensor products (with respect to frames



e

(17)
and coframes

e

(19) and their tensor products). We shall use boldface


letters in order to emphasize that certain spaces (or geometric objects) are
in Nadapted form.
Denition 2.5 The Nlifts of the fundamental tensor elds

g
ab
(3) and
g
ab
(4) are respectively

g =

g

=

g
ij
(x, p)e
i
e
j
+

g
ab
(x, p)

e
a


e
b
, (20)
on T

M, where

g
ij
is inverse to

g
ab
, and
g = g

= g
ij
(x, y)e
i
e
j
+g
ab
(x, y)e
a
e
b
,
on TM, where g
ij
is stated by g
ab
following g
ij
= g
n+i n+j
.
The following proposition holds:
Proposition 2.2 The canonical Nconnections N (14) and

N (15) dene
respectively the canonical almost complex structures J, on TM, and

J, on
T

M.
9
Proof. On TM one introduces the linear operator J acting on e

=
(e
i
, e
b
) (16) as follows:
J(e
i
) = e
n+i
and J(e
n+i
) = e
i
.
It is clear that J denes globally an almost complex structure (J J = I
for I being the unity matrix) on TM completely determined for Lagrange
spaces by a L(x, y). Now we provide the proof for T

M. Let us introduce a
linear operator

J acting on

e

= (

e
i
,

e
b
) (17) following formulas

J(

e
i
) = g

ia
e
n+i
and

J(

e
n+i
) =

e
i
.
Then

J denes globally an almost complex structure (

J

J = I
for I being the unity matrix) on T

M completely determined for Hamilton


spaces by a H(x, p).
Denition 2.6 The Neijenhuis tensor eld for the almost complex struc-
ture

J on T

M, or J on TM, dened by a Nconnection (equivalently, the


curvature of Nconnection) is

J
(X, Y) = [X, Y] + [

JX,

JY]

J[

JX, Y]

J[X,

JY],
J
(X, Y) = [X, Y] + [JX, JY] J[JX, Y] J[X, JY], (21)
for any dvectors X and Y.
Hereafter, for simplicity and if one shall not result in ambiguities, we
shall present the Nadapted component formulas for geometric objects on
T

M (those for TM being similar), or inversely.


With respect to Nadapted bases, the components of the Neijenhuis
tensor

J
involve the coecients

ija
:

ija
=


N
ia
x
j



N
ja
x
i
+

N
ib


N
ja
p
b


N
jb


N
ia
p
b
. (22)
They dene the coecients of the Nconnection curvature. One gets a
complex structure i.e

J
= 0 under some quite complicated conditions
on g
ab
(x, p) and N
ia
which will be not written here.
It should be noted here that the Nadapted (co) bases (16)(19) are
nonholonomic with nontrivial anholonomy coecients. For instance,
[e

, e

] = e

= W

(23)
with (antisymmetric) anholonomy coecients W
b
ia
=
a
N
b
i
and W
a
ji
=
a
ij
,
with :

a
ij
=
N
a
i
x
j

N
a
j
x
i
+N
b
i
N
a
j
p
b
N
b
j
N
a
i
p
b
.
10
2.2 Almost Kahler LagrangeHamilton structures
We can adapt to Nconnections various geometric structures on TM and
T

M. For instance, we can consider:


Denition 2.7 One calls an almost symplectic structure on T

M a nonde-
generate Nadapted 2form

=
1
2

(u)

e

.
The following Proposition holds:
Proposition 2.3 For any

on T

M, there is a unique Nconnection

N = {

N
ia
} satisfying the conditions:

= (h

X, v

Y) = 0 and

.
= h

+v

, (24)
for any

X = h

X + v

X,

Y = h

Y + v

Y and h

(

X,

Y)

(h

X,h

Y), v

(

X,

Y)

(v

X,v

Y).
Proof. For

X =

e

= (

e
i
,

e
a
) and

Y =

e

= (

e
l
,

e
b
), where

is a Nadapted basis of type (17), we write the rst equation in (24) in


the form

=

(

e
i
,

e
a
) =

(

x
i
,

p
a
)

N
ib

(

p
b
,

p
a
) = 0.
Such conditions uniquely dene

N
ib
because

is nondegenerate, that is
rank|

(

p
b
,

pa
)| = n. Setting locally

=
1
2

ij
(u)e
i
e
j
+
1
2

ab
(u)

e
a


e
b
, (25)
where the rst term is for h

and the second term is v

, we get the second
formula in (24). Finally, we note that in this proposition the constructed
Nconnection

N
ib
, in general, is not a canonical one (15).
In a similar form, as in Proposition 2.3, we can construct a unique N
connection N = { N
a
i
} for any almost symplectic structure on TM (from
formal point of view, we have to omit in formulas the symbols * and


and use variables y
a
instead of p
a
).
A Nconnection

N (8) denes a unique decomposition of a dvector

X =

X
h
+

X
v
on T

M, for

X
h
= h

X and

X
v
= v

X, where the
11
projectors h and v denes respectively the distributions

N and

V. They
have the properties
h +v = I, h
2
= h, v
2
= v, h v = v h = 0.
This allows us to introduce on T

M the almost product operator

P I 2v = 2h I
acting on

e

= (

e
i
,

e
b
) (17) following formulas

P(

e
i
) =

e
i
and

P(

e
b
) =

e
b
.
In a similar form, a Nconnection N(7) induces an almost product structure
P on TM. One uses also the almost tangent operators
J(e
i
) = e
n+i
and J (e
a
) = 0, or J =

y
i
dx
i
;

J(

e
i
) =

g
ib

e
b
and

J
_

e
b
_
= 0, or J =

g
ia

p
a
dx
i
.
The operators

P,

J and

J are respectively Ldual to P, J and J if and
only if

N and N are Ldual.
For the aboveintroduced almost complex and almost product operators,
it is straightforward to prove
Proposition 2.4 Let (N,

N) be a pair of Ldual Nconnections. Then,
we can construct canonical dtensor elds (dened respectively by L(x, y)
and H(x, p) related by Legendre transforms (5) and/or (6)) :
J =
a
i
e
a
e
i
+
i
a
e
i
e
a
,

J =

g
ia

e
a


e
i
+

g
ia
e
i


e
a
corresponding to the Ldual pair of almost complex structures (J,

J) ,
P = e
i
e
i
e
a
e
a
,

P =

e
i


e
i


e
a


e
a
corresponding to the Ldual pair of almost product structures (P,

P) , and
almost symplectic structures
= g
aj
(x, y)e
a
e
i
and

=
a
i

e
a


e
i
(26)
12
Let us consider an important example:
A Finsler manifold (space) F
n
= (M, F(x, y)) is a particular case of
Lagrange space, when the regular Lagrangian L = F
2
is dened by a fun-
damental Finsler function F(x, y) satisfying the conditions: 1. the positive
function F is dierentiable function on

