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Chapter 1
Introduction

In this chapter: Overview of differential absorption (attenuation) Variables involved in radiographic testing Brief definitions of procedures, codes and standards Preview of topics

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The results of almost all NDT methods are indirect. The results are often in the form of signals, waveforms and images. In film radiography, we get a permanent image on a photographic film. The images are the shadows of the discontinuities that are favorable to the radiation beam and to the recording film plane. The interpreter has to translate the images into understandable language so that everyone concerned with the job can understand and discuss the discontinuities in terms of causes and corrections that can be achieved. Correct interpretation provides good decision making. Wrong interpretation may be very harmful. The aim of the radiographic method is to produce the discontinuitys shadow in the most detectable form, with sharp details and with an ability to see the discontinuity in the film. A discontinuity in the line of the radiation beam and perpendicular to the direction of the film plane is most effectively recorded. A radiographic image is the plan view of the discontinuity. For example, the greater the thickness of the inclusion or void in the direction of the beam, the greater the amount of differential absorption or attenuation either low or high based on the atomic number of the inclusion.

The Meaning of Differential Absorption


The absorption (or attenuation) of radiation intensity by a material is based on its thickness and atomic number.

Thickness Change
When there is no change in thickness, the radiation absorption or attenuation is uniform and the transmitted intensity is uniform. This means the film receives the same intensity or quantity of radiation, and the film is uniformly exposed. The resulting radiograph has the same optical density indicating there is no change in thickness. (See Figure 1.1.) If the absorber thickness increases, the absorption increases, and if the absorber thickness is reduced, the absorption by the absorber decreases. The final radiograph has lesser density for higher thicknesses and greater density for lower thicknesses. This lighter or darker density is one part of radiographic interpretation.

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Specimen Film

Developed film (radiograph)

Figure 1.1: Effect of change in specimen thickness on radiographic film, based on the principle that as specimen thickness increases, absorption (or attenuation) increases.

Atomic Number Change


The second factor which causes a change in density, producing a darker or lighter image, is the atomic number of the material. For example, the atomic number of iron (Fe) is 26 in the periodic table of elements, and it absorbs some quantity of radiation. In a steel weld, if a tungsten inclusion is included or gets entrapped, both of the metals are present in the weld. The atomic number of tungsten (W) is 74; hence, it has greater absorption of radiation in comparison with steel. Practically speaking, the tungsten inclusion will attenuate all of the radiation intensity, leaving no intensity or quantity of radiation for the film plane. The effect on the radiograph is a totally lighter image compared to its surrounding area. (See Figure 1.2.)

Linear absorption coefficient (cm1)

Fe = 26 Atomic number Z

W = 74

Figure 1.2: The theoretical concept of radiation absorption (attenuation), based on the principle that as the atomic number increases, absorption (attenuation) increases.

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Similarly, if the weld has entrapped gas or porosity, the radiation will easily pass through, getting absorbed much less than steel, and the intensity received by the film plane is higher. The higher quantity of radiation received by the film causes more darkness. (See Figure 1.3.)

Gas hole

Tungsten inclusion

Film

Figure 1.3: Radiographic images produced by two different kinds of discontinuities.

The shadow of every inclusion independent of its atomic number is formed because of the straight-line propagation of radiation. Thus, the shadow of the discontinuity produced on the radiograph is either darker or lighter. So now you know that the reason for this darker or lighter image is the differential absorption (attenuation) of radiation by the material. Keep in mind that a specimen or component can have both a change in thickness and atomic number. Both of these parameters will absorb (or attenuate) the radiation differentially, causing a lighter or darker image.

Question 1.1
Select the best answer with respect to the topic differential absorption: The plate thickness of a steel butt joint is 20 mm (0.79 in.) and the reinforcement is 3 mm (0.12 in.). The darkness (optical density) of the plate is 2.8. The weld density would be: A. More than 2.8. B. Less than 2.8. Answer is on p. 8. 4 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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Question 1.2
In the above weld, if tungsten and porosity are included, the density of tungsten will be: A. Less compared to the weld density. B. More compared to the weld density. Answer is on p. 8.

Variables in Radiographic Testing


As we have seen, the energy absorption by a material is based on thickness and atomic number. There are many variables in recording a radiographic image. They include: 1. The radiation source its energy affects the contrast. 2. The source dimension, the distance from the source to the object and the distance from the object to the film these have an effect on geometrical unsharpness and distortion. 3. The test specimens size, shape and geometry these factors determine the most suitable technique to project the image onto the film so as to obtain the best possible image for interpretation. 4. The type of film used and processing cycle these have an effect on the sensitivity of the radiograph. 5. The technique employed the technique must be chosen so as to produce the best possible shadow of the discontinuities. 6. Illumination and the illuminator in the inspection booth to see the discontinuities by transmitting the light through the radiograph. 7. Procedures, codes and standards for acceptance or rejection to perform the job uniformly by all and to get uniform results by anyone who does the job. 8. Interpreters knowledge of various primary processes and their associated discontinuities, as well as their most probable location and shape to characterize the discontinuity and to make a decision for acceptance or rejection.

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9. Use of collimators, filters and masks to prevent unwanted scatter radiation and reduce the effect of undercutting of the radiograph due to scatter radiation. 10. The penetrating thickness range for a given energy the thickness of a specimen may be too small, resulting in a loss of contrast, or the specimen thickness may be too great so that the radiation energy may be too small to penetrate it. 11. Mishandling of film before and after exposure this results in unwanted images or false indications called artifacts. 12. Operators ability to distinguish between relevant discontinuities and artifacts an important aspect of radiographic interpretation. In order to perform consistent interpretations, the interpreter must know the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The history of the part and the manufacturing process. The discontinuities associated with the process. The probable location of relevant discontinuities. The severity of relevant discontinuities and their effects during service. The most suitable radiographic technique to record the best possible image. The location and the type of stress a component will undergo once it is put into use; the orientation of discontinuities with reference to the principle stress axis. Sensitivity requirements. The difference between relevant discontinuities and artifacts.

7. 8.

Armed with knowledge of the above, the interpreter is in a position to characterize the discontinuity, assess the possible cause of the discontinuity and make a decision for acceptance or rejection.

Procedures, Codes and Standards


Procedures are step-by-step instructions given to the radiographer to radiograph an object. Procedures enable uniform results, including repeatability of test results. Codes of practice are developed by experts based on past data, experimental results, etc. 6 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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Preview of Volume 6
Volume 6 is a guide to the interpreter on how to interpret radiographs within reason. Interpretation also aids production engineers to improve their process, minimize rejection and move toward 100% reliability of a component through its entire life cycle. The user of Volume 6 will understand the art of interpreting radiographs, including the ability to distinguish different discontinuities and artifacts. After successful interpretation, you will be prepared to evaluate discontinuities for acceptance/rejection per code. The topics covered in this volume follow the outlines in ANSI/ASNT CP-105-2006. The first part of this training manual describes the results of NDT that is, the indications produced, types of discontinuities, and manufacturing processes along with associated discontinuities. The second part of this manual explains in detail the various types of discontinuities, their probable location and their image on radiographic film. Once the indications are interpreted, then they may be evaluated with reference to various codes and standards, presented in the form of test reports. Now lets see how well you already know the effects of welding and casting discontinuities on radiographic film in the form of a short quiz.

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Answers to Chapter 1 Questions


Question 1.1
Answer: B. A If A is your choice, you have not understood the absorption principle with regard to thickness. Remember that absorption is related to thickness. The more thickness, the more absorption and less intensity to the film. Therefore, your selection should have been B. B If B is your choice, then you have understood the principle of absorption. We have discussed that a greater thickness will absorb more radiation and the available intensity under a thick area to the film is less than the thinner area. Thus, the density will be less than 2.8.

Questions 1.2
Answer: A. A Your choice A is excellent. Tungsten has a higher atomic number and denser material compared to steel. Therefore, tungsten has absorbed the energy, leaving no intensity for the film to produce photographic density. B B is your choice? Then you are incorrect. This is an important area where you have to understand how image density characterizes a discontinuity. All less dense inclusions give darker images compared to images produced by denser materials. For example, lead letters and numbers are typically used as radiographic markings. The lead is a high-density material with a high atomic number compared to steel and thus absorbs essentially all of the radiation, leaving no or little radiation for the film and projecting the shape of the letters, which can be read against a darker background.

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Volume 6 Preview Quiz


Complete the following with respect to steel weld radiographs using the term darker or lighter to describe the image of the discontinuity that would result: 1. Porosity: __________. 2. A nonmetallic slag inclusion: __________. 3. A tungsten inclusion: __________. 4. Excess penetration: __________. 5. Underfill: __________. 6. Crack: __________. Would an aluminum casting radiograph show the following inclusions as darker or lighter? Choose one of these terms to describe the effect of the discontinuity on radiographic film: 7. Inclusion of a steel wire: __________. 8. Microporosity: __________. 9. Nonmetallic inclusion: __________. 10. Thicker section in the casting: __________. 11. A crack: __________.

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Volume 6 Preview Quiz Key


1. darker 2. darker 3. lighter 4. lighter 5. darker 6. darker 7. lighter 8. darker 9. darker 10. lighter 11. darker

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Chapter 2
Indications, Discontinuities and Defects

In this chapter: Types of radiographic indications Brief review of artifacts Detection of discontinuities using radiography Imaging factors enabling radiographic interpretation and evaluation Review of image quality indicators (IQIs) Illumination levels Characterizing discontinuities by type and origin Understanding the difference between discontinuities and defects

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What Is an Indication?
Locations on a nondestructively tested object where the normal physical structure has a discontinuity by way of separation of material, inclusion, crack, etc., are referred to as indications. The testing method produces an indication by way of signal, accumulation of powder particles, excess bleedout, difference in the darkness in radiographic film and so on. Compared to other types of inspection, such as measurement of dimensions, metallographic inspections, hardness tests or destructive test methods where direct results are obtained, nondestructive inspection produces the results in the form of indications. In summary, we can define an indication as an evidence of discontinuity formed at a certain location where the normal physical structure has broken. In radiography, an indication means a density change appearing on a radiograph. In NDT all such indications are to be: 1. Interpreted. 2. Evaluated for acceptance/rejection and reported. The purpose of nondestructive testing of materials is to locate a relevant discontinuity. The presence of a discontinuity is indicated in the form of an image or signals. By applying certain physical principles on materials, and without destroying the job in any manner, it is possible to locate discontinuities. A normal break in physical structure is called a nonrelevant discontinuity. When such discontinuities are made possible for an operator to see or locate, directly or indirectly by application of certain principles, they are called indications. The indication is interpreted and evaluated for acceptance/rejection.

Radiographic Indications
In radiography, any darker or lighter image is an indication. Radiographic testing produces an indication by means of penetrating radiation when it is differentially absorbed by a change in thickness, atomic number or density. The net effect is a difference in intensity received by the film, 12 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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which in turn produces a darker or lighter image that is to be interpreted and evaluated, as illustrated in Figure 2.1.
No discontinuity no indication Relevant discontinuity true indication Nonrelevant discontinuity true indication

False indication

No density difference

A crack darker density

Damaged lead screen lighter density

Bolt hole darker density

Figure 2.1: Radiographic effects of different types of discontinuities and indications.

As shown in the above figure, not all indications appearing on the radiographic film need be discontinuities. Indications can be true or false, as defined below. False indications are due to film artifacts, screen problems, fog, scatter, mottling, etc. True indications are due to differential absorption that is, a thickness change or change in atomic number. Furthermore, a discontinuity and defect can be differentiated as follows: Discontinuity a break in the test specimens structural continuity. Defect a condition that renders the specimen unsuitable for intended service. All true indications are formed due to the physical principle with which the test is being conducted, whereas all false indications do not obey this principle and do not reappear after reprocessing! When the interpreter views a radiograph, he or she sees darker or lighter shadows. Some of the images are due to the presence of discontinuities and some may not have any relevance, meaning that they are not associated with a possible defect. Such indications with no relevance to a defect or discontinuity are called false indications. So all indications are to be interpreted as true or false.

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Moreover, true indications formed due to differential absorption (attenuation) are to be further classified as relevant and nonrelevant indications. True relevant indications in radiographs are due to discontinuities such as: Incomplete penetration/lack of penetration. Incomplete root fusion. Lack of sidewall fusion. Root concavity/suck back or suck up. Inclusions. Porosity. Undercut. Cracks. Excess penetration. Underfill. Undercut. Burn-through. Hot tear. Shrinkage. Arc strike.

All of the above indications are characterized by their: Shape. Location. Difference in density (contrast). Thickness of the discontinuity by measuring the optical density.

True nonrelevant indications are also formed due to differential absorption; however, such indications are the result of changes in geometry or differences in thickness due to design considerations. Examples of nonrelevant indications include: A keyway. A hole drilled in a flange. Two different thicknesses joined in a welding process. A boss in a casting.

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In radiography, false indications are also called artifacts, which form due to improper handling of film during any stage of the radiographic process. For example, when the film is being manufactured, a static charge may occur. A static current so developed may expose the film causing a false indication. Static charges may also be inadvertently produced in the darkroom by the radiographer when the film is removed or inserted into the cassette with a rubbing action. False indications include: Static marks branchlike, jagged dark lines or irregular dark spots originating from rapid loading or unloading of film. Pressure marks produced by extreme pressure on an area of film. Chemical stain streaks on the film caused by inadequate removal of chemicals between processing stages or insufficient agitation of the film hanger. Crimp marks caused by abrupt bending of film; typically crescent shaped. Water mark circular pattern caused by water droplets drying on the film surface. Reticulation formation of a network of wrinkles or cracks in a photographic emulsion. Dichoric fog a stain visible under reflected or transmitted light due to improper development. Frilling of emulsion loosening of the emulsion from the film base due to warm or exhausted fixer solution, high temperature of processing solutions or prolonged washing in warm water. Scratches caused by abrasive materials or rough handling, including fingernails. Damaged lead screens includes scratches on lead foil screens. Damaged cassette.

Detection of Discontinuities Based on Location


The purpose of conducting NDT is to successfully locate the discontinuity. The discontinuity may be on the surface or subsurface or totally buried inside the specimen. One NDT method may not detect all discontinuities. Radiography is not sensitive to surface discontinuities but best for volume discontinuities.

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The presence of a discontinuity in the sample is recorded on the film for interpretation. There are two important factors for the discontinuity to get recorded on the film. 1. Orientation of the discontinuity in relation to the radiation beam and film. A discontinuity in line with the radiation beam and perpendicular to the film plane is best recorded. 2. The thickness separation of the discontinuity or its volume. If the thickness separation of a discontinuity is parallel to the film and perpendicular to the radiation beam direction, the absorption (attenuation) of radiation by the separation of the planar discontinuity is negligible. Hence, there is no change in intensity or quantity of radiation received by the film. Such planar discontinuities will not have a difference in density (that is, no contrast) and therefore can not be detected. Let us assume there are three gas packets included in a casting and their diameters are 2 mm (0.08 in.), 4 mm (0.16 in.) and 6 mm (0.24 in.). Here we say the radiation is penetrating all three holes and the separation in thickness is 2, 4 and 6 mm respectively. The volume of these voids is greatest for 6mm and least for 2mm. Radiation intensity easily passes through the 6 mm void, rendering more intensity and quantity of radiation to the film and causing more darkness compared to the 2 mm gas pocket. A lamination in a plate has two dimensions and no thickness, and is not a volumetric discontinuity. Therefore, laminations can not be detected by radiographic technique. Any discontinuity closest to the film or recording plane is well defined with least geometrical unsharpness, but the same discontinuity farthest from the film plane has maximum geometrical unsharpness. If geometrical unsharpness is maximum, the definition of the shadow image is very poor. Poor definition renders a poorly sensitive radiograph and thereby the interpreter may miss the discontinuity. Hence, any surface crack farthest from the film plane will not get recorded on the film. For example, lets say that you take a light source and locate the source far away from the wall. If you place your fingers close to the wall and far away from the source, you get a well-defined shadow. On the other hand, if you 16 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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place your fingers closer to the light source and farther from the wall, you will notice that the shadow is blurred. The blurred shadow has maximum image unsharpness. How does radiographic testing compare with other nondestructive testing methods in detecting discontinuities? The ultrasonic method does not indicate the volume of the discontinuities but indicates the separation or interface. Magnetic particle testing is best for surface-breaking cracks on ferromagnetic materials only. In order for the liquid penetrant testing method to detect a discontinuity, it must be open to the surface.

Probability of Detection
The probability of detecting a discontinuity using radiographic testing is based on the discontinuitys size, width, length, depth and orientation with respect to the test surface and to the radiation beam. The probability of detection is high if the radiograph has: High contrast. Adequate density. Sharp definition. Least distortion.

Interpretation and Evaluation


Lets look at how the above factors are related to radiographic interpretation. 1. High Contrast In industrial radiography, it is the job of the interpreter to detect a discontinuity that is either darker or lighter than the gray background. If radiography has been rendered with no change in darkness, even for discontinuities in the test object, the interpreter will report this condition as no discontinuity is found because he or she is not able to perceive contrast. Therefore, our aim in industrial radiography is to produce film with high contrast.

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Factors that may affect contrast are: Subject Contrast Change in thickness. The atomic number for example, the presence of an inclusion with a high or low atomic number. Radiation energy or quality of radiation. Film Contrast Type of film used for example, high-contrast film or low-contrast film. (See Figure 2.2.) Type of intensifying screens used. Processing condition. Scatter radiation.
Fast film (low contrast) A small change in exposure produces a small change in density = low contrast. Fine details can not be seen because of low contrast (i.e., no density difference). Slow film (high contrast) Difference in density = contrast A small change in exposure produces a large density difference = high contrast. Fine details can be seen (i.e., greater density difference). If you are asked to take a radiograph of a weld with these two films, and assuming there is a fine, shallow crack on the source side of the weld, both films will receive the same amount of exposure due to the change in thickness at the crack location. However, the slow film will produce a greater density difference (contrast) even for a small change in exposure, whereas the same small amount of exposure on the fast film produces only a very small difference in density, that is, poor contrast. The interpreter will find the crack using slow film; however, on the fast film the crack cannot be seen because of poor contrast.

Log relative exposure Fast film Slow film

Figure 2.2: Differences between two types of film fast and slow in terms of contrast.

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2. Adequate Density The degree of darkness in a radiograph is called optical density or simply density. Density is a measurable quantity and is equal to: log10 Ii/It where Ii = the incident intensity of light. It = the transmitted intensity of light. If all the incident light is transmitted, then the ratio is one and the density is equal to zero. The darker area of film transmits less intensity, whereas the lighter area transmits more light, as shown in Figure 2.3. Therefore, the density will vary according to the degree of darkness. The density of the radiograph must be 2 to 4, as density less than 2 and more than 4 does not produce enough contrast to see the discontinuity.
INCIDENT LIGHT


0 100

100


10 1 High contrast film

100


2 Low contrast film 1

100


3 0.1

100

TRANSMITTED LIGHT

DENSITY

Figure 2.3: Relationship between incident and transmitted light and density (top); effect of film contrast on the appearance of discontinuities (bottom).

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3. Sharp Definition Definition is the sharpness of the image or discontinuity details. Sharpness is affected by geometry. Since all sources have a dimension and all specimens have thickness, there will be always some amount of image unsharpness that cannot be eliminated. Geometrical unsharpness is expressed as: Ug = where F = the longest dimension of the source. d = the object-to-film/detector distance. D = the source-to-object distance. It is the aim of a radiographer to produce the image details with minimum unsharpness (Ug). The easiest way to get the best definition that is, minimum Ug is that the D shall be as large as possible (taking practical considerations into account). For any size source and any distance of an object to the film, we can get a well-defined shadow (umbra) with large source-to-object distance, as shown in Figure 2.4. For example, our sun is very big compared to us, but still we get a very sharp shadow because of the large distance between the sun and us. Fd D

F Source

Test object d Film/ detector Minimum Ug (a) (b) (c)

Figure 2.4: Relationship between source-to-object distance (D), object-to-film/detector distance (d) and image unsharpness (Ug).

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Figure 2.4(b) shows greater geometrical unsharpness (penumbra) when the source-to-film/detector distance remains unchanged from Figure 2.4(a) but the object-to-film/detector distance (d) is increased. On the other hand, Figure 2.4(c) shows a smaller geometrical unsharpness when the object-to-film/detector distance (d) is the same as in Figure 2.4(a) but the source-to-object distance (D) is increased. Optimum geometrical sharpness of the image is also obtained when the radiation source is small. Figure 2.5 illustrates the decrease in geometrical unsharpness with a decrease in source size.

Source

Test object

Umbra

Penumbra

Figure 2.5: Effect of source size on image sharpness.

4. Least Distortion When we take a radiograph, not all of the discontinuities will either lie perpendicular to the film or be in a position favorable to the radiation beam. As the radiation beam is diverging, the ray that hits the discontinuity will throw the shadow in an angle to the radiation beam. For this reason, the discontinuity in the specimen may be outside the Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 21

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projected area of the beam and the radiograph will not show the exact shape of the discontinuity. The angular position of the discontinuity, which is not exactly perpendicular, results in distortion. Thus, if the plane of the test object and the film/detector plane are not parallel, image distortion will occur, as shown in Figure 2.6(a). As an analogy, when we stand in the morning before the sun, our shadow is long and distorted. However, when the sun comes overhead, the noon shadow is projected and the beam is perpendicular with no distortion in the image. If we radiograph our area of interest with a restricted cone angle, then we have reduced the distortion. Once again, it is important that the film/detector plane shall be parallel to the surface of the specimen and perpendicular to the radiation source to minimize the effect of distortion. As shown in Figure 2.6(b), image distortion will also result if the radiation beam is not directed perpendicular to the film/detector plane, even if the film/detector plane and test object plane are parallel.

