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WOMEN’S PERSPECTIVES ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION, PEACE MAKING AND PEACEBUILDING Global Open Day: Partnerships for Peace
WOMEN’S PERSPECTIVES ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION, PEACE MAKING AND PEACEBUILDING Global Open Day: Partnerships for Peace
WOMEN’S PERSPECTIVES ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION, PEACE MAKING AND PEACEBUILDING Global Open Day: Partnerships for Peace

WOMEN’S PERSPECTIVES ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION, PEACE MAKING AND PEACEBUILDING

Global Open Day: Partnerships for Peace

Event: National consultations in Dushanbe, Tajikistan

Date: 10 October 2012

Meeting Hosts:

- UN – Mr. Alexander Zuev, UN Resident Coordinator, UNDP Representative in Tajikistan

- Government of the Republic of Tajikistan – Ms. Sumangul Tagoeva, head, National Committee for women and family affairs under the Government of Tajikistan

Venue: UN conference room

Context:

Tajikistan is located in Central Asia and shares borders with Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan gained independence in 1991 after the breakup of the Soviet Union and a civil war broke out shortly thereafter. Since the UN helped broker a peace agreement in 1997 to end the civil war, the nation has struggled to strengthen its democracy and develop a market economy. Tajikistan has a population of 7.6 million people 1 and a per capita GDP of $1,800, which is relatively low compared to the other former Soviet republics. The major exports include cotton, minerals, hydroelectric power, and food processing. The population of Tajikistan is composed of numerous ethnic groups that include Tajik (79.9%), Uzbek (15.3%), Russian (1.1%), Kyrgyz (1.1%), and others (2.6%). The religious composition of the population is 85% Sunni Muslims, 5% Shi’a Muslims, and 10% others. Tajikistan has a population growth rate of 1.9% and a significant youth bulge, with 35% of the population under the age of 15. Tajikistan hosts 5,000 refugees, mostly from Afghanistan. Tajikistan has a negative net migration rate, indicating that the serious share of its population in economically active age leaves the country in search of better opportunities elsewhere – mostly in Russia and Kazakhstan.

For Tajikistan it is vital to improve the cooperation inside the region and between countries. Improvement of bilateral relations, which were worsened due to increased tensions between Tajikistan and neighboring countries with regard to joint use and management of energy and water resources and collapse on the unified energy supply system in CAR, has to be led by the leadership of the SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization) and the CSTO (Collective Security Treaty Organization).

1 Data of 1 January 2012, National statistical agency

Within the Central Asia Ferghana valley is a cross-border area for Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It is identified as a region with a high risk of potential conflict. Risks are not only linked to influence of radicalism and religious extremism, but also to high tensions between three neighboring countries with regard to rational use and management of natural resources (land and water). The total number of population living in Ferghana valley is more than 11 mln.people.

More than 20% of the Tajik-Afghan border is mine-contaminated. So is Tajik-Uzbek border. While mine clearance activities are ongoing on the Tajik-Afghan border, they have not been yet initiated on the Tajik-Uzbek boarder due to pending respective political decisions between these governments. There are also 36 suspected hazardous areas with approximately total size of 3,454,261 square meters in central Tajikistan. Between 1992 and 2008 along Tajikistan’s borders there have been 793 mine accidents, including 352 fatalities. More than 400,000 people live in Tajikistan in mine-affected areas, 70% of which are women and children. Mine-contaminated areas restrict the opportunity to use land for grazing and agricultural purposes and represent a serious risk to civilian population engaged in farming, wood gathering, grazing and other rural activities. Over 14,860,000 square meters of land in Tajikistan remain under mine and explosive remnants of war threat. As only 7% of the country is suitable for irrigation, this represents a considerable economic opportunity cost for Tajikistan’s rural communities.

There are still high risks of internal instability: in 2010 there were military operations by the Governmental forces against warlords of some former opposition leaders in Rasht valley. In summer 2012 military operations were initiated in Gorno-Badakhshan region.

During Open Days in 2010, UN Women supported a series of dialogues in Central Asia and Southern Caucasus at the national, regional and cross-regional levels. As a result, a Consolidated Appeal of Women’s NGOs was developed in Dushanbe at 2010 Open Day cross-regional event and handed over to the UN Secretary-General during the OSCE Summit in October 2010. A key and urgent proposal made in the Appeal was for the establishment of Women’s Peace Corps (WPC) in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) region to improve women’s effective contributions to peace building and conflict prevention processes.

A main objective of the meeting was to provide a platform for UN officials to get acquainted and discuss priorities and needs of women in the context of conflict prevention and resolution.

Expected results

Recommendations by women-activists for improving responsiveness and accountability of UN to UNSCRs commitments and targets defined and agreed.

Prep Meeting for the Global Open Day – preparatory meeting was organized on 15 September 2012 in Khujand, Sughd region (Tajik territory in the Ferghana valley)

Open Day consultations in Dushanbe

Key Issues raised by Women Peace Activists at the Open Day:

How UN agencies could support women – peace activists and their networks to promote practical enforcement of UNSCRs on Women, Peace and Security: recommendations based on findings of the baseline assessment in the Ferghana valley countries Women’s views on UN possible response to support the state to enforce NAP on gender equality (especially the commitments related to WPS agenda) Needs to introduce gender responsive mediation as tools for conflict prevention and resolutions

Brief on women’s statements:

Integration of international commitments on women’s human rights and gender equality into the national policy and legislation – Ms. Sumangul Tagoeva, Head for the National Committee for women and family affairs under the Government of Tajikistan

In Tajikistan one of the important Government’s decrees in the area of women’s empowerment was the Presidential Decree on ‘Measures to Promote the Role of Women in Society,’ adopted in December 1999. It resulted in appointment of women into managerial positions in all governmental bodies. The main current national policy document on promotion of gender equality is the Strategy of Women’s empowerment for 2011 – 2020 adopted on 29 May 2010. The national commitments on promotion of women to a decision-making level are also addressed by the State Programme on development of a young cadre of women-leaders covering the period till 2016. To ensure efficient and consolidated implementation of all national strategies in this area, the Committee for women and family affairs together with women’s NGOs developed a National Action Plan (NAP) for enforcement of gender equality policy. There are several chapters and its 9 th chapter includes targets to improve women’s participation in conflict prevention and resolution. This 9 th chapter is a commitment of the Committee to ensure practical implementation of UNSCRs on WPS. A role and position of women within the society have to be strengthened and a voice of women against of conflicts and war has to be heard. “Women are always against war!”

war has to be heard. “ Women are always against war!” Ms. Tagoeva during discussions with

Ms. Tagoeva during discussions with women also stressed the importance of working together to overcome negative social stereotypes, a change the culture and behavior of young generation with regard to role of women and men, especially of men, strengthen legal education of youth and use relevant principles of Islam to further promote women’s human rights. She mentioned that a number of women in judiciary and traffic police is increasing. However, her argument that particularity of military service and police work shall be taken into account during discussion about the need to increase number of women in these bodies and their promotion/appointment to high/leadership posts was highly debated by participants.