TM continuous on the null section of
projection : TM M, 2. F(x, y) = ||F(x, y), i.e. it is 1-homogeneous
on the bres of TM, and 3. the Hessian (4) dened in this case by F
2
is
positively dened on

TM.
It is used also the notion of Cartan space C
n
= (M, C(x, p)) for H =
C
2
(x, p) as a particular (1-homogeneous on ber coordinates) case of Hamil-
ton space when C satises the same conditions as F but with respect to
coordinates p
a
(in brief, we can say that Cartan spaces are Finsler spaces on
T

M, see details in [31]). In a similar manner as for Lagrange and Hamilton


spaces, we can introduce the concept of Ldual geometric objects on Finsler
and Cartan spaces. For simplicity, in this work we shall emphasize the bulk
constructions for Hamilton spaces considering that by Legendre transform
we can generate similar ones for Lagrange spaces and, in particular, for
respective Finsler and Cartan geometries.
Denition 2.8 An almost Hermitian model of a cotangent bundle T

M
(or tangent bundle TM) equipped with a Nconnection structure

N (or
N) is dened by a triple

H
2n
= (T

M,

,

J), where

(

X,

Y)

g (

JX, Y) (or H
2n
= (TM, , J), where (X, Y) g (JX, Y)). A space

H
2n
is almost K ahler, denoted

K
2n
if d

= 0.
The following theorem holds:
Theorem 2.3 The Lagrange and Hamilton spaces can be represented as al-
most K ahler spaces on, respectively, on TM and T

M endowed with canon-


ical Nconnection structures N (14) and

N (15).
Proof. It follows from the existence on TM and T

M of canonical 1
forms, respectively, dened by a regular Lagrangian L and Hamiltonian H
related by a Legendre transform,
=
L
y
i
e
i
and

= p
i
dx
i
,
for which
= d and

=d

,
13
see (12). As a result, we get that d = 0 and d

= 0, which correspond
to the Denition 2.8.
In this paper, we shall work with almost K ahler models on (co) tan-
gent bundles dened canonically by (pseudo) Riemannian metrics on base
manifolds, see (1), and/or (eective, or for regular mechanics) Lagrangians
(Hamiltonians). Finally, we emphasize that realistic classical and quantum
models are elaborated in explicit form for some classes of linear connections
dened to satisfy certain physical principles and constructed geometrically
to be adapted, or not, to a Nconnection structure. We shall perform such
classical and quantum constructions in the following sections.
3 Nonlinear Connections and Almost Symplectic
Geometry
In this section, we consider the almost symplectic geometry induced by reg-
ular Hamiltonians and corresponding canonical Nconnections dened natu-
rally, for gravitational and/or geometric mechanics models, on (co) tangent
bundles.
3.1 Canonical Nconnections and dconnections for Lagran-
ge and Hamilton spaces
Let D be a linear connection on TM when for a Lduality between the
tangent and corresponding cotangent bundles there are dened pullback
and pushforward maps. We can dene a linear connection

D on T

M as
follows:

D
X

Y (D
X

Y )

,
for any vector elds

X and

Y on T

M. Inversely, for any linear connection

D on T

M, we get a linear connection



D on TM, following the rule

D
X
Y (

D
X

Y )

,
for any vector elds X and Y on TM.
Denition 3.1 A linear connection D or (

D) on TM (or T

M) is a
distinguished connection (dconnection) if it is compatible with the almost
product structure DP = 0 (or

D

P = 0).
14
For Ldual Lagrange and Hamilton spaces, one follows that DP = 0
induces

D

P = 0, and inversely. The coecients of dconnections can be
dened with respect to Nadapted frames,
D
e

and D
e

with corresponding Nadapted splitting,


D
e
k
e
j
L
i
jk
e
i
, D
e
k
e
b


L
a
bk
e
a
, D
ec
e
j


C
i
jc
e
i
, D
ec
e
b
C
a
bc
e
a
and

D
e
k

e
j


L
i
jk

e
i
,

D
e
k

e
b

L
b
a k

e
a
,

D
e
c

e
j



C
i c
j

e
i
,

D
e
c

e
b


C
bc
a

e
a
,
when

= {L
i
jk
,

L
a
bk
,

C
i
jc
, C
a
bc
} and

= {

L
i
jk
,

L
b
a k
,


C
i c
j
,

C
bc
a
}
dene corresponding h and vsplitting of covariant derivatives
D =(
h
D,
v
D) and

D =(

h
D,

v
D) ,
where
h
D = {L
i
jk
,

L
a
bk
},
v
D = {

C
i
jc
, C
a
bc
} and

h
D = {

L
i
jk
,

L
b
a k
},

v
D = {


C
i c
j
,

C
bc
a
}.
We shall work with a more special class of dconnections:
Denition 3.2 A linear connection
n
D (or
n
D) on TM (or T

M) is N
linear if it preserves under parallelism the Whitney sum N (7) (or

N (8))
i.e it is a d-connection and is compatible with the almost tangent structure
J (or

J) i.e.
n
DJ = 0 (or
n
D

J = 0).
This is a class of Nlinear connections characterized by the property:
Proposition 3.1 The Nadapted coecients of Nlinear connections
n
D {
n

= (L
i
jk
,

C
i
jc
)} and
n
D {
n

= (

L
i
jk
,


C
i c
j
)} of
respective Ldual Lagrange and Hamilton spaces are:
n

= {L
i
jk
,

L
n+i
n+jk
= L
i
jk
,

C
i
jc
, C
n+i
n+jc
=

C
i
jc
} (27)
and
n

= {

L
i
jk
,

L
n+i
n+j k
=

L
i
jk
,


C
i c
j
,

C
n+i c
n+j
=


C
i c
j
}. (28)
15
Proof. By a straightforward computation for coecients (27) and (28),
when, for instance,
n
D

= (

h
D
i
,

v
D
a
), for

h
D = {

L
i
jk
} and

v
D =
{


C
i c
j
}, we can verify that the conditions considered in Denition 3.2 are
satised.
The connection 1form of Nlinear connection
n