Point source

Axis of test object perpendicular to film plane

Test object (a) (b) Film/detector

Film/detector in tilted plane Figure 2.6: Two instances of image distortion resulting from proper alignment of point source, test object plane and film/detector plane.

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A large source-to-object distance not only reduces Ug but also produces an image with minimum distortion. To achieve both the effects of minimum Ug and least distortion, it is always recommended to use as large a source-to object distance as possible, considering the exposure time and available distance.

Interpretation and Evaluation


Interpretation of indications is the cream of NDT. Here lies the fate of the test specimen in terms of accept or reject criteria. A wrong interpretation may lead to acceptance of a defective sample or rejection of a good sample, just as a wrong diagnosis by a doctor may kill a patient. To do effective interpretation in any NDT method and in radiography in particular, it is important that the interpreter understand the physical principles of radiography, along with its advantages and limitations. Radiographers must first judge the quality of the radiograph before starting their interpretation. The quality of a radiograph is based on factors we have already considered, namely: Sensitivity sensitivity is based on contrast and definition and expressed in % of material thickness. Contrast based on subject contrast and film contrast. Definition or sharpness of the image based on many factors of which Ug is of prime importance. By controlling Ug we can obtain a well-defined radiograph. Adequate density in order to achieve good contrast. Freedom from artifacts the area under interest shall not have any image or shadow to cause confusion to the interpreter. Such shadows also can mask the actual discontinuities. Improper handling of film from start to end of the radiography process may cause artifacts; therefore, film shall be carefully handled. Only a satisfactory radiograph shall be interpreted and evaluated. If the radiograph is not meeting the above requirements, it shall be replaced with a fresh radiograph that meets the requirements. Now let us start our job of interpretation and then evaluate any indication before making a decision.

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To do an effective interpretation, prepare a checklist as follows: 1. The films shall be viewed only in a darkened area. 2. Switch off all lights that may reflect from the film surface, which is a highly polished surface. 3. Verify that the film corresponds to the part for which the radiograph was taken and record any surface imperfection if any has been obtained by visual inspection. 4. Verify the technique used and that it meets the procedure requirement. 5. Verify that the image quality indicator (IQI) designation is properly placed and properly located per procedure. Image Quality Indicators (IQIs) Before characterizing a discontinuity by radiography for a given test object, it is very important to qualify the radiograph based on sensitivity. Here the sensitivity means the smallest discontinuity that the method can detect. The interpreter can qualify the radiograph for contrast and definition only with a tool called an image quality indicator or IQI. If the radiograph has produced a difference in density due to a small change in thickness (generally 2% of the material thickness), then the radiograph has been produced with the required contrast. If a 1T, 2T or 4T hole in a hole-type indicator, or the designated wire in a wire-type indicator, is appearing on the radiograph, then the geometry of the exposure has been set to produce the best definition. With a plaque- or hole-type penetrameter or IQI, we specify the quality level as 2-2T. The first numeral 2 is for contrast that is, the ability to differentiate 2% of material thickness in terms of a difference in density. The 2T means that the hole diameter of 2% of the material thickness should be defined.

Question 2.1
Lets put your understanding of IQIs to the test. For example, a 1 in. (2.54 cm) ground-finished weld is radiographed. The required IQI per procedure is ASTM 20. Let us assume that three radiographers (A,B and C) produce radiographs of the same test piece individually. 24 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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In As radiograph, all the holes of the IQI can be seen. In Bs radiograph, only the 2T and 4T holes can be seen. And in Cs radiograph, only the 4T hole can be seen. Of the above three radiographers , who has produced a radiograph with the highest sensitivity? Answer is on p. 39. Using the above example, we can calculate the equivalent penetrameter sensitivity abbreviated as EPS (alpha) for each radiograph using the following equation: EPS (alpha) = n(H/2)1/2 where n = the percentage sensitivity required as per procedure. H = the hole designation as 1, 2 or 4 in terms of thickness of IQI.

Question 2.2
Using the EPS formula, calculate the equivalent penetrameter sensitivity for each radiograph in Question 2.1. Answer is on p. 39.

Question 2.3
Now that you have determined the equivalent penetrameter sensitivity for each radiograph, what is your conclusion of the above radiographs produced by the three different radiographers in terms of the percentage of material thickness? Answer is on p. 39.

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Now you can conclude the purpose of an IQI and how to go about qualifying a radiograph with an IQI. Knowing the specimen thickness, it is important to select the IQI for the required sensitivity. OK, back to our checklist. 6. Check the illuminator for the required level of illumination so as to read the film varying from 2 to 4 density. The basic tool used to interpret a radiograph is a good illuminator. An illuminator is a high-intensity light source capable of transmitting enough light to view the discontinuity. The amount light that is transmitted in order to see discontinuities is based on the darkness of the film. As discussed previously, the degree of darkness is called optical density or, simply, density. As previously discussed, density is dimensionless and is simply a number, expressed by the following formula: density = log10 (Ii/It) where Ii = the incident intensity of light. It = the transmitted intensity of light. If 100% of the initial intensity of 1000 units is transmitted, the density is zero and we perceive a transparent object. If 10% is transmitted, then we get log10 (1000/100) = 1. If 1% is transmitted, then we get a density of 2. If 0.1% of the initial intensity is transmitted, then the density is 3. So if the density of a blowhole discontinuity a type of porosity is 4, then it has transmitted only 0.01% of the initial intensity. This can be seen more visually in Figure 2.7. Because the silver deposit on the film is formed from individual grains, the transmitted light is scattered. Consequently, the spatial intensity of the transmitted light depends greatly upon such factors as the distribution and 26 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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Incident intensity of light on radiograph (1000 units)

1000 0

100 1

10 Transmitted light 2 Density

1 3

0.1 4

Figure 2.7: Calculation of density values based on incident light intensity of 1000 units.

size of the grains and upon the condition of the incident light. The measured density of the film will also depend upon the optics of the instrument used. 7. The illuminator shall be equipped with a collimator or mask in order to restrict the light so that it only falls on and passes through to the area of interest. This is because excess light from a low-density area will produce glare, which may cause discontinuities to be missed. Masking also improves the contrast ratio of the discontinuity density to its surroundings. This leads to a higher probability of detection. 8. Use a calibrated densitometer to measure the density for acceptance and evaluation of radiographs. Before the invention of electronic devices, the film density was compared with a density strip. Today, we have photocells to measure the light intensity that is incident and transmitted, which permits us to calculate the optical density of radiographs. The instrument that measures the density is called a densitometer. This instrument must be calibrated initially before measuring the density. The densitometer is calibrated with a known available density, called a density strip. This density strip is a standard calibrated strip and the density of each step is printed nearby and traceable to a national standard. Note: The density in the density strip itself may vary due to improper storage, aging, etc. Thus, the density strip has a certain validity period. Also, any change in initial intensity of light due to voltage fluctuations, dirt and foreign matter will wrongly report the density.

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With no film in the port, the densitometer is calibrated to zero density. From the explanation given in point 7 above, if all the light is incident on the light-sensing device, the instrument will show zero density. This is called zero calibration. After doing an initial calibration, the film is placed in the port, where the light to the light-sensing device is obtained after passing through the film. If the films degree of darkness is very high, it may transmit only 0.01 percent of the initial intensity. Then the density of the radiograph will be 4, as calculated in point 6 above. 9. Characterize the discontinuity; separate the images of actual discontinuities from artifacts. In industrial radiography, the indications are formed with differences in optical density. The image so formed may be either a true indication due to discontinuities present or may be a false indication due to improper handling of the film or poor processing conditions called artifacts. The interpreter, given sufficient knowledge, shall be in a position to separate artifacts from the actual indications of relevant discontinuities. Once this exercise is done, by seeing the shape of the image of the discontinuity, its location in the specimen (e.g., weld bead), and its optical density, the interpreter should be able to name the discontinuity. 10. Once the discontinuities are characterized, make a decision for acceptance or rejection based on the recommended codes and standards. 11. Prepare a test report indicating all discontinuities and make a decision per the code recommended in the procedure. All indications are to be interpreted and evaluated. That is, the interpreter must ask how or why the indications have formed. In radiography, interpretation means to give the meaning of or to explain the characteristics of the radiographic image. This is different than evaluation. To evaluate an image means to determine whether the discontinuity shall be permitted or not for the service life of the part. Evaluation of discontinuities involves the following: Characterizing the nature of the discontinuity. Determining the location of the discontinuity.

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Assessing the extent, length, width, size, grouping or isolation, randomness of and spacing between discontinuities. Making a decision as to acceptance/rejection based on the above with reference to code.

Characterizing a Discontinuity
All indications must be characterized properly, before making a decision for acceptance/rejection. Thus, NDT personnel must be in a position to categorize them as true or false indications. As mentioned before, indications are classified as true (either relevant or nonrelevant) or as false (artifacts). Artifacts can actually mask a true indication of a discontinuity, which may endanger the service life of the component. Therefore, all such artifacts should be avoided. In fact, no artifact is permitted on the area of interest and, if found, the area of interest must be re-radiographed for interpretation and evaluation. In this case, the interpreter asks for a re-shoot. To accomplish this, all false indications shall be removed and after cleaning, the job shall be reprocessed. Any true indication will definitely appear, while a false indication will not reappear. A radiograph which has not produced the required sensitivity or density must also be rejected. A radiograph with too much scatter will undercut the area of interest and, hence, all radiographs showing scatter radiation must be re-radiographed. Other reasons for unsatisfactory radiographs include: Too much variation in density within a radiograph. Radiographic technique that does not conform to the procedure. A sound knowledge in welding and casting processes is of paramount importance for evaluating discontinuities. From the shape of the shadow, the interpreter should be able to characterize a discontinuity. For example, in welding, the following discontinuities appear as a straight, dark image: Incomplete penetration. Lack of sidewall fusion. Longitudinal crack. Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 29

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Incomplete fusion. Slag and sand inclusions, on the other hand, present a diffused image anywhere and in any position with any shape. In casting, the following discontinuities are possible: Hot tear a jagged crack located at the junction of thick and thin sections. Various types of shrinkage branching or spreading darkness.

Shift of Image Due to Distortion


The interpreter must be able to determine from the radiograph whether the source location was proper with respect to the orientation of the discontinuity. For example, the most probable location of macroshrinkage in a casting is at the abrupt change in thickness. From the radiographic shooting sketch, the interpreter should be in a position to ascertain whether the image would have formed or been missed with relation to the source and film positions. Heres a different example. The recommended technique to take a circumferential seam in a pipe weld of less than 3.5 in. (8.89 cm) outside diameter (OD) is a double wall exposure and double wall viewing. This technique is possible only by offsetting the source to get both sides of the weld image in one film by producing an elliptical shadow. Here we intentionally get a distorted image. This distortion may dislocate the discontinuity on the film and the interpreter, while interpreting such a radiograph, must keep in mind this effect and then characterize the discontinuity.

Reference to Code
After characterizing the discontinuity, the interpreter makes a decision for acceptance/rejection based on the referencing code. There is no common code of acceptance or common procedure for all jobs. A pipe inside a plant is interpreted with a particular code and a cross country pipe is interpreted with a different code. A butt joint under cyclic load has one set of acceptance norms, while the same type of weld under static load has a different set of norms. Therefore, it is important to have the latest code of acceptance for each radiograph being interpreted.

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Comprehension Check 2.1


1. A weld radiograph shows a darker image. This image is called: A . An indication. B. A discontinuity. C. A defect. 2. The ability to detect the smallest discontinuity is called: A. B. C. D. Definition. Contrast. Sensitivity. Distortion.

3. Radiographic quality is measured by % sensitivity. The radiograph must have: A. B. C. D. Highest contrast. Adequate density. Sharpest definition. Least distortion.

Which one of the above in your opinion will determine the sensitivity of a radiograph?

A. Both A and B. B. Both C and D. C. All of the above. 4. The relative absorption of a high-density material inclusion will render: A. Darker density. B. Lighter density.

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5. As the divergent cone angle of the radiation beam increases: A. Distortion increases. B. Sharpness increases. C. Intensity increases. Answers begin on p. 40.

Discontinuities
Discontinuities can be classified into three general categories. They are: Inherent. Processing. Service. Lets start with inherent discontinuities.

Inherent Discontinuities
Inherent discontinuities originate during the solidification process (liquid to solid state). All engineering metals, like iron, aluminum, copper, etc., are obtained from the earth. They are not obtained in pure form that is, ready to use but with certain impurities. Metal containing natural impurities is called ore. Ore is further purified in a process called ore benefaction. Then the ore is melted in a furnace by adding coke and lime. The molten metal is drawn and poured into cavities. There it solidifies into ingots (see Figure 2.8). The molten metal, before solidification, may contain nonmetals like slag, coke, lime and refractory bricks. These nonmetallic inclusions may get entrapped into the solid ingots. Also, it is possible for the metal to evolve gases and such gases also get entrapped within the ingots. All such discontinuities formed during solidification are called inherent discontinuities. The casting process is from a liquid to solid state to form the required shape, like valves, pump bodies, etc. Discontinuities originating in the 32 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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Figure 2.8: Ingot. Photograph courtesy of Bay Forge Fomas India Ltd., Chennai, India.

casting process are also called inherent discontinuities, as the process is from a liquid to solid state. Inherent discontinuities are naturally formed without any external force, that is, formed on their own and hence called inherent. Based on design requirements, the ingots have to be turned into the required shape by application of external force, in order to get the desired mechanical and metallurgical properties as well as the required strength. Castings can take very high compressive loads (flattened, squeezed or pressed) but are not the best for tensile loads (drawn or stretched by tension). So we need other manufacturing processes whereby we can get the required tensile strength, impact resistance and hardness values. To achieve this, the ingots are further cut into billets and blooms. Billets and blooms are only a part of an ingot and get their name by their size. A bloom has the same width and thickness, whereas billets are primarily used in the rolling process. These billets and blooms are further worked by forging or rolling to get the desired mechanical properties and shapes. More discussion of billets and blooms and the primary manufacturing processes are dealt with in the next chapter in this volume.

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Processing Discontinuities
When the ingots, billets and blooms are further processed to get the desired form through such processes as rolling, forging and welding, discontinuities may be formed that are called primary processing discontinuities. After such primary processing, when the product is further processed for removal of thermal stress or grain refinement by grinding, machining, painting, handling and so on, other discontinuities may occur. These are called secondary processing discontinuities.

Service-Induced Discontinuities
All manufactured products are not 100% perfect. There is no casting or weld without any discontinuities in any manufacturing process. Components with allowable discontinuities are put into service. Therefore, nondestructive testing is to be carried out to assess the condition from the raw material stage throughout the life cycle of the component before it is discarded from use. Service-related discontinuities are caused by the following conditions: Due to service conditions, there can be metal loss due to corrosion, erosion, wear and cavitation (reduction in wall thickness) to name a few. As a result of extreme temperatures, the material may lose its desired mechanical properties through yield stress or ultimate stress, for example, causing failure much below the calculated stress values at normal temperature. Continuous exposure to the environment, with alternating high and low temperatures, results in the material losing its wall thickness along with other desirable mechanical and metallurgical properties. Loss of metal and other desirable properties may lead to premature failure. All metals at room temperature show a particular tensile and yield stress. When the metal is stressed at high temperature, the stress values will be considerably reduced; consequently, the metal yields at a lower stress value and the part will be deformed from its original shape. This deformation itself is considered failure. Alternatively, at too low a temperature, all metals become brittle and fracture is sudden and catastrophic. With repeated cycles of loading, the material may fail at lower stress values due to fatigue (endurance limit). All engineering products, ranging from pins to rockets, are subjected to stress or some form of load. Engineers design a component with sufficient strength to 34 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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sustain the applied load. If the load increases more than this strength, the component fails. It is the purpose of nondestructive testing to find stress-related discontinuities and prevent failure. Abuse may also be a factor in the service life of a part or component.

Defects
All NDT methods are based on the application of some form of energy into the object, and the object modifies the energy. The amount and type of modification allows the interpreter to infer the quality of the component; the nature, distribution and location of discontinuities; the extent of wall loss, etc. From the point of view of an engineer, certain small or very small discontinuities may not endanger the components service life and may be considered acceptable from a functional aspect of the component. Based on the type of stress imposed on the component, the engineer has to decide whether such discontinuities, however small, may lead to failure. With regard to the actual functional aspect of the component, all imperfections detected by NDT are classified as either a discontinuity or defect. All NDT methods detect discontinuities. These detected discontinuities are interpreted, evaluated and characterized as per the applicable code. If the code warrants rejection based on such discontinuities, they are called defects. If it allows them, they continue to be referred to as discontinuities. For the engineer, not all discontinuities are defects, but all defects are discontinuities. In radiography with conventional techniques, the depth of the discontinuity can not be determined. However, whenever a discontinuity is detected, it is important to know the following: Location in the tensile member side or the compressive member side. The location of a discontinuity is very important from a service point of view. A surface defect and a near-surface defect are more detrimental for failure since the surface is the part where maximum tensile load occurs and which is in constant contact with the atmosphere. Also, for moving parts, the surfaces of each component

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are in contact with each other. Loss due to wear occurs only at the surface. Size size is very important as a discontinuity shall be below the critical size. Mere size alone is not an acceptable factor; the location of a discontinuity with respect to the principal stress axis is important for acceptance/rejection, as are the grouping and spacing of discontinuities. Extent length, grouping, separation from edge to edge, etc. Nature a sharp notch, linear, planar, volumetric or spherical, etc. Shape the shape of the discontinuity is another important factor to be considered. A sharp notch such as an undercut will definitely lead to fatigue failure. Likewise, a sharp corner is considered as a source of fatigue failure.

Discontinuities may be active that is, they grow in size during service; other discontinuities are passive in that they do not change in size, shape or location. An initially acceptable discontinuity may develop into a defect due to prolonged use; hence, some parts require periodic inservice inspection. Whenever a discontinuity is detected, it is also important to know the type of load imposed on the structure or that a component is subjected to. A discontinuity under static or compressive load may be safe, whereas the same discontinuity under cyclic loading or located at or near a tensile part may develop further into a crack. Here is an example from industry: Lets imagine that an undercut in a circumferential joint in a pressure vessel is found in a radiograph. The undercut is accepted up to 0.8 mm (0.03 in.) per pressure piping code, while the same undercut is not acceptable in a longitudinal seam in the same component. Why? Here we have to study the type of stress imposed on the two joints. With a circumferential weld, the internal pressure is working from inside to outside, while outside the shell or pipe, the atmospheric pressure is acting. This is a compressive stress and so no undue stress will concentrate on the undercut. Now considering the longitudinal seam, the undercut is not permitted because a long seam undergoes two types of stresses: one is compressive, just like a circumferential seam, and the other is tensile stress, pulling the weld seam away. It implies that any sharp discontinuity on the tensile member is harmful. 36 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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Chapter 2 Summary
1. Every NDT method has a particular physical principle by which test results are obtained. They are then interpreted and evaluated as per acceptance code. 2. Indications produced by NDT methods are considered discontinuities and not defects. 3. A discontinuity may be big or small; it may be on the surface or totally buried inside the specimen. 4. The discontinuity may have length, width and depth, meaning it has volume, or it can be simply a planar discontinuity without thickness compared to its length and width. 5. When we evaluate the discontinuity in terms of its size, length, location and nature, it may not be acceptable to the service life of the component. Such discontinuities, which are not acceptable by the referencing code, are considered defects. 6. True indications can further be divided into relevant and nonrelevant. 7. Nonrelevant indications are formed due to geometry (i.e., shape of the object) and have no relevance to a discontinuity. Such indications can be easily compared to the geometry of the part. 8. All relevant indications are discontinuities. For example, a discontinuity under a particular type of stress may be detrimental; hence, it is classified as a defect. The same discontinuity under certain other conditions of load or stress may be inconsequential for its service and, hence, called only a discontinuity. 9. The discontinuitys size, shape, location, grouping and nature are very important for acceptance or rejection. If the discontinuitys size, shape, location or extent do not meet the acceptance standards, then the discontinuity is called a defect.

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10. There is no perfect material or component in any of the manufacturing processes. 11. Many apparent discontinuities that are readily seen visually may not reduce the service life of the component. 12. Failure may also result in a nearly perfect material, with no discontinuities, due to poor design factors.

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Answers to Chapter 2 Questions


Question 2.1
Answer: A. A has produced a radiograph with very high sensitivity compared to B and C. B has produced an acceptable radiograph compared to C. Cs radiograph has not been produced with the required definition.

Question 2.2
A gets a score of (alpha) = 2(1/2)1/2 = 1.4%. B gets a score of sensitivity as 2(2/2)1/2 = 2%. C gets a score of sensitivity as 2(4/2)1/2 = 2.8%.

Question 2.3
We can express our conclusions this way: A is able to obtain details as small as 1.4% of material thickness, while B can get details of change in thickness as high as 2% or above. Anything less than 2% of the specimen thickness is not able to be resolved by this radiographer. C has produced a radiograph with poor definition, which also affects the sensitivity. Thus, C can only report any change in thickness of 2.8% or higher.

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Comprehension Check 2.1


1. Answer: A. A. A is the correct choice. All indications have to be interpreted that is, the radiographer needs to ask how and why the discontinuity was formed. Once it is termed a discontinuity, the interpreter has to further evaluate it in accordance with codes for acceptance/rejection. B. If your choice is B, it is wrong. In radiography, all indications have to be interpreted. This is the first step. The second step is to evaluate and the third step is to make a decision, per code, for acceptance/rejection. C. Deciding that a radiographic image is a defect as the first step is also the wrong choice. To term an image as a defect, you need to interpret the indication and then name the discontinuity. Only then can you make a decision for acceptance/rejection as per code. If the indication is found to be true and rejectable, then it is called a defect. 2. Answer: C. A. Wrong choice. Definition is the sharpness of the image and if there is no contrast, you cannot see the discontinuity. B. Contrast is only the ability to see the discontinuity. The image of a discontinuity may have contrast, but if there is no definition, we can not characterize the discontinuity. C. This is the correct choice. A and B are partly correct, but if both are achieved, then we have sensitivity. Therefore, sensitivity is based on both contrast and definition. D. Distortion is an unwanted requirement for a good radiograph. 3. Answer: C All of the above is the best choice. Highest contrast and adequate density produce the best radiographic contrast. Sharpest definition and least distortion would produce the minimum image unsharpness and minimum distortion. C and D will be affected by the geometrical setup. All the desired properties must be met.