Women’s voice on needs and priorities for gender responsive conflict prevention and resolution – a statement by Dilbar Turakhanova, member of the Women’s Peace Corp in Tajikistan

Tajikistan Women’s Peace Corp (WPC) was officially registered by the Ministry of Justice of Tajikistan on 13 April 2012. It consists of 22 members who represent a network of women-leaders and human rights experts. It aims to unite women- peace activists to effectively contribute to development of democracy, peace and tolerance building, support efforts of the wide range of partners to prevent and resolve conflicts, to mobilize the national civil society to eliminate violence against women and ensure efficient participation of women in conflict prevention and peace building processes at all levels. Members of WPC actively contributed to preparations for Open Day consultations.

The statement was based on key findings of the preparatory meeting in Khuajnd and the baseline assessment for Tajikistan in 2011 conducted by UN Women in the framework of its cross-regional programme “Women connect across conflicts: building accountability for the implementation of the UN SC resolutions 1325, 1820, 1888, 1889" supported by EU. The following issues and priorities are indentified during the preparatory consultations and by the findings of the baseline assessment by UN Women:

and by the findings of the baseline assessment by UN Women: - there is an institutional

- there is an institutional framework on promotion of gender equality and women’s human rights in

Tajikistan (National Committee); financial and human resources are allocated by the state to address these needs, however these efforts are not sufficient;

- number of women in security sector institutions is decreasing; there is no female staff in the managerial

positions at all, however just a simple quantitative increase of female staff in these institutions will not guarantee improvement of gender responsive operations of these institutions, in general and gender responsive reforms in this area, in particular;

- improving awareness of the personnel of security institutions on gender and human rights , including the

international commitments in the area of women’ peace and security, is a high priority which has to be addressed

by the state and the international community in Tajikistan.

“The international partners, in particular UN agencies, were not consistent and efficient in promotion of UN Security Council resolutions on WPS and incorporation of these international commitments into their programmes and operations in areas related to conflict prevention and resolution” – stated participants of the preparatory meeting in Khujand.

Recommendations to the UN to address mentioned priorities in its operations in Tajikistan:

- in the framework of the ongoing UN programmes in the security sector and rule of law specific

commitments, targets and activities have to be included to ensure practical implementation of the UNSCRs and support to the state in this area;

- special attention shall be paid to create and promote positive image of woman working in security

sector institutions among the population; study consequences of increasing religious influence on secular way of

life from perspectives of women’s human rights and gender equality;

- assistance shall be provided to develop a pool of mediators – women and men - at local and national

levels with the aim to include them into rapid response teams for their further deployment in conflict areas to support, organize and conduct peace negotiations and ensure peaceful resolution of conflicts. Rapid response teams should also include qualified psychologists, medical staff, social workers and lawyers to provide a necessary assistance to population in crisis situations;

- support provision of comprehensive training programme on CEDAW/UNSCRs for civil servants, military personnel and civil society organizations;

- support women’s NGOs in their efforts to ensure inclusive/participatory consultations on finalization of draft law 2 on prevention of domestic violence in Tajikistan;

- expand and

support existing networks of women and

strengthen their capacity to

substantially

contribute to policy formulation and implementation and political participation, in general;

- consider a possibility to create an interagency peace and human security;

-

for

those

regional

institutions

where

UN

participation through an joint advocacy and lobbying.

Coordination Council for Ferghana valley to

promote

is

represented

ensure

women’s

representation

and

Statelessness problems in Tajikistan - a statement by Dilorom Atabaeva, NGO “Consortium of Initiative”, Khujand, Sughd region:

There are 450 and 2500 people without defined citizenship (registered stateless people) in Tajikistan –. Number of stateless persons is increasing due to high level of tensions between three countries belonging to Ferghana valley and pending demarcation of borders between countries in some areas . In Sughd region (Tajikistan’s part of Ferghana valley) stateless people are accumulated in cross-border zones, namely in Istravshan, Zafarabad, Matcha-Buston, Kanibadam, Isfara and Spitamen, in a remote districts – Aini, Old Matcha and Yagnob. They represent the most invisible and vulnerable group of local population; Reasons of statelessness – break-up of the Soviet Union; civil war in Tajikistan in 1992-1997; huge migration flows in past 20 years;

in 1992-1997; huge migration flows in past 20 years; 2 The draft law is in the

2 The draft law is in the lowest chamber of the Parliament for consideration

The following categories of stateless people are identified currently:

- “cross-border brides” – citizens of Uzbekistan who married to citizens of Tajikistan in Soviet period, living in Tajikistan and after the breakup of the Soviet Union still use passports/ID cards of Soviet format issued in Uzbekistan before 1991;

- economic migrants – former citizens of Tajikistan who left for work to Uzbekistan during Soviet time and later received a permanent residence permit. However documents received were expired, citizenship was not granted

and residence permits are no longer extended by authorities of Uzbekistan. Based on this, they were deported from Uzbekistan to Tajikistan where they have applied to lost Tajikistan citizenship.

- persons with Uzbekistan’s citizenship – former citizens of Tajikistan who left for Uzbekistan and received Uzbek passports/IDs. However due to various reasons they had to return to Tajikistan and currently stay here with visa which has to be regularly extended;

- persons who didn’t change passports of Soviet Union format (valid till September 1991) – mainly people from remote mountain districts;

- persons who never had birth certificates and could not received passports after they reached their legal age (passports/IDs are issued based on birth certificates);

- persons who contracted marriage on a basis of birth certificates – mainly these people from remote mountain districts;

refugees who got married to citizens of Tajikistan and have a residence

permit issued before 2000. Citizenship is not granted, expired documents are not extended and this category of people has no legal status in the destination country.

