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The Facial

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PART V
Part Outline
Chapter 14 Anatomy of a Facial Chapter 15 Mens Facials Chapter 16 Postconsultation and Home Care

ith todays frenetic lifestyle and changing environment, our bodies are challenged by stress, and our faces serve as a billboard for our health and well-being. Other people

see the skin on our faces every day. Maintaining our skins maximum health not only contributes to its longevity, but improves our general appearance. Regular facials accomplish this maintenance. Deep cleaning, massage, the application of special ingredients, and sun care all contribute to this process. Part V begins with an introduction to all aspects of the facial. The basic products used in facials are defined, along with their functions, as is the information needed to select a product system for clients. This discussion is then followed by a detailed explanation of the seven phases of a facial, and by the classical methods of facial massage. Step-by-step sequences are presented for the three basic facials, designed for each of the three skin typesnormal, normal/combination, and dry/dehydrated skinand the procedure for a minifacial. The next chapter addresses skin care for men, an area often overlooked, and contains a chapter with step-by-step instructions for a mens facial. Part V concludes with a chapter on the important closing consultation, the recommendation of a home-care regimen, and following up with first-time clients.

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Anatomy of a Facial
Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to: State the factors used to choose product lines for clients. Identify the information an esthetician must know about product lines. Explain the functions of basic facial products. Describe the benefits of a facial. Identify each step of a facial and explain the reason for each. Explain the benefits of facial massage. Describe the different types of massage. Describe the techniques of classical massage. Explain the difference between normal/combination and dry/dehydrated skin. Identify the three different basic facials and how they differ. Describe the basic home regimen following a facial. Understand what a minifacial is and when it is used. Perform a complete basic facial.

Chapter Outline
Introduction Products Used in Facials General Facial Steps Facial Massage The Basic Facial The Minifacial

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Introduction
When learning about facials, you must first memorize the steps, then master the techniques with your hands (Figure 141). As you progress from basic to more advanced treatments, the protocol will change depending on the steps of the corrective treatment. All facial treatments begin with a cleansing and exfoliation, unless otherwise directed. A session is completed with a moisturizer and sunblock. Advanced facial treatments require correct preparation, which also includes a thorough cleansing. Regular facials benefit the skin in many ways, including the following: The skin is deeply cleansed and exfoliated. Blood and lymph circulation is increased, helping to remove impurities. The skin is toned and relaxed. Numerous performance treatments support and correct skin conditions, including couperose, dry, oily, alipidic, atonic (lacking tone), and dehydrated skin. They are considered a preventive measure against prematurely aging skin. Estheticians are skin specialists and advisors on the care of the skin (Figure 142). They instruct clients on the choices in facials and home skin care regimens. Clients can save money because they are not purchasing every new hype or trend. Rather, they get a regimen customized for their skin.
Figure 141 It is important to master each of the steps and techniques when learning about fcas ail.

Products Used in Facials


Most professional skin care manufacturers make products that fit logically into systems that contain targeted ingredients to serve various skin types. They also produce specialized serums, concentrates, and masks that focus on correcting certain skin conditions. For example, if a system is designed for very sensitive skin that is considered couperose, then the selected product components help to calm the skin and address the couperose skin condition. For an acne skin condition, products may contain components that are

Figure 142 Taking time to talk with the client before beginning any treatment will help you determine the clients needs.

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Client Retention
There is a lot of competition in the skin care industry today. Skin care clinics and day spas must work hard to attract clients and even harder to retain them once they come through the door. It is up to the salon or clinic owner to bring business in and set the mood or tone of the environment. However, as a service provider you play an important role in maintaining the client relationship. We live in an age of information. Thanks to numerous technological advancements, we can now access and process important information that allows us to target clients more effectively. But collecting information that helps us to understand the needs and wants of the consumer is futile unless we use it to develop a mutually satisfying relationship. In todays fast-paced and often impersonal business world many companies are looking to develop a long-term relationship with the consumer. Establishing a real and lasting personal relationship is key to building a clientele in the esthetics industry. The good news is that estheticians are in a prime position to encourage and promote this effort. Once you have established a positive working relationship with your clients the real challenge beginskeeping them. While there may be a number of reasons why clients initially choose to come to you for service (e.g., convenience, price) there are two main reasons they come back: they respect your professional expertise, and they benefit from the skin care services you provide. Keeping this in mind, let us review several important rules of behavior to keep clients coming back. 1. Avoid becoming complacent. Estheticians must continually practice quality control. Learn to focus on the needs of the customer and improve your method of delivering or meeting these needs. Clients are paying for your expertise. They expect you to be knowledgeable and professional. This means that you must work hard to keep up with new techniques and methods. You must also practice good business habits. Maintain a professional appearance and environment at all times. Demonstrate your personal commitment to the profession by practicing good skin care habits. Be punctual and pleasant and keep your room clean. If ambiance is lacking infuse your personal work space with candles, music, and pleasant aromatherapy. 2. Give clients what they want. Clients want skin care programs that are tailored to their unique and individual needs. Listen and respond to these needs. Use consultation time wisely to find out what the client hopes to achieve and determine whether their expectations are reasonable. Let clients know that you are invested in helping them to attain their goals and that you will use your professional expertise to make appropriate adjustments as needed. Avoid disappointmentbe clear about company policies, such as cancellations and returns. 3. Make each client feel special. Consider treating each client as if he or she were a special guest coming to visit your home for the first time. Practice good communication skills, making sure your verbal tone and body language are in alignment. Always welcome clients personally with a warm greeting and address them by name. Offer healthy refreshments, such as flavored sparkling water or fresh fruit. Be sure to take time to review the clients history before they arrive, and make reference to special