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4. Answer: B. A. Darker density sorry, your choice is wrong. We have seen that high-density material like lead and tungsten absorbs or attenuates relatively larger amounts of radiation, leaving the film with little or no radiation to cause photographic density. The processed radiograph will show lower density. B. Lighter density excellent. So if you see a lighter image in a radiograph, you will interpret it as a heavy metal inclusion, including the probable metal if you know the manufacturing process. 5. Answer: A. A. Correct. You are following the geometry of the beam. When an object is viewed from an angle, we see a distorted image. When you see your shadow in front of the sun in the early morning or in the evening, your shadow is distorted. If the true shape of the discontinuity is to be projected on the film, the cone angle shall be as small as possible. You can conclude that the image of a discontinuity lying in the path of the central cone of radiation is projected with its true shape and the same discontinuity at the extreme edge of the radiation cone will be distorted. B. The sharpness increases you are incorrect. The sharpness will increase when the source-to-object distance is increased and object-to-film distance is decreased. C. The intensity increases is also incorrect. The intensity will decrease relatively as the distance increases at the extreme cone of radiation.

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Chapter 2 Review
True or false: 1. All NDT methods detect discontinuities. 2. Any discontinuity is a defect. 3. Discontinuities formed during solidification are called inherent. 4. All true discontinuities are defects. 5. All indications found in the radiographic film are true and considered defects. 6. A true indication formed due to the principle of that particular manufacturing method is always a defect. 7. A high atomic number attenuates more radiation and, hence, in the film the indication appears lighter than the background. 8. All defects are discontinuities but not all discontinuities are defects.

9. All acceptable discontinuities are defects. 10. All unacceptable discontinuities are defects. 11. In radiography, rejectable indications are to be evaluated as per code. Multiple choice: 12. The evidence of a discontinuity that requires interpretation and evaluation is called: A. B. C. D.
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A defect. An indication. An imperfection. A discontinuity only.

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13. In order to detect a discontinuity in a finished radiograph by the interpreter, the radiograph shall have: A. B. C. D. High density. Good contrast. Best film. Ideal processing.

14. If a discontinuity is finely defined with the exact contour of the discontinuity, then the radiograph has: A. B. C. D. High contrast. High definition. Latitude. Density.

15. The quality of the radiograph is represented by: A. B. C. D. Contrast. Definition. Percent (%) sensitivity. The technique employed.

16. The sensitivity of the radiograph is based on: A. B. C. D. Radiographic sensitivity. Radiographic definition. Radiographic technique. Both A and B are correct.

17. The interpreter sees the outline of the 20 ASTM plaque- or holetype IQI placed on the source side of the specimen, but the holes are not seen. This radiograph has no: A. B. C. D. Definition Contrast. Density. All of the above.

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18. The subject contrast is based on: A. B. C. D. Energy radiation. Thickness of the specimen. Atomic number of the included material. All of the above.

19. If it is desired to have a high-sensitivity radiograph, the choice of film will be: A. B. C. D. E. A fast film. A fine-grained film. A slow film. A film with wide latitude. Both B and C.

20. The sensitivity of the radiograph is expressed with a tool called a(n): A. B. C. D. Densitometer IQI. Illuminator. Survey meter.

21. A densitometer is an instrument to measure: A. B. C. D. Density. Sensitivity. The discontinuity size. The depth of the discontinuity.

22. Which one of the following indications is to be evaluated for acceptance/rejection? A. B. C. D. A pressure mark. A developer stain. A slag inclusion which has width and length. A poor image caused by a bad lead screen.

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23. If a high-density material is included in the metal, the image of this inclusion would appear: A. B. C. D. Darker. Lighter. Sharper. All of the above.

24. Acceptance/rejection of a discontinuity is based on: A. B. C. D. The operators ability. The companys practice. Codes intended for the job. Past experience.

25. When the radiograph of a casting is being interpreted, the interpreter needs: A. B. C. D. The test object by his or her side. A well-illuminated area. A radiographic shooting sketch. All of the above.

26. Why it is necessary to interpret all of the indications in a radiograph? A. All indications need not be defects for rejection. B. All indications need not be true and some of them may be false. C. It is necessary to interpret all true indications and evaluate them. D. All of the above are true.

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27. A false indication is found in the area of interest in a weld radiograph. Which of the following is true? A. A false indication may mask the true relevant indication. B. All false indications are not defects and can be ignored. C. The radiograph is not acceptable and hence a fresh radiograph is required for an interpretation. D. Both A and C are correct. 28. A discontinuitys shadow or image in a radiographic film is: A. Of the same size as the discontinuity. B. Enlarged and the enlargement depends on the location of the discontinuity in the part. C. Smaller than the size of the discontinuity. D. A cross section view. 29. Discontinuities produced in the casting process are classified as: A. B. C. D. Inherent. Primary processing. Secondary processing. Service.

30. Which one of the following discontinuities is best detected by radiographic testing? A. B. C. D. E. A lamination in a rolled plate. A lamellar tear in a flange plate of a T joint. A slag inclusion. A cavity in a casting. Both C and D are correct.

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Chapter 2 Review Key


1. True 2. False 3. True 4. False 5. False 6. False 7. True 8. True 9. False 10. True 11. True 12. B 13. B 14. B 15. C 16. D 17. A 18. D 19. E

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20. B 21. A 22. C 23. B 24. C 25. C 26. D 27. D 28. B 29. A 30. E

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Chapter 3
Manufacturing Processes and Associated Discontinuities

In this chapter: Types of iron ore converters Production of ingots, blooms and billets Different types of casting processes Overview of casting discontinuities Forging, rolling and extruding processes and respective discontinuities Various kinds of welding processes Overview of welding discontinuities

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Casting Processes
Employing a casting process is by far the cheapest and most widely used metal shaping technique. A casting process, in short, involves melting the metal and pouring it in a pair of molds, which have been formed using patterns. The cavities in the cast component are produced by the use of cores, which in turn are made from core boxes. When we say casting, generally it means sand casting unless otherwise specifically mentioned, like investment casting, centrifugal casting, etc. Therefore, sand is the medium in which a mold is made. The various molding processes are: Green sand molding. Skin-dried sand molding. Dry sand molding. Carbon dioxide process of molding. Shell molding and its variants. Investment casting.

Except for investment casting, a refractory material that is, sand is used. (A detailed discussion of sand casting is presented later in this chapter.) Refractory materials are those materials, which will withstand high stresses at high temperatures. The following are the most common refractory materials: Silicon dioxide or silica SiO2 Aluminum oxide or alumina Al2O3 Iron oxide Fe2O3 Iron is always found as an ore or in a combined state, so it must be refined. One element that is more active than iron and is cheap and easy to get is carbon. When carbon combines with ore, we get iron and carbon monoxide. The reaction is: Fe2O3 + C = Fe + CO

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Iron ore is mined and concentrated to remove the soil and other undesirable materials; it is then shipped to the refinery. There it is mixed in layers in a huge blast furnace with coke and limestone. The limestone acts as flux to remove the impurities formed in the refining process. Air, heated to 1100 F (593 C), is blown from the bottom of the blast furnace, through the iron ore, coke and limestone layers of the charge. At this temperature, the carbon in the coke will react with the oxygen in the iron ore and start to burn off the oxygen from the iron oxides. This, in turn, causes the temperature to rise above the melting point of the iron, to about 3000 F (1649 C). After about 5 to 6 hours, the molten iron is drawn off through a tap hole at the bottom of the furnace and poured into ingots called pigs. The pig iron is not yet steel and contains many impurities, such as silicon and sulfur. The carbon content of this metal is about 4% at this stage. If cast iron is the desired end product, the pigs can be remelted and used directly. However, the addition of alloying elements to the pig iron is a common practice to give the metal better properties. Pig iron contains too much carbon and other undesirable materials in it for use as a strong metal. To acquire sufficient strength, it must be converted into steel. This is done in one of several types of converters. Although they differ in design, all the converters do the same thing that is, they burn off the carbon in the iron. There are four types of converters: Open hearth converter. Bessemer converter. Electric arc furnace. Oxygen lance converter.

These are described in more detail on the following pages.

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Open Hearth Converter Pigs from the blast furnace are mixed with scrap steel and melted. Hot air is blown across the surface and the excess carbon and other impurities are burned out of the melt. After about 11 hours, the desired alloying elements with an exact amount of carbon are added and the steel is drawn off, poured into large brick wall crucibles and cast into ingots.

Fuel supply (operating)

Flame Slag

Fuel supply (idle) Molten steel Hearth

Preheated air
Checkers

Cold air inlet


Checkers

Waste gases

Stack

Figure 3.1: Cross section of open hearth furnace (converter).

Bessemer Converter Hot air is blown into the molten pig. Scrap steel, the desired amount of carbon and alloying elements are added. To refine the steel, only 20 to 30 minutes are required. Afterward, the converter is tilted and the steel is poured into crucibles to create ingots.

Blowing Figure 3.2: Bessemer converter.

Charging

Pouring

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Electric Arc Furnace An electric arc furnace requires a very heavy current on the order of 25 000 amps to produce the highest quality steel. This is achieved through careful control of atmosphere and composition.

Electrodes Arc Molten metal

Heavy brick wall

Figure 3.3: Electric arc furnace.

Oxygen Lance Converter Pure oxygen is blown with high pressure into the molten metal. Oxygen burns out the carbon very rapidly. After the carbon is burned, the desired amounts of carbon and alloying elements are added to get the desired quality of steel. The furnace tilts for loading and pouring. Steel pours through the tap hole from under a slag covering.
Oxygen lance Tap hole

Slag Molten steel

Figure 5.4: Basic oxygen furnace (converter).

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Upon completion of the conversion process, the steel is ready to be formed into any of the several thousand products of the steel industry.

Comprehension Check 3.1


Fill in the blanks with the best word from each word pair: 1. Most of castings are made with a __________ mold. (metal/sand) 2. Sand is a(n) __________ material. (refractory/investment) 3. Pig iron is produced from a __________. (blast furnace/sand mold) 4. Pig iron contains too much __________ and other impurities. (coke/ carbon) 5. Pig iron from a blast furnace is made into the desired quality of steel by a(n) __________. (converter/investment mold) 6. The purpose of blowing hot air into an open hearth furnace is to __________ carbon and other impurities. (reduce/remove) 7. The best type of converter to produce high-quality steel is a __________ (electric arc furnace/open hearth converter) 8. After removal of excess carbon and other impurities, the desired amount of carbon and other alloying elements are added and then drawn and poured in a mold to get __________. (ingots/carbon dioxide) Answers are on p. 77.

Ingots, Blooms and Billets


As we have seen, iron ore is melted in a furnace to get pig iron. Pig iron contains a lot of impurities and excess carbon, unfit to use as high-strength steel for desired engineering applications. Thus, to improve the strength and to get desired mechanical properties, excess carbon is

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burnt off and desired alloys are added to turn the iron into steel. The steel is then drawn and made into ingots. Ingots (either fixed size or continuous pour) are further cut into the different sizes and shapes called billets, blooms or slabs, depending on the shape of the final product needed. In addition to casting, rolling, forging and welding, if a definite shape, like angles or channels, is required, they are extruded. These shapes are further worked in rolling mills or forging shops to get the desired shape. Forged shapes are shown in Figure 3.5.

Figure 3.5: Forged ingot and rough forged ingots. Photograph courtesy of Fomas Bay Forge, Chengleput, Tamilnadu.

These forms and shapes are defined as follows: Billet A section of the ingot that is suitable for rolling operations. Bar Solid shapes that can be hot or cold rolled in rounds, squares or flats in sizes ranging from 0.75 in. (1.9 cm) to 12 in. (30.5 cm) thick. Bloom A slab of steel or other metal whose width and thickness are equal. Plate A large flat slab thicker than 0.25 in. (0.64 cm). Shapes Angles, channels, etc. Angles and channels are particular shapes used in engineering industries. They are of definite shape and Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 55

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extruded from ingots. Extrusion is the process of squeezing the metal with the help of a die, just like a grease gun. In a grease gun, the grease is squeezed out based on the shape and size of the orifice. (See Figure 3.6 for a rough guide to shapes.)

Sand Casting
Whenever huge castings are to be made, we produce the casting with a sand mold. A pattern box is made to the shape of the casting, taking into account the shrinkage that normally takes place from the liquid to solid state. Then the sand mold is prepared using the pattern box and sand is rammed around it; binders are added to the sand to form a desired shape. (See Figure 3.6.)
Pouring cup Sprue Gating system

Mold

Riser

Molten metal in form (mold)

Figure 3.6: Basic sand casting process.

Molten metal is slowly poured through gates, without turbulence, so that the molten metal fills up the mold. On the other side of the gate, a vent is attached called a riser to allow the gas that has evolved during the casting process to escape. The gas, along with nonmetallic slag and other impurities, tries to escape through the riser, making the casting free from gas voids and slag. The rate of solidification depends on the thickness of every section of the casting. To have a uniform rate of solidification, chills are kept in the mold. 56 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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Chaplets and core supports are also placed in the mold both to support the core and allow all the sections of the casting to solidify at the same time to prevent the formation of hot tears. (See Figure 3.7.)

Riser Figure 3.7: Placement of chills as an aid to directional solidification of a casting.

Internal chill

External chill

Chaplets, Chills and Cores Chaplets or chill blocks are metal blocks placed in the mold for localized heat dissipation. They may be placed at an intersection or joint where there is a comparatively large volume of metal to cool, like a thick flange in an I-section casting. This helps produce a uniform rate of cooling with better microstructure without formation of hot tears or other discontinuities due to forces created by a nonuniform rate of cooling. If the chill is not totally melted, there will be a gap between the chill or chaplet, without it being fused. This discontinuity can be seen in the radiograph as a ring-like pattern with dark density showing a gap between the solidified molten metal and the chill. A core is placed in molds wherever it is necessary to preserve the space it occupies in the mold so as to create a void or a gap in the finished casting. A core is generally made with sand and with some binders and core oil, and placed in the casting where a cavity is sought. Cores are supported by chaplets; molten metal melts the chaplets to make one integral part of the casting. If they fail to totally melt and fuse, they leave a gap that can be easily seen in radiograph, as mentioned above. Unfused chaplets will lead to service failure.

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Centrifugal Casting
Pipes are cast to the desired diameter, thickness and length by the process of centrifugal casting. In short, due to centrifugal force, molten metal is thrown on the mold at a uniform rate to get the desired thickness and size. (See Figure 3.8.) The molten metal solidifies and forms a through-conduit. It is not a static casting process and most of the discontinuities found in sand casting do not occur in centrifugal casting, except cracks and variations in wall thickness.

Semicentrifugal

Centrifuge

Figure 3.8: Two variations of centrifugal casting: semicentrifugal involves revolving a symmetric mold about the axis of the molds cavity; centrifuge arranges a number of equally spaced mold cavities in a circle about a central pouring sprue.

Centrifugal casting consists of having a sand, metal or ceramic mold that is rotated at high speeds. Once more, when the molten metal is poured into the mold, it is thrown against the mold wall, where it remains until it cools and solidifies. This process is used for such products as cast iron pipes, cylinder liners, gun barrels, pressure vessels, brake drums, gears and flywheels. The metals used include almost all castable alloys. Advantages Because of fast cooling time, centrifugal castings have a fine grain size. The tendency is for slag, inclusions and porosity to occupy the inner wall of the casting; these discontinuities can be easily removed by machining. The outer wall of the pipe is smooth and free of discontinuities, as well as resistant to atmospheric corrosion.

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Investment Casting
Casting processes in which the pattern is used only once are variously referred to as lost-wax or precision-casting processes. In any case, they involve making a pattern of the desired form out of wax or plastics. The expandable pattern may be made by pressing the wax into a split mold or by the use of an injection-molding machine. The patterns may be gated together so that several parts can be made at once. The completed flasks are heated slowly to dry the mold and to melt out the wax or plastic. When the temperature reaches 1000 F (538 C), they are ready for pouring. A vacuum may be applied to the mold to completely occupy the metal. After complete cooling, the investment material is removed with a vibrating hammer or by tumbling. As in the case of other casting processes, the gates and risers are cut off and machined. (See Figure 3.9 for steps involved in investment casting.)

1. Wax pattern

2. Coat with refractory slurry

3. Reinforce with plaster backing (investment)

4. Oven dry to liquify or vaporize pattern and to dry mold

5. Pour (any metal)

6. Remove investment material

Figure 3.9: Stages of investment casting.

Advantages and Limitations A very small, fine, smooth-finished cast surface can be obtained that needs no further machining. However, very large castings generally greater than 24 in. (61 cm) are not possible to cast by this process. Metals used in Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 59

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investment casting are aluminum, copper, nickel, cobalt, carbon and alloy steels, stainless steels and tool steels. When small, ornamental cast products are desired, wax molds are used to produce the castings. Normally, such castings are not subjected to excessive stress; thus, any imperfection is not considered a serious defect except in terms of its dimensions when the casting is fit into its desired place.

Casting Discontinuities
Metal separations are particularly common in static castings. They are naturally formed and, up to a certain size, do not create mechanical notches for failure. Thus, in casting, more liberal sizes of discontinuities are still not considered to be defects and are allowed. In fact, a more liberal interpretation is generally applied to discontinuity limitations on radiographs of castings than of weld deposits, even though the cast components or welds may be located in the same pressure vessel or piping system. The following are typical discontinuities associated with sand casting. The first eight are represented in Figure 3.10 and are identified by their respective number.

2 7 4 3 6 5 4 8

Figure 3.10: Common casting discontinuities.

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1. Porosity Porosity is typically caused by the release of dissolved gases as the molten metal cools, creating bubbles or pores. Multiple pores in one area are called cluster porosity. If the porosity moves as the metal cools, elongated voids called piping or wormhole porosity may form, as shown in Figure 3.10. 2. Gas Holes Entrapped gas holes are generally larger than 0.0625 in. (1.6 mm). They are spherical in shape and the projected image is round. Based on size and distribution, they are graded into five levels in reference radiographs published by ASTM. 3. Sand Inclusion Sand in the mold may get mixed with the molten stream of liquid metal and become entrapped. The discontinuity caused by a sand inclusion may be of any shape in any part of the casting with varying optical density in the radiograph. The larger the cavity thickness, the greater the darkness of the inclusion. All sand inclusions appear darker in density and the degree of darkness is based on the volume of the sand inclusion. Based on size and location, thickness and grouping, they are classified into five levels in the ASTM set of reference radiographs. 4. Hot Tear Generally, castings have an irregular shape and vary in thickness. When the molten metal is poured into a cavity, the thinner section, as previously noted, solidifies first and the thicker section takes more time to solidify. When the thinner section solidifies, a force due to gravity is exerted by the solid mass and the core wall offers resistance to this force. Due to this tensile force, the portion of the metal that has yet to solidify and that is also weak, compared to the solid area, tears or separates from metal to metal, causing a hot crack. This hot crack is called a hot tear. Based on the resultant force, hot tears are formed in a particular direction, and if two or more are present in one section, we can always see hot tears moving parallel to one another. Since a hot tear is a crack and is active in the service life of a component or part, it is not graded and shall be rejected irrespective of size or length, per ASTM E 186 or 446, for example. All cracks are considered active as they will grow in size and lead to brittle fracture. From an engineering point of view, they can not be accepted. Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 61

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5. Cracks Cracks are formed in a casting after complete solidification. Extreme thermal conditions that are either too hot or too cold, as well as abuse, are the chief causes of cracks. They generally appear on the surface; visual inspection or penetrant and magnetic particle testing will easily detect them. A radiograph shows a crack as a dark, linear indication and the degree of darkness is based on the depth of the crack in the direction of the radiation. 6. Internal Shrinkage (Macro, Micro and Filamentary) Casting is a process where the liquid is solidified to the required shape. Also, you know that when a metal solidifies from the liquid to solid state, it shrinks in volume. When the hot metal is poured into the mold, the mold wall is relatively cool and the hot metal in touch with the mold (that is, close to the wall) solidifies first. Thicker sections take more time to solidify compared to thin sections and solidification starts from the outer cold mold wall and proceeds toward the inside. The reduction in volume takes place at a junction where there is an abrupt change in thickness. If this discontinuity has a lot of branches and vent holes, it is called macroshrinkage. If it has a spongelike appearance, then it is called microshrinkage or sponge shrinkage. Filamentary shrinkage usually occurs as a continuous structure of connected lines or branches, occasionally appearing as a network. 7. Air Pockets Air pockets form when air in an unfilled mold cannot escape as molten metal is added. These are normally found just below the top surface of the cast object. 8. Cold Shuts Cold shuts generally appear as smooth indentations on the surface of a casting and may resemble a forging lap. They are produced during the casting of molten metal and may result from interrupted pouring or the meeting of two streams of metal coming from different directions. Cold shuts also occur when a surface solidifies before another metal flows over it. Other casting discontinuities (not shown or identified in Figure 3.10) include the following:

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9. Unfused Chaplets In a steel foundry, metal pieces with certain metallurgical properties are kept as a core support or kept in the mold. The molten metal melts the chaplets and, due to this, some heat is spent. The aim of keeping chaplets is to make the entire casting solidify uniformly with all cross sections. This arrangement prevents discontinuities such as hot tears and macroshrinkage. The radiographic image of unfused chaplets resembles the shape of the chaplet generally a round, dark image, with either a full circular or partial ringlike appearance. 10. Scabs Scabs are an oxide layer in a casting, formed parallel to the surface and normally at the extreme walls of the casting. Radiography cannot detect this discontinuity as it is parallel to the surface. Scabs get easily removed by machining a few mm thickness. 11. Misruns If the molten metal takes an undesired path during pouring, this causes a discontinuity called a misrun. Generally, misruns are not detected by radiography as they are not a favorable discontinuity for imaging. 12. Core Shifts Cores are the supports placed in a mold to obtain a hollow portion in the finished casting. The desired shape of the casting will be affected by a core shift, producing either a darker or lighter image in the casting. 13. Mottling Low-energy radiation, particularly X-rays, can be diffracted based on the crystallographic plane in coarse-grained material like a stainless steel casting. This forms dark patches in the radiograph. To confirm the mottling due to diffraction, either the sample or the direction of the radiation beam can be slightly changed and the image will not reappear. Using lead screens with high-energy radiation also prevents mottling. Note: Mottling due to scattering of radiation may be confused with the mottled appearance produced on occasion by porosity or segregation. Casting Discontinuity Standards Per ASTM, casting discontinuities in this standard have been divided into seven groups, namely gas porosity or blowholes, sand and slag inclusions, shrinkages, hot tears, cracks, linear discontinuities, inserts and mottling. These discontinuities, in turn, are divided into graded and ungraded discontinuities.