- refugees with a residence permit -

The stateless people experience many challenges in exercising their rights established the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, including inability to register marriages and births of their children, property rights; limitations in free movement; lack of access to public services, especially social security services; informal employment; a lack of access to justice, high level of marginalization of several generations of these group; high risks of personal insecurity”, - stated Dilorom Atabaeva.

Recommendations suggested to the UN to address problems and needs of stateless persons:

- Support the government to resolve problem of definition of of statelessness in the national legal framework,

through ratification and further implementation of international agreements in this area, i.e. the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness and the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons;

- Support Tajikistan in finalization of drafting of a new law on citizenship of Tajikistan. Currently, the working

group to finalize the draft law is operational. Requirement of Tajik citizens to register in consulate of Tajikistan in

Russia each 5 years has to be cancelled, since violation of this requirement results in loss of Tajik citizenship;

- Undertake a comprehensive assessment of statelessness in Tajikistan and Fergana valley to identify scope of the problems, impact on human security and stability;

- Advocate and support exemption of penalty for exchange of old formats of passports/IDs;

- Replicate the practice of control over issuance of birth certificates by personnel of maternity hospitals that

exists in Sughd region. In Sughd region a copy of birth certificate shall be submitted to the maternity hospital

before discharge of mother and child from hospitals;

- Undertake

comprehensive

information

legalization and naturalization in Tajikistan;

campaign

to

improve

public

awareness

on

possibilities

for

- Support

respective state institutions to develop mechanisms for transparent procedures, ensure public

access to information and free legal assistance on issues related to decreasing statelessness;

- Support civil society organizations to document cases of statelessness and processes to solve problems of statelessness;

contribute to policy related

- Support provision of better access of stateless persons to social services and opportunities for their social and economic integration.

Lessons leant from women’s involvement into conflict resolution in Khorog, Gorno-Badakhshan region

of Tajikistan, July-August 2012 - Ms. Nabot Dodkhudoeva, NGO MADINA, Khorog

The crisis in Khorog 3 started on 24 July 2012. It is still ongoing in a frozen stage. It demonstrated a need to address risks of conflict at the initial stage to ensure efficient preventive measures. “Women are in position to play a peace keeping role. In Khorog on the second day of the conflict women intervened with a suggestion to conclude peace; they left their homes to come to the center of the city with a white flag to stop military actions. And it worked. Both parties of the conflict stopped gun fire” – said Nabot Dodkhudoeva.

A Committee of 20 prominent activists was established to mediate peace

consultations between two confronting sides – 3 of them are women

represented women’s NGOs. Women specifically advocated for an urgent need

to start peace dialogue and negotiations with involvement of local activists.

and negotiations with involvement of local activists. 3 On July 24th the government sent troops into

3 On July 24th the government sent troops into Khorog - the incursion was ordered ostensibly to punish the killers of Major-General Abdullo Nazarov, the head of the regional branch of the State Committee on National Security who was apparently stabbed to death on July 22nd. For two days the government troops battled with the local illegal military forces whose leaders were being sought for criminal activities including drug trafficking. Having now declared a ceasefire, the government is in the process of negotiating the handover of those it deems responsible, holding the city of Khorog effectively hostage until these demands are met. Committee – 20 was established by local activists to push both confronting sides to stop military actions and start peace negotiations. The conflict in Khorog exposes deep contradictions of governance and the sense of uncertainty that worsens human security and national stability in Tajikistan now.

Recommendations suggested to the UN to address problems and needs of stateless persons:

- The experience of Khorog’s peace consultations demonstrated a need for development of capacity of local

female activists to act as facilitators and mediators of peace consultations as well as to provide urgent assistance to affected civilians, especially psychological and legal assistance;

- Local Crisis Centers staff could be a core part of the rapid response teams – there is a need to develop their capacity to perform these functions;

- development of female leaders cadre at local levels shall be a priority jointly addressed by the state and international community;

- it is important to promote partnership between local authorities and civil society organizations to work

jointly on conflict prevention; - it is important to open in GBAO a local center of conflict resolution– it will not require substantial funding. Women have a desire to be involved, but they should be prepared and trained.

Voice and needs of refugees - Zarifa Mohammad Alam, Tullu Afghan Women’s NGO:

- Women are first who are affected by the conflict and they are first who could

respond to conflicts;

- Prolonged conflict and war in Afghanistan have resulted to serious loses in human capital and development of the country. Terrorism also resulted in

worsening the stability and human security in Central Asia;

- Violen e against women in conflict situations is a high priority that needs to be addressed;

- Partnership and networking of Afghan women with women-activists in the

countries of destination of Afghan refugees are very important from perspectives of provision of a joint voice to promote women’s human rights;

- “Problems of high level of uneducated Afghan girls and female

of high level of uneducated Afghan girls and female unemployment are urgent priorities that have to

unemployment are urgent priorities that have to be addressed by post-conflict rehabilitation programmes”;

- Efforts of the Government of Tajikistan to provide necessary services and assistance for Afghan refugees in

Tajikistan (total number is more that 5,000) were acknowledged. However they are not sufficient to ensure full integration. In particular, they don’t address priorities related to social and economic integration of Afghan refugees into the local society. These priorities shall be specifically identified and supported.

Interventions by participants:

Guljakhon Bobosadykova, Coalition of NGOs “From equality de-jure to Equality de-facto”:

NAP on enforcement of national gender equality policy adopted by the National committee for women and family affairs is a good ground to ensure practical implementation of UNSCRs since it integrates commitments on WPS. However, we need to focus on achievement of concrete results and definition of concrete timeframe and resources to implement the planned measures. It is related to creation of mobile groups to react/respond to conflicts and suggestion to establish a Coordination Council for Ferghana valley – timeframe has to be identified.

More than 15 years passed after the conclusion of the Peace Agreement in Tajikistan between the Government and the United Tajik opposition that ended the civil war. However, there is already a new generation of people who doesn’t know/understand consequences of civil war and doesn’t value current peace and stability. In this respect, peace and tolerance building education is a high priority for youth in Tajikistan.