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Client Retention (continued)


consideration or tidbit of information that the client has shared with you. 4. Practice respectful listening and caring. Develop a long-term relationship based on mutual respect and trust. This means listening to your clients concerns and providing services that address these concerns. Make an effort to attend workshops and seminars that address positive ways to communicate and nurture the practitioner and client relationship. Keep the conversation friendly but professional. Clients will be more inclined to confide needs and concerns if they know you can keep a confidence. Be gracious and let clients know you appreciate the opportunity to work with them. Follow up with a personal phone call or note whenever the client begins a new treatment or home care program. 5. Reward good clients. Make sure your regular clients receive any special offers or discounts that are available. Give them samples of new products to try. Whenever possible give something away. For example, if they have five consecutive facials, arrange to give them the sixth at no cost. If they refer someone else to you, make sure they are rewarded with a special add-on service or discount coupon. Be as accommodating as possible when it comes to scheduling. Post these rules in a place that will serve as a reminder. Review them often, and reap the rewards of a satisfied clientele. If you dont, you may find yourself spending your time trying to figure out why your clients are not coming back.

antiseptic, calming, hydrating, and that help reduce the occurrence of breakouts. For environmentally damaged skin that is mature and dry, components may be highly nourishing to help replenish moisture and help stimulate cellular turnover and renewal. The system may also include ingredients that help combat pigmentation. After estheticians consider the type and condition of a clients skin, they can choose specialized products that are formulated to address those needs. This simplifies the selection of products for the esthetician and the client because it removes the confusion created by the large number of products available.

the spa or salon carries, all of the lines systems, and the function of each product within the systems. An understanding of ingredient chemistry helps the esthetician understand the differences between performance (active) ingredients and their uses. This information, as well as skin type and condition, allows estheticians to understand the systems and positioning of any professional product line. Each line has unique selling points and product names, but these are details. The key is to study the big picture in order to be able to choose products carefully and to be able to provide customers with the correct products. This proper selection results in fewer product returns and more satisfied clients.

Product Positioning
Estheticians work with many age groups, skin types, and conditions. Therefore, they must understand the entire line of products

Purpose and Function


The first step in understanding a product line is to understand it from a generic standpoint.

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Table 141 Products and Their Functions

Product
Eye makeup remover

Function
Dissolves pigmented products around eyes and lips, yet is gentle for delicate eye area Softens and moisturizes delicate eye area Nongreasy formulas are good for contact lens wearers Dissolves makeup Dissolves oil and surface impurities Has nondetergent cleansing ability Acts like soap with a foaming cleansing feel Cleanses skin without the harshness of soap Is nonalkaline and easy to use Removes traces of makeup and cleanser Readjusts the skins pH level Refreshes skin to feel completely clean Provides moisture Prepares the skin for application of correction fluid or day or night cream

Cleanser

Washable or foaming cleanser

Freshener or toner

Day cream

Protects and nourishes the skin Softens and moisturizes skin Provides smooth base for subsequent application of makeup Protects the skin from harmful ultraviolet rays Some contain moisturizers Nourishes the skin Feeds special treatment ingredients into the skin during sleep Softens and moisturizes skin Blankets the skin to provide special moisture and other performance ingredients Draws and lifts impurities and/or dead cells Tightens and tones

Sunscreen Night cream

Mask

Figure 143 The facial process is divided into seven phases.

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Table 142 Phases of a Basic Facial


Phase ILight cleansing Phase IIAnalysis and consultation Phase IIIDeeper cleansing and exfoliation, extractions Remove makeup and lightly cleanse the skin. Use a magnifying light and Woods lamp to examine the skin. Determine the type of treatment and products to be used. Perform a second cleansing with or without brushes; steam at a distance. Exfoliate; steam may or may not be appropriate for this step. Check the manufacturers instructions. Perform extractions. Use high frequency to disinfect. Apply ampoule with or without galvanic. or Perform a specialized high-performance treatment, following the manufacturers instructions. Perform massage according to treatment protocols. Apply a mask that is appropriate for the clients skin type and condition. Remove the mask; cleanse away mask residue. Apply an appropriate moisturizer and sunblock.

Phase IVTreat and correct

Phase VMassage Phase VIMask Phase VIICompletion

For example, what is a cleanser and what is its purpose? What is the function of a day cream? Estheticians must be able to explain to their clients the purpose of a product and how it is used. Then they can focus specifically on product lines and choose products to meet their clients needs. Table 141 shows generic product types and their principle functions. This information is essential for estheticians to know and to be able to explain to their clients.

Room Setup
Before beginning the seven phases of any facial, the esthetician must prepare the room, whether for the first client of the day or between clients. The necessary steps are listed below. 1. Prepare the facial chair with fresh linens and warm coverings. 2. Fill the steamer with distilled water. When filling the steamer for the first client of the day, turn on the power and preheat it to boiling (no ozone), turn it off, and set it aside. This preheats the water so that it saves time during the actual facial. 3. Prepare the high-frequency machine. Place the glass electrode into the hand device. 4. Prepare the galvanic machine for disincrustation (if this is part of the process for this particular client). Prepare the electrode by placing a small round dampened cotton pad on top of the metal tip and placing the black ring over the cotton pad to hold it in place. Set it aside. 5. Place the face brush into the rotating brush machine. 6. Prepare 3 or 4 rolled face towels dipped in water and aroma essence. Squeeze out the excess water. Place the towels in the hot towel cabinet.