=
n

=
{
n

i
j
} is dened by
n

i
j
=

L
i
jk

e
k
+


C
i c
j

e
c
, (29)
where the vcomponents
n

a
b
are identied with the hcomponents
n

i
j
following formulas
n

n+i
n+j
=
n

a
b
. The following theorem holds:
Theorem 3.1 On a Hamilton space, the structure equations for
n

i
j
are
d

e
k


e
j

k
j
=

T
k
,
d

e
c
+

e
a

a
c
=

T
c
,
d
n

i
j

n

i
k

k
j
=

R
i
j
,
where the 2form of torsion T

= {T
k
, T
c
} is computed

T
k
=
1
2

T
k
ij

e
i


e
j
+


C
k c
j

e
j


e
c
,

T
a
=
1
2

ija

e
i


e
j
+
1
2

P
aic

e
i


e
c
+
1
2

S
bc
a

e
b


e
c
,
for the Nconnection curvature

ija
(22) and

T
k
ij
=

L
k
ij


L
k
ji
,

S
bc
a
=


C
b c
a



C
c b
a
,

P
aic
=

g
ae
(

L
e
ic


e
e
(

N
ic
)) , (30)
and the 2form of curvature

R

=
_

R
i
j
,

R
a
b
_
, with

R
i
j
=

R
n+i
n+j
,
is computed

R
i
j
=
1
2

R
i
jkm

e
k


e
m
+

P
i c
jk

e
k


e
c
+
1
2

S
i bc
j

e
b


e
c
,
where

R
i
jkm
=

e
m
(

L
i
jk
)

e
k
(

L
i
jm
) (31)
+

L
o
jk

L
i
om


L
o
jm

L
i
ok
+


C
i o
j

oka
,

P
i c
jk
=

e
c
(

L
i
jk
)

h
D
k
(


C
i c
j
) +


C
i o
j

P
c
ko
,

S
i bc
j
=

e
c
(


C
i b
j
)

e
b
(


C
i c
j
) +


C
k b
j


C
i c
k



C
k c
j


C
i b
k
,
for nonboldface

e
c
= /p
c
.
16
Proof. It is a straightforward dierential computation for 1form (29).

There is a Ldual Theorem for Lagrange spaces [34], see generaliza-


tions of nonholonomic manifolds and deformation quantization of gravity in
Ref. [30, 24], similarly to Theorem 3.1. From formal point of view, we have
to change H into L and consider the constructions on TM, omitting the
labels * and using coordinates (x
i
, y
a
) instead of (x
i
, p
a
).
3.2 HamiltonFedosov spaces and almost Kahler structures
There are canonical Nlinear connections on TM and T

M completely de-
ned, respectively, by the fundamental Lagrange (see [34] and, for applica-
tions to geometric quantization, [21, 24]) and Hamilton functions.
Theorem 3.2 There exists a canonical Nlinear connection

D {

= (

L
i
jk
,

C
i c
j
)} on a Hamilton space H
n
= (M, H(x, p))
endowed with canonical Nconnection

N
ij
(15) satisfying the conditions:
1)

h

D
i

g
kj
= 0 and

v

D
a

g
kj
= 0, 2)

T
k
ij
= 0 and

S
bc
a
= 0 and 3)

D is completely dened by H(x, p), i.e. by dmetric (20).


Proof. Let us consider the Nadapted coecients

L
i
jk
=
1
2

g
is
(

e
j
(

g
sk
) +

e
k
(

g
js
)

e
s
(

g
jk
)) ,

C
i c
j
=
1
2

g
js

e
c
(

g
si
) (32)
dened with respect to Nadapted bases

e

(17) and coframes



e

(19)
dened by

N
ij
(15). By a direct computation, we can verify that the
conditions of this Theorem are satised only for such coecients and their
coordinate/frame transform.
The coecients (32) are just the Christoel symbols on (co) tangent
space T

M, dened by H. Nevertheless, for a Hamilton space endowed with


canonical Nconnection, dconnection and metric structure, there are non-
trivial torsion components induced by the nonholonomic distribution dened
by H, see

P
aic
(30).
From Theorem 3.2, one follows an important property:
Corollary 3.1 The canonical dconnection

D is an almost symplectic d
connection satisfying the conditions

D

= 0 and

D

J = 0 (33)
17
and being completely dened by a Hamiltonian H(x, p) for

(

X, .)

g (

JX, .) .
Proof. A Hamilton space can be equivalently transformed into almost
K ahler space

K
2n
, see Denition 2.8. Considering the dtensor elds
associated to

and

J, see Proposition 2.4, and a covariant Nadapted
calculus dened by the canonical dconnection coecients (32) we can ver-
ify that the almost symplectic structure compatibility conditions (33) are
satised.
In Ref. [20], it was introduced the concept of LagrangeFedosov manifold
as nonholonomic manifold with the Nconnection and almost symplectic
structure dened by a fundamental (in genera, eective) Lagrange function
L(x, y). On cotangent bundles, we can consider
Denition 3.3 A HamiltonFedosov space is a cotangent bundle endowed
with canonical Nconnection and the almost K ahler structure induced by a
fundamental Hamilton function H(x, p).
There are HamiltonFedosov spaces dened completely by a lift (1) of a
(pseudo) Riemannian metric on base M.
Theorem 3.3 Any Einstein manifold associated to a solution of (2), for a
lift (1) on T

M, denes canonically a HamiltonFedosov space.


Proof. We sketch the idea for such constructions. Let us x any val-
ues e
i
i

(x, p) in (1) and associate g


ab
(x, p) to a

g
ab
(x, p) (3). This dene
correspondingly the values

g (20) and

N (15). As a result, we construct
an eective Hamilton space, which can be modelled as a canonical almost
symplectic structure as we described above. For classical congurations,
the values e
i
i

can be
i
i

, but for quantum models they should dened by


a scheme of dequantization, or semiclassical approximation in quantum
gravity.
There is a particular case of CartanFedosov spaces with 0-homogeneous
on variables p components e
i
i

(x, p) resulting in a similar homogeneity for


g
ab
(x, p) and H = g
ab
p
a
p
b
when

N is determined from (15) with

g from
(21).
The problem is more sophisticate in the case of general HamiltonFedosov
spaces. For certain physical important four dimensional spaces (used in gen-
eral relativity) with nonholonomic splitting of dimensions as 2+2 and, for
instance, if dimM = 2, we can x such local coordinate systems when (3) is
18
integrable for certain solvable partial dierential equations for e
i
i