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Graded discontinuities include blowholes, shrinkage and inclusions. They are graded in five classes with increasing severity levels. Therefore, a Class 1 blowhole is less severe than all of the other classes. Class 5 will contain the maximum number of discontinuities and the severity level is high. The graded discontinuities are generally not stress risers and have not been a source of service failure. However, depending on their concentration and the service condition of the component, they may be detrimental for failure. The customer specifies the level of acceptance based on the criticality of the component. Reference standards containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognizing a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels are not necessary.

Wrought Processes
Forgings
Forging is an important means of mechanical working. The forging process is used to produce shapes and components such as pins, bolts, gear blanks, shafts, etc. It is a hot working process accomplished by: Application of steady pressure. Impact from external pressure. Momentary localized pressure. It involves processes like upsetting, drawing out, expanding, punching and shearing. (A basic forging operation is shown in Figure 3.11.) Two important types of forging processes are open die forging and closed die forging. Open die forging Large shafts and axles are made where the ingot receives the impact load from hammers and dies to produce the required shape. Closed die forging A momentary localized pressure applied by means of matched metal dies. In one variation, rollers with die dimensions cut into them are utilized. Railroad wheels, some aircraft pins and automobile pins are made with closed die forging.

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Pressure Pressure

Tool Hot metal blank Flash Die

Figure 3.11: Basic forging process.

Merits of the Forging Operation Forging increases the local homogeneity of the metal because of deformation of the original crystals. Due to grain flow, the elastic limit, tensile strength, etc, are increased while high strength and resistance to shock or vibrations are provided to the components by forging. Compared to casting, forging provides greater strength and toughness. Ductility and toughness of steel parts are also greater than that of welded parts. Forging Discontinuities Forging discontinuities may arise from the original ingots or may get introduced during the actual forging operation. If the original ingots have inclusions, gas holes, cracks, voids or pipes, they tend to reduce in volume and extend in length and width direction, forming laminar or planar discontinuities. Since most of the discontinuities are planar or laminar, forming parallel to the thickness direction, ultrasonic testing is the most suitable method for detection rather than radiography. Radiography on forged materials is seldom done. Discontinuities arising from forging operations include the following:

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Laps The ingots are kept in the furnace and the heat permeates the entire cross section of the ingot before it is forged into the required shape. The metal tends to fold around the die during the forging operation, causing folds or laps. Bursts If a phenomenon called hot shortness takes place, the internal core portion of the ingot becomes relatively harder compared to the external surface of the ingot. If, in this condition, we apply external force, the hard metal will fail under brittle fracture and create cracks. These types of cracks are called internal bursts. Pipe When the forged piece cools to room temperature, the volume reduces. The extreme wall, in immediate contact with low temperature or room temperature, solidifies and shrinks. The shrink allowance has to take place somewhere in the forged part and this is possible only at the center of the forging, creating a conduit or pipe. Cracks Cracks are separations of metal. In general, separation between atoms takes place when the stress on a component is very high. An engineer refers to this stress as ultimate stress; when the metal takes more than this stress, the metal will crack. You must know that stress is calculated as load per unit area. For a given load, when the area is small, the stress increases. If, for instance, you take a blunt nail and hammer it into a wall, it will not enter. On the other hand, if you hammer a sharp-ended nail, it will enter the wall. Here, in the sharp nail, the same load is concentrated on a very small area and the stress is high. In the case of the blunt nail, the area of cross section is high, so for the same load, the stress value is less. Cracks that form due to excessive stress may come from many sources, such as the following: Excessive load or abuse load increases and strength decreases. Thermal stress the desired mechanical properties, like yield stress and ultimate stress, are reduced at elevated temperatures and eventually the metal cannot take the design load and a crack develops. Vibration and cyclic load due to many million cycles, the ultimate stress value reduces and leads to failure; also called endurance limit. Very low temperature when the metal loses ductility to brittleness. Unacceptable discontinuities as noted above for forgings.

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Any one or more of the above conditions may lead to cracking in a forging. In general, improper forging operations, temperature extremes (either too high or too low) and abuse create cracks.

Rolled Products
Rolling, as the term suggests, is the process of producing basic shapes and flat products like plates, sheets and strips by passing ingots through rolls. Two types of rolls are used: Cylindrical rolls acting in the horizontal plane. Edge rolls acting in the vertical plane. Hot rolling and cold rolling are two major operations in the rolling process to produce the desired mechanical properties. Hot Rolling The structure of steel is crystalline when cast into ingots and contains blowholes and impurities. Hot rolling elongates the crystalline structure, closing up blowholes and producing a fibrous and dense structure. Hot rolling results in increased yield strength, as well as ultimate tensile strength. Cold Rolling After hot rolling, cold rolling further increases the yield point and ultimate tensile strength. However, it results in a reduction in percentage elongation and an increase in hardness value. The net effect of cold rolling is a reduction in ductility and impact values (based on impact tests, such as izod or charpy tests, that subject material to sudden loads or shock loads). The ingots are rolled into plates, bar stock, wires or rods between a pair of rollers. Any discontinuity in the original ingot will be reduced in its thickness direction. Rolling Discontinuities Discontinuities resulting from the rolling process include the following: Stringers Inclusions closer to the surface of the ingots will be expelled, forming stringers. Stringers can be removed by wire brushing or sandblasting. Laminations Inclusions entirely located in the inner walls of ingots tend to form laminar discontinuities with length and width Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 67

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without any appreciable separation in thickness direction. These are called laminations. In Figure 3.12(a), a centerline lamination results from pipe or shrinkage (1 2) remaining after the primary forming process. Figure 3.12(b) shows laminations forming from segregation (1 2) and nonmetallic inclusions (3 4). Seams Dents, inclusions and blowholes on the surface of the ingot will open in the rolling operation and create a separation in the metal. The separated metal does not get welded or joined into one integral part. Such separation of the metal normally occurs on the surface of the rolled plate or bar stock. If external force concentrates at such locations, the stress may create cracks.
(a) (b) 1 1 2 2

Figure 3.12: Rolling discontinuities: (a) centerline delamination and (b) segregation and inclusion laminations.

Forging or rolling operations turn volumetric discontinuities into laminar discontinuities. The radiographic method is best for volumetric discontinuities whereas the ultrasonic method is best for the separation of metal, due to the change in interface or acoustic impedance. Therefore, we conduct ultrasonic examinations of forged and rolled products.

Extruded Products
Extrusion is used to obtain rods from metal having poor ductility, like lead. It is also used to form tubes and complicated sections from various nonferrous metals, like copper, brass, aluminum and its alloys, as well as steel and nickel alloys. Overall, extrusion is an ideal and economical process. In this process, a round, heated billet of metal is placed in a container and forced through a die by a plunger operated by a 750-3300 ton press. (A basic extrusion operation is shown in Figure 3.13.)

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Rod

Ram

Heated billet

Figure 3.13: Extrusion process.

In general there are four extrusion processes: 1. 2. 3. 4. Direct extrusion. Indirect extrusion. Impact extrusion. Tube extrusion.

Pipes, channels, angles and bars can be extruded using mandrels. A lot of thermal stresses are built up on the extruded surface. Thermal stress cracks can be found on the surface of the extruded parts. These are called chevrons or chevron cracks. Seams and folds can also occur in extrusions and are considered serious defects. As they form on the surface, surface NDT methods like visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle or eddy current testing are the best for inspection. For all extrusion processes, the die in contact with the billet creates surface discontinuities in the direction of extrusion. Similar to forging and rolling, extruded products, like pipes and channels, exhibit surface and planar discontinuities. Once more, surface NDT methods, as mentioned above, are the most suitable methods to detect these types of discontinuities. Radiography is seldom used, as radiography is not sensitive to surface discontinuities with very shallow depths.

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Comprehension Check 3.2


1. Shrinkage in a sand casting is likely to occur: A. Anywhere in the casting. B. At a location where there is a change in thickness. 2. Of the following two casting processes, which one will not incur a hot tear? A. Sand casting. B. Centrifugal casting. 3. When an ingot is further worked in the rolling process, the inclusions in the original ingot will turn into: A. Laminations and stringers. B. Seams and tears. 4. An oxide inclusion in the original ingot will turn into a __________ in a rolling operation. A. Crack. B. Lamination. 5. Which of the following discontinuities is best detected by radiography? A. A lamination. B. Sand inclusion. 6. Radiography is not generally preferred as a method for detecting forging discontinuities because: A. Most of the volumetric discontinuities in the original ingot reduce to flat or laminar type discontinuities. B. Of size and thickness.

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7. Forging laps will normally occur: A. On the surface. B. Internally. 8. When a bloom is heated in a furnace before a forging operation, the heat permeates from the external surface to the central core of the ingot. If the central core of the ingot is not properly heated and not in a plastic condition, the forging operation tends to create a hard surface crack. Such a discontinuity in a forging is called a: A. Hot tear. B. Burst. Answers begin on p. 77.

Welding Processes
Welding is also called localized casting. The welding process involves melting metal to a liquid state and joining it or fusing it to the parent metal to make one complete integral part. There are mainly two types of welding techniques: pressure welding and fusion welding. The process of welding provides a large number of metallurgical effects. These aspects of welding are particularly important because a welded joint consists of cast, wrought and heat-treated structures. Welded joints are, in general, inspected with regard to the following two areas: 1. The weld metal deposit. 2. The heat affected zones of the parent metal. Since the weld metal is nothing but a miniature casting having cooled rapidly from an extremely high temperature, the formation of long columnar crystals, resulting in a relatively weak structure, takes place. Each run of metal in a multi-run weld normalizes the preceding run. This Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 71

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Flux feed Welding nozzle Shielding gas A Weld metal B

Filler metal TIG torch Flux Welding cup C Base metal

Gun Shielding gas Electric arc Weld metal Trigger

Figure 3.14: Basic electric arc welding processes: (A) shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), (B) submerged arc welding (SAW), (C) gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and (D) gas metal arc welding (GMAW).

enables the improvement of mechanical properties due to welding; it also results in considerable grain refinement. The electric arc is utilized in most of the common welding processes. The arc can produce heat of >6000 C (10 832 F) with extreme levels of ultraviolet, infrared and visible light. Extreme heat is derived from the collision of electrons and ions with the base material and the electrode. An electric arc is produced by the passage of current across the ionized gap. As gases are insulators to current, a sufficiently high voltage is required to strip off the electrons from the atom and to maintain an electric arc or path. This condition is called the plasma state; once the plasma state is achieved, then lower voltage can maintain the arc. There are many kinds of joining processes; a few are described below; four of these are illustrated in Figure 3.14. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) During manual metal arc welding, the arc is shielded from external gases. Hence, this process is called shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), as shown in Figure 3.14(A). The gas shield is produced from the combustion of compounds in the electrode coating. The gas produced is mainly carbon dioxide CO2, which shields the gases found in the atmosphere. Some electrodes are specially made to produce hydrogen gas, which gives a very high level of penetration. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) In submerged arc welding (SAW), the external gases are shielded by the combustion of compounds (fluxes). These compounds are supplied in a granulated flux, which is added separately to the wire. SAW fluxes contain 72 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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high levels of basic compounds where hydrogen-controlled welding is required. The arc is submerged and the flux keeps out atmospheric gases. For an illustration, see Figure 3.14(B). Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) In gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, an arc is maintained in a stream of inert gas between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the work piece. This process is diagrammed in Figure 3.14(C). The arc is used to heat the joint while filler wire is fed in separately. From a manipulative viewpoint, tungsten inert gas welding resembles oxy-acetylene welding. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) This process is sometimes referred to as MIG/MAG, standing for its two subtypes: metal inert gas and metal active gas welding, respectively. This process differs from manual metal arc (MMA) welding or tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, as a different type of power source is required. A continuous wire from a spool is automatically supplied at the welding torch head. The shielding gas is supplied from an external cylinder. A separate wire feed unit or internal wire drive mechanism is also required to drive the wire electrode. An arc is created when the wire comes into contact with the work piece, as illustrated in Figure 3.14(D). Other welding processes (not shown in Figure 3.14) include the following: Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) The wire consists of a metal sheath containing a granular flux. The flux can contain elements that would normally be used in MMA electrodes. This welding process has a very wide range of applications. Resistance Welding In resistance welding, the heating effect of the current and the heat energy generated (Q) in joules is based on the current (I), the resistance (R) and the time (t) that it takes for the current to pass. This is expressed in the following formula: Q = I2Rt

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In this welding process, a low voltage and high current, when passed over a high-resistance part, generate intense heat energy. External pressure is applied to the weld area.

Special Welding Processes


Special welding processes include the following: Electron Beam Welding (EBW) As youll recall from Volume 1, an electron is the negative constituent of an atom. Electrons can be separated from their orbit by many means and one among them is by heat. If a filament is heated, the electrons boil off of the atom and get separated. This process of obtaining electrons by heating is called thermionic emission. Once the electrons are generated, they are focused into an intense beam of collimated electrons. A high potential difference is kept between the cathode and the anode so that the electrons are accelerated in a vacuum chamber. Once the electrons leave the anode, they are focused by a magnetic field into a highly concentrated pencil beam of electron energy, as diagrammed in Figure 13.15.

Low voltage AC

Filament Cathode Anode Focusing coil Electron beam Work Vacuum Figure 3.15: Schematic diagram of a simple High voltage DC electron-beam gun. Low voltage DC

When electrons are suddenly decelerated by the metal, X-rays are produced. Suitable protection must be given to the welder to prevent exposure to X-rays.

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Advantages of electron beam welding include: The electron beam is confined to a narrow area with greater depth of penetration. The depth-to-width ratio is usually 25:1, producing a very small or nil heat affected zone. Post-weld heat treatment is not required with this process. Welding speed can be high, as fast as 200 in./min (508 cm/min). Metals as thin as 0.001 in. (0.0254 mm) can be welded. Thin sections can be joined to thick sections. Electroslag Welding Electroslag welding (shown in Figure 3.16) is a specialized submerged arc welding (SAW) method of joining thick sections in a vertical position. In this process, granular flux is placed in the gap between the plates being welded. As the current is turned on, welding takes place in a U-shaped starting block. As the flux melts, a slag blanket of 1.5 in. to 15 in. (3.81 cm to 38.1 cm) thick is formed. At this point, the arc goes out and the current is conducted directly in the electrode wire through the slag. The high resistance of slag supplies heat (I2R) to the weld. With this method, very heavy sections can be welded; the maximum reported welding thickness is 24 ft (7.3 m).
Runoff tabs Electrode guide

Water-cooled shoe (front shoe not shown) Figure 3.16: Diagram of electroslag welding.

Electrode wire Molten slag Molten metal

Work

Resolidified metal Work Well for initial slag

Starting plate

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Welding Discontinuities
Discontinuities associated with welding include the following: Concave root surface (suck back) excessive shrinkage of the welddeposited root bead, sometimes occurring on the inaccessible back side of the weld. Drop-through also known as convexity or excessive penetration; an undesirable convex-shaped sagging and excessive bead width at the weld root. Inclusions metallic or nonmetallic foreign material trapped in the weld or between the weld metal and the base metal; the most common are slag and tungsten inclusions. Slag inclusions are produced by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), in which slag forms a protective coating over the hot weld metal. Tungsten inclusions, as you might expect, are a byproduct of gas tungsten arc welding (TGAW). Inclusions may appear individually or be linearly distributed throughout the weld. Incomplete fusion (lack of fusion) failure of weld and base metal (or of two different weld metals) to fuse together as a result of improper weaving, low welding current or too fast of a welding speed. Lack of penetration (incomplete penetration) can be caused when insufficient root gap is provided during fit-up operations or when residual welding stresses cause the established gap to be closed. Porosity rounded, elongated or teardrop-shaped discontinuity caused by gas entrapment in the molten metal. Unconsumed insert results from preplaced filler metal that is not completely melted and fused in the root joint. Undercut a groove that is melted into the base metal along the edge of the weld and left unfilled by the weld metal; generally considered a serious discontinuity because of a reduction in the cross section of the weld zone and, therefore, load-carrying capability. Cracks a lack of sidewall fusion in the principle stress axis will propagate into a crack. An undercut on the tensile side of the welded member will lead to crack propagation, as the whole stress will concentrate on sharp notches.

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Answers to Chapter 3 Questions


Comprehension Check 3.1
1. metal. 2. refractory. 3. blast furnace. 4. carbon. 5. converter. 6. remove. 7. electric arc furnace. 8. ingots.

Comprehension Check 3.2


1. Answer: B. A. Anywhere in the casting is the wrong choice. You must imagine that when the molten metal solidifies, it shrinks in volume. The thicker portion of the casting will take a much longer time to solidify than the thinner section. Bearing in mind once again the reduction in volume in the casting process, this reduction will take place only at the change in thickness, as the thinner section has already solidified. B. Nice choice. You have a good understanding of shrinkage in the casting process.

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2. Answer: B. A. Sand casting? No. In sand casting, the molten metal is allowed to solidify on its own. Based on uneven thickness, a tensile stress will develop. The section that has yet to solidify is weak and a crack or rupture of metal will take place at this junction of thick and thin metal. Such a rupture of metal, when it is hot, is called a hot tear. B. You made the correct choice. Probably, you are thinking that the centrifugal force makes the entire section have a uniform rate of solidification, leaving no stress. If this is your assumption, then you are exactly correct on this point. 3. Answer: A. A. Laminations and stringers good choice. Laminations and stringers originate from the same discontinuities, like nonmetallic inclusions, blowholes, etc. During rolling operations, there is a reduction in thickness. As a result, the entrapped inclusions turn into flat discontinuities. When the discontinuity is flat with little or no thickness, but with separated metal, it is called a lamination. A stringer is a straight imperfection formed in the direction of rolling. B. Seams and tears? Sorry! Seams are formed due to unfilled craters in the original ingot. When the metal is rolled, they tend to form unwelded areas or separated areas with considerable depth. Generally, seams do not originate from inclusions. 4. Answer: B. A. Crack? Oh, no. A crack normally forms where excessive stress that is, the applied stress is more than the ultimate stress. The increase in stress may come from many sources; for example, a sharp notch increases the stress value, as will cyclic loading, thermal stresses, etc. For this reason, an oxide inclusion will not create a crack.

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B. Lamination good answer. Imagine that you roll a sandwich with external rollers. The ingredients will become flat, reducing in thickness and increasing in length and breadth. In a similar way, a metal may contain foreign items, like the ingredients in a sandwich, such as inclusions, oxides, refractory bricks, etc. These items tend to get flattened, forming laminations. 5. Answer: B. A. No, sorry. Detecting a lamination is not possible with radiography. A lamination is a two-dimensional discontinuity with negligible thickness in the direction of the radiation beam. Moreover, the lamination plane will be parallel to the film plane, making it not possible to detect. B. Your choice is excellent. Sand inclusions have volume and, in the direction of the radiation beam, there is considerable thickness separation of metal. The net metal thickness under a sand inclusion will be less, leading to less attenuation and more radiation to the film, producing a dark shadow. 6. Answer: A. A. Yes, this statement is true and acceptable; that being the case, we do not attempt to use the radiographic method for forgings. B. This is not a reasonable answer, as size and thickness are not main restrictions for radiography; moreover, we have not mentioned the source, absorber or thickness in the question. 7. Answer: A. A. If A is your choice, your selection is correct. Laps are also called folds. Folds occur only on the extreme surface where the forging press or hammer comes into contact with the soft metal and the excess metal tends to get folded on the outer surface.

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B. If B is your choice, you are wrong. The extra metal squeezed out during forging operations tends to fold only on the extreme ends of the part that is, on the external surface of the forged piece. 8. Answer: B. A. Hot tear? No, a hot tear is a casting discontinuity and not connected with forging operations. B. Since a burst is your choice, you must be aware that the hard surface of a forging will crack and the soft metal will yield to the external force. Good answer.