General Facial Steps


The facial process (Figure 143) is divided into seven phases: (1) light cleansing; (2) analysis and consultation; (3) deeper cleansing, exfoliation, and extractions; (4) treat and correct; (5) massage; (6) mask; and (7) completion. Table 14-2 outlines each phase of the facial process and what is involved in each step. As you practice facials, follow this chart to memorize the steps. This chapter covers the three basic facials, which follow the same phases, outlined in Table 142, using different products and techniques. However, in more advanced skin treatments, phases IV, V, and VI can vary, depending on the protocol. In subsequent chapters, other facial treatments are presented with an additional step, client preparation. Other steps may also be added according to the focus of the facial.

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Step By Step

The Facial Process

Phase I: Light Cleansing


Purpose: Perform a light cleansing to remove makeup and surface debris to enable you to do a thorough facial analysis. Remove all makeup thoroughly, especially mascara residue. Mascara residue can continue to dissolve and drip into the eyes, causing irritation. Do not overstimulate the skin at this phase. Tools and supplies: Sanitized facial sponges or disposable 4" 4" cotton pads, 2 2s, round cotton eye pads, cotton swabs, stainless steel bowl for water, extractor or cotton swabs, 2 mask brushes, circular palette or condiment cups (stainless steel or plastic), gloves

Procedure
1
Dispense products being used on a circular palette or in condiment cups.

Apply eye makeup remover to a moistened cotton pad and gently cleanse the eye area by swiping away from the eye.

For heavy mascara, apply a drop of eye makeup remover on small, dampened cotton swabs. With the clients eyes closed, thoroughly remove the mascara by placing lashes between the swabs and gently swiping down and away from the lash and eye. Change swabs as necessary until all the mascara is removed.

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Rinse with a 2" 2" moistened pad.

Remove the lipstick with makeup remover.

Apply a small amount of cleanser, according to skin type, on the entire face and neck. Quickly perform a light cleansing and rinse.

Apply freshener to remove excess traces of the cleanser and makeup. Spray or apply the freshener with a moistened cotton pad and wipe.

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Phase II: Analysis and Consultation


Purpose: The analysis and brief consultation establish skin type and condition for determining present and future facial treatments. Make mental notes concerning home care products. Tools and supplies: Moistened eye pads, magnifying light, Woods lamp, gloves, facial analysis form on clipboard (see Chapter 13)

Procedure
1
Cover the eyes with moistened cotton pads or a similar eye covering.

Move the magnifying light to within 612 inches of the skin.

Looking through the magnifying light, examine the face, area by area, while touching and determining the texture and pore structure of the skin.

Turn the lights off and examine the skin with the Woods lamp to determine the degree of oiliness, dryness, dehydration, and pigmentation.

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Briefly converse with the client while analyzing the skins surface. It may be necessary to ask further questions about the clients skin and health. To facilitate a high-quality analysis, search for as many clues as possible to perform the analysis in a detailed manner. This normally takes about 57 minutes, though more experienced estheticians need less time. Make notes on the facial analysis chart if appropriate, then complete the form after the facial.

Remove the eye pads and continue your discussion with the client.

Phase III: Deep Cleansing, Exfoliation, and Extractions


Purpose: To continue with a deeper cleansing. This step includes exfoliation to help remove deeper debris, dead skin cells, excess oils, as well as to soften clogged pores and any breakout lesions. Extractions are performed after the cleansing. Tools and supplies: Brushing equipment, cleanser and exfoliation product (gommage or other)

ProcedureSteamer (Cleansing)
1 2
Apply eye pads.

Turn the steamer switch to on. When the water is boiling, turn on the ozone switch and direct the steamer toward the clients face, keeping it at a distance of about 15 to 18 inches. Adjust accordingly.

ProcedureBrush Machine (Cleansing)


1 2
Apply deep cleansing solution to the entire face.

Dip a small, rotating face brush into water and apply it to the face. Beginning at the neck area, work up the face in a systematic manner.

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3 4

Remove the solution thoroughly with warm towels.

Proceed with exfoliation.

ProcedureDisincrustation Solution (Exfoliation)


1 2 3 4 5
Hand the electrode to the client or place it under the clients shoulder. Apply a small amount of solution in the T-zone areaforehead, nose, and chin. Dip the electrode into the disincrustation solution and place it in the center of the forehead Turn on the galvanic current to 0.05 (unless automatic) and adjust it until the client feels a very slight sensation. Begin rotating and moving the disincrustation electrode across the forehead, down the nose area, and into the chin and jaw areas. Apply it to other areas only if the areas are extremely oily. Perform for approximately 5 minutes. Turn off the galvanic machine and remove the electrodes.

7 8

Rinse thoroughly with warm towels or pads. Proceed with extractions.

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ProcedureExtractions
1
Reapply eye pads.

Move the magnifying light over the face.

Using two cotton swabs or moistened gauze wrapped around the index finger of each hand, begin at the forehead, working down the T-zone and then to other areas of the face and neck, using light pressure. Perform this for approximately 5 minutes. Note that technique is very important. You should not use force, because any discomfort may cause the client to tighten facial muscles. This tension makes extractions more difficult and increases the potential for harming the skin. If more extractions are desirable, the client can return for another deep cleaning.

Rinse the skin thoroughly with warm water. Pat dry.

Apply high frequency either directly on the skin or over an open 4" 4" gauze. Beginning at the forehead, apply high frequency over the entire face, ending at the chin and jaw areas. Perform for approximately 5 minutes.

The skin is now very clean and ready for phase IV.

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Phase IV: Treat and Correct


Purpose: To perform a specialized corrective treatment for a specific skin condition. These treatments can include an ampoule that is applied by hand or with galvanic, a collagen sheet, a soft mask, seaweed, or any other high-performance treatment. Follow the manufacturers instructions. Tools and supplies: Ampoule

ProcedureAmpoules
1
Apply the contents of the ampoule to the skin and massage it in until absorbed. Do not perform facial massage at this stage unless indicated in the manufacturers protocol. Many ampoules and other treatments are water-soluble and must be applied after the skin is totally free of excess oils.