(x, p), but


this may not hold true for other parameterizations and higher dimensions.
A general approach should include the case of EisenhartHamilton spaces
and their Fedosov quantum deformation analogs, with both symmetric and
nonsymmetric components for (3) resulting because of any general quan-
tum nonholonomic Legendre transform. Such constructions should dub on
cotangent bundles those for Eisenhart-Lagrange/- Finsler spaces (see Chap-
ter 8 in [33] and Refs. [52,53]). The length of this paper does not allow
us to present a detailed proof because it is connected with a sophisticate
geometric techniques for nonlinear connections and nonsymmetric metrics
arising both in the case of nonholonomic Ricci ows and quantum nonholo-
nomic deformations and/or symplectic transform in gravity and geometric
mechanics, see recent results in Refs. [54-56].
Finally, we note that similar almost symplectic models can be performed
for Cartan spaces when the Hamiltonian is homogeneous on vertical coordi-
nates.
4 Fedosov OperatorPairs for Hamilton Spaces
In this section, we shall apply the method of deformation quantization elabo-
rated in Refs. [5, 6, 35] to dene two classes of canonical operators which are
necessary to quantize the HamiltonFedosov spaces and related subspaces
on cotangent bundles dened by lifts of Einstein metrics. We shall address
precisely the question how the geometry of cotangent bundles and related
deformation quantization change under symplectic transforms and elaborate
a formalism which preserves the form of HamiltonJacobi equations both on
classical and quantum level.
4.1 Canonical FedosovHamilton operators
The formalism of deformation quantization can be developed by using the
space C

(

K
2n
)[[v]] of formal series in the variable v with coecients from
C

(

K
2n
) on a almost Poisson manifold (

K
2n
, {, }), see the almost sym-
plectic form

and the Poisson brackets (13). Using the associative algebra
structure on C

(

K
2n
)[[v]] with a vlinear and vadically continuous star
product
1
f
2
f =

r=0
r
C(
1
f,
2
f) v
r
, (34)
19
where
r
C, r 0, are bilinear operators on C

(

K
2n
) with
0
C(
1
f,
2
f) =
1
f
2
f and
1
C(
1
f,
2
f)
1
C(
2
f,
1
f) = i{
1
f,
2
f}; for i being the complex
unity, we can construct a formal Wick product
1
a
2
a (z) exp
_
_
i
v
2


2
z

[1]
_
_
1
a(z)
2
a(z
[1]
) |
z=z
[1]
, (35)
for two elements a and b dened by series of the type
a(v, z) =

r0,|{}|0
a
r,{}
(u)z
{}
v
r
, (36)
where by {} we label a multiindex and

i

g

, where

is the symplectic form (26), with up indices, and



g

is the inverse
to dtensor (20). This denes a formal Wick algebra

W
u
associated with
the tangent space T
u

K
2n
, for u

K
2n
, where the local coordinates on

K
2n
are parameterized in the form u = {u

} and the local coordinates on


T
u

K
2n
are labelled (u, z) = (u

, z

), where z

are ber coordinates.


We trivially extend the bre product (35) to the space of

Wvalued
Nadapted dierential forms

W, where by we note the usual exterior
product of the scalar forms and

W is the sheaf of smooth sections of

W.
There is a standard grading on noted deg
a
. We also introduce gradings
deg
v
, deg
s
, deg
a
on

W dened on homogeneous elements v, z

,

e

,
when deg
v
(v) = 1, deg
s
(z

) = 1, deg
a
(

e

) = 1, and all other gradings of


the elements v, z

,

e

are set to zero. As a result, the product from (35)


on

W is bi-graded, written as w.r.t the grading Deg = 2 deg
v
+deg
s
and the grading deg
a
.
The canonical dconnection

D {

= (

L
i
jk
,

C
i c
j
)} with
coecients (32) can be extended to an operator

D(a )
_

e

(a) u

z
e

(a)
_
(

e

) +a d, (37)
on

W, where the Nadapted basis
z
e

is

e

redened in zvariables.
This canonical almost symplectic dconnection

D is a Nadapted deg
a

graded derivation of the distinguished algebra (



W , ) , in brief, called
dalgebra: this follows from formulas (35) and (37)).
Denition 4.1 The FedosovHamilton operators

and

1
on

W,
are dened

(a) =

e

z
e

(a), and

1
(a) =
_
i
p+q
z

e

(a), if p +q > 0,
0, if p = q = 0,
(38)
20
where any a

W is homogeneous w.r.t. the grading deg
s
and deg
a
with deg
s
(a) = p and deg
a
(a) = q.
The doperators (38) dene the formula a = (

1
+

1
+
)(a), where a (a) is the projection on the (deg
s
, deg
a
)bihomogeneous
part of a of degree zero, deg
s
(a) = deg
a
(a) = 0;

is also a deg
a
graded
derivation of the dalgebra (

W , ) .
4.2 FedosovHamilton operatorpairs
Having dened doperators (38), we can perform a Fedosov type quanti-
zation of Hamilton spaces in a Ldual form to Lagrange spaces [21, 24].
Nevertheless, such constructions would not reect completely the symplec-
tic properties of Hamilton spaces and their quantum deformations. For a
cotangent bundle

: T

M M, a Nconnection

N (15) is a supple-
mentary distribution hT

M of the vertical distribution vT

M = ker

,
where

is the tangent map of

. It is often more convenient to consider


a Nconnection as an almost product structure

P, see Proposition 2.4, such
that vT

M = ker(I +

P). If f Diff(T

M), the pushforward of



N
by f generally fails to be a connection. This constrains us to extend the
denition of connection, see details in Chapter 8 of [31].
Denition 4.2 A connectionpair

is an almost product structure

on T

M such that the horizontal bundle hT

M ker(I

) is supple-
mentary to vT

M and the oblique bundle wT

M ker(I +

) dene the
nonholonomic splitting (Whitney sum)
TT

M = hT

M wT

M. (39)
We can consider preferred

adapted frame and coframe structures
induced by the coecients of Nconnection:
Proposition 4.1 There are a canonical connectionpair

and associated
frames and coframes:

=
_

e
i
=

x
i
+

N
ia

p
a
,
w
e
b
=

p
b


g
bi
e
i
_
(40)

=
_

e
i
= dx
i
+

g
bi w
e
b
,
w
e
b
= dp
b


N
ib
dx
i
_
, (41)
where

g
ab
(3) and

N
ia
(15) are generated by a Hamilton fundamental func-
tion H(x, p).
21
Proof. The proof is similar to that for Proposition 2.1 but adapted both
the the splitting (39), with respective h- and vprojections, 2h

= I +

and
2w = I

, and to the splitting (8), with respective h- and vprojections,
2h = I +

N and 2v = I

N.
We note that for Hamilton spaces a connectionpair structure

is
symmetric, i.e.