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Chapter 3 Review
Fill in the blank(s) by choosing the best answer from each pair: 1. Billets and blooms are obtained from __________ for further processing. (ingots/raw ore) 2. Blooms are further reduced to __________ for the rolling or forging process. (ingots/billets) 3. An inclusion such as a refractory brick included in the billet will turn into a __________ in the rolling process. (lap/lamination) 4. An unfilled crater in the original bloom and opened to the surface will turn into a __________ in the rolling process. (seam/stringer) 5. Sand casting normally produces __________ discontinuities where there is a sudden change in thickness. (shrinkage/mottling) 6. Hot tears are formed due to __________ stress at the corners and at the junctions of thick and thin sections. (compressive/tensile) 7. Intermittent pouring of molten metal produces a __________ in the casting process. (hot tear/cold shut) 8. Insufficient current in the welding process will tend to produce __________. (lack of fusion/tungsten inclusions) 9. The portion of the base metal close to the weld bead where the metal has not been melted but the metallurgical properties have been changed is called the __________. (weld deposit/heat affected zone)

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True or false: 10. The discontinuities found in the casting process are classified as inherent discontinuities. 11. When the metal solidifies from the liquid to the solid state, most of the discontinuities have volume and produce voids. 12. The discontinuities found in ingots are classified as processing discontinuities. 13. Rolling and forging are classified as primary processes. 14. The inherent discontinuities found in ingots are flattened into planar discontinuities in rolling and forging operations. 15. Radiography is recommended to detect planar discontinuities found in rolling and casting processes. 16. Planar discontinuities and laminations are found parallel to the thickness direction. 17. Any discontinuity parallel to the thickness and with a very small separation in thickness direction is easy to detect by radiography. 18. Shrinkage normally occurs in the rolling process. 19. Inclusions in ingots, billets and blooms tend to become flattened in the rolling process. 20. Ingots are reduced to billets and blooms for further processing, such as forging and casting. 21. Any inclusion in billets and blooms will be removed during the rolling or forging process. 22. A shrinkage formed in the casting process is called an inherent discontinuity.

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23. A pipe cast with the centrifugal casting process is likely to have shrinkage and sand inclusions. 24. The casting process in which a fine, smooth finish is obtained is called investment casting. 25. A cold shut in a casting is an internal discontinuity. 26. Seams normally form parallel to the direction of rolling. 27. In the forging process, folds are also called laps. 28. Slag inclusions are a common discontinuity in the GTAW process. 29. A lamination is a discontinuity normally occurring in the casting process. 30. Nonmetallic inclusions are found in SMAW. 31. Most inclusions are reduced to planar discontinuities in rolling and forging processes. Multiple choice: 32. Which one of the following processes is not a primary process? A. B. C. D. Forging. Rolling. Grinding. Casting.

33. Shrinkage of all types is classified as a(n) __________ discontinuity. A. B. C. D. Primary process. Secondary process. Service-induced. Inherent.

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34. It is desired to produce a casting of small size with good surface finish; to achieve this, the casting process is: A. B. C. D. Sand casting. Centrifugal casting. Investment casting. Die casting.

35. The purpose of inserting chaplets in a casting mold is to: A. Support the core. B. Make the casting to solidify uniformly to prevent casting discontinuities. C. Both A and B. D. Increase the hardness value. 36. A core made of sand is placed in a casting mold to: A. B. C. D. Produce the desired cavity in a casting. Get good tensile properties of a casting. Obtain a good surface finish. All of the above.

37. A hot tear is a hot crack formed during the: A. B. C. D. Rolling process. Casting process. Forging process. All of the above processes.

38. A hot tear is formed due to: A. Tensile force concentrated at the sharp corners of a thick and thin section in a casting when the metal is hot. B. A faulty die in the extrusion process. C. Compressive force in the forging process. D. The normal outcome of hot rolled products.

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39. Laminations tend to form: A. B. C. D. Anywhere in the forging process. Parallel to the direction of rolling. Close to the riser in a sand casting. During the service life of a part.

40. Forging bursts normally occur: A. B. C. D. In the extreme layer or on the skin of a forging. Due to hot shortness in the middle of the forging. Anywhere in the forging cross section. All of the above are possible reasons.

41. The best method to detect a lap in an aluminum forging is: A. B. C. D. Radiography. Ultrasonic testing. Magnetic particle testing. Liquid penetrant testing.

42. A dark image on a radiograph appearing in the weld bead is: A. B. C. D. An inclusion. Porosity. An indication. A crack.

43. Generally, radiography is not recommended for rolled bar stock and forged bars because: A. These processes produce laminar discontinuities. B. The discontinuities are planar and parallel to the direction of rolling. C. If radiographed with thickness direction, the discontinuities will lie parallel to the film. D. All of the above are true.

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Chapter 3 Review Key


1. ingots 2. billets 3. lamination 4. seam 5. shrinkage 6. tensile 7. cold shut 8. lack of fusion 9. heat affected zone 10. True 11. True 12. False 13. True 14. True 15. False 16. True 17. False 18. False 19. True

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20. True 21. False 22. True 23. False 24. True 25. False 26. True 27. True 28. False 29. False 30. True 31. True 32. C 33. D 34. C 35. C 36. A 37. B 38. A 39. B

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40. B 41. D 42. C 43. D

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Chapter 4
Interpretation of Casting Discontinuities

In this chapter: Radiographic setup for testing of castings Radiographic shooting sketch of castings Discontinuities produced by the casting process Appearance of casting discontinuities in radiographs Codes and standards applicable to RT of castings Referring to reference radiographs of casting discontinuities

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Radiographic Testing of Castings


Radiography is the most suitable NDT method for the detection of casting discontinuities because: 1. Most casting discontinuities have thickness and volume and RT is the best technique to detect volumetric discontinuities. 2. Radiography produces a shadow image with sufficient intensity for the interpreter to identify the nature of the discontinuity based on its shape and contour. 3. The radiation beam can be projected favorable to the orientation of each and every type of casting discontinuity to record it on film. 4. With special radiographic techniques, the depth of the discontinuity can be located for necessary repair. 5. It is possible to detect all types of casting discontinuities with the radiographic method. To get the best possible image, it is important to use the best radiographic technique. The sensitivity of the radiograph must also be ensured to make radiography the most suitable method for detecting discontinuities. The interpreter must be aware of the casting process, including the probable discontinuities and their location. The projection of the radiation beam and placement of film are most important to locate the discontinuity successfully. To enable the location of discontinuities in a casting, the radiographer must be supplied with a radiographic shooting sketch (RSS). An example is shown in Figure 4.1. The interpreter has to correlate the discontinuitys position solely with the help of the shooting sketch; otherwise, the discontinuity cannot be located. In Figure 4.1, the discontinuity is in a particular position in the casting. Because of the relative position of the source, the image or shadow is thrown on the film in different locations. If the radiograph is used to locate the position of the discontinuity without knowing the source position, the actual location cannot be detected and successful repair is not possible to eliminate the discontinuity based on radiographic testing.

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S2

S3 Source position (S)

S1

IQI

M3 Radiographic image

M2

M1

Image position (M)

Figure 4.1: Radiographic shooting sketch of a casting. Note that the shift in the radiographic image is due to different source positions (S1 M1, S2 M2 and S3 M3).

Radiographic Shooting Sketch


The radiographic shooting sketch shall indicate the following: 1. The technique to be used; as far as it is practicable, the radiographer should use the single-wall/single-image technique (SWSI). (Note: Techniques will be presented in more detail in Chapter 6.) 2. IQI selection and placement. 3. Wall thickness. 4. Source-to-object and object-to-film distance. 5. The size of film for each segment to sufficiently cover the projected area. IQI Review To review: The sensitivity of a radiograph is measured by an image quality indicator or IQI. An IQI is not a tool to size the discontinuity but to know whether the radiograph meets the required quality level. The quality of the radiograph is the combined effect of contrast and definition. To measure the contrast and definition, we need a tool of known thickness, normally 2% of the material thickness. The other prerequisite of the image is the definition or sharpness. Sharpness depends on the Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 91

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geometry of the exposure setup, largely on source-to-object distance and object-to-film distance for a give source size. Also, as the beam has inherent divergence, the distortion of the image is inevitable. Distortion increases as the cone angle increases; more distortion occurs at the extremes of the cone of radiation and the least distortion is projected at the central axis of the cone. The contrast of the radiograph is studied by seeing the outline of the hole- or plaque-type IQI; effects of sharpness and distortion are studied by seeing the holes in the plaque-type or the wire number of the wire-type IQI. (An example of a hole-type IQI is presented in Figure 4.2.)
Figure 4.2: Standard hole-type penetrameter with thickness T (2% of the specimen thickness). The minimum thickness of the specimen on which the IQI is to be placed is represented by the ID number. In this case, 6.0 = 6 in. (15.24 cm). T = 0.12 in. (0.3 cm). Hole diameters are multiples of T, as indicated.

ID No.

T 4T 1T Hole diameter 2T

When the proper designation IQI is selected and placed on the proper location of the specimen, we satisfy that the radiograph has met the required quality, that is: Highest contrast. Adequate density. Sharp definition. Least distortion.

Remember, an IQI is the only tool to qualify the radiograph for its radiographic quality. Percentage Sensitivity The ability of the radiographic method to find the smallest size discontinuity is called sensitivity.

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Sensitivity is a measurable quantity with an ability of the radiographic image to discriminate the shadow due to a change in thickness normally 2% of material thickness. Therefore, we express the sensitivity as: % sensitivity = where T = the change in thickness that is, IQI thickness. T = the specimen thickness. DT 100 T

Question 4.1
The flange portion of a casting is 60 mm and the procedure requires a sensitivity level of 2%. The radiograph should be in a position to resolve a change in thickness of __________ or the IQI thickness is __________. Answer is on p. 111. Radiographic Shooting Sketch Example Figure 4.3 (on the following page) is based on practical radiographic inspection of valve body castings. The accompanying table or chart (see Table 4.1) is to be prepared by Level III personnel to ensure properly locating the source and the IQI, as well as to determine the most effective source-to-object and object-to-film distance. Also, due to enlargement of the image, the proper size of film must be mentioned in the chart. The chart and radiographic shooting sketch serve as a set of working instructions to the radiographer to obtain the best possible image. Both the chart and the sketch are essential for the interpreter to locate the discontinuity in the test object by properly transferring the radiographic image based on knowing the source position and image position. The sketch and chart permit all technicians to carry out a radiographic assignment in one particular order. Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 93

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D D Flange 1 S2 (1 to 4) S3 S4 S1 (1 to 4) Flange 2 Film F1 to F4 (EF, FG, GH, HE) Film F1 to F4 (AB, BC, CD, DA)

Figure 4.3: Radiographic shooting sketch of a valve body casting. (S = source position.) Table 4.1: Chart to accompany radiographic shooting sketch (above). Note: If the required minimum Ug as per procedure is not possible to achieve, due to geometry of the casting and locations of the source and film, then the radiographer should mark the area in the shooting sketch and write RT is impracticable. radiographic Source position Area marking S1 Flange 1 4 exposures AB, BC, CD, DA Flange 2 EF, FG, GH, HE Body B 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-1 Body B 5-6, 6-7, 7-8, 8-5 Thickness IQI Film size

4 in. (10.2 cm)

12 14 in. (30.5 35.6 cm) As per Table T 276 of Article 2 of ASME Section V source side 6 8 in. (15.2 20.3 cm)

S2

5 in. (12.7 cm)

S3

2 in. (5.1 cm)

S4

2 in. (5.1 cm)

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Casting Discontinuities
In the previous chapter, we discussed in detail the various casting processes. In this chapter, we will learn about casting discontinuities and their appearance in radiographs. Producing a component employing a casting process is by far the cheapest and most widely used metal-shaping technique. A casting process, in short, involves melting metal and pouring it in a pair of molds, which in turn use patterns. Almost all castings are made with sand molds; generally, as presented in this chapter, discontinuities refer to sand castings. The obvious source of casting discontinuities are: Those due to sand and molding processes. Those due to core and core making. Those due to metal and liquid-to-solid state conditions. Those due to carelessness.

Before we proceed, lets see how much you remember about casting, casting-related discontinuities and the radiographic method.

Comprehension Check 4.1


Fill in the blanks by choosing the most appropriate term from each pair: 1. Casting discontinuities are classified as __________. (process/inherent) 2. The interpreter needs a __________ to properly locate a discontinuity in the casting. (shooting sketch/densitometer) 3. Most of the discontinuities formed in sand castings are __________. (volumetric/planar) 4. Radiography is best for casting because most of the discontinuities are __________. (laminar/volumetric)

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5. Most castings are made with a __________ mold. (sand/investment) 6. The shadow of a casting discontinuity will be __________ than the actual size. (smaller/larger) 7. If the discontinuity thickness increases, the optical density of the image __________. (increases/decreases) [increases] 8. If a discontinuity is oriented at the extreme cone of radiation, the image of the discontinuity will be __________. (verified/distorted) 9. The distorted image of the discontinuity will be blurred and __________. (reduced/ enlarged) Answers begin on p. 111.

Question 4.2
The most suitable NDT method to locate the internal discontinuities in a casting is radiography because RT is best for: A. Volume discontinuities. B. Planar discontinuities. Answer is on p. 112.

Radiographic Appearance of Casting Discontinuities


Porosity, Gas Holes and Blowholes These discontinuities are caused by gases dissolved in the molten metal, which evolve and become entrapped during solidification. Generally, they are spherical and sometimes elongated. They can be distributed or isolated and occupy any position in the casting. Porosity can be individually identified and defined in the radiograph as distinct, globular gas voids. Individual pores vary in size and concentration, as shown in Figure 4.4(a). The most serious gas voids are referred to as gas holes, wormhole porosity or blowholes, as can be seen in Figures 4.4(b) and 4.5.

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(a)

(b)

Figure 4.4: Porosity (a) and gas holes or blowholes (b).

Figure 4.5: Radiograph of gas voids in a 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) aluminum casting. Blowholes are well-defined cavities that produce a darker image. Gas holes exhibit larger, darker film density, as well.

Scabs These are oxide layers formed on the skin or slightly below the surface and parallel to the cast surface. They are not considered a serious discontinuity and may be easily removed during machining. Internal Shrinkage or Shrinkage Cavities When metals solidify from liquid to solid, they shrink in volume. The shrinkage normally occurs in the center or inside of the casting. This is where solidification takes place last because hot molten metal is not available to fill the gap created by the volume change from liquid to solid. Shrinkage, in general, appears as dark regions on the radiograph. Shrinkage may take the form of large, irregular voids or rough, branching indications that may be mistaken for cracks or hot tears. There are different types of shrinkage, including macro, micro, sponge and filamentary, as follows: Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 97

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Macroshrinkage or cavities a type of shrinkage that normally branches out and may get extended out to the surface; if so, the same discontinuity is called pipe. Cavity shrinkage appears as areas with distinct jagged boundaries. Large, individual voids will often have a rough, jagged surface of treelike metal grains, as shown in Figure 4.6. These discontinuities may induce service failure depending upon their size, location and extent.

Figure 4.6: Large, irregular voids due to shrinkage.

Microshrinkage presents a cloudy appearance in the radiograph with dark spots distributed evenly over an area. It occurs as an array of small voids having a feathery appearance, especially in magnesium castings. This is evident in Figure 4.7.
(a)

(b)

Figure 4.7: Feathery microshrinkage in a 6.3 mm (0.25 in.) magnesium-base alloy casting (a); a closeup view of microshrinkage (b).

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Figure 4.8: Small voids with a spongelike appearance (a); sponge shrinkage in a 13 mm (0.5 in.) aluminum casting (b).

(a)

(b)

Sponge shrinkage presents areas of lacy texture with diffuse outlines, generally toward the mid thickness of heavier casting sections, as shown in Figure 4.8. It often occurs in nickel- and cobalt-base alloys. Relatively large areas of sponge shrinkage may produce only faint, barely detectable radiographic images. Filamentary shrinkage forms in layers. It exhibits a continuous structure of interconnected lines or branches of variable length, width and density. Hot Tears and Cracks Hot tears and cracks are very similar in appearance only with the following difference: with hot tears, the separation of metal boundaries is rugged and not smooth, whereas for cracks, the separation is smooth, like a ductile fracture. A hot tear occurs when the metal is hot or has yet to solidify to its complete solid state, but cracks occur at room temperature after complete solidification.

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(a) Figure 4.9: Hot tears (a) and cracks (b).

(b)

When different section thicknesses of the casting solidify, the thinner section solidifies first and introduces a tensile force. This force is responsible for hot tears where the metal has yet to solidify, because of its greater thickness. Hot tears also propagate in a single direction and will not cross each other in any section in which they are found or appear. They may also contain oxides and scales, whereas cracks are scale free. In radiographs, they form a dark, jagged, linear indication, sometimes intermittent or branching. Cracks appear as thin (straight or jagged) linear discontinuities. Radiographically, cracks are narrower than hot tears. The differences between hot tears and cracks are demonstrated in Figure 4.9. Misruns A misrun occurs when the metal in a casting fails to fill up the mold. The two main reasons for a misrun are entrapped gas and insufficient molten metal reaching a particular cavity of the mold. Misruns are easy to identify radiographically, appearing as prominent dense areas of variable dimensions with a definite smooth outline (see Figure 4.10). Most often, they occur at random.

Figure 4.10: Misrun.

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Cold Shuts Radiographically, cold shuts resemble smooth straight or curved lines (see Figure 4.11). In general, indications are faint with slightly higher density. They are the result of a lack of fusion between adjoining metal portions of a casting. Lack of fusion occurs due to Figure 4.11: Cold shut in 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) aluminum casting. oxidation, too low a temperature or entrapment of an intervening thin layer of dross or slag. Inclusions Inclusions of foreign matter in a mold may take one of several forms, including the following: Sand inclusions actual pieces of sand that have broken free of the lining of a sand mold. On a radiograph, they resemble a pocket of sand with a granular appearance or as irregular, dark splotches. (See Figure 4.12 for a similar example.)

Figure 4.12: Inclusion less dense than the surrounding material in a 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) aluminum casting.

Slag inclusions impurities that are mixed in and end up solidifying with the molten metal. Slag inclusions appear on the radiograph as shadows of round globules or as elongated contours with an irregular shape, as radiographed in Figure 4.13. Dense inclusions unintended intrusion of foreign objects more dense than the molten metal and resulting in lighter areas of film density in the radiograph, as is apparent in Figure 4.14.

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Figure 4.13: Slag inclusions.

Figure 4.14: Dense inclusions.

Core Shift or Mismatch This discontinuity occurs when two parts of a casting fail to align properly or when a core shifts during the casting, resulting in an inadvertent variation in wall thickness. (See Figure 4.15.) Both types are often evident on a radiograph unless the shift is slight or only one wall is imaged. Core shifts show up as variations in section thickness in radiographic views of diametrically opposite portions of cylindrical castings.

Figure 4.15: Core shift.

Figure 4.16: Unfused chaplet.

Unfused Chaplets You may recall that chaplets are metal supports or spacers used in molds to maintain cores in their proper positions during the casting process or to support the parts of the mold that are not self-supporting. During the solidification process, they melt along with the main stream of molten metal and become one integral part. If this does not occur or if only one part of the chaplet melts, an unfused chaplet results. In a radiograph, they appear as circular or short rectangular lines, or as portions of circles or rectangles, depending on the shape of the chaplet post. (See Figure 4.16.) 102 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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Points to Remember Discontinuities are characterized by interpreting the shadow image by both its shape and degree of darkness. Every manufacturing process is unique; thus, discontinuities formed by a process are also unique. For example, you cannot expect a hot tear to occur in the welding or rolling process. Likewise, you would not anticipate a seam in a casting. The radiation source sees the discontinuities and projects them on the recording film. Remember, to get the best projection, the discontinuity shall be as perpendicular to the film and as parallel to the radiation beam as possible. Any discontinuity not perfectly perpendicular to the film plane or parallel to the radiation beam will not show the true shape of the discontinuity. This is called distortion and shall be kept as minimal as possible.

Comprehension Check 4.2


A radiograph shows the following images taken on a valve body. See if you can identify the discontinuities by their respective number. _____ blowholes _____ stress crack _____ hot tear _____ sand inclusion _____ macroshrinkage

4 5 2

Answers begin on p. 112.

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Comprehension Check 4.3


A radiograph of a pump body shows the following image. See if you can identify the discontinuities by their respective number. _____ unfused chaplet _____ a boss having more thickness than the surrounding area and lighter in density _____ bolt hole (nonrelevant indication) _____ macroshrinkage
2 1

4 3

Answers are on p. 113.

Radiography of Castings
Factors that affect the interpretation of test results in casting radiographs include: The type of casting process and associated discontinuities. The exposure technique. The degree of scatter radiation. In general, achieving the best radiographic images of casting discontinuities depends on the following points: 1. Study in detail the casting, including the metal used, the type of casting and thickness of each section. 2. Prepare a suitable shooting sketch. 3. Be aware of typical casting discontinuities, their probable location and radiographic appearance. (Refer to Table 4.2 for a summary of the appearance of casting discontinuities.)

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4. For the interpreter to locate a discontinuity in a casting, the source position, film placement and angle of projection must be well designed to project the anticipated discontinuity at the expected location of discontinuity concentration.
Table 4.2: Radiographic appearance of casting discontinuities. Discontinuity Shape Relative absorption (attenuation) Relative density Final appearance with respect to the on the radiograph test object

Macroshrinkage

Pipelike appearance with branches

Less because it is a void and due to Darker the separation of metal

Usually with a lot of branches

Microshrinkage

Spongelike appearance

Less

Darker

Darker spongy appearance

Filamentary shrinkage

Fine layers

Less

Slightly darker

Dark patchlike appearance

Hot tear

Similar to a crack but jagged, with or Less without an inclusion

Darker

If the radiation beam is in the direction of the hot tear, it is clearly recorded and properly interpreted

Blowhole

Spherical

Less

Darker

Darker and rounded; isolated or in a group; may also be randomly spread

Inclusion

Any shape

Based on atomic number and density Reduction in thickness, so less absorption (attenuation)

Either darker or lighter

Darker or lighter density

Crack

Normally on the surface and extended to some depth

Darker

Linear indication; always darker

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Casting Codes and Standards


To make the best use of the radiographic method, the following are important: Procedure. Codes and standards. Interpretation and evaluation. Lets start with procedure.

Procedure
We need the proper procedure to perform any NDT. The procedure is needed for the following: Uniformity in conducting the test by all technicians. Minimization of the variables within the method. Repeatability of the test for confirmation of any indications. Enabling personnel at any level to conduct the test procedure following step-by-step instructions.