Phase V: Massage
Purpose: A facial massage offers relaxation to the client, stimulates the blood and lymph circulation, stimulates cell turnover, and helps to infuse any ampoule concentrate. Tools and supplies: Appropriate massage cream or hydrophilic oil (water-soluble oil)

Procedure
1
Use linear movement over the forehead. Slide the fingers to the temples; rotate with pressure on the upward stroke. Slide to the left eyebrow, then stroke up to the hairline, gradually moving hands across the forehead to the right eyebrow.

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Circular movement: Starting at the eyebrow line, work across the middle of the forehead, and then toward the hairline.

Crisscross movement: Start at one side of the forehead and work back.

Cheeks: Using a lifting movement, lightly grasp the cheeks between the thumb and forefinger and move from the mouth to the ears, then from the nose to the top of the ears.

Using a rotary movement of the fingers, massage from the chin to the earlobes, from the mouth to the middle of the ears, and from the nose to the top of the ears.

Lower cheek movement: Use a circular movement from the chin to the ear and back again.

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Mouth, nose, and cheek movements: Apply light, sweeping movements from the inner corners of the eyes to the outer corners; from the inner corners of the eyes to the chin and back; from the jawline under the ears to the center of the chin and back.

Chin movement: Lift the chin, using a slight pressure.

Apply light upward strokes over the front of the neck. Use heavier pressure on the sides of the neck in the downward strokes.

10

Using a light tapping movement, work from the chin to the earlobe, from the mouth to the ear, from the nose to the top of the ear, and then across the forehead. Repeat on the other side.

11

Stroking movement: Link and slide fingers to the center of the forehead, then using slight pressure draw the fingers back and forth from temple to temple.

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12

Brow and eye movement: Place the middle fingers at the inner corners of the eyes and place the index fingers over the brows. Slide to the outer corners of the eyes, under the eyes, and back to the inner corners, making a complete circle.

13

Nose and upper cheek movement: Slide the fingers down the nose. Apply rotary movement across the cheeks to the temples and back again, moving gently. Slide the fingers under the eyes and back to the bridge of the nose.

14

Mouth and nose movement: Apply circular movement from the corners of the mouth up the sides of the nose. Slide the fingers over the brows and down to the corners of the mouth.

15

Lip and chin movement: Draw fingers from the center of the upper lip, around the mouth, and under the lower lip and chin..

16

Optional movement: Hold the head with the left hand. Draw the fingers of the right hand from under the lower lip, around the mouth, to the center of the upper lip.

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Starting at the back of the ears, apply circular movements down the sides of the neck, over the shoulders, and across the chest.

The massage should last approximately 10 to 15 minutes.

Phase VI: Mask


Purpose: Masks add benefit to a facial and differ from a moisturizer or a finishing cream. Masks normally contain concentrated nutrients and other components to help correct the skin. They help soften, moisturize, tone, and tighten the skin. They can also help draw out impurities from oily or problematic skin. Masks are chosen according to skin type and condition. In a basic facial, it is common to apply a dual mask: an overall mask appropriate for hydrating the dry cheek area and one to treat the oilier T-zone area. Most basic masks have a creamy consistency that remains moist until it is ready to be removed. More advanced masks are applied in a soft form and gradually harden on the skin. These are called thermal masks. They become warm when applied and then cool as they harden. This type of mask helps to infuse beneficial nutrients into the skin. The protocols should be followed precisely for this advanced service. Tools and supplies: Mask brush, 1 tablespoonful of mask

Procedure
1 2
Choose a mask that meets the needs of the clients skin.

Prepare a small amount of mask (approximately a tablespoonful) in a cup or small bowl and whip until it is fluffy. This allows it to spread easily and reduces product waste.

3 4

Dip a clean brush into the mask product.

Beginning at the neck area, apply a medium thickness (the thickness of a dime) with upward strokes, working up the face to the forehead.

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5 6

Do not apply the mask too near the eyes or nose membranes.

Time for 1015 minutes or according to treatment protocol or the manufacturers recommendation. Do not let the product dry unless indicated to do so in the manufacturers instructions.

Rinse thoroughly with warm water using a soft rinsing cloth or shammie. Do not overstimulate the skin at this point.

Phase VII: Completion


Purpose: In the final phase, restore and rebalance the skin with a freshener, and moisturize and protect the skin with sunblock. This is also an appropriate stage to speak to the client regarding home skin care. Allow clients a few moments to wake up if they have fallen asleep. Tools and supplies: Sanitized facial sponges or disposable 4" 4" cotton pads, freshener (toner), eye moisturizer, light moisturizer appropriate to skin type, sunblock

Procedure
1
Apply a small amount of freshener (toner) to a cotton pad or sponge and swipe the entire face and neck.

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Apply a small amount of eye moisturizer around that area.

3 4

Apply a moderate amount of a light moisturizer, according to skin type, to the face and neck.

Apply a sunblock.

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and with practice the esthetician will become expert in giving the best massage for the clients individual needs. A good massage should never be applied too long or too deeply, since that would counteract most of the helpful effects. A proper facial massage can achieve the following benefits: relaxes the client relaxes facial muscles allowing for better product absorption stimulates blood and lymph circulation improves overall metabolism, increasing oxygen to tissues helps muscle tone helps activate sluggish skin helps cleanse skin of impurities helps slough off dead cells helps balance sebum production
Figure 144 Deciding on the appropriate home care and follow-up products is an important part of the facial process.

helps with removal of comedones by softening sebum helps reduce puffy eye area helps relieve muscle tension and pain provides a sense of physiological and psychological well-being A professional facial massage (Figure 145) is the difference between having a professional treatment in a salon or spa and a

Closing/Home Maintenance
This is the appropriate time to discuss the skin treatment with the client, recommend products and their use, and determine when the next treatment should occur (Figure 144).