N
ia
=

N
ai
and

g
ab
=

g
ba
. For simplicity, in this work,
we shall restrict our considerations only to

symmetric congurations.
In order to perform geometric constructions adapted both to the N
connection and almost symplectic structure, it is necessary to work with

adapted bases (40) and (41) instead of, respectively, (17) and (19). For
instance, every vector eld X has two components
X = hX +vX = h

X +wX,
where wX = w(X). This denes the class of

tensor elds alternatively
to that of dtensor elds considered in the previous sections.
Denition 4.3 A linear connection

D on T

M is a

connection if

D

= 0 and

D w = 0.
We can characterize

D = (

h
D= {

L
i
jk
},

w
D= {

C
j k
i
}) by the
coecients computed with respect to

adapted frames (40) and (41):

D
e
k

e
j
=

L
i
jk

e
j
,

D
e
k
w
e
b
=

L
b
ck
w
e
c
,

D w
e
a
w
e
b
=

C
b a
c
w
e
c
,

D w
e
a

e
j
=

C
k a
j

e
k
,
for

L
n+i
n+j k
=

L
i
jk
and

C
n+k a
n+j
=

C
k a
j
.
Theorem 4.1 There is a canonical

connection

D = (

L
i
jk
,

C
k a
j
)
on T

M completely dened by a Hamilton fundamental function H(x, p) and


satisfying the conditions

D(

g
ab
) = 0 and

v

D(

g
ab
)=0,

T
k
ij
= 0 and

S
bc
a
= 0.
Proof. The torsion and curvature of

D are computed as in Theorem


3.1, see formulas (30), but with respect to (40) and (41). By straightforward
22
computations, we can verify that for

L
i
jk
=
1
2

g
km
(

e
i

g
mj
+

e
j

g
im


e
m

g
ij
)

1
2

g
km
(A
jim
+A
ijm
+A
mij
), (42)

C
j k
i
=
1
2

g
im
(
w
e
j
g
mk
+
w
e
k
g
im
+
w
e
m
g
jk
)

1
2

g
im
(B
jmk
+B
kmj
+B
mkj
),
where
A
ijm
=

ijm
and B
mkj
=

g
mi
(

g
ka w
e
j
N
ia


g
ja w
e
k
N
ia
),
the conditions of Theorem are satised.
The dieomorphism symmetry of Hamilton mechanical models and pos-
sible lifts of Einstein spaces on cotangent bundles is an important character-
istic of classical theories. In deformation quantization models, this property
can be preserved for regular Nconnection structures:
Denition 4.4 A dieomorphism f Diff(T

M) is called

Nregular
if the restriction of tangent map (f)

: hT

M TM to hT

M is a
dieomorphism.
For a connectionpair

, the concept of

Nregularity imposes the
equivalence of statements: 1) the pushforward map of

by f, dened as

= f

(

)f
1

, is a connectionpair and 2) f is

Nregular. This follows
from the mapping

: ker(I

) TM and the equality f

(ker(I

)) =
ker(I

). The Nconnection

N associated to

is the pushforward
of

N by f. One says that

and

are frelated.
Following a calculus with local coordinate transforms, one proves:
Corollary 4.1 1) For

e

= (

e
i
,
w
e
b
) in (x, p) and

e

= (

e
i
,
w
e
b
) in
(x(x, p), p(x, p)) induced respectively by

and

, the following formulas
hold
f

(

e
i
) =
k
i

e
k
and f

(
w
e
b
) =
b
c
w
e
c
,
where

k
i

N
ka
=

e
i
(p
a
) and
b
c
=
w
e
b
(p
c
)
w
e
b
(x
k
)

N
kc
.
2) The pushforward of a Nconnection

N by a

Nregular dieomor-
phism is a Nconnection if f is ber preserving, i.e. locally f(x, p) =
(x(x), p(x, p)).
23
Symplectic morphisms are dieomorphisms which transform a symplec-
tic form

= dp
i
dx
i
into a symplectic form

= f

(

) = dp
i
dx
i
. By
coordinate transforms, one proves:
Theorem 4.2 For a f Diff(T

M) being

Nregular and satisfying the
condition f

(

)(

e
i
,
w
e
b
) =
b
i
, two from the next statements implies
the third: 1) f is a symplectic morphism; 2)

is symmetric; 3)

is
symmetric.
The pushforward of

g (20) results in the local form

g =

g

=

g
ij
(x, p)e
i
e
j
+

g
ab
(x, p)

e
a


e
b
,
where

g
ij
f =
i
k

j
l

g
kl
.
If is a linear connection on T

M, we dene its pushforward by f on


T

M as

X
Y f

(
X
Y )
for Y = f

(Y ) and X = f

(X). By coordinate parameterizations of dieo-


morphisms, we can prove:
Proposition 4.2 1) A connection is a

connection if and only if is
a

connection; 2) is compatible to metric

g (almost symplectic

)
structure if and only if is compatible to metric

g (almost symplectic

) structure.
Proof. Locally, we can prove that the coecients of

connection

D
are related to coecients of

connection

D by formulas

L
k
ij
=
i

i

j

j

k
k

L
i

k
+
k
i

e
j

e
i
(x
i

),

C
i j
k
=
i
i

j
j

C
i

+
i
i

w
e
j
e
i
(x
i

).
Using formulas

D(

) = 0

D(

) = 0,

D

g =

D[f

(

g)] = f

(

D

g),

D

=

D[f

(

)] = f

(

D

),
where for

connections we use the symbol

D instead of , and by local
computations, we can verify that there are satised the conditions

D

g = 0

D

g = 0,

D

= 0

D

= 0.
24

Summarizing the abovepresented results we get the proof of:


Theorem 4.3 There is a unique canonical

connection

D with coe-
cients (42) generated by a Hamilton fundamental function H(x, p) which
is almost symplectic and metric compatible and adapted to symplectic mor-
phism.
We can use

D and frames (40) and (41) to construct instead of (37) an


extended on

W operator

D(a )
_

e

(a) u

z
e

(a)
_
(

e

) +a d, (43)
where the local basis
z
e

is

e

redened in zvariables. This allows us


to introduce a new class of operators adapted both to the Nconnection
structure and symplectic morphisms:
Denition 4.5 The FedosovHamilton operatorpairs

and

1
on

W , are dened

(a) =

e

z
e

(a), and

1
(a) =
_
i
p+q
z

e

(a), if p +q > 0,
0, if p = q = 0,
(44)
where any a

W is homogeneous w.r.t. the grading deg
s
and deg
a
with deg
s
(a) = p and deg
a
(a) = q.
We note that the formulas (44) are dierent from (38) because they are
dened for dierent nonholonomic distributions and related adapted frame
structures.
Using dierential calculus of forms on