Procedure enables the technician to perform the job and bring the result to the expected quality level. After satisfying the quality of the radiograph, the interpreter has to make a decision to accept or reject the part based on any discontinuity that has been found. There is no common procedure or common acceptance code for all of the specimens to be radiographed. For instance, a pipe can take a fluid under high pressure and high temperature and may still be regarded as hazardous to the environment. The relevant code for the job is to be consulted for acceptance. Once the code is selected, the characterized discontinuities are to be evaluated for acceptance/rejection.

Acceptance Criteria for Casting Discontinuities


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3. The extent, grouping and spacing of discontinuities. 4. Nature of the discontinuity for example, whether it is a stress riser, passive or active, etc. For the most part, the acceptance criteria for casting discontinuities are more liberal compared to welding. This is because casting is one integral part, whereas welding forms a joint. A joint is a weak area in any component. Thus, any small discontinuity may be detrimental for failure in a welded joint. Points to Consider A discontinuity may be accepted in terms of size, but the same discontinuity may be rejected because of its location in the component or part. For example, per a given code, surface porosity may not be acceptable, as it is on the tension member of a part, but the same size of porosity may be acceptable if it is located internally. A discontinuity may be accepted by its size and location, but the same discontinuity may be rejected by its extent. For instance, based on its dimensions, slag is acceptable, lets say, if its width is 0.2 wall thickness (Tw) and its length is equal to Tw. However, with the same width and greater length that is, more than Tw it is rejected per the same code. A discontinuity may be accepted by its size, length and location as seen in the radiograph, but the same discontinuity may be rejected due to its shape or based on whether it occurs singly or as part of a group. For example, blowholes in a casting are accepted up to a certain size and extension, as they are not a source of stress concentration. However, a large number of blowholes will reduce the thickness of the metal to take the load and lead to failure. In the case of pressure vessels, thickness is based on the maximum allowable working pressure and any reduction in thickness by way of a large inclusion or void will eventually reduce the thickness, increasing the stress value and lead to failure. In general, many NDT assignments are carried out by technicians who may not be in a position to make a decision regarding the acceptance or rejection of a test part. Nevertheless, to enable qualified NDT personnel to make decisions for acceptance/rejection, codes and standards have evolved.

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Codes Codes and standards are prepared by experts, scientists, metallurgists and engineers based on past experience, failure analysis, stress analysis, environmental factors, etc. Codes are based entirely on scientific results. NDT technicians refer to the appropriate codes and standards, understand the given code with reference to the specific assignment and follow the code for acceptance/rejection. At this level, NDT technicians interpret the code as opposed to interrogating the code. For example, cast valves can be put into applications involving any of the following factors: low pressure, high pressure, low temperature, high temperature, nuclear, space or even ordinary sewage lines. The valves undergo different types of stresses and the response of discontinuities may not be the same for all. Therefore, for acceptance/rejection criteria, there are different codes of practice. Here are three examples: For the inspection of all pressure vessel parts American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. For structural welds American Welding Society (AWS) code. For cross-country pipelines American Petroleum Institute (API) 1104. Note, though, that the applicable code must be consulted for acceptance/rejection based on a particular application or industry. For instance, a slag line under each of the above codes is interpreted differently. It may be called for rejection under boiler and pressure vessel code but accepted under API 1104. Standards Standards are different from codes. Standards state the method(s) for performance of a test and do not indicate the levels of acceptance. For example, ASTM is a standard; more specifically, ASTM E 186 is an album of reference radiographs for castings using Co-60 as the source of radiation. This standard indicates the levels of inclusions, shrinkage and other casting discontinuities. It is up to the customer to demand the level required for a particular application. Specifications In order to meet the required levels of a components reliability, the customer may specify more stringent requirements for a particular need 108 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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than those specified in applicable codes. For example, a 15 mm (0.6 in.) thick casting can be taken both by Ir-192 and X-rays, but comparing the quality of the radiographs, the customer can specify only X-rays as the source of radiation.

Reference Radiographs
ASME Section VIII provides guidelines for acceptance/rejection limits for steel castings up to a thickness of 305 mm (12 in.) using the following ASTM standards: E 155 Al and Mg alloy (nonferrous) castings. E 186 steel castings up to 4.5 in. (114 mm). E 192-95 (1999) investment steel castings. E 280 steel castings from 4.5 to 12 in. (114 to 305 mm). E 310-99 tin bronze castings. E 446 steel castings up to 2 in. (51 mm) thickness. E 505 Al and Mg die castings. E 689 ductile iron castings. E 802 -95 gray iron castings up to 4.5 in. (114 mm) thick. E 1320 -95 titanium castings.

These reference radiographs: are published by ASTM and adopted to ASTM standards. are produced with suitable energy for the respective wall thickness. serve as a reference guide only to the interpreter and are not an acceptance/rejection code of practice. indicate the severity levels of a graded discontinuity so that the user can state the level for a particular application. As an example, a customer may demand level 2 shrinkage, level 3 blowholes and level 2 sand inclusions as comparable to reference radiographs. Also: Some indications like cracks, hot tears and unfused chaplets are not classified into severity levels and are called ungraded discontinuities. Casting discontinuities in these standards have been divided into seven groups, including gas porosity, sand and slag inclusions,

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shrinkages, hot tears, cracks, linear discontinuities, inserts and mottling. Graded discontinuities, including shrinkage, gas porosity and inclusions, have been presented in five classes representing increasing severity levels. For example, the grading levels of blowholes and macroshrinkage is based on size, spread (spacing) and grouping. Based on the criticality of the casting, the grade is fixed by the customer. Acceptance/rejection criteria are based on the customers application needs. In general, an interpreter identifies the grade level of a discontinuity and the customer takes suitable action. Note: When the casting processes differ, like sand casting, die casting, centrifugal casting, etc., certain inherent discontinuities associated with a particular casting process will only appear. For example, a sand casting is allowed to solidify of its own accord and naturally formed discontinuities like shrinkage may appear. In die casting, an external force is applied; this force will not permit cavities to form. However, foreign metal inclusions may be found in die casting. For instance, an iron nail in an aluminum die casting will appear as a lighter image and is regarded as an unwanted inclusion. In centrifugal casting, we can not expect shrinkage or hot tears as there is not a change in thickness.

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Answers to Chapter 4 Questions


Question 4.1
Answer: 1.2 mm (same answer in both blank spaces). Solution: Given in the problem are that the required % sensitivity is 2 and that the specimen thickness is 60 mm. The required IQI thickness is: T = 2 60/100 = 1.2 mm Conclusion: If the radiograph shows an IQI whose thickness is 1.2 mm and that is placed on the source side of the specimen in the most unfavorable position, we may then conclude that the radiograph has achieved 2% sensitivity.

Comprehension Check 4.1


1. inherent. 2. shooting sketch. 3. volumetric. 4. volumetric. 5. sand. 6. projected. 7. larger. 8. increases.

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9. distorted. 10. enlarged.

Question 4.2
Answer: A. A. If A is your choice, then you are aware of the sequence of solidification of the casting process from the liquid to solid state. As there is no external force acting during solidification, the discontinuities tend to take their own shape. Discontinuities such as inclusions, shrinkage, blowholes and voids have volume. The radiograph produces the picture of these voids and their intensity. Consequently, to locate these types of discontinuities, RT is the best technique. B. No, RT is not a suitable technique for planar discontinuities. In the direction of the radiation beam, if the discontinuity has a large amount of gaps, then the intensity received by the film will be relatively larger compared to the surrounding area, which is free from voids. However, a planar discontinuity has no such thickness separation in the direction of the radiation beam and the film will receive almost the same intensity. The effect is no difference in density and no contrast; therefore, it is not possible to detect this kind of discontinuity.

Comprehension Check 4.2


1. If your answer for image number 1 is a hot tear, you are an excellent interpreter of casting radiographs. How did you conclude this was a hot tear? The reasons for the answer are: The image has no branches. The image is broad and jagged, with sharp ends. The image is darker. 2. If you chose blowholes, your interpretation is correct. All blowholes are gas packets and they are spherical in nature. The projected image will be round.

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3. Macroshrinkage is the correct answer for this image. You must have remembered that macroshrinkage involves a branching appearance. 4. Stress crack is correct. Good choice! As distinguished from a hot tear, a stress crack has a smoother separation. 5. A sand inclusion? Youre right. Radiographically, they have a granular appearance like a pocket of sand, which is exactly what they are.

Comprehension Check 4.3


1. Image 1 is a bolt hole, a nonrelevant indication. If you came up with this answer, then you are correlating the shadow image to that of the geometry of the bolt. Your choice is excellent. Once you see the image in the radiograph, always try to imagine the cross section of the discontinuity in the casting. If you hone this ability, then you are on your way to being a good interpreter. 2. Image 2 is an unfused chaplet. A dark ringlike image is a void created by the chaplet purposely kept in the mold to provide uniform melting and solidification. The solid piece of the chaplet has to totally melt and to become one integral part of the casting. However, due to hot shortness, the fusion may not be total, leaving a gap or void. This void is shown as a dark, ring-shaped image. If fusion is complete after melting, there will not be a void, parting line or cavity. In such case, no ring, either partial or total, will appear. 3. Image 3 is of macroshrinkage. Macroshrinkage is a gas vent, more like a pipe or conduit. It will also have branches and may extend to the surface, too. 4. The image is lighter than the surrounding area. You conclude that this is due to more thickness in the direction of the radiation beam. Also, the shape is perfectly round. Greater thickness with perfect geometry indicates it is not a discontinuity but an extra piece of metal in this case, a boss added by the foundry with some intention.

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Chapter 4 Review
1. A shrinkage discontinuity can be usually found in a casting: A. B. C. D. On the surface. Anywhere. At the section where the thickness suddenly changes. Parallel to the front surface of the casting.

2. Hot tears and shrinkage cavities differ in their appearance in a radiograph as follows: A. Shrinkage has sharp edges and hot tears have blunt edges. B. Hot tears present jagged images and are generally broad compared to shrinkage. C. Shrinkage has many branches while a hot tear has no branches but follows in one direction based on the stress direction. D. Both B and C are correct. 3. The same areas of two sand inclusions show a difference in darkness. The difference in density can be attributed to which of the following? A. B. C. D. A tight sand inclusion with less void thickness will be darker. A darker inclusion indicates that the cavity thickness is larger. It may be due to improper development. Because of an increase in thickness, the density is higher.

4. A dark round image in a sand casting is called a: A. B. C. D. Hot tear. Sponge shrinkage. Blowhole. Sand inclusion.

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5. Select the casting discontinuity that may endanger the service life of a component: A. B. C. D. Microshrinkage. Shrinkage. Blowholes. Hot tear.

6. The thicker portion of a casting shows a(n) __________ image in a radiograph. A. B. C. D. Darker. Lighter. Irregular shape. None of the above.

7. Shrinkage can be found in a casting at: A. B. C. D. The inner surface. The outer surface. The change in thickness of a casting. The riser.

8. A discontinuity caused by uneven solidification in a casting is called a(n): A. B. C. D. Inclusion. Cold shut. Blowhole. Hot tear.

9. A discontinuity that can be located anywhere in any shape in a casting is: A. B. C. D. Shrinkage. Hot tear. Cold shut. Sand inclusion.

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10. Two radiographs A and B of different portions of a casting show microshrinkage. In A, all microshrinkage is found in one location, whereas in B the microshrinkage is distributed. Which discontinuity is not acceptable from a service point of view? A. A B. B 11. To form the best image, which one of the following discontinuities is most suitable for the radiographic method? A. A fine shallow surface crack on the far side of the film. B. A cold shut parallel to the film plane. C. A hot tear in line with the radiation beam and perpendicular to the film plane. D. A scab formed on the skin of the casting and parallel to the film and perpendicular to the radiation beam. 12. The radiographic film taken on a casting shows dark pipelike images with a lot of branches; the interpreter classifies this as: A. B. C. D. A hot tear. Macroshrinkage. A cold shut. An inclusion.

13. Two indications run almost parallel to one another and are found at the intersection of thick and thin positions. The indications have a darker image with jagged appearance. The interpreter classifies this image as: A. B. C. D. Macroshrinkage. A cold shut. A hot tear. None of the above.

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14. A sand casting flange portion shows darker images at many locations. The description of the image is as follows: a) has no definite shape, b) has no definite density, but the density is always higher than the casting density, c) is sometimes elongated and sometimes rounded. The most probable discontinuity is: A. B. C. D. Heavy metal inclusion. Sand inclusion. Unfused chaplets. Hot tear.

15. An unfused chaplet in a casting radiograph will appear as follows: A. B. C. D. A lighter image round in shape. A darker image round in shape. Based on the chaplet shape and with darker density. Will not cast a shadow as chaplets are nonmetals.

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Chapter 4 Review Key


1. C 2. D 3. B 4. C 5. D 6. B 7. C 8. D 9. D 10. A 11. C 12. B 13. C 14. B 15. C

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Chapter 5
Interpretation of Welding Discontinuities

In this chapter: Overview of welding processes and configurations Ability to radiographically detect, interpret and evaluate welding discontinuities Properly identifying various discontinuities associated with the welding process Radiographic images of welding discontinuities Specifications, codes and standards applicable to welding

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Welding Method Review


There are three basic metal joining processes: 1. Fusion welding. 2. Brazing or soldering. 3. Pressure welding. In the first two processes, intimate metallic contact is achieved by the use of molten metal with or without a flux that dissolves and carries impurities out of the weld joint. Once the intimate contact is produced by merging of molten metal or by the wetting of solid metal by molten metal, solidification produces a continuous crystalline structure between surfaces and, thus, a sound weldment is achieved. In pressure welding, intimate contact of surfaces has to be effected largely by pressure without the aid of molten metal.

Fusion Welding Processes


As presented in Chapter 3, there are a remarkable number of methods by which two pieces of metal may be fused together. The most common ones are: Gas welding. Arc welding with coated electrode. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding. Metal inert gas (MIG) welding. Carbon dioxide shielded welding. Submerged arc welding (SAW).

Fusion welding is the most common method of welding in industry. The basic type of welded assembly is the square butt joint, in which the original square cut faces are butted or prespaced. When there is some space left between the faces, which is the common form of assembly, this space is referred to as a groove. (See Figure 5.1.) 120

Weld groove

Included angle

Root opening

Root face

Figure 5.1: Basic weld terminology.

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(a)

(d)

(b)

(e)

(c)

(f)

Figure 5.2: Butt joints with groove welds: (a) square groove single weld; (b) square groove double weld; (c) single bevel groove; (d) double bevel groove; (e) single vee groove; (f ) double vee groove.

It is possible to weld without a groove, which forms a very tight joint. Such a tight joint can lead to the entrapment of nonweld materials in the weld metal because the joint is not open to let these materials float away. A square groove joint, where the joint is made without filler metal, can contain discontinuities typical of the material being welded, the joint configuration and the welding process. In a radiograph, these discontinuities usually appear as straight lines when gross quantities of entrapped solids are present as linear slag. The slag has lower density than the weld metal; as a consequence, the image of slag appears darker in density. The second type of butt joint has a prepared groove. Various configurations of butt joint with and without a groove are shown in Figure 5.2 (above). The type of groove, such as single or double, beveled or square, depends on the economy of the weld, manipulation of the arc by the welder, access to the weld and access for allowing the weld metal to be deposited. A smaller groove angle requires less weld metal deposit and produces fewer discontinuities. As mentioned, the basic joint is the butt joint and radiography is needed to locate discontinuities. Other joints are the T joint, corner joint and lap

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Weld toe

Weld crown reinforcement Weld root Heat affected zone (HAZ) Weld root

Single vee weld Weld toe Weld crown Weld toe Weld root Corner weld Backing bar

Double vee Backing weld bar Horizontal weld leg Weld toe Weld throat

Single vee weld with backing bar

Weld face

Vertical weld leg

Weld toe Partial penetration weld Fillet weld

Figure 5.3: Common welding configurations.

joint. Several of the more common weld joint configurations used in industry are shown in Figure 5.3. Joints other than the butt joint pose some problems in setting up the radiation source; the projection of the weld produces distortion with the angular position of the source and film with respect to the weld metal deposit. For example, partial penetration welds differ from full penetration welds and require more care when being radiographed to ensure complete or maximum weld coverage. Figure 5.4 shows the recommended radiographic procedures for several partial penetration weld joint designs.

Detection of Welding Discontinuities


To perform an effective interpretation of welding discontinuities, the interpreter shall possess the following: 1. Good vision acuity. 2. Good illuminator and illumination. 122 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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3. Knowledge of the discontinuity pattern and the location of discontinuities arising from various welding processes. 4. Design and geometry of the test object. 5. Probable cause of the discontinuity. 6. Knowledge of codes and standards. 7. Ability to distinguish discontinuities from artifacts. The probability of detection of a welding discontinuity depends on: 1. 2. 3. 4. Quality of the radiograph. Contrast and definition of the discontinuitys image. The optical density of the area of interest. Sensitivity of the radiograph.

Radiographic Interpretation and Evaluation


All indications appearing in a radiograph are to be interpreted. Interpretation requires analyzing the indication as to whether it is a true indication due to discontinuities or a false indication due to problems with film manufacturing, mishandling of film or poor storage. The interpreter shall be able to distinguish the discontinuity from a false indication. No image in the area of interest shall obscure the true indication.
25 10 70 90

75 70

(a) 35

(b)

(c) 30 10 30

(d)

(e)

(f)

Figure 5.4: Recommended radiographic procedures for partial penetration joint designs: (a) double vee groove; (b) offset double vee groove; (c) corner; (d) corner; (e) 135 degree corner; (f ) T joint with groove.

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All false indications appearing in the area shall be re-radiographed for interpretation. All true indications are interpreted and characterized. In general, characterization of a discontinuity involves the following steps: 1. Name or label the discontinuity, such as lack of fusion, hot tear, etc. 2. Size the discontinuity. 3. Assess or measure the discontinuitys length, width, grouping, spacing between discontinuities, etc. 4. Determine the location of the discontinuity. The interpreter records all of the above details and refers to the applicable code for acceptance/rejection. Points to Consider Some discontinuities, such as cracks or lack of fusion, are unacceptable irrespective of their size and, therefore, are rejected if evidence of them is found. Some discontinuities are allowed based on size but may have a length restriction. For example, a slag inclusion is accepted based on its width, but it may be rejected based on length. Some discontinuities may be individually acceptable based on size and length, but because their separation from other discontinuities is too small, the discontinuities may be considered as one single larger discontinuity and be rejected. By size, length and extent, a discontinuity may be accepted, but by its location it may be rejected, such as a small undercut on the cap side of a weld tensile member.

Identification of Welding Discontinuities


Although the aim of any welding engineer is to produce discontinuity-free welds, practically and economically it is impossible to completely achieve this objective. The main discontinuities found in fusion welding processes are associated with the weld root. Thus, root discontinuities namely, incomplete penetration, incomplete fusion, root concavity and root undercut are presented first in the following discussion of welding discontinuities.

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(a)

(b)

Figure 5.5: Inadequate penetration: (a) photomacrograph; (b) radiograph.

Incomplete Penetration (IP)


In butt welding, a root opening is usually left at the bottom of the groove (in pipes and in side welding) or at the center of the weld (in two-sided welding). The purpose of such an opening is to permit full penetration of fusion to the deepest part of the weld groove. If, however, the opening between the two plates is too narrow in relation to the diameter of the weld rod and the current employed, it is difficult to attain complete penetration. Thus, a gap or void remains at the root area of the weld, as is apparent in Figure 5.5(a). When the penetration is less than that specified, we call it inadequate penetration (IP). In fillet welds, it is called bridging. Causes Incomplete/lack of penetration is due to: Failure of the root face of a butt weld to reach fusion temperature for its entire depth. Failure of the weld metal to reach the root of a fillet weld, leaving a void. These failures may be attributed to the following conditions: Welding speed is too fast. Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 125

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30

(a) 90

(b) Figure 5.6: Incomplete penetration in steel welds correlated with weld cross sections: (a) moderate condition in joint corner weld resulting from too large of an electrode on root pass; (b) gross condition in joint of double vee-groove weld resulting from low heat and too large of an electrode.

Improper joint preparation. Insufficient welding current. Electrode used is too large. Radiographic Image A darker line at the middle of the weld bead. The radiograph shows a distinct, geometrically perfect projection of a darker, straight-line image only if the source is in line with the discontinuity and the film is perpendicular to the discontinuity. If for any practical reason either the source or the film is not favorable for the projection of this linear discontinuity, the image may be distorted. The interpreter must bear in mind all the possible effects of distortion when characterizing the discontinuity. Examples of radiographs showing incomplete penetration are shown in Figures 5.5(b) and 5.6. The root is the critical part of the weld and root discontinuities, such as incomplete penetration, are considered harmful during service.

Incomplete Root Fusion/Incomplete Fusion (IF)


When the molten metal is not bonded to the prepared edge or edges, we call the discontinuity incomplete fusion (IF). Normally, incomplete fusion appears in pipe welds when a portion of the root on one side of the joint or both sides does not get fused. When it happens on the root side of the weld, then it is called incomplete root fusion, as shown in Figure 5.7(a). 126 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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(a)

(b)

Figure 5.7: Incomplete fusion at the root of a weld: (a) photomacrograph showing lack of fusion; (b) radiograph of the same discontinuity.

Causes Incomplete fusion is due to: Ovality in pipes. Mismatch. Uneven thickness when the thick section is reduced to match the thin section. Radiographic Image The radiograph shows a darker image with a straight line on one side of the root run. The interpreter carefully looks at the pattern of the root run. Normally, the root run will have a wavy pattern indicative of weaving. If the fusion is not complete at the root, the prepared edge remains straight, without getting welded, and the shadow thrown on the film is also
Figure 5.8: Example of lack of fusion in steel weld correlated with cross section; caused by slag trapped in sharp notches made by high crown bead in joint of offset double vee-groove weld.