It is a good momentum for women-activists to appeal to the President of the country to make a change in the Decree of the President adopted in 1999 on advancement of a status and position of women in state institutions, specifically to remove the restriction of appointment of women in management positions in the security sector institutions.

Women-activists expect a feedback from UNRCCA on recommendations made at this meeting.

Zarafo Khujaeva, member of the Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan:

Representatives of religious institutions of various confessions should be involved into the dialogue. We need to use them to promote education for girls and improve opportunities for women’s political participation. All political parties have to be involved into dialogue on conflict prevention and resolution. We need to attract more women into political parties and follow principles of political pluralism.

A Working Group of women who represent all 8 political parties functioning in Tajikistan has been recently established by the OSCE to work together on political empowerment of women. We can use this opportunity to bring issues of conflict prevention and resolution”.

“We need to recognize a phenomenon of frozen conflicts in our region and address risks of escalation of tensions”.

Alla Kuvatova, head of the Working Group on prevention of VAW under the Coalition of NGOs “From equality de-jure to Equality de-facto”:

- There is a need to focus on early prevention of conflicts. It could be done through creation of women’s watch groups at the local levels (piloted in the framework of the UN Women ongoing project in Sughd region);

- Youth has to be considered as a vulnerable group due to

high level of unemployment, high labour

emigration flow, increased tendency of early marriages and suicides among young population;

- Famous women respected by the society have to be used as local advocates for peace promotion;

- Simple lack of information very often could become a source of conflicts. We need to work with mass media on broadcasting information about conflicts;

- Conflict management/resolution studies should be integrated into curriculum of all universities as a

mandatory course. This practice was recently introduced by Tajik-Russian Slavonic University which provides a

course on conflict management for students of journalism faculty. The course is, indeed, highly demanded and provides youth with skills to define and address potential conflicts.

Viloyat Mirzoeva, National Portfolio Manager, UN Women Tajikistan:

-

A Center for conflict forecasting and prevention is needed to undertake necessary analytical work and

develop a cadre of specialists on conflict prevention and resolution;

- Creation of WPC is not enough. A comprehensive capacity development to negotiate, analyze and mediate is needed;

- Women in political parties

-

chapters of all political parties have to be reviewed and improved to ensure

gender mainstreaming into parties operations and activities;

-

Women’s and youth employment is also a priority to prevent instability.

Rukhshona Shamsutdinova, member of the Communist party of Tajikistan:

- Many women have their own understanding and experience of conflict resolution. However their

participation in dialogues is still an area that needs improvement.

- There is a decrease of role and status of women in the society and in the governmental structures. For

example there is no female ambassador in Tajik representations abroad. Importance to develop a new female cadre in civil service can’t be questioned.

- Heads of all eight political parties in Tajikistan are men. Women should be active participants of all events

related to political sphere. In negotiations at all levels participation of women from all political parties should be

mandatory requirement.

Rano Bobodjanova, head for the Women’s Committee in Sughd region:

- last month we had a study visit

to Kyrgyzstan to learn their experience on economic empowerment of

women from migrants families. It was very impressive to learn and at the same time share our own knowledge;

- with regard to suggestion to establish local women’s Peace Corp in Sughd region, I would like to emphasize

that it could play good and considerable role to identify problems at the community level. In Gonchi district, for example, based on problems and risks identified by local women-activists, local authorities have responded by practical actions to reduce risks;

- former women-activities who are now retired, but

have rich experience, are not used as advocates

efficiently. They can lack a capacity to work as mediators, however their standing and reputation in the local community could play very positive role;

- sport and cultural exchanges between neighboring countries should be used widely to promote a culture of peace and good neighborhood;

- joint youth and women’s forums between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan need to be regularly organized to unite

people across the borders and prevent conflicts. We would like to ask UN Women to support social projects, such

as kindergarten, schools, etc.

Response by Mr. Alexander Zuev, UN Resident Coordinator, UNDP Resident Representative in Tajikistan:

Coordinator, UNDP Resident Representative in Tajikistan: - Commitments of the UN to WHRs go without saying.

- Commitments of the UN to WHRs go without

saying. All UN agencies follow these principles and commitments in their programming. Establishment of the UN Women is an evidence of serious attention and accountability of the UN to achieve practical results in the area of gender equality and WHRs. “I twice met with Md. Michelle Bachelet, Executive Director for the UN Women and emphasized a need to strengthen a presence and cooperation in Tajikistan to address gender and women’s priorities and needs”. There are several factors behind this need: specifics of the country in terms of its current demographic composition; highest labour emigration; lowest rates in access to education and health services; high risks of regional instability and insecurity; etc. Md. Bachelet fully understands specific needs and issues of refugees/IDPs due to her personal experience on this matter.

- Tajikistan hosts the biggest UN Country team in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: 23 UN agencies are

represented in Tajikistan and there are ongoing programmes implemented by UN agencies to improve border management, prevent trafficking, improve regional cooperation and stability.

- I have personal experience and understanding on conflicts in Central Asia. I had visited several times the

region in 90 th . Arguments that conflict resolution needs women’s participation and contribution are not questionable. It is very important to involve women into prevention and resolution of local conflicts on natural

resources management, especially, in Ferghana valley. UNDP implements a project in Sughd region to prevent conflicts at the community level at cross-borders;

- Issues of gender equality and WHRs are always identified as a priority in all UNCT actions. First question which

I asked from our colleagues implementing the projects is about share of women-beneficiaries. I noted that in some regions where men headed microfinance portfolio, share of women receiving credits was 10%. After changes in the management composition at microcredit schemes (2 women were selected as heads) the situation changed. Now 40% of women have received credits. It is a demonstration of women’s empowerment and quality participation.

- I agree with your recommendation on improving women’s representation in the security sector institutions,

however it is also an issue of building capacity. All staff of these institutions shall comply with commitments on

HRs, GE and WHRs, in particular.

- Problems of refugees/stateless people are dealt with by UNHCR. However UN RC is fully involved into

consultations with Government of Tajikistan (Ministry of foreign affairs) on this subject. There are also moral

commitments which have to be met, specifically, it is very important to provide support for refugees.

- Equal access to education is a global priority. “Women’s economic, social and political status highly depends on education! Even children’s health and status highly depends on education of mothers!”

- Please, be assured about my commitment to convey your recommendations to all UN agencies and follow-up

on them. I will be also glad to continue our dialogue and take practical efforts together to ensure women enjoy their rights in all spheres.