W , we prove
Proposition 4.3 The torsion and curvature canonical doperators of

D(a ) (43) are computed


z

T
z

(u)

e

, (45)
and
z

R
z

(u)

e

, (46)
where the nontrivial coecients of

and

are dened respec-


tively by formulas (30) and (31) for the canonical

connection

D =
(

L
i
jk
,

C
k a
j
) (42) with respect to (40) and (41).
25
By straightforward verications, one gets the proof of
Theorem 4.4 Any FedosovHamilton operatorpairs (44) and related ex-
tended operatorpair (43) are dened by torsion (45) and curvature (46)
following formulas:
_

D,

_
=
i
v
ad
Wick
(
z

T ) and

D
2
=
i
v
ad
Wick
(
z

R), (47)
where [, ] is the deg
a
graded commutator of endomorphisms of

W
and ad
Wick
is dened via the deg
a
graded commutator in (

W , ) .
The formulas (47) can be restated for any metric compatible dconnecti-
on and

connection structures on T

M. Finally, we conclude that the


operators constructed in this section are invariant under dieomorphisms
and in particular under symplectic morphisms.
5 Deformation Quantization of Hamilton and Ein-
stein Spaces
The aim of this section is to provide the main Fedosovs theorems for Hamil-
ton spaces and show how the Einstein manifolds can be encoded into the
topological structure of such quantized nonholonomic spaces.
5.1 Fedosovs theorems for connectionpairs
The theorems will be formulated for the canonical

connection

D (42).
Theorem 5.1 A Hamilton fundamental function H(x, p) denes a at Fe-
dosov

connection

D

+

D
i
v
ad
Wick
(

r)
satisfying the condition

D
2
= 0, where the unique element

r

W,
deg
a
(

r) = 1,

1
r = 0, is a solution of equation


r =

T +

R+

D

r
i
v

r

r.
26
The solution for

r can be computed recursively with respect to the total
degree Deg in the form

r
(0)
=

r
(1)
= 0,

r
(2)
=

T ,

r
(3)
=

1
_

R+

D

r
(2)

i
v

r
(2)


r
(2)
_
,

r
(k+3)
=

1
_

D

r
(k+2)

i
v
k

l=0

r
(l+2)


r
(l+2)
_
, k 1,
where a
(k)
is the Deghomogeneous component of degree k of an element
a

W .
Proof. It follows from a local component calculus with

adapted
coecients of

D, see similar considerations in [5, 6, 35].


For Hamilton spaces, we can dene a canonical starproduct. By an
explicit construction, we prove:
Theorem 5.2 A

adapted starproduct for Hamilton spaces is dened on
C

(T

M)[[v]] by formula
1
f
2
f ((
1
f)) ((
2
f)),
where the projection :

W C

(T

M)[[v]] onto the part of deg


s
degree
zero is a bijection and the inverse map : C

(T

M)[[v]]

W can be
calculated recursively w.r..t the total degree Deg,
(f)
(0)
= f and, for k 0,
(f)
(k+1)
=

1
_

D(f)
(k)

i
v
k

l=0
ad
Wick
(

r
(l+2)
)((f)
(kl)
)
_
.
Let
f
X the Hamiltonian vector eld corresponding to a function f
C

(T

M) on space (T

M,

) and consider the antisymmetric part

C(
1
f,
2
f)
1
2
_
C(
1
f,
2
f) C(
2
f,
1
f)
_
of bilinear operator C(
1
f,
2
f). A starproduct (34) is normalized if
1
C(
1
f,
2
f) =
i
2
{
1
f,
2
f}, where {, } is the Poisson bracket, see (13). For the
normalized , the bilinear operator

2
C denes a de RhamChevalley 2
cocycle, when there is a unique closed 2form

such that
2
C(
1
f,
2
f) =
1
2

(
f
1
X,
f
2
X) (48)
27
for all
1
f,
2
f C

(T

M). This is used to introduce c


0
() [

] as the
equivalence class.
Computing
2
C from (48) and using the Theorem 5.2, we get the proof
for
Lemma 5.1 The unique 2form dened by the unique canonical connection-
-pair can be computed

=
i
8


i
6
d
_

J

_
.
Let us dene the canonical class

, for the splitting (39). We can per-
form a distinguished complexication of such second order tangent bundles
in the form T
C
_

TT

M
_
= T
C
(hT

M) T
C
(wT

M) and introduce

as the rst Chern class of the distributions T

C
_

TT

M
_
= T

C
(hT

M)
T

C
(wT

M) of couples of vectors of type (1, 0) both for the h and wparts.


We compute

using

D and the h- and vprojections h =


1
2
(Id
h
iJ
h
)
and v =
1
2
(Id
v
iJ
v
), where Id
h
and Id
v
are respective identity op-
erators and J
h
and J
v
are almost complex operators, which are projec-
tion operators onto corresponding (1, 0)subspaces. Introducing the matrix
(h, v)

R(h, v)
T
, where (...)
T
means transposition, as the curvature
matrix of the Nadapted restriction of

D to T

C
_

TT

M
_
, we compute
the closed ChernWeyl form

= iTr
_
(h, v)

R(h, v)
T
_
(49)
= iTr
_
(h, v)

R
_
=
1
4

.
Using the canonical class

[

], we prove:
Theorem 5.3 The zerodegree cohomology coecient c
0
() for the almost
K ahler model of a Hamilton space

K
2n
, dened by a Hamilton fundamental
function H(x, p) is computed c
0
() = (1/2i)

.
The coecient c
0
() contains as a particular case the class of zerodegree
cohomologies computed for a metric of type g
i

j
(x) on M, dening a solution
of the Einstein equations and lifted on cotangent bundle by formula (1). In
such cases, this zerodegree coecient denes certain quantum properties of
the gravitational eld. A more rich geometric structure should be considered
if we dene a value similar to c
0
() encoding the information about Einstein
manifolds lifted to the cotangent bundle.
28
5.2 Quantum gravitational eld equations
Any solution in classical Einstein gravity can be embedded into a Hamilton
space model and quantized on cotangent bundle following the Fedosov quan-
tization adapted to

and dconnections. Considering a dequantization
formalism [36], we construct certain quantum deformations of the classical
Einstein congurations in the classical limit. Such a model denes a non-
holonomic almost K ahler generalization of the Einstein gravity on cotangent
bundle. The solutions for the cotangent gravity are, in general, with vio-
lation of Lorentz symmetry induced by quantum corrections. The nature of
such quantum gravity corrections is dierent from those dened by Finsler
Lagrange models on tangent bundle (see, for instance, [33, 34, 43, 44, 45])),
locally anisotropic string gravity [40, 41, 42] with corrections from extra
dimensions and nonholonomic spinor gravity [37, 38, 39] and noncommu-
tative gravity, see reviews of results in [29, 30]. The aim of this section
is to analyze how a generalization of Einstein gravity can be performed
on cotangent bundles in terms of canonical