90

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straight, as can be seen in Figure 5.7(b). The interpreter thus finds incomplete fusion as a dark straight image at the edges, butting with the parent metal side on the root pass. Another example of incomplete fusion, due to a different cause, is shown in Figure 5.8.

Suck Back, Suck up or Root Concavity


Normally, this type of discontinuity appears in pipe welds. When the root gap is very close or tight, the molten metal is drawn up inside the surface due to surface tension of the liquid state of the metal. This surface tension produces capillary action forming a meniscus (crescent shape) with a smooth, finished, inside curve, as shown in Figure 5.9(a). This is a naturally formed discontinuity, causing no stress concentration. However, this discontinuity may be rejected if the total joint thickness is less than the parent metal thickness. The interpreter has to estimate the volume of the metal deposit by measuring the optical density at the root concavity and the density of the parent metal (at its lesser wall thickness). If the density of root concavity is greater than the parent metal density, it indicates the total joint thickness, including the permissible reinforcement, is less than the parent metal thickness; as a result, the joint strength will be reduced and the weld rejected.
(a)

(b)

Figure 5.9: Concave root surface or suck back (suck up): (a) photomacrograph; (b) radiograph.

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Causes Root concavity or suck back (suck up) is due to: Too small of a root opening. Surface tension of the molten metal with the narrow opening creates capillary pressure. Radiographic Image Because of the reduction in volume of the metal and the geometry, the radiographic image will be darker than the surrounding weld metal, forming a broad, dark image at the root run of the weld, evident in Figure 5.9(b). Suck back (suck up) or root concavity can be easily distinguished from incomplete penetration based on the width of the image. The total joint thickness of the weld, as mentioned, shall not be less than the plate thickness. By measuring the optical density, the concavity density shall not be more than the thinner of the welded plates.

Undercut
Undercut refers to a groove melted into the base metal directly adjacent to the weld bead. External undercut or cap undercut can be visually noticed (as indicated in Figure 5.10), but internal or root undercut in a pipe weld can be recognized by radiography. Causes Undercut occurs when the parent metal portion at the root side of the weld is melted due to excess current and/or improper welding technique, specifically the weaving technique by the welder. Root Undercut Excess current or the weaving fault of the welder produces Figure 5.10: Photomacrograph of undercut on the outside diameter of a weld (magnified 4.6). this discontinuity. The removal of parent metal during welding is referred to as undercut and if it happens on the root side, it is called root undercut. This discontinuity produces a sharp notch and hence may be detrimental for failure in service. The radiograph shows a wavy dark Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 129

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shadow on one side or on both sides of the root run. Cap Undercut Similar to root undercut, cap undercut is also due to excess current or the weaving fault of the welder. Because of its sharp shape, it is a source for stress concentration Figure 5.11: Radiograph of undercut. leading to service failure. Due to the lesser thickness of this discontinuity, cap undercut appears darker in density, as shown in Figure 5.11.

Lack of Sidewall Fusion


Boundaries of unfused metal exist between the parent metal and weld metal. Lack of sidewall fusion is due to failure to raise the temperature of the parent metal to become joined with the molten metal with the angle of the groove weld, making a two-dimensional planar type of discontinuity, as revealed in Figure 5.12. The orientation of this discontinuity is not favorable to the radiation beam or to the film plane; thus, the discontinuity image is most often missed.

Figure 5.12: Photomacrograph of sidewall incomplete fusion.

The probability of detection of lack of sidewall fusion is based on: Thickness separation Too thin of a separation, almost to zero thickness, will not produce a significant shadow. Contrast of the image The radiograph must have high contrast with an ability to see the discontinuity. Selection of a low-energy radiation source, high-contrast film and ideal processing conditions are essential to detect this discontinuity. 130 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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(a)

(b)

Figure 5.13: Lack of sidewall fusion: (a) radiographic setup; (b) radiographic image.

Radiation beam projection To obtain the best possible image of lack of sidewall fusion, the radiographer must project the radiation beam in line with the groove angle; in such an arrangement, three exposures are needed. Some codes specify to orient the source as in Figure 5.13(a) to detect this discontinuity. Causes Lack of sidewall fusion stems from failure to fuse the molten metal to the parent metal due to inadequate current, weaving speed or uncleaned surface of the prepared edges and is generally attributed to the fault of the welder. More specifically, lack of sidewall fusion is due to: Failure to remove the oxide or other foreign material from the surfaces to be welded. Improper current setting. Improper manipulation of the electrode. Improper joint preparation. Wrong size of welding electrode. Radiographic Image Lack of sidewall fusion presents a faint, darker linear indication, away from the weld root, as can be seen in Figure 5.13(b). Radiography may miss the discontinuity if the projection angle is not in line with the groove angle.

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Slag Inclusion
A slag inclusion is a nonmetallic inclusion entrapped in the weld metal, as evident in Figure 5.14(a). Inadequate cleaning or chipping between passes produces this discontinuity. This discontinuity can occur at any place in the weld and, thus, is found anywhere in the weld radiograph with no specific shape, size or location. Acceptance of the test part is based on factors such as size, length and width.
Figure 5.14: Slag inclusion in weld: (a) photomacrograph; (b) radiograph. (a)

(b)

Causes Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) flux-cored electrodes produce slag inclusions. Slag inclusions in weld metal originates largely from two sources: Entrapped slag not properly removed between passes. . Reaction of oxidizing gases, namely nitrogen in the arc and atmospheric gases, reacting with iron, manganese or silicon in the molten weld metal (generally not revealed in radiography). Radiographic Image Slag can occur anywhere in any shape and in any position when viewed in a radiograph. Slag is a less dense material and the quantity of radiation reaching the film after passing through the slag is greater, thus creating a 132 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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darker image compared to that of the weld bead or the parent metals optical density. The width, length and the degree of darkness of slag, as well as the spacing between slag from edge to edge, are important factors for the purpose of evaluation. Radiographs of slag inclusions are shown in Figures 5.14(b) and 5.15.
Figure 5.15: Reference standards for scattered slag inclusions in steel welds: (a) cross section showing slag inclusion in joint of offset double vee-groove weld; (b) standard 1 for sensitivity 2-1T; (c) standard 2. (b) 90

(a)

(c)

Metallic or Tungsten Inclusion


Dense or metallic inclusions of which tungsten inclusions are the most common are generally rounded in shape and sharply defined (see Figure 5.16(a) for a visual example). Metallic inclusions may also be erratically shaped or elongated, either isolated or in small linear or scattered groups. In some cases, they blend gradually into the surrounding metal, as can be seen in Figure 5.16(b).

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.16: Visual images of inclusions: (a) metallic inclusion; (b) inclusions trapped in weld.

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(a)

(b)

Figure 5.17: Simulated tungsten inclusion in weld: (a) photomacrograph; (b) radiograph.

Causes Tungsten inclusions occur when a portion of tungsten electrode melts, drops into the weld and becomes entrapped, forming a tungsten inclusion. Radiographic Image In general, dense inclusions have greater density than the weld metal and therefore appear as light or white spots in the radiograph. Since tungsten is a heavy metal with atomic number 74, it attenuates all of the energy intended for the steel or less dense material and the film receives practically no intensity; thus, the film does not get exposed under this area. As a result, a lighter image with very high contrast is produced. (See Figure 5.17.) For classification of discontinuities, a tungsten inclusion is treated in the same way as a slag inclusion.

Porosity
An entrapped gas packet, generally less than 0.0625 in. (0.16 cm) is called porosity. (See Figure 5.18 for a visual image.) Porosity may be formed in clusters; it may also be either scattered or aligned and in the shape of pipe. Pockets of porosity are dissolved gas in molten metal that get separated when the metal solidifies. They are generally spherical in shape and are not a stress riser. All welds will have porosity to some extent. If the porosity forms in a line, called aligned porosity, then it may join or get connected to other porosity based on the stress the area undergoes, forming a linear indication. Such aligned porosity is not generally acceptable. Similarly, porosity may be clustered at one place, creating a 134 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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void in a localized area. This again is not permitted, in general, as such a concentration will make the joint a weak member. Causes The welding process, due to high heat input, dissociates gas as a result of chemical and thermal reactions during the welding process. The failure of such gas packets to escape from the weld puddle produces porosity.

Figure 5.18: Photomacrograph of porosity in weld.

Radiographic Image Porosity may be individual, grouped or clustered; in addition, it may be aligned or occur randomly. Because of less density, porosity produces a darker image, typically spherical in shape. Radiographs of various types of porosity are presented in Figure 5.19.

90

(a) 10 from perpendicular

(b)

(c) Figure 5.19: Reference standards with cross sections for porosity in steel welds: (a) coarse scattered porosity in joint of offset double vee-groove weld, standard 2, about 0.7 pore per 1 cm2 (4 pores per 1 in.2); (b) linear porosity in a double vee-groove weld, standard 2, with 2-1T sensitivity; and (c) clustered porosity, standard 2, with sensitivity 2-1T.

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Cracks
A crack is a break in the metal, having width, depth and length. The width of the crack varies considerably with its length and ends with a sharp edge. The width and depth generally have a correlation, as follows: an increase in width indicates the depth of the crack, which also increases. At the tip of the crack, the width is very small or forms a point likewise the depth. Types of cracks in welds include: Longitudinal oriented along the length or approximately parallel to the longitudinal axis of the weld (shown in Figure 5.20). Root longitudinal crack located in the root pass. Transverse approximately perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the weld. Toe crack begins at the toe of the weld and propagates along the plane of highest stress. Heat affected zone underbead crack that forms in the heat affected zone; usually short but may also be part of an extensive network. A visual example is presented in Figure 5.21. Crater usually star-shaped pattern that occurs in the crater, a depression at the end of a weld bead (see Figure 5.22).

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.20: Longitudinal crack in weld: (a) photomacrograph at 4.5; (b) radiographic image.

Causes The following are the reasons for cracks: High-rigidity joint. Excessive alloy pickup from base metal. Malfunctioning electrode. 136 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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(a)

(b)

Figure 5.21: Crack in the heat affected zone of a weld: (a) micrograph showing crack (2) masked by a cold lap (1); (b) magnified view of the crack shown in (a).

Higher sulfur in base metal. Hydrogen in welding atmosphere. Excessive stress. High hardenability.

Radiographic Interpretation of Cracks The detection of a crack on the radiograph greatly depends on the orientation of the crack with respect to the radiation beam. If the crack is in line with the radiation beam, an optimal image is formed and the discontinuity is detected. If the crack is parallel to the film, as in the case of a lamination, it can not be detected. Also, the radiographic sensitivity is 2% and if the crack depth is very small compared to the thickness of the test object that is, less than 2% of the specimen thickness it may not be possible to detect. A crack with very

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.22: Crater crack in weld: (a) photomacrograph; (b) radiograph.

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small depth close to the film may be detected, but the same crack on the source side of the specimen may be missed. For surface cracks, other NDT methods, such as liquid penetrant (PT) and magnetic particle (MT), are preferable to radiography. Very often, ultrasonic testing (UT) reveals the presence of a crack, while radiography does not. This is because of the orientation of the crack.

Other Welding Discontinuities


Other discontinuities associated with the welding process include the following: Mismatch Mismatch or hi-low is a structural discontinuity or fault arising during fit-up. The completed weld bead will have two different thicknesses. Due to differential absorption, a portion of the radiographic image of the weld bead will have darker and lighter densities. (See Figure 5.23.)

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.23: Hi-low or mismatch discontinuity: (a) photomacrograph at 4.4; (b) radiograph at 1.1.

Arc Strikes Arc strikes are discontinuities that result from establishing the welding arc in zones other than a weld. They consist of remelted metal or portions of electrode metal in unscheduled places. Their potential danger arises from steep changes in metal properties that develop when a material such as steel has been subjected to very rapid heating and cooling. Excessive hardness can result, leading to possible fracture during welding or service. The extra thickness of the metal may be ground smooth to a fine finishing. Refer to Figure 5.24 for visual and radiographic examples.

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(a)

(b)

Figure 5.24: Arc strike: (a) visual evidence on surface; (b) radiographic image.

Drop-through Also known as excessive penetration or convexity, drop-through occurs from excessive heat input while the root pass is being deposited. The root reinforcement becomes excessive and may result in a corner or notch on the inside surface at the toe of the weld. Drop-through is characterized by excessive root bead width and an undesirable slumping or sagging of weld metal on the back side of the weld. (See Figure 5.24.) When drop-through occurs in short, intermittent droplets, it may be called icicles and usually appears with a burn-through area devoid of weld metal. Severe drop-through produces an easily identifiable droplet shape along with a cavity due to dislodged material.
(a) (b)

Figure 5.24: Drop-through showing convexity at weld root: (a) photomacrograph; (b) radiograph.

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Unconsumed Insert An unconsumed insert stems from preplaced filler metal that is not completely melted and fused in the root joint. This results in an unsatisfactory root bead profile when using inserts with the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. (See Figure 5.25.) Generally, this discontinuity is caused by low welding current, as well as improper electrode manipulation, joint design and welding speed.

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.25: Unconsumed insert: (a) photomacrograph; (b) radiograph.

Underfill If the effective throat the thinnest part of a fillet weld of the deposited weld metal is less than the theoretical throat or the thickness of the parent metal, the discontinuity is called underfill. This discontinuity causes a reduction in thickness of the weld metal deposit. Consequently. the radiographic image will be darker. Excess Cap/Protrusion When the weld metal deposit increases in thickness more than the parent metal thickness, the discontinuity is called excess reinforcement or protrusion. More than the specified amount is not permitted. Excess reinforcement or over-protrusion may become a source for stress concentration leading to service failure. Because of the excess thickness, the image of this discontinuity will be lighter compared to the weld metal area with no reinforcement area.

Appearance of Welding Discontinuities


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Table 5.1: Radiographic appearance of welding discontinuities. Discontinuity Description of Radiographic Image Radiographic Appearance

Straight, darker line in center of weld bead due to more quantity of Incomplete penetration radiation reaching the film because of a reduction in weld thickness. Straight, darker line on the edges of the root run, either one side or both sides as at least one side of the prepared edge has not fused with the parent metal.

Incomplete root fusion

Root concavity (suck back/suck up)

A broader, darker image at the root run; in contrast, root undercut presents a darker, wavy root at a few locations. A slightly darker line away from the root; high-contrast film and suitable energy are required to produce sufficient contrast in order to view this discontinuity. Round, elongated, typically in groups, with a darker image; may take the form of cluster, random, aligned or wormhole.

Lack of sidewall fusion

Porosity

Slag inclusion

Slightly darker, in any shape and in any position.

Tungsten inclusion

Lighter in image due to density of metal.

Cracks

Darker image running along or across weld; cracks include (a) toe, (b) transverse, (c) heat affected zone, (d) longitudinal and (e) crater (star shaped).

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

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Comprehension Check 5.1


Identify the welding discontinuities shown in the following image by their respective number:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

_____ drop-through (with evidence of a burn-through cavity) _____ longitudinal crack _____ incomplete penetration _____ tungsten inclusion(s) _____ transverse crack _____ cluster porosity _____ root concavity (suck up/suck back) _____ lack of sidewall fusion Answers are on p. 144.

Welding Codes and Standards


Welding is a metal joining process. The welded materials may find use in a wide range of applications, including pressure vessels, structural welds and pipe joints inside plants to transport fluids from place to place. Welds are also found in aerospace, ship building, rail vehicles, storage tanks and road vehicles, to name a few industries. Materials, joint geometry and joining processes differ in each of the products used in the above-mentioned industries. Thus, codes, standards and specifications vary with each of the industrys needs.

Specifications
A specification is a document that states in some detail the requirements of the test method and techniques. The buyer specifies the need for the product and selects a particular standard document that adequately covers the particular method.

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Standards
A standard is a published specification, test technique, classification or practice that has been prepared by an issuing body, such as ASTM. To satisfy the needs of a contract, a standard, in whole or in part, can function as a specification. Standards do not state the acceptance standards, as acceptance is based on the type of stress that acts in and on each and every product. For instance, the following are the ASTM standards used in radiographic testing. Only a few are listed by way of example. E 142 controlling the quality for radiographic testing (test method). E 1079 calibration of transmission densitometer (a practice). E 1254 storage of radiographs and unexposed industrial radiographic films (a guide). E 390 reference radiographs of welds (a guide with images of discontinuities as a reference source to relate images in field weld radiographs).

Codes
A code is a collection of related standards and specifications given the force of law by government regulations. An example is ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which includes many specifications covering pressure vessels, their manufacture and inspection, their licensing and their inservice inspection. This code incorporates scores of ASTM standards. Acceptance codes are based on the product and vary from each other. For example: ASME is a boiler and pressure vessel code. AWS D1.1 is a structural code. American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) is for the building and classing of steel vessels. ASME pressure piping code per ANSI B 31.3 (Standards of Pressure Piping) is a survey of one of the most important pressure pipe codes. API 650 standard is for oil storage tanks.

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Answers to Chapter 5 Questions


Comprehension Check 5.1
1. cluster porosity. 2. incomplete penetration. 3. drop-through (with evidence of a burn-through cavity). 4. lack of sidewall fusion. 5. transverse crack. 6. longitudinal crack. 7. tungsten inclusion(s). 8. root concavity (suck up/suck back).

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Chapter 5 Review
1. On one side of the root run in a weld, the discontinuity appears as a dark, straight line in a 4 in. (10.2 cm) pipe circumferential joint. The interpreter will record this indication as: A. B. C. D. Incomplete penetration. Incomplete root fusion. Lack of sidewall fusion. Mismatch or hi-low discontinuity.

2. The root gap is very close in a pipe fit-up. The molten metal drawn due to the surface tension created between the liquid and solid surface will tend to produce a discontinuity called: A. B. C. D. Burn-through. Root face crack. Suck back, suck up or root concavity. None of the above.

3. The weld radiograph shows nearly half of the weld bead with a darker image compared to the remaining half of the weld bead. The interpreter records this indication as: A. B. C. D. Underfill on one side of the weld. A mismatch. Hi-low. Both B and C.

4. A document that states in some detail the requirements of the test method and technique is called: A. B. C. D. A code. A specification. A standard. A procedure.

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5. Which one of the following published documents is a standard? A. B. C. D. ASME. AWS. ASTM. ABS.

6. A published specification, test technique, classification or practice that has been prepared by an issuing body is called: A. B. C. D. A code. A standard. A specification. A procedure.

7. To satisfy the needs of a contract, a standard or parts of standard can function as a: A. B. C. D. Specification. Standard. Code. Procedure.

8. A collection of related standards and specifications given the force of law by government regulation is known as a: A. B. C. D. Standard. Code. Specification. Controlled copy.

9. A pressure vessel weld indicates a slag line for 22 mm in length of 30 mm weld plate butt joint. For acceptance/rejection, the interpreter must refer to: A. B. C. D. ASME code. ASTM standards. AWS D1.1. Procedure.

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Discontinuity Incomplete penetration Lack of fusion Crack No evidence. No evidence. No evidence.

Acceptance/rejection criteria

Width shall not be more than 0.2 Tw. Length shall not be more than 0.25 in. (6.35 mm) for plate thickness up to 0.75 in. (19.05 mm). Slag For plate thickness above 0.75 in. (19.05 mm) and up to 2 in. (5.08 cm) 1/3 of t, where t is the plate thickness. In case two different thicknesses are joined, then t stands for the lesser thickness. Above t = 2 in. (5.08 cm), acceptable length of the slag is 0.75 in. (19 mm) max. Not permitted in a longitudinal seam. Undercut Permitted up to 0.03 in. (0.8 mm) depth and 0.2 Tw in any pipe circumferential joint. Total joint thickness including permitted reinforcement shall be greater than the plate thickness. If two different thicknesses are joined, then the lesser thickness is to be considered for acceptance/rejection. Nil. All weld crowns and protrusions shall be removed.

Suck back or suck up

Permitted reinforcement

A brief acceptance code is presented in the above table. Answer questions 1016 based on the code acceptance criteria provided. A 1 in. (2.54 cm) thick pipe is joined with a 0.75 in. (19.05 mm) thick pipe with a circumferential weld. The radiograph showed the following discontinuities: Incomplete root fusion of length 0.2 in. (5 mm). A slag inclusion of length 0.16 in. (4 mm) and width 0.08 in. (2 mm). A root concavity of density 2.8 and the plate density was 2.5. A cap undercut of 0.04 in. (1.0 mm) depth. Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 147

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10. As per the above table, the root incomplete fusion is: A. Acceptable because it is only on the root. B. Rejectable because any type of lack of fusion is not permitted. 11. The root concavity is: A. Acceptable. B. Rejectable. 12. The slag inclusion is: A. Acceptable. B. Rejectable. 13. The weld radiograph at one place shows a density of 2.8 on the plate and 2.5 on the weld area. This weld is: A. Acceptable. B. Rejectable. With reference to the same code acceptance/rejection criteria, a longitudinal seam in a pressure vessel with joint thickness of 0.63 in. (16 mm) was radiographed and the following discontinuities were noticed: Lack of sidewall fusion of 0.28 in. (7 mm). An undercut of 0.024 in. (0.6 mm). Suck back of 0.24 in. (6 mm) length with the density of suck back showing as 2.4, weld bead density as 2.3 and plate density as 2.6. A crack away from the weld bead and in the heat-affected zone. A slag line of 0.2 in. (5 mm) length and 0.05 in. (1.2 mm) width.

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14. The slag line found is: A . Acceptable. B. Rejectable. 15. The undercut is: A. Acceptable. B. Rejectable. 16. The indication of suck back is: A. Acceptable. B. Rejectable.

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Chapter 5 Review Key


1. B 2. C 3. D 4. B 5. C 6. B 7. A 8. B 9. A 10. B 11. B 12. A 13. A Because any decrease in density is indicative of excess metal, which shows the weld has reinforcement, and since the code is not permitting reinforcement, it is rejectable. 14. A 15. B 16. A Total joint thickness is more than plate thickness derived from density.