Facial Massage
Massage is one of the oldest therapeutic modalities in the history of medicine, dating back about 3,000 years. It has many known benefits, both physiological and psychological. Therapeutic touch is well recognized and is being taught not only to massage therapists but also to medical professionals. When the hand touches and moves around on the skin, reflex receptors respond by increasing blood and lymph flow. The central nervous system is greatly affected, resulting in a state of relaxation.

Benefits of Massage
Massage is essential to facial treatments because it benefits the client in so many ways. Various techniques are used in salons,
Figure 145 A proper massage is the single largest difference between having a professional facial and a home care regimen.

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acupressure The application of gentle but firm pressure to specific points of the body to release muscle tension and spasm, based on traditional Oriental medicine principles.

home care regimen. It should not be slighted or overlooked. Facial massage requires consistency in movement. New estheticians must practice until their hand movements are smooth and easily glide from one area to the next. Hand Mobility The estheticians hands should be flexible and relaxed, yet strong, controlled, and supple. Hand mobility is important in maintaining a regular rhythm and regulating the pressure of hand movements. Hand exercises aid in the prevention of repetitive motion disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and other musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Many estheticians and therapists are susceptible to MSDs because of repetitive hand movements, muscle and tendon strain, and fatigue due to improper or poor posture. (Chapter 7 describes six of the basic handstrengthening exercises.)

the classical, or Swedish, massage movements, there are many advanced massage techniques that stimulate and detoxify major organs and nerve centers of the body. Although they require additional training and study, these types of massage are practical for use as part of a facial or body treatment. It is possible to combine many of these message techniques to provide optimal benefit to the client. Acupressure is the technique of applying gentle but firm pressure to specific points of the body (acupressure points) to release muscle tension and spasm. Shiatsu is a Japanese technique that combines stretching of limbs with pressure on acupressure points. Many of the motor points on the face and neck are acupressure points and respond to manipulation by the esthetician (Figure 146). Reflexology is a form of massage that manipulates areas on the hands and feet. Although not a part of a facial massage, this type of massage can be used as part of a body treatment. Aromatherapy massage uses essential oils that penetrate the skin during

shiatsu A Japanese style of therapeutic massage based on the principles of acupressure.

reflexology A form of massage that manipulates pressure points on the hands and feet that affect other parts of the body.

aromatherapy massage Uses essential oils that penetrate the skin during massage movements.

Types of Massage
There are several different types of massage, based on both body structure and energy. While most massage techniques are based on

Figure 146 Motor points of the face, neck, and chest.

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The Brochure or Service Menu


At some point you may be asked to help design a brochure or menu of services. Imagine being able to delight clients with a variety of skin care choices. The more choices you offer, the more clients you can recruit. The purpose of a brochure is to help clients understand what services are offered and what options may be available in obtaining these. It should be easy to read and contain all the information necessary for booking an appointment. The brochure is likely to be one of the most expensive printed materials a skin care clinic or spa will invest in. It is a key presentation piece that determines the way business is conducted. It should be planned thoughtfully, keeping in mind the image you would like to present and who you will be presenting it to, that is, who your customer is. Developing a menu can be fun and exhilarating. As you get caught up in the excitement of deciding what treatments to offer, be sure they are services that your clients will be interested in purchasing. Brochures can be simple or elaborate depending on the size of your business, the size of your staff, and the types of services offered. Full-service skin care clinics or day spas with multiple treatment rooms and water services will naturally have more items to choose from than a one-person operation with one or two rooms devoted exclusively to facial skin care. But whether a clinic is modest or grand in style, the brochure can still make a big statement. Consider developing a brochure your opportunity to be creative and have fun with it. The important things to consider are clarity, consistency, and legibility. Developing themes or catchy names for treatments, such as a Journey into Tranquility or Botanical Booster can make your brochure interesting and turn it into a marketing gem that clients simply will not forget. If you decide to go this route be consistent. Jumping to another style that simply describes a basic facial will be disappointing once you have sparked the clients interest with an imaginative flair. If you are not creatively inclined, do not despair. Manufacturers often provide interesting names for specialized products and treatments that can be woven into the menu. In either case, you do want to describe treatments in language that the client can understanddo not get caught up in heavy scientific theory. Establishing a mood or flow to your brochure helps the reader use it more efficiently. Breaking services down to body parts is a good way to do this. Begin with the face and work your way down the body to the fingers and toes. Save special packages or series savings for the end. A strategically placed logo, thoughtful layout design, legible print type, and visuals will add polish to your brochure. If you can, include attractive photos of the clinic. Photos are a good way to draw the reader into your world, both literally and figuratively. If space allows, it is good idea to include your vision, or a mission statement, that your customers can identify with. Stating company policy about cancellations, punctuality, pricing, the use of credit cards, and children in the salon are important considerations. Depending on how often you plan to print and review brochure copy, generating a separate price index may be a good idea. Before going to print, take time to review the details. Do not forget directions, clinic hours, phone numbers, and your address, including email or a Web site if appropriate. Remember to use spell check and always have several proofreaders review the information.

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massage movements. These oils are often used during facial massage to promote relaxation.
lymph drainage massage Uses gentle pressure on the lymphatic system to eliminate watery stagnation of tissues from the body and to stimulate the flow of body fluids.

Lymph drainage massage uses gentle pressure on the lymphatic system to remove waste materials from the body more quickly.