connections, with geometric
structures induced by an eective Hamiltonian fundamental function, when
the Fedosov quantization can be naturally performed.
For a canonical

connections

D= {

} (42), we can dene the Ricci
tensor,
Ric(

D) = {

},
and the scalar curvature,

R

g

. On cotangent bundle T

M, we
postulate the eld equations


1
2
(

R +)

e

= 8G

, (50)
where

is the eective energymomentum tensor, is the cosmological


constant, G is the Newton constant in the units when the light velocity
c = 1, and

e

=

e

/u

is the

adapted base (40).
We consider the eective source 3form

du

du

du

,
where

is the absolute antisymmetric tensor, and the action for the


cotangent gravity and matter elds,
S[e, , ] =
gr
S[e, ] +
matter
S[e, , ].
29
Theorem 5.4 The equations (50) can be represented as 3form equations

_

e

+

e

_
= 8G


(51)
following from action by varying the components of e

, when


=
m


and
m


=
m

du

du

du

,
where
m

=
matter
S/e

.
Proof. It is a usual textbook and/or dierential form calculus (see, for
instance, [46, 14]). In our case, we have to use the

adapted bases (40)
and (41) for

D.
The ChernWeyl 2form (49) can be used to dene the quantum version
3
of Einstein equations (51) in the approaches with deformation quantization:
Corollary 5.1 The quantum eld equations on cotangent bundle generaliz-
ing the Einstein gravitations in general relativity are

2G

J

. (52)
Proof. Multiplying

e

with (49), taking into consideration the equa-


tion (51), and introducing the almost complex operator

J

, we get the
almost symplectic form of the Einstein equations (52).
An explicit computation of

for nontrivial matter elds has to be per-
formed for a deformation quantization model with interacting gravitational
and matter elds geometrized in terms of an almost K ahler model dened
for spinor and ber bundles on cotangent bundles.
6 Conclusions
In this paper we outlined a method of converting any regular Lagrange and
Hamilton dynamics into equivalent almost K ahler geometries with canon-
ical nonlinear connection (Nconnection) and adapted almost symplectic
structures. The formalism was performed to be invariant under symplectic
morphisms and adapted to Legendre transforms of Lagrangians into Hamil-
tonians and inversely. The geometry of cotangent bundles endowed with
3
in the sense of deformation quantization (i.e. when quantum equations are derived
following a deformation procedure) but not of perturbative quantum theory
30
nonholonomic distributions, formulated as certain HamiltonCartan spaces
being dual to the corresponding LagrangeFinsler spaces, described in Sec-
tions 2 and 3 presents a key prerequisite of this approach to deformation
quantization.
Given a regular Lagrange (in particular, Finsler; and related Legendre
transforms), or Hamilton (in particular, Cartan), generating function, we
completely dene the fundamental geometric objects of a Hamilton geometry
modelled on cotangent bundle, inducing canonical almost symplectic and
compatible symplectic connection. The connectionpair and canonical