Response by Ms. Sanoat Jumaeva, UN Regional Center for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia (UNRCCA), Representative in Tajikistan:

for Central Asia (UNRCCA), Representative in Tajikistan: - The UNRCCA is a special political mission (meaning

- The UNRCCA is a special political mission (meaning it operates under the

Department of Political Affairs) of the UN organization established at the initiative of the governments of the five Central Asian countries. The main goal of the liaison offices in Astana, Bishkek, Dushanbe and Tashkent is to contribute to the UNRCCA’s Mission Statement, thus, to help the governments of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan respond to existing threats and emerging challenges in the Central Asia and to ensure that the UNRCCA role in this process is maximised through support in building the above listed governments’ conflict prevention capacities by means of enhanced dialogue, confidence building measures and establishing genuine partnerships.

- UNRCCA’s activities in the area of WPS – interaction with Women Peace Corps in Kyrgyzstan through the UN

Women, invite women's NGOs to our regional events and the head of UNRCCA/the SRSG regularly meets with women's NGOs while on visit to CA capitals to discuss their involvement in UN preventive and peace building activities; etc. Miroslav Jen a, the head of UNRCCA, stated – “I would like to express my personal commitment to the implementation of Resolution 1325 and to the promotion of a gender-based perspective in all the activities of the Centre” – in his appeal to participants of 2010 Open Day meeting in Dushanbe.

- There is a new serious commitment by UN to address WPS priorities - UN Seven Points Agenda is being piloted

in some post-conflict countries. It includes gender commitments on Conflict resolution; Post-conflict planning; Post- conflict financing; Gender-responsive civilian capacity; Women’s representation in post-conflict governance; Rule of Law; and Economic recovery. In CAR UN Country team in Kyrgyzstan was self-nominated to implement 7-points Agenda. Its action plan for implementation of 7-points Agenda includes: gender review and monitoring of on-going UN peace-building activities; detailed mapping of UN peace-building programming in line with

objectives/commitments under the UNSCR 1325; capacity assessment of UN agencies staff involved into post-conflict rehabilitation programming to define gaps and capacity building needs to improve gender responsiveness of the programming; strategic planning workshop for UNCT and UN agencies programme staff to agree on the common procedures and standards for engendering their peace programming; and engendering the UNDAF review process (incorporating gender sensitive approaches in UNDAF review).

- UNRCCA is ready for a dialogue with women-activists in Tajikistan and will continue its efforts to bring gender related commitments into policy level consultations with states.

Contribution by Nargis Azizova, Programme Specialist, UN Women Subregional office for Eastern Europe and Central Asia

As a result of the preparatory meeting in Khujand, women-activists drafted recommendations for UN agencies to support efforts the state and CSOs to enforce UNSCRs commitments. The recommendations have to be finalized based on discussions at Open Day meeting and shared with UN agencies though UN Resident Coordinator.

UNDAF review process provides a good opportunity to see how commitments on UNSCRs on WPS could be

incorporated into concrete actions by UN agencies to address urgent priorities and needs for gender sensitive conflict prevention and resolution. In most cases, it would not require a significant amount of additional funding – it is more about integration of commitments into the existing programmes/projects activities. Specifically within 7 points commitments, there are the following recommendations:

- for Commitment 1 - Gender commitments on Conflict resolution – which means a support for women’s

networking and actions with a focus on participation of the most excluded groups (different ethnic groups, IDPs, stateless, etc.) – UN relevant programmes/projects need to promote inclusion of representatives of these groups into decision making at all levels (through capacity development; assistance to networking; etc.)

- for Commitment 2 – Post-conflict planning – which proposes a support for development of Poverty Reduction

strategy and UNDAF taking into account specific needs and priorities of women and girls - UNDAF review process has to include a review on how recommendations made by women-activists at Open Day event and other meetings related to WPS agenda could be addressed by concrete actions by UN and the results of the review have to be communicated to women-activists

- for Commitment 3 - Post-conflict financing – which stated that at least 15% of UN funds in post-conflict

programming should be allocated to address women’s needs and priorities. This target has to be followed by UN agencies within their relevant ongoing and planned programmes (in the area of rule of law, access to justice, conflict prevention, national resources management; etc.)

- for Commitment 4 - Gender-responsive civilian capacity – means a support to develop a cadre to provide

urgent assistance to affected population (lawyers, medical and social workers, psychologists, etc.) and to improve capacity of civil servants to ensure gender responsive policy reforms in all spheres (political, economic and social). This priority was specifically highlighted by women-activists and could be also addressed within ongoing UN

programming in a consolidated and comprehensive format.

- for Commitment 5 - Women’s representation in post-conflict governance – The UN’s technical assistance on

elections and governance will support to increase the number of women in elected and appointed decision-making

roles (30% of representation of women). The CSOs could be supported by UN to promote equal opportunities for women to contribute to decision making (through support for political empowerment of women; capacity development; improving implementation of national gender equality policy/legislation; gender responsive electoral reforms; introduction of quotas; etc.)

- for Commitment 6 - Rule of law prevention/response to VAW)

- Improving access of women to justice

(with a particular focus on

- for Commitment 7 – Economic recovery - women’s equal involvement as participants and beneficiaries in

local-development, employment-creation, frontline service-delivery and DDR programmes in post-conflict situations. It is necessary to look at improving vocational education of women, their skills development for formal productive employment and improving their access to economic resources to prevent their involvement into illegal activities, trafficking, unprepared labour migration with high risks of exploitation and violence.

Photographs, Video & Media: Please attach to the e-mail a picture of the women & SRSG, in addition to other pictures, video interview, and press articles

e-mail a picture of the women & SRSG, in addition to other pictures, video interview, and
e-mail a picture of the women & SRSG, in addition to other pictures, video interview, and
e-mail a picture of the women & SRSG, in addition to other pictures, video interview, and
e-mail a picture of the women & SRSG, in addition to other pictures, video interview, and

Story of a stateless woman in Tajikistan (provided by UNHCR Tajikistan)

Mukhabbat* carries around a thick wad of documents she has gathered over the last two years in a tireless effort to regain a nationality. "I can't remember how much it has cost, but I have spent a lot of time collecting these documents," said Mukhabbat, who recently approached UNHCR's office in Tajikistan to ask for help in finding a solution.