Incorporating Massage During the Facial


A facial massage is always part of a facial. It is performed for approximately 1015 minutes after the cleansing steps and treatment phase. If the latter step is skipped, the massage immediately follows cleansing. This chapter contains general guidelines that may vary according to each specialized treatment. A facial massage may change depending on the protocols established by the product manufacturer. The massage stage may also vary for a special massage technique such as the Jacquet (jawk-kay) technique, named for Dr. Jacquet, a French dermatologist, who developed the technique in 1907. Performed for very oily skin, it helps move sebum on the skins surface, which helps with the cleansing process. During some advanced treatments, massage may not be indicated. Note that massage techniques can be basic or advanced.

Figure 147 Effleurage is a soft stroking movement and is used to open and close most massage treatments.

Classical Massage Movements


effleurage First of the classical massage movements, effleurage is a soft, continuous stroking movement applied with the fingers or palms in a slow and rhythmic manner. This movement is often used to open or close the massage session.

Classical massage movements include effleurage, petrissage, friction, tapotement, and vibration. In all cases, the massage movements chosen by an esthetician should be appropriate to the clients skin type and condition, the amount of treatment time available, and treatment goals. Effleurage Effleurage is a soft, continuous stroking movement applied with the fingers (digital) and palms (palmar) in a slow and rhythmic manner (Figure 147). The fingers are used on smaller surfaces such as the forehead or face and the palms are used on larger surfaces such as the back or shoulders. Effleurage is often used to open and close most massage sessions and is applied to the forehead, face, scalp, back, shoulders, neck, chest, arms, and hands. It begins to warm and soften the skin while simultaneously

relaxing the client. To correctly position the fingers for stroking, slightly curve the fingers with just the cushions of the fingertips touching the skin. Do not use the end of the fingertips, since fingertips cannot control the degree of pressure and may scratch the client. To correctly position the palms for stroking, hold the whole hand loosely. Keep the wrist and fingers flexible and curve the fingers to conform to the shape of the area being massaged. Effleurage, the most important of the five movements, is used in conjunction with other types of massage such as shiatsu. Petrissage Petrissage is a deep kneading movement that highly stimulates the underlying tissues (Figure 148). The skin and flesh are grasped between the thumb and forefinger. As the tissues are lifted from their underlying structures, they are squeezed, rolled, or pinched with a light, firm pressure. Petrissage is performed on the more fleshy parts of the face. The pressure should be light but firm, and the movements should be smooth and rhythmic. Used mostly to stimulate sebum production, it expulses excess oil and activates leathery or sluggish skin.

petrissage A deep kneading movement of the skin between the thumb and forefinger. This highly stimulating movement stimulates sebum production, expulses excess oil, and activates sluggish skin.

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Contraindications for Petrissage Because of its highly stimulating nature, petrissage is avoided on sensitive skin and on skin with nodules or pustules (in order to prevent spreading infection).

Figure 148 Petrissage, a deep kneading of the skin, is used to stimulate sebum production.

Friction Friction maintains pressure on the skin while the fingers or palms are moved over the underlying structures (Figure 149). Friction has a marked influence on the circulation and glandular activity of the skin. Circular friction movements are usually employed on the scalp, arm, and hands. Lighter circular friction movements are generally used on the face and neck.

Chucking, rolling, and wringing are variations of friction movements, employed principally to massage the arms or legs. The chucking movement is accomplished by grasping the flesh firmly in one hand and moving the hand up and down along the bone, while the other hand keeps the arm in a steady position. The rolling movement requires that the tissues be compressed firmly against the bone and twisted around the arm or leg. Both hands of the esthetician are active as the flesh is twisted down the bone in the same direction. Wringing is a vigorous movement in which the estheticians hands are placed a small distance apart on both sides of the arm. While the hands are working downward, the flesh is twisted against the bones in opposite directions. Tapotement Tapotement or percussion consists of tapping, slapping, and hacking movements (Figure 1410). This form of massage is the

friction Maintains pressure on the skin while the fingers or palms are moved rapidly over the underlying muscle structures. Friction is used to improve circulation and glandular activity of the skin.

tapotement Often referred to as percussion, tapotement consists of tapping, light slapping, and hacking movements. This form of massage is the most stimulating and should be applied with care and discretion.

Figure 149 Friction massage movements have a marked influence on the circulation and glandular activity of the skin.

Figure 1410 Tapotement, a tapping, light slapping, or hacking movement, is considered the most stimulating of the classic move-

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vibration A shaking movement emanating from the shoulders of the esthetician by rapid muscular contractions in the arms. The ball of the fingertips are pressed firmly on the point of application.

most stimulating and should be applied with care and discretion. In facial massage, only light, digital tapping should be used. The fingertips are brought down against the skin in rapid succession. This movement is sometimes referred to as a piano movement. The fingers roll and lift without making an actual tapping sound. Slapping and hacking movements are used to massage the back, shoulders, and arms. In slapping movements, keep the wrists flexible so that the palms come in contact with the skin in light, firm, and rapid slapping movements. One hand follows the other. With each slapping stroke, lift the flesh slightly. Hacking movements use the wrists and outer edges of the hands. Both the wrists and fingers move in fast, light, firm, flexible motions against the skin in alternate succession.

SKINTIP
Expert estheticians learn a number of massage patterns for each of the classical movements. Each pattern is chosen according to the function of the movement and the particular skin treatment. Effleurage is normally performed in a basic facial. Advanced treatments may require modification for variety.

Vibration Vibration is a shaking movement emanating from the shoulders and not from the fingertips. It is accomplished by rapid muscular contractions in the arms of the esthetician (Figure 1411). The balls of the fingertips are pressed firmly on the point of application. It is a highly stimulating movement, but it should only be used sparingly and never for more than a few seconds on any one spot. When properly administered, the vibration method of massage is normally well received by clients. Since the advent of a variety of small facial vibrators, the mechanical (hand) vibration method is rarely used.