connection uniquely constructed to preserve the invariance under symplectic


morphisms are introduced in Section 4.2. Such geometric objects are crucial
for dening FedosovHamilton operatorpairs. This allows us to generalize
the Fedosovs theorems for deformation quantization to the case of Hamilton
spaces and to show how the Einstein manifolds can be encoded into such a
quantization scheme.
Any classical solution of the Einstein equations can be lifted to the cotan-
gent bundle, and embedded into a Hamilton space geometry using frame
transforms variables depending both on spacetime and phase (momentum
like) coordinates. Such variables can be dened from a dequantization pro-
cedure like that considered in Ref. [36] but in our case reformulated for
nonholonomic cotangent bundles. In general, such constructions result in
quasiclassical eects of quantum gravity with violations of local Lorentz
symmetry. The surprising result advocated in this paper is that we can
model classical and quantum gravitational eects by corresponding eective
classical and quantum Hamilton mechanics systems. Nevertheless, certain
additional phenomenological and/or experimental data for quantum gravity
eects have to be assigned to the scheme in order to dene the nonholonomic
frame transforms of locally isotropic gravitational elds into quantized and
semiclassical ones on cotangent bundle.
On cotangent bundles and curved phase spaces, there were developed
dierent methods of quantization of nonlinear eld theories and mechanical
systems with nonholonomic constraints. For instance, in Refs. [47, 48], there
were constructed in explicit form examples of cotangent starproducts (in
such cases, one derive certain compatible symplectic / Levi Civita type
connections). The formalism was revised and developed by introducing
auxiliary variables, with further restrictions, and/or higher spin systems,
in analogy with gauge theories with generalized symmetries, in the frame-
work of the BRST approach [49, 50, 51, 10, 1]. In general, the methods of
quantization of nonlinear physical systems on contangent bundles are very
dierent from that on tangent bundles. The source of this is in the fact that
31
Lagrange and Hamilton (both classical and quantum) schemes may result
in very dierent quantum models for nonlinear classical theories: On phase
spaces, we have to consider Legendre transform and additional symmetries
related to symplectic morphisms (i.e. morphisms preserving a symplectic
structure into a symplectic structure). In such a case, the author of [19] had
to work with symplectic groupoids and introduce contravariant connections
which modied substantially the Fedosov scheme of quantization.
There are various ideas and approaches to quantize gravity theories,
including deformation quantization. In our partner works [23, 24] we elab-
orated a direction related to eective LagrangeFinsler geometries by per-
forming nonholonomic deformations to quantum versions of (semi) Rieman-
nian manifolds preserving the local Lorentz invariance at least for semi
classical approximations. Following the same geometric methods developed
for Finsler spaces, but extended for nonholonomic manifolds, we proved
that there are similar quantization schemes of gravity and LagrangeFinsler
spaces modelled on tangent bundles [21, 22]. Such constructions also result
in violations of local Lorentz symmetry but with physical eects which are
very dierent from those for models on cotangent bundles. The general con-
clusion of this paper is that a deformation quantization scheme for Hamilton
spaces and related generalizations of the Einstein gravity on cotangent bun-
dle results in more rich geometric structures and requests more advanced
geometric methods with nonlinear connections and connectionpairs. We
can elaborate a standard Fedosov formalism also on cotangent bundle (not
involving groupoid structures) by introducing canonical nonlinear connec-
tions structures and generalizing the concept of linear and distinguished
connections to that of connection pairs.
We are planing to compare dierent approaches to deformation quanti-
zation of gravity (preserving or violating the local Lorentz invariance) and
other quantization schemes in our further works.
Acknowledgement: M. A. was partially supported by grant CNC-
SIS,1158/2007, Romania. S. V. performed his work as a visitor at Fields
Institute.
References
[1] I. Batalin, E. Fradkin and T. Fradkina, Nucl. Phys. B. 332, (1990).
[2] B. de Wit and J. W. van Holten, Phys. Lett. B 79, 389 (1978).
32
[3] M. Grigoriev and S. Lyakhovich, Commun. Math. Phys. 218, 437
(2001).
[4] M. Henneaux, Phys. Rep. 126, 1 (1985).
[5] B. Fedosov, J. Di. Geom. 40, 213 (1994).
[6] B. Fedosov, Deformation Quantization and Index Theory, Mathemati-
cal topics: 9 (AkademieVerlag, Berlin, 1996).
[7] M. Kontsevich, Lett. Math. Phys. 66, 157 (2003).
[8] M. Kontsevich, Lett. Math. Phys. 48, 35 (1999).
[9] P. Kazinski, S. Lyakhovich and A. Sharapov, JHEP 0507, 076 (2005).
[10] S. Lyakhovich and A. Sharapov, JHEP 0503 , 011 (2005).
[11] C. Castro, J. Geom. Phys. 33, 173 (2000).
[12] C. Castro, 36, 2605 (2004).
[13] C. Castro, Phys. Lett. B 668, 442 (2008).
[14] C. Rovelli, Quantum Gravity (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
[15] A. Ashtekar and J. Lewandowski, Class. Quant. Grav. 21, R53 (2004).
[16] T. Thiemann, Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity (Cam-
brdigde University Press, Cambridge, 2006).
[17] I. Gorbunov, S. Lyakhovich and A. Sharapov, J. Geom. Phys. 53, 98
(2005).
[18] I. Batalin, M. Grigoriev and S. Lyakhovich, J. Math. Phys. 46, 072301
(2005).
[19] A. Karabegov, Commun. Math. Phys. 258, 223 (2005).
[20] F. Etayo, R. Santamara and S. Vacaru, J. Math. Phys. 46, 032901
(2005).
[21] S. Vacaru, J. Math. Phys. 48, 123509 (2007).
[22] S. Vacaru, An. St. Univ. Al. I. Cuza din Iasi (S.N.), Matematica, vol.
LIII, 2007, Supliment, 327-342; eprint arXiv: 0707.1526.
33
[23] S. Vacaru, Phys. Lett. A 372, 2949 (2008).
[24] S. Vacaru, eprint arXiv: 0709.3609.
[25] G. Vr anceanu, C. R. Acad. Paris 103, 852 (1926).
[26] G. Vr anceanu, Bull. Fac. St. Cernaut i 5, 177 (1931).
[27] G. Vr anceanu, Le cons de Geometrie Dierentielle, Vol II (Edition de
lAcademie de la Republique Populaire de Roumanie, 1957).
[28] A. Bejancu and H. R. Farran, Foliations and Geometric Structures
(Springer, 2005).
[29] S. Vacaru, P. Stavrinos, E. Gaburov and D. Gont a, Cliord and
Riemann-Finsler Structures in Geometric Mechanics and Gravity, Se-
lected Works, Dierential Geometry Dynamical Systems, Monograph
7 (Geometry Balkan Press, 2006);
www.mathem.pub.ro/dgds/mono/va-t.pdf and eprint arXiv:
gr-qc/0508023.
[30] S. Vacaru, eprint arXiv: 0707.1524.
[31] R. Miron, D. Hrimiuc, H. Shimada and V. S. Sabau, The Geometry
of Hamilton and Lagrange Spaces (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dor-
drecht, Boston, London, 2000).
[32] R. Miron, The Geometry of HigherOrder Hamilton Spaces (Kluwer
Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 2003).
[33] R. Miron and M. Anastasiei, Vector Bundles and Lagrange Spaces with
Applications to Relativity (Geometry Balkan Press, Bukharest, 1997);
translation from Romanian of (Editura Academiei Romane, 1987).
[34] R. Miron and M. Anastasiei, The Geometry of Lagrange Spaces: The-
ory and Applications, FTPH no. 59 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dor-
drecht, Boston, London, 1994).
[35] A. Karabegov and M. Schlichenmaier, Lett. Math. Phys. 57, 135
(2001).
[36] A. Karabegov, Lett. Math. Phys. 65, 133 (2003).
[37] S. Vacaru and P. Stavrinos, Spinors and SpaceTime Anisotropy
(Athens University Press, Greece, 2002); eprint: arXiv:
gr-qc/ 0112028.
34
[38] S. Vacaru, J. Math. Phys. 37, 508 (1996).
[39] S. Vacaru, JHEP, 09, 011 (1998).
[40] S. Vacaru, Ann. Phys. (NY), 256, 39 (1997).
[41] S. Vacaru, Nucl. Phys. B, 434, 590 (1997).
[42] N. Mavromatos, eprint: arXiv: 0708.2250.
[43] F. Girelli, S. Liberati and L. Sindoni, Phys. Rev. D 75, 064015 (2007).
[44] S. Mignemi, Phys. Rev. D 76, 047702 (2007).
[45] G. Gibbons, J. Gomis and C. N. Pope, Phys. Rev. D 76, 081701 (2007).
[46] C. Misner, K. Thorne and J. Wheeler, Gravitation (Freeman, 1973).
[47] M. Bordemann, N. Neumaier and S. Waldman, Commun. Math. Phys.
198, 363 (1998).
[48] M. Bordemann, N. Neumaier and S. Waldman, J. Geom. Phys. 29, 199
(1999).
[49] G. Barnich, M. Grigoriev, A. Semikhatov and I. Tipunin, Commun.
Math. Phys. 260, 147 (2005).
[50] M. A. Vasiliev, Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys. 3, 37 (2006).
[51] M. Grigoriev, eprint arXiv: hep-th/0605089.
[52] R. Miron and Gh. Atanasiu, Kodai Math. J. 6, 228 (1983).
[53] Gh. Atanasiu, M. Hashiguchi and R. Miron, Rep. Fac. Sci. Kagoshima
Univ. Math. Phys. Chem. No. 18, 19 (1985).
[54] S. Vacaru, e-print: arXiv: 0806.3810.
[55] S. Vacaru, SIGMA 4, 071 (2008); arXiv: 0806.3814.
[56] S. Vacaru, to appear in Int. J. Theor. Phys. (2008); e-print: arXiv:
0806.3812.
35