Mukhabbat was born in northern Tajikistan's Sughd province in 1959, when the area was known as Leninabad and formed part of the Soviet Union. Her troubles began a year after independence in 1991, when she fled to neighbouring Uzbekistan after the 1992-1997 civil war erupted in Tajikistan.

She lived for 17 years in Uzbekistan, drifting in and out of an unhappy and childless marriage to an Uzbek citizen that finally ended in 2007. She decided to go back home and was shocked to discover that she had lost her Tajik citizenship and was stateless. Today, she lives at a friend's house in Dushanbe, collecting other people's cast-offs and rubbish to help her survive.

Mukhabbat had become a statistic – one of an estimated 12 million stateless people around the world, including 40,000 documented stateless people in the former Soviet Central Asian republics. These people do not possess a nationality nor enjoy its legal benefits. This often leaves them unable to do the basic things most people take for granted, such as registering a birth, travelling, going to school, accessing health care, opening a bank account or owning property.

Among her pile of documents, Mukhabbat has a photocopy of her former Soviet passport dated 1983. She also has an expired certificate of statelessness from Uzbekistan, which was issued after her marriage in 1995 and shows her earlier attempts to acquire a valid identity document. She also shows a UNHCR visitor old school records from the state archives, which she hopes will bolster her case.

But she still lacks two crucial documents: written confirmation that she is not a citizen of Uzbekistan and a certificate showing that Uzbekistan was her last place of registered residence. Getting the written confirmation, or spravka, can take years and cost a lot of money

Asked how she ended up without a nationality, Mukhabbat said she knew that she needed to secure a new document to replace her Soviet passport, but the complexity of the process and her personal situation at the time made it difficult.

"I understood that when there was no more Soviet Union, I would need to get some kind of document. But when I left for Uzbekistan, there was no Tajik passport yet," she said, adding: "In Uzbekistan, I didn't really

know what a passport was, what a residence permit was, what a stateless certificate was too many documents and it was difficult to understand."

there are just

Mukhabbat said that in 1995 or 1996, she heard that "there was some talk that people like me from Tajikistan might get Uzbek passports. But I wasn't able to get one because I was moving around at this stage; my husband kicked me out and I was living on trains, sleeping in railway stations and in cotton fields."

Ever since returning to Tajikistan, she has been shuttling between Uzbekistan and the land of her birth in search of a nationality. "I even went to the Russian Embassy in Uzbekistan to ask for citizenship. I received

a long list of documents and spravkas to submit, and I needed to pay money which I didn't have," she explained.

Without any nationality, she cannot get free medical help for her back problems. Nor can she live in the Dushanbe apartment that was issued to her by the textile factory where she worked as a young woman.

Two months ago, a frustrated Mukhabbat approached the UN office in Dushanbe for help and was referred to UNHCR, whose non-governmental organization partners are helping her to navigate the process, apply for documents and pay consular fees to the Uzbek Embassy for spravka applications.

Ghulam Shermamed, who works for UNHCR's legal aid partner, Society and Law, said Mukhabbat recently had an interview at the Uzbek Embassy and expects to receive her paperwork in about a month. Shermamed, a lawyer, said Mukhabbat checks on her application twice a week while he calls the embassy every day to check on the application for documents. "It is important that these people see that we are serious about it," he said.

Meanwhile, Mukhabbat faces the daily risk of being stopped and questioned by the authorities in her own homeland. "She can be stopped at any time for a document check, but she has none," said Shermamed, "She is not registered anywhere and staying without a document is considered a crime," he noted.

* Name changed for protection reasons

By Ariane Rummery in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, http://www.unhcr.org/4b2222e36.html

Evaluation of the messages/recommendations by the UN Women:

The dialogue in the format of Open Day event has to be continued further at least on an annual basis. It has to result to a concrete set of suggestions by the women to UN agencies. However to have these suggestions really practical and focused, there could be an assessment of ongoing UN agencies projects/programmes by women- activists – results of the assessment would be used by them to come with valuable/specific recommendations.

There should be a mechanism for further regular feedback by UNCT on suggestions made – a follow-up bi-annual meeting could be arranged to discuss a progress achieved.

It is recommended to reflect the findings and a possible action plan to respond to women’s concerns raised at Open Day meeting in the UN RC/UNCT annual report.

In countries where there is the Civil Society Advisory Board for UN Women operational (In Tajikistan it was created), the Board could be involved into further consultations with UN Women and UNRC to follow-up to decisions taken at Open Day meeting.

Post 2015 national consultations in Tajikistan have to be used to followed-up to findings of the Open Day consultations to bring perspectives of WPS agenda into a policy dialogue on further development goals and targets. In particular, priorities related to prevention and response to VAW, women’s participation in decision making at all levels, women’s economic security and equal access to resources have to be addressed by planned consultations.

There has to be a clear strategy for UN Women/UNCT in place on how further work with women in political parties, especially with women in the Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan – the second one in regard of the coverage of electorate (after the ruling party led by the President).

Capacity development for the most excluded groups of women (stateless, Afghan refugees, single women, disabled, etc. ) to raise their voice and improve their representation in decision making and development policy dialogue at all levels has to be supported by UN Women programme interventions in Tajikistan in partnership with UN agencies;

There is a need to look how UN agencies could effectively advocate/push for reforms in the electoral and civil service systems of Tajikistan as a country with very centralized/monopolized power/governance – by application of the international human rights standards and commitments and meeting principles of the further democratization and equity;

Annex

1

indicates

suggestions

for

UN

action

plan

to

address

concerns

raised

by

women-activists.