The Basic Facial


The three basic facials correspond to the three basic skin types: normal skin, normal/combination skin, and dry/dehydrated skin. While their protocols are similar, each technique has a different purpose. The seven phases of a facial are outlined, highlighting those steps that differ from facial to facial. Note that the facial for normal skin does not include Phase IV, treat and correct. Normal skin is often perfectly balanced and rarely needs correction. Estheticians must master the basic facials for the three skin types. Once an esthetician has chosen a product line for a client, the appropriate product for the clients skin type can be used in the facial.

Figure 1411 Vibration, a shaking movement stemming from the shoulders of the therapist, should be used sparingly. It is also applied using small mechanical facial vibrators.

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Step By Step

The Basic Facial

Purpose: A facial for normal skin is performed to deeply cleanse and maintain the skin by exfoliating excess dead cells. The goal is to maintain the smoothness and moisture level. The facial for normal/combination skin rebalances oil and moisture in the skin, removes comedones or other skin blockages, smoothes skin texture, reduces oil in the T-zone, and hydrates. The facial for dry/dehydrated skin exfoliates dead cells, replenishes lost moisture through deep hydrating, and protects by restoring (lubricating) the skins moisture barrier. Normal Skin Products: Cleanser and freshener (toner) for normal skin, exfoliationgommage, massage oil or cream, mask for normal skin, day cream for normal skin, sunblock Normal/Combination Skin Products: Cleanser and freshener (toner) for normal/combination skin, exfoliationgommage, massage oil or cream, mask for normal/combination skin, day cream for normal/combination skin, sunblock Dry/Dehydrated Skin Products: Cleanser and freshener (toner) for dry/dehydrated skin, exfoliationbrushes or gommage, mask for dry/dehydrated skin, day care cream for dry skin, sunblock Tools and supplies: Sanitized facial sponges or disposable 4" 4" cotton pads, 2 2s, round cotton eye pads, cotton swabs, extractor or gauze for making finger cots, 2 mask brushes, stainless steel bowl for water, gloves

Room Setup
1. Prepare the facial chair with fresh linens and warm coverings. 2. Fill the steamer with distilled water. For normal/combination skin and dry/dehydrated skin 1. Prepare the high-frequency machine. Place the glass electrode into the hand device. 2. Place a face brush into the rotating brush machine. 3. Prepare 3 or 4 rolled face towels dipped in water with a few drops of an aroma essence. Squeeze out the excess water. Place the towels in a hot towel cabinet.

Procedure
1
Remove eye makeup and lipstick with eye makeup remover.

Cleanse face with cleanser appropriate to skin type. Remove residue with freshener.

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Rinse thoroughly with warm sponges or a shammie.

Apply freshener to remove any cleanser residue.

Perform a skin analysis.

Direct steam toward the face. Perform a cleansing exfoliation with a normalizing facial cleanser or gentle exfoliant. Apply exfoliant over the entire face, neck, and dcollet, cleansing in a circular motion with the fingertips.

For normal/combination skin, the rotating brush machine can be used to further cleanse. Men generally appreciate the mechanical brush, since it makes them feel that their skin is better cleansed.

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For dry/dehydrated skin, choose from three different exfoliation options: 1. A deep cleansing exfoliation with a soft scrub is appropriate. Apply over face, neck, and dcollet, cleansing in a circular motion. 2. A gommage 3. A soft enzyme peel may be appropriate since it dissolves the dead cells and softens buildup in the follicle.

7 8 9

While the steam is still on, thoroughly rinse the skin with warm water and a shammie.

Apply freshener for normal skin to remove any excess residue. Make sure the face is quite warm, then remove the steamer.

Proceed with extractions (using finger cots, cotton swabs, or metal extractors) for approximately 5 minutes.

Note: This step is performed during the normal/combination facial or the dry/dehydrated facial only.

10

Apply the appropriate disinfecting solution. Apply the glass ultraviolet high-frequency electrode. If using a liquid disinfectant, the glass electrode will slide easily. The electrode can also be applied over a piece of gauze cut to fit the face.

11

Apply a massage product appropriate to the clients skin type and perform 15 minutes of massage. Remove residue with warm moist sponges or a shammie.

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12

Apply a mask appropriate to the clients skin type and let it sit 10 minutes or as indicated in the manufacturers directions.

13 14 15

Remove the mask by rinsing with sponges or a shammie.

Apply a freshener (toner) appropriate to the clients skin type. You may use the spray device on your machine, if you have one.

Apply a moisturizer appropriate to the clients skin type. Follow by applying sunscreen. If use of an eye cream is indicated, apply before the moisturizer.

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Home Maintenance Clients should return monthly or bimonthly for good maintenance. If this schedule is too aggressive for clients, suggest having a facial for each seasonfour times annuallysince skin changes with the seasons and clients may need to add a mask targeted to a specific problem. See Tables 143, 144, and 145 for maintenance schedules based on skin type.

Table 143 Home Care Regimen for Normal Skin


AM PM

Cleansenormal Freshenernormal Mask (12 weekly) Moisturizenormal SunblockSPF 15

X X

X X X

X X

The Minifacial
The main differences between a minifacial and a basic facial are time and content. Minifacials take only 25 minutes and dont include all the steps of a full 50-minute facial. The omitted steps are the comprehensive skin analysis, the massage, and other specialized treatments. Deep cleansing and masking are the most important elements of the minifacial, since these produce visible results.