Annex 1

2012 Open Day for Peace in Tajikistan

KEY FINDINGS

Recommendations by women- activists (in line with the national priorities on WHRs and commitments of UNSCRs)

Existing responses and opportunities

 

Possibilities for UN engagement

Effective participation of women in conflict prevention and resolution

 

Support women’s participation in conflict prevention and resolution in all levels

WPC was registered by the Ministry of Justice of Tajikistan on 13 April 2012

Introduce relevant provisions of the UNSCR to the ongoing and planned UN programming – UNDAF review process could be used to analyse the entry points and formulate practical applications

Network of women’s NGOs in Sughd region

 

National action plan on GE includes one chapter on implementation of UNSCRs on WPS

The following actions are suggested in particular:

-

promote introduction of quota for women’s

representation in conflict prevention and peace related processes;

 

-

support mainstreaming of gender aspects into security

sector reforms inter alia though inclusion of perspectives of women’s rights and violence against women to trainings/curriculums for security sector personnel;

include women to trainings/capacity building activities of the security sector personnel;

-

   

provide assistance to the state in enforcement the national action plan on gender equality with a focus on enforcement of UNSCR’s commitments;

-

-

consider a suggestion by women-activists to create an

interagency Coordination Council for Ferghana valley to promote peace and human security;

-

support to develop a pool of female and male mediators at

local and national levels and include them into rapid response teams for their further deployment in conflict areas to support, organize and conduct peace negotiations and ensure peaceful resolution of conflicts;

-

within relevant UN programmes (BOMCA, etc.) to support

The 7 points Action Plan on Gender Responsive Peacebuilding was developed in 2010 by the UN system, led by the Peacebuilding Support Office and UN Women, to help implement UN Security Council Resolution 1325 and its subsequent resolutions. The Secretary- General has identified the implementation of the Action Plan as a priority for his second term. Kyrgyzstan self nominated itself to pilot the initiative and started its implementation.

capacity development of the military personnel on gender responsive conflict prevention and resolution, international humanitarian law, UNSCRs on WPS.

Within a planned UNDAF review to analyze how UN SG 7 points agenda commitments relevant for Tajikistan (in an appropriate scope) could be incorporated into UN joint programming

Develop a network of women-leaders and provide capacity building on

National programme on bringing up female cadre till 2016 is being

Within existing UN programming at the grassroots level to include a component on capacity development of local

promotion of gender equality

implemented and coordinated by the

women leaders to participate efficiently in local decision making

commitments with a focus on UN SCRs on WPS

National Committee for women and family affairs

New generation of women-leaders has to be created including the security sector.

Work with women from political parties can provide new opportunities for development of female leadership – a UN joint project on women’s political empowerment could be introduced

Prevention and response to violence against women

 

Concrete measures to work with men, young boys and boys on the issues of violence against girls, young girls and women, domestic violence

Draft law on VAW is finalized and passed to the Parliament for consideration/adoption by the end on

2012

Urge the Government of Tajikistan to publicize draft law on VAW and launch consultations with CSOs

UN Joint Programme on VAW could be developed/implemented to:

Creation of mobile groups, security system (red, yellow, green) including the issues of prevention of family conflicts and domestic violence (the concept itself is interesting, but needs to be elaborated more to put in place)

UN Women, UNICEF, UNFPA, OSCE, SDC run projects on VAW response

A first state-funded Crisis Center is established in Dushanbe and a creation of the state shelter for women is under consideration of Dushanbe city administration

support the state to enforce the new law (when adopted);

-

develop a comprehensive national policy on VAW response;

-

 

create models on universal access to emergency services to survivors;

-

16 steps for efficient national response to VAW are suggested by UN Women Executive Director:

-

to address early and forced marriages within UN joint

Advocacy actions in a context of human rights and gender quality

http://www.unwomen.org/wp-

focus better to prevention (overcoming negative stereotypes; legal education; etc.)

-

content/uploads/2011/11/EN-16-

Steps.pdf

Raising level of education of women and promotion of value of education

 

Public monitoring of school attendance by children, work with men to educate girls, mentoring (elder generation and youth); improve quality of education

A global campaign Education First was launched by UN Secretary General on 26 September 2012. Three key priorities are identified for the campaign:

- Put Every Child in School

The global campaign has to be localized and UN/international community has to co-facilitate the campaign at the country level

UNDAF’s priorities related to access to education for all have to be analyzed from perspectives of the global campaign commitments and target excluded groups have to be identified to address their needs within UN programming in this area

 

- Improve the Quality of Education

- Foster Global Citizenship

Ongoing reform of education sector

supported inter alia by UNICEF

 

Combination of advocacy campaigns with preventive measures aimed at non discrimination of women at home, job places, measures against trafficking in women and children, forced and early marriages, assist in strengthening cooperation between the neighboring countries through study tours, exchange of experts in different fields, joint actions, like forums, conferences, cultural, sport events, etc.

There are early warning systems (EWS) established at the national and regional levels with the international agencies’ support (UNDP, etc.)

A review of the EWS has to be undertaken to ensure further gender responsive analysis of risks of conflict and to address them

Ongoing international development programming in the area of security sector reforms, cross-border cooperation and rule of law have to be reviewed to incorporate commitments for women’s effective participation and contribution to conflict prevention and resolution and to integrate gender aspects into security sectors policies/reforms

Addressing negative impacts of labour migration on wives and children

 

Analysis of social effects of labour migration to women’s and children’s rights observance has to be

There is a number of ongoing programmes/projects covering different aspects of labour migration, however

Gender-sensitive assessment of the national labour migration policy and international assistance in this area from perspectives of conflict prevention

undertaken

interrelations between migration and risks of conflicts are not addressed

UNDAF review has to be undertaken to analyze impact made by UN programming in the area of employment and labour migration

Replication of existing positive models to address social effects of labour migration

Cross boarder cooperation issues on CAR

Joint cross-border initiatives to promote culture of peace and good neighborhood

A number of projects are implemented by UN and other agencies to address issues of cross-border cooperation, however there is a need to better focus on promotion of universal rights of people for safety, non-discrimination, freedom for movement, life without violence, etc.