Table 144 Home Care Regimen for Normal/Combination Skin


AM PM

Cleansedeep pore Cleanseliquid with beads (2 Freshenernormal/combination Maskto balance oily skin, hydrate (2 Moisturizerlight SunblockSPF 15 weekly) weekly)

X X

X X

X X

Purpose
The minifacial will introduce a client to a very light, refreshing facial that leads to a rebooking for a more in-depth facial to address specific concerns and conditions.

Table 145 Home Care Regimen for Dry/Dehydrated Skin


AM PM

Cleansevery dry Gentle scrub Freshenervery dry Maskto rebalance and hydrate

X Twice weekly

X Twice weekly

Procedure
1. Perform a quick cleansing to remove makeup. Rinse well. 2. Analyze with a magnifying lamp. 3. Perform a second quick cleansing with an exfoliant or a deep pore cleanser. Rinse thoroughly. 4. Apply a freshener appropriate for the clients skin type. 5. Apply a moisturizing mask. Time for 5 minutes. Rinse. 6. Apply freshener. 7. Apply day cream and/or sunblock. 8. Recommend a treatment for the clients next visit. 9. Recommend initial home care products and complete the home care guide. 10. Follow up with a new client 12 days later and encourage the client to have a full basic facial treatment.

Moisturizenourishing SunblockSPF 15

X X

Summary
Mastering the basics of a facial is vital for estheticians. Your hand movements are key to building confidence in a great facial. Practice the step-by-step movements presented in this chapter in order. Additionally, each stage relies on understanding specific protocols, tools, and products. Once you become familiar with these, you can learn more advanced techniques. After assessing a clients skin type and condition, an esthetician can identify a product system for a

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client. Product systems contain variations on several basic types of products that an esthetician must understand in order to best serve clients. The three basic facials are based on skin typenormal, normal/combination, and dry/dehydrated skin. The treatment for normal skin is a basic facial. Normal/combination skin requires more treatment due to its combination of oil in the T-zone and dryness along the cheeks and the rest of the face. Dry skin, on the other hand, requires exfoliation of the dry skin cells followed by moisture. Facial massage is a vital step in all complete facials and provides many benefits to the skin. It supports the blood and lymph circulation and relaxes and oxygenates the skin. It also prepares skin for specialized ingredients that help soften, hydrate, and prevent evidence of aging. Perform a minifacial to acquaint a client with the benefits of the facial. Do not offer all phases, such as massage, but encourage the client to rebook a complete facial on another visit.

5. Understanding the function of specific product prototypes such as cleansers and night creams will help you to understand their function. Choose one of these prototypes and compare at least two different product lines. Are any of the terms used to describe the benefits and features similar? Working in teams, make a list of commonly used adjectives to describe each of the generic prototypes. 6. Discuss the benefits of a systems approach to product selection. How does it help or hinder the esthetician when suggesting products for home care? 7. Identify and list the differences in the three basic facial procedures and explain what factors contribute to them. 8. Until you are accustomed to performing treatments routinely, you may need help remembering the protocols for each of the basic facial treatments. Make a list of key words or phrases to help you remember the basic steps involved in each treatment and place it discreetly in view until you feel more secure. 9. What is the primary goal of the minifacial? Team up with a classmate and develop a dialogue for introducing this procedure to clients, and then practice on each other before trying it out in the student clinic. 10. Review the five classic massage movements, describing the specific benefit of each. 11. Develop a generic massage protocol for each of the major skin types, determining any contraindications where appropriate.

Discussion Questions
1. Name the basic components of all facial treatments and review the seven phases of the basic facial process. Set a timer and practice these basic elements until you are within the 50-minute range. 2. Collect menus from several established and reputable skin care salons or clinics. From each menu, select three treatments, closely evaluating the positioning of each. Can you determine the focus of the clinics marketing strategy from these treatments? 3. The facial massage provides many benefits to the client that cannot be duplicated at home. Discuss the benefits of massage as they relate to promoting good skin health. 4. Select a product line and choose four essential products that would be most beneficial to each of the following major skin types: normal, normal/combination, dry/dehydrated, oily/problem, and sensitive skin. Discuss your reasoning for each.

Additional Reading
Gerson, Joel. 1999. Miladys Standard Textbook for Professional Estheticians. Clifton Park, N.Y.: Milady, an imprint of Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Hampton, Aubrey. 1991. Natural Organic Hair and Skin Care. Tampa, Fla: Organica Press. Hoffman, David. 1996. Holistic Herbal, A Safe and Practical Guide to Making and Using Herbal Remedies. New York: Barnes and Noble.

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Lawless, Julia. 1995. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils. New York: Barnes and Noble. Michalun, Natalia, and M. Varinia Michalun. 2001. Skin Care & Cosmetic Ingredients Dictionary. Clifton Park, N.Y.: Milady, an imprint of Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Miller, Erica. 1996. Salonovations Day Spa Techniques. Clifton Park, N.Y.: Milady, an imprint of Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Murray, Michael T.,N.D. 1996. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Rocklin, Calif.: Prima Publishing. Ody, Penelope. 1993. The Complete Medicinal Herbal. New York: Dorling Kindersley. Ody, Penelope. 2000. Complete Guide to Medicinal Herbs. 2d ed. New York: Dorling Kindersley.

Tappan, Frances M. 1988. Healing Massage Techniques, Holistic, Classic, and Emerging Methods. 2d ed. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Helpful Web Sites


http://www.amtamassage.org (American Massage Therapy Association) http://www.doctormurray.com http://www.healthwellexchange.com http://www.infotrieve.com http://www.massagemagazine.com (Massage Magazine) http://www.Miami.edu/touch-research (Touch Research Institute, Miami Hospital) http://www.naturalhealthmag.com

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