UNRCCA and UNCTs in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to consult with the existing regional institutions (SCO, EurAsEC, ) to support:

Create a data base of psychologists, legal advisors, social workers and other specialists for further deployment in conflict-prone and post- conflict regions

creation of a roster of mediators, psychologists, legal advisors and social workers for possible deployment in conflict-prone and post-conflict areas

-

 

-

increase a number of qualified/competent women –

Establishment of the Regional Ferghana Valley Coordination Council on peace building issues with relevant women’s representation Creation of the network of women’s watch groups out of formal and informal women-leaders for constant monitoring of the socio-economic situation in jamoats

There are several regional security organizations as well as treaties established.

staff/members of these institutions (at least 30%)

undertake joint cross-border cultural events aimed to promote a culture of peace and good neighborhood

-

Addressing the statelessness and refugee’ priorities in CAR

 

Draft the complete list of stateless people, conduct awareness campaigns for those are leaving for another country or coming back on registration procedures, issue and disseminate leaflets on how to deal with documents, use the opportunities of NGOs like the network “Dolina Mira” in Tajikistan and WPCs in Kyrgyzstan, suggested by Uzbekistan NGOs working in Ferghana valley for lobbying and solving these issues through relevant agencies

Number of Afghan refugees in Tajikistan – more 5,000 (almost 10 times more that number of Afghan refugees in Kazakhstan)

To incorporate issues of statelessness/refugees into policy level agenda within the existing regional institutions (Shanghai Cooperation Organization, EurAsEC, Organization for Agreement on Collective Security/CIS)

Support for their integration into the local society is a priority

Statelessness issues has to be put into the policy agenda at the CAR level

To integrate adequately priorities of stateless and refugees into UN programming in the area of conflict prevention & resolution

Improving communication and media work

A public awareness campaign to

Advocacy/information actions

To integrate concrete actions into UN Communication plan to support advocacy on WHRs, women’s role in the society, etc.

improve understanding on the UNSCRs commitments

undertaken by the national and

international agencies are sporadic and not-consistent

To support to observe annually International Women’s Day, International Day of the Girl Child (11 October), World Peace Day, 16 Days campaign to eliminate VAW in line with their annual thematic focus – a high level statements/appeals by UNCT and international community to bring into the attention of the Government urgent/appealing priorities for WHRs observation

Women’s contribution to setting-up development targets

 

Women’s voice to engender targets for POST 2015 agenda

National consultations’ to contribute to global debates on PST 2015 development agenda have to be undertaken in Tajikistan as a country targeted by global debates in CIS region

UNICEF and UN Women are appointed to co-lead the global thematic consultations related to Inequality

UNCT ensures a support for women’s NGOs and women- activists to hold the consultations on stronger gender commitments and targets within Post 2015 development agenda

To ensure inclusion of targets on enforcement of Women, Peace and Security commitments, targets/indicators on VAW, gender responsive employment/social protection

 

List of Participants

 

Annex 2

Names

Organization

Position

Location

 

Contacts

State structures:

 

1.

Umarova Guljahon Sattorovna

Ombudsman’s office

Head of

Dushanbe

2214692

department

2.

Tagaeva Sumangul

National Committee on Women and Family Affairs under the Government

Chairperson

Dushanbe

372

213471

3.

Marifat Shokirova

National Committee on Women and Family Affairs under the Government

Head of Gender Department

Dushanbe

372

271742

rushdimarifat@mail.ru

4.

Rano Bobodjanova

Oblast Committee on Women and Family Affairs Women Committee

Chairperson

Khudjand,

Khudjand, 45 R. Nabieva str.,

Sugd

Oblast

8 3422 65044

 

Muyassara Otaeva

Academy of

Scientific

Dushanbe

2271332

agriculture

Secretary

Political parties:

 

5.

Zarafo Khudjaeva

Islam Party of Reconciliation

Legal Consultant

Dushanbe

918661217

“Hizbi Nahzati Islom”

6.

Zarragul Mirasanova

Communist Party of Tajikistan

Secretary of the Central Communist Party

Dushanbe

9887775597

7.

Zarina Kutbiddinova

Democratic Party of Tajikistan

Member of Presidium of the

Dushanbe

935144415

     

Party

   

NGOs:

8.

Guljakhon Bobosadykova

Coalition of POs “From the Equality de-Jure- to the Equality de-Facto”

Deputy head

Dushanbe

907702308

9.

Dilbar Turakhanova

Women Peace

Member

Dushanbe

918651332

Corp/Tajikistan

10.

Hurinisso Gafforzoda

NGO “Oshtii Milli”

Chairperson

Dushanbe

934315858

11.

Dilorom Atabaeva

NGO “Consortium of Initiative”

Director

Khujand

 

919

081701

12.

Musharaf Khasanova

Network “Dolina

Member/Chairp erson of audit commission of Tajikistan

Khujand

8

3422 3 58 82;

Mira”

 

8

3422 31282

928388810

13.

Alla Kuvatova

Association on Gender Equality and Prevention of Violence against Women

Head

Dushanbe

 
 

Suhaili Kodirov

NGO “Law and Prosperity”

Lawyer

Dushanbe

935311131

14.

Nabot Dodkhudoeva

NGO “Madina”

Director,

Khorog,

935554736

GBAO

Member of Group 20 in Khorog

15.

Shamigul Aminova

NGO Fidokor

 

Dushanbe

907330038

16.

Zarifa Mohammad Alam

Afghan Women’s

Head

Firdavsi

 

917

30 03 41

NGO “Tulu”

region of

 

Dushanbe

International organizations:

 

17.

Alexander Zuev

UNDP

UN Resident

Dushanbe

446005598

Representative

18

Zaitoona Naimova

OSCE

Gender Adviser

Dushanbe

918689887

19

Sohibtoj Kurbonkhonova

OSCE

Program

Dushanbe

918682419

Assistant

20.

Nodira Safarova

EU/Tajikistan

Program

Dushanbe

907759988

Manager

21.

Sanoat Jumaeva

UNRCCA

Representative

Dushanbe

446005598

Sanoat.jumaeva@undp.org

22.

Frazona Nazrikhudjaeva

OSCE Border Management College

Senior Program

Dushanbe

985618159

Assistant

23.

Hafiza Sanginova

OHCHR

Project

Dushanbe

919531001

Coordinator

24.

Dagmara Mejiya

OHCHR

Education

Dushanbe

934447449

Project

Coordinator

25.

Nargis Azizova

UN Women

Program

Almaty

 

Specialist/EECA

SRO

26.

Viloyat Mirzoeva

UN Women

Portfolio

Dushanbe

918421208

Manager

27.

Zarina Urakova

UN Women

Program

Dushanbe

9185349575

Associate

28.

Lailo Zamirova

UN Women

Admin/Finance

Dushanbe

918421209

Assistant

Mass Media

 

29.

Nargis Hamrabaeva

Asia Plus

Journalist

Dushanbe

935019096

30.

Ismatullo Azizov

TV “Jahonnamo”

Journalist

Dushanbe

918498058

31.

Muhiddin Tojiev

 

Translator

Dushanbe