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Chapter 6
Standards, Codes and Procedures for Radiography

In this chapter: Overview of ASTM standards for radiographic testing Radiographic procedures and techniques Single wall/single image Double wall/single image Double wall/double image Double-wall superimposed technique Writing a radiographic procedure including variables and specifics Elements of a radiographic report

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ASTM Standards for Radiography


Volume 03.03 of the Annual Book of ASTM Standards is devoted to nondestructive testing, encompassing all NDT methods. With regard to the radiographic method of nondestructive testing, ASTM standards cover the following: 1. Test methods Test methods following ASTM standards provide a uniform procedure to conduct the test under reference, such as the radiography of metallic castings using radiographic film, measurement of the focal spot size of industrial X-ray tubes, radiographic examination of weldments and so on. The following are a few of the ASTM standards relevant to film radiography, using X- and gamma rays as sources of radiation: E 1815-96 classification of film systems for industrial radiography. E 142 controlling the quality of radiographic testing. E 746-93 (1998) determining the relative image quality response of industrial radiographic film. The reader is advised to consult the latest revision of ASTM Standards, Volume 03.03, to get the complete particulars of this reference standard for industrial radiography. 2. Practices Practices adhering to ASTM standards cover the design of wire- or plaque-type IQIs and the calibration of densitometers. ASTM standards related to radiographic practices include the following: E 1079-97 practice for the calibration of transmission densitometers. E 1742-95 practice for radiographic examination. 3. Guides As the term suggests, ASTM guides establish the guidelines necessary to carry out a particular task. For example, ASTM E 999-99 is a standard guide for controlling the quality of industrial radiographic film processing. 4. Reference radiographs ASTM Standards set of reference radiographs consists of images of different discontinuities to serve 152 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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as a guide for the radiographic film interpreter to evaluate the discontinuities to different levels of severity.

Radiographic Procedure
The purpose of radiographic inspection is to locate successfully the discontinuities in the test object. Test specimens vary by their constituent metals, in their manufacturing processes and in their product forms, such as castings with different wall thicknesses, welding plates, pipes of varying diameters, fillet joints, corner joints, lap joints, nozzle joints, etc. The ultimate aim of NDT is to produce indications of discontinuities in the best possible manner. In industrial radiography, we produce the image on the film or digitally, and the image is principally formed with two parameters. One is due to intensity differences, which increase or decrease the optical density compared to the surrounding area. The second aspect is the definition of the shadow formed, which is due to the geometrical setup. It is important to know the advantages and limitations of each and every NDT method. Only the best suitable technique in each method of NDT will produce the best indication. In radiography, obtaining the best possible image of all shapes and sizes of discontinuities requires special projections of the shadow onto the film or imager. This is referred to as radiographic technique. With regard to film radiography, the interpreter can do his or her best work if the film is capable of showing different densities for small changes in thickness or is very sensitive to very small discontinuities. Also, the shadow of the discontinuity shall be a true projection without any distortion. Because every item under inspection will have its own thickness, shape, geometry and size, the radiographer must aim to get the best possible image by adopting various techniques. These techniques include: Single Wall/Single Image- SWSI. Double Wall/Single Image DWSI. Double Wall/Double Image DWDI (elliptical). Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 153

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Double-Wall Superimposed Technique. Special techniques e.g., latitude technique. Single-Wall/Single-Image Technique SWSI With SWSI, the first two letters (SW) represent a level of radiographic energy and the next two letters (SI) call for interpretation. That is, the radiation penetrates a single wall and a single image is obtained for viewing and interpretation. As far as practicable, SWSI shall be practiced. In single wall exposure/single-wall viewing, the IQI shall be always placed on the source side of the specimen. Energy depends on single wall thickness with reinforcement. As the cone of radiation is diverging, the radiation strikes the specimen at different angles as the axis of the cone increases. This makes the radiation able to penetrate more and more thickness and the image of any discontinuity is thrown in line with the radiation beam, making the image get distorted. Distortion shall be kept to a minimum and to achieve this, the half cone angle shall not be more than 24 degrees. Variations of this technique are presented in Figures 6.1 6.3.

10 15

(a)

(b)

Figure 6.1: Single-wall/single-image technique used on welds: (a) single vee-groove weld with source perpendicular to test specimen surface; (b) two exposures at 10 15 to penetrate the root of a fillet weld; two films are used for interpretation.

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10 15

45

(a)

(b)

Figure 6.2: Single-wall/single-image setup for welds: (a) two films and two exposures at 10 15 for a lap joint with double fillet welds; (b) two exposures at 45 with two films for interpretation of T joint with double bevel groove.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 6.3: Radiographic setup for single-wall/single-image viewing of pipe welds: (a) panoramic exposure with a minimum of three IQIs and source at geometric center; (b) source displaced to meet minimum Ug since it is not possible to place the source at center of pipe due to small source-to-object distance (SOD); (c) source placed outside with film on concave side to meet the minimum Ug requirement. Note: it is recommended to place the film on the convex side of the specimen to get an almost uniform exposure, except in the case shown here.

Double-Wall/Single-Image Technique DWSI As explained earlier, the first two letters (DW) stand for the energy required to penetrate the specimen and the next two letters (SI) are for interpretation. Hence, DWSI means radiation penetrates a double wall and a single weld image close to the weld is interpreted, as shown in Figure 6.4. Conditions for this technique are as follows: 1. Radiation shall be sufficient to penetrate two wall thicknesses. 2. The source-to-object distance shall be calculated based on single wall thickness only and the diameter of the pipe shall be more than Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 155

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Alternative source locations

Film

Lead plate to prevent back scatter Figure 6.4: Double-wall/single-image technique used to radiograph a pipe weld.

the calculated distance of the source-to-object distance for the given size of the source. 3. The IQI is based on a single wall thickness. In long pipelines, where the source and the film can be placed outside the pipe, the IQI shall be kept on the film side with a letter F along with the IQI. 4. Evaluation of discontinuities shall be done for single wall thickness only. 5. The pipe can be divided into a number of segments so as to get a uniform density with least distortion. Double-Wall/Double-Image Technique DWDI When the pipe outside diameter (OD) is less than 3.5 in. (8.89 cm), neither the SWSI nor the DWSI technique can be practiced to get a satisfactory radiograph covering the total volume of the weld. Hence, the DWDI technique is the only choice. You know by the four letters namely, DW and DI that the first two letters stand for what the radiation is to penetrate and the next two letters represent what is to be interpreted. The conditions for DWDI are as follows: 1. The radiation energy must be sufficient to penetrate two wall thicknesses. 2. To have minimum Ug, the source-to-object distance and object-to-film distance are calculated as follows: 156 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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Ug = fOD/SOD where Ug f OD SOD = geometric unsharpness = size of radiation source = outside diameter = source-to-object distance

Knowing the permitted Ug for single wall thickness and the maximum dimension of the focal spot or source size, the minimum SOD can be achieved. 3. Both of the weld images of the joint shall be sufficiently separated for interpretation. 4. The IQI shall be placed on the source side of the weld. 5. The shooting sketch is given below for the exposure setup (see Figure 6.5). 6. The separation of weld images of the source side and film side is obtained by offsetting the source. 7. At minimum, two exposures of A and B films exposed at 90 shall cover the total volume of the weld for interpretation. The projected image will be an ellipse. 8. Based on the geometry, if the OD/ID ratio is less than 1.4, DWDI with two exposures will cover the entire volume of the weld.

IQI location

Figure 6.5: Radiographic sketch for the double-wall/double-image technique.

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Figure 6.6: Double-wall superimposed technique.

Double-Wall Superimposed Technique When the wall thickness of the pipe increases for pipes of OD 3.5 in. (8.89 cm) or less, then the superimposed technique with both of the walls superimposed on one another is the only choice. If we take two exposures at 90 apart, then the four segments shown in Figure 6.6 are not covered for inspection. Hence, the double-wall superimposed technique is adopted. The source side of the weld and the film side of the weld are superimposed one above the other. The conditions for the double-wall superimposed technique are as follows: 1. The energy calculation is based on two wall thicknesses including reinforcement. 2. The source-to-object distance is based on the formula described for the DWDI technique. 3. At minimum, three exposures on separate films at 120 apart may be taken. Based upon the thickness of the pipe, a maximum of six shots at 60 apart shall be taken and available for interpretation. 4. The IQI shall be on the source side only. 5. Based on the geometry, if the OD/ID ratio is more than 1.4, then the DWDI will not cover the entire volume of the weld; hence, the superimposed technique is essential with a minimum of three and a maximum of six exposures. The number of exposures is arrived at on the basis of experimental values and has no reference to codes or standards. 158 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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The number of shots required is: 1.7(OD/ID) correct to the next higher integer. For example, lets assume that the OD of a pipe is 60 mm and ID is 30 mm. Then the number of shots required is: 1.7(60/30) = 3.4 However, 3.4 shots is not practicable; therefore, in this case a minimum of four shots is required.

How to Write a Procedure


In general, all RT requires the following information to write a procedure: Scope The scope shall include the purpose and limitation of the test method and the stage of inspection of the test object or specimen. The specimens details, including the process and product form (such as a pipe, shaft, plate or casting), as well as the extent of the inspection, including the testing technique(s) to be applied in the method all shall be indicated in the scope. Referencing documents All documents referred to for the preparation of the procedure shall be included. For example: 1. The employers written practice of qualification and certification of NDT personnel. 2. ASTM standards. 3. ASME code, articles, acceptance standard and appendix number. 4. SNT-TC-1A for the purpose of qualification and certification of NDT personnel. 5. Instruction manual of the equipment used. 6. Reference radiographs per ASTM E 186, E 446, etc. Testing personnel This paragraph shall indicate the technicians level of qualification and certification to perform exposures, interpret film, process the film, etc. Equipment This part of the procedure specifies the source of radiation, the energy selection based on specimen thickness and material, specific calibration (if any), type of film, IQI and all other

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equipment that may be used in carrying out a test, such as densitometer, radiation survey meter, etc. Procedure In order to have uniformity in conducting the test, as well as repeatability of the test results, it is essential to conduct the test in one order. The written order to conduct the test is the procedure, which is simply a step-by-step work instruction. Procedure Variables Among the various variables in the method, the procedure must state specific items. For example: Specific sources are variables, as the procedure may call for the use of X-rays or gamma rays. In addition, there are many types of IQIs and the procedure should specify which type either wire or plaque is to be used. Films are variable; the radiographer should select the most suitable film to get the best sensitivity. Techniques are also variables and it should state in the procedure which technique would produce the most desirable image quality. Acceptance criteria are variables; the procedure should state the acceptance code in order for the radiographer to make a decision for acceptance or rejection of a part. Procedure Specifics The procedure shall state the following specifically: 1. The particular source of radiation, such as X-rays, Ir-192 or Co-60. 2. The thickness range for the metal under exposure for each type of radiation. 3. The geometrical setup, the source dimension, permitted geometrical unsharpness, source-to-object distance and object-to-film distance. 4. IQI selection, placement and exposure details. 5. The amount of coverage or overlap. 6. Identification on the radiograph of the joint number, welder number, segments, etc. 7. The intensification screen thickness, specified in detail. 8. Film selection, described in detail, based on the sensitivity requirement. 9. Control of artifacts. 160 Programmed Instruction: Radiographic Testing

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10. Density and sensitivity requirements. 11. Acceptance/rejection codes and specifications. 12. Preparation of the test report.

Radiographic Reports
The report is the final statement regarding the test specimen or part that is, whether the object or component can be put into service. The report shall be specific with every parameter used for testing and, if need be, the retest with the same parameters must produce the same and identical results for verification or audit. A radiographic report must contain, at minimum, the following: 1. Test object details: Job identification. Process for instance, welding (including type) or casting (including type). Product such as pipe, plate, drum, valve or pump. Surface condition. Nominal wall thickness, including reinforcement (if any). Stage of inspection. Extent of inspection spot, random, specified or 100%. Procedure number. Technique and technique sketch. 2. Source details: X-ray with energy or gamma source with isotope name. Focal spot size or source size (in the case of an isotope). 3. Exposure details: Source-to-object distance. Object-to-film distance. Permitted geometrical unsharpness (Ug). Kilovoltage (kV), mA-time or curie strength, and exposure time. Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 161

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Type of film and screens. Prevention of scatter. 4. IQI selection and placement: Plaque type or wire type and designation or set. Source side or film side. Number of IQI and location. The required IQI sensitivity.

5. Quality of the radiograph: Density. Sensitivity obtained. Artifacts (if any). 6. Discontinuity characterization or details of true indications: Name of the discontinuity. Location of the discontinuity. Extent of the discontinuity. Spacing, including grouped or aligned, spot or random. Disposition.

A sample report for welds is shown in Figure 6.7.

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Figure 6.7: Typical radiographic interpretation report for welds.

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Volume 6 Self-Test
1. An NDT test produces an indication wherever a break in the normal physical structure in the test specimen has occurred. This indication is called: A. A defect. B. A discontinuity. C. A false indication. 2. A difference in density on the area of interest in a weld radiograph was found. This shadow or impression can be classified as: A. B. C. D. An artifact. A true or relevant indication. A false indication. An indication to be further evaluated as true or false.

3. All true indications formed due either to discontinuities or geometry may be classified as: A. B. C. D. True relevant or true nonrelevant. Defects. Linear or rounded. Irrelevant.

4. In a casting radiograph, at some locations there were darker images and at other locations lighter images due to differential absorption. These images are the result of: A. B. C. D. Improper handling of film. Indications to be further evaluated. Improper processing. Wrong selection of source of radiation.

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5. To form a true relevant indication due to a discontinuity in the radiograph, the discontinuity orientation shall be: A. Parallel to the film plane and as thin as possible. B. Parallel to the radiation direction with very thin separation. C. Perpendicular to the film plane and with thickness separation in the direction of the radiation beam. D. All of the above are true. 6. When a molten metal solidifies in a mold, shrinkage cavities are formed. Such discontinuities are called: A. B. C. D. Primary process discontinuities. Secondary process discontinuities. Inherent discontinuities. Service-induced discontinuities.

7. A hot tear in a casting is classified as a(n): A. B. C. D. Process discontinuity. Service discontinuity. Production discontinuity. Inherent discontinuity.

8. The casting process produces some discontinuities associated with the process. They are: A. B. C. D. Inherent. Process. Secondary process. Service.

9. Seams are formed during the rolling process and normally occur on the surface and parallel to the direction of rolling. These indications are classified as: A. B. C. D. Secondary process. Primary process. Inherent. Service. Volume VI: Radiographic Interpretation 165

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10. A heat-treated crack is classified as a: A. B. C. D. Primary process discontinuity. Secondary process discontinuity. Furnace discontinuity. Surface discontinuity.

11. After the primary process, some surface treatment is applied to the specimen, such as grinding, machining, heat treatment, etc. These operations can induce some discontinuities referred to as: A. B. C. D. Operation discontinuities. Secondary process discontinuities. Primary process discontinuities. Heat-treatment cracks only.

12. A component working under cyclic loading had a fine crack on the surface; this crack is termed a: A. B. C. D. Service-induced fatigue crack. Stress corrosion crack. Process crack. None of the above is true.

13. A discontinuity may: A. Be acceptable as per code. B. Turn into a defect due to the type of loading. C. Not be a defect under one code of practice but a defect under some other code. D. All of the above are true. 14. All NDT methods detect only: A. Discontinuities. B. Defects. C. Unacceptable defects.

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15. A detected discontinuity was interpreted, evaluated and characterized. As per the referencing code, the size of the indication was more than the acceptable limit. This is now referred to as a: A. B. C. D. Defect. Discontinuity. False indication. Rounded indication.

16. All defects are discontinuities, but all discontinuities are not defects. This statement is: A. True. B. False. 17. An acceptable process discontinuity may turn into a defect during the life cycle of a component. This statement is: A. True. B. False. 18. Steel mills produce ingots, which are further turned into blooms in a rolling mill. The inclusions in the blooms will turn into __________ in a rolling operation. A. B. C. D. Seams. Laminations. Cracks. Tears.

19. Laminations may contain: A. Oxide deposits. B. Inclusions such as refractory bricks. C. A void with no presence of an inclusion but only separation of metal. D. All of the above.

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20. The surface of a forged shaft was found to have a fold during inspection. This imperfection on the surface is: A. B. C. D. A lap. A cold shut. A crack. Extra metal.

21. Shrinkage cavities in a sand casting can be found: A. B. C. D. E. On the surface. At the abrupt change in thickness of the casting. Normally at the inner surface. Only on thin castings. Both B and C are correct.

22. A radiographer interprets a casting radiograph and finds a set of broad, jagged images running parallel to one another and with an almost similar pattern. These images may be characterized as: A. B. C. D. Shrinkage cavities. Sponge shrinkage. A hot tear. A linear inclusion.

23. Hot tears are formed when the metal is being solidified, and cracks are formed after solidification. This statement is: A. False. B. True.

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24. An interpreter finds macroshrinkage distributed at a few locations. Referring to the reference radiograph ASTM E 446, the interpreter finds no exact replica of shrinkage. His or her decision will be to: A. See some other reference radiograph. B. Classify the macroshrinkage with a severity level with the reference guide of ASTM E 446. C. Accept the indication as such exact indications are not shown in ASTM E 446. D. Call the foundry expert. 25. In ASTM E 186, some radiographs are graded and some are called ungraded discontinuities. This is because: A. Ungraded discontinuities are not classified into a severity level. B. Permissible discontinuities are graded. C. Discontinuities with a severity level are to be expressed in the report with the severity level and, hence, are graded. D. Both A and C are true. 26. How many levels or grades are shown in ASTM 446 reference radiographs for mottling defects? A. B. C. D. Five levels. Four levels. Mottling is ungraded and has no level. Mottling is not shown in the reference radiograph set.

27. The interpreter of a casting radiograph shall have which one of the following as one of the essential items needed to position the discontinuity on the specimen found in a radiograph? A. B. C. D. IQI on source side. Markers. Radiographic shooting sketch. None of the above.

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28. Reference radiographs indicate the: A. Acceptance /rejection levels. B. Levels of some discontinuities so that the customer can choose the level for his or her particular application. C. Levels 1 to 3 acceptable and levels 4 and 5 rejectable. D. Only level 5 is rejectable and all other levels are acceptable. 29. Before interpreting and evaluating discontinuities, the interpreter shall check for and be satisfied with the: A. B. C. D. Density of the radiograph. Sensitivity of the radiograph. Absence of artifacts on the area of interest. All of the above.

30. The required density is measured: A. At three locations: far left, far right and center of the film. B. At or close to the designated wire or hole of the IQI. C. At the location of the discontinuity and compared with a density strip. D. At the exact center of the processed radiograph. 31. A pipe weld radiograph taken with Ir-192 did not show the lack of fusion (LOF) indication, while the same specimen exposed with an X-ray showed a faint image of LOF. The reason is: A. Probably a wrong exposure technique was followed. B. Too large source-to-object distance for Ir-192. C. X-rays produce low-energy radiation; low energy permits high contrast with more probability of seeing the indication. 32. A radiograph produced the outline of a plaque-type IQI, but the holes were not defined. This indicates: A. B. C. D.
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A higher thickness IQI was used. The definition of the radiograph is poor. The contrast is very high. The source-to-object distance was too large.

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33. The distortion in the image is related to the cone angle the radiation makes with the extremities of the radiograph. The distortion effect increases with: A. B. C. D. An increase in source-to-object distance. A reduction in source-to-object distance. The type of film used. The source dimension.

34. Sensitivity of a radiograph depends on: A. B. C. D. E. Contrast. Definition. Specimen thickness variation. Atomic number of the material. Both A and B are correct.

35. A dark broad image in the center of the weld is indicative of: A. B. C. D. Burn-through. Incomplete penetration. Root concavity. Root undercut.

36. High electrical resistance produces excessive heat and this phenomenon is used in: A. B. C. D. SMAW process. TIG process. MIG. Resistance welding.

37. A weld radiograph shows intermittent slag lines passing parallel to the weld bead. The most probable welding process is: A. B. C. D. TIG. MIG. EB. SMAW.

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38. Which one of the following is not a casting defect? A. B. C. D. Hot tear. Shrinkage. Cold shut. Incomplete penetration.

39 Radiography is best for the detection of: A. A discontinuity parallel to the film plane. B. A discontinuity perpendicular to the radiation beam with thin separation. C. Volume discontinuities. D. Sidewall fusion. 40. The permissible variation in density is 15% to + 30% . The density range required as per procedure is 2 to 4. The density measured near the designated wire IQI is 3. The recorded maximum and minimum are 3.5 and 2.1. This radiograph is: A. Acceptable. B. Rejectable. 41. The most probable cause for a static mark is: A. Static charges developed in the film industry. B. Improper handling and friction while removing the film from the cassette. C. Film stored in a very dry condition. D. All of the above are probable reasons. 42. The density of a processed radiograph is 3. The illuminator intensity is 1000 units. What is the transmitted intensity? A. B. C. D. 1. 10 100. None of the above.

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43. The densitometer is calibrated to zero before measuring the density of the weld radiograph. To do this initial calibration, the following condition is satisfied: A. The instrument is calibrated for all light sources. B. The incident intensity is made equal to the transmitted intensity of light. C. This calibration is done once in a year. D. A densitometer needs no initial calibration. 44. A processed radiograph shows a netlike appearance in a weld radiograph. This appearance is found on the weld, the parent metal and the entire radiograph. The interpreter has to record this indication as: A. B. C. D. A heat crack. A stress crack. Reticulation. A heat affected zone crack.

45. A sample film was tested out of the new packet by placing a strip of film in developer, stop bath and fixer. The film was processed at 20 C. The film showed a density of 1.0. The film interpreter shall record this as: A. B. C. D. Fog density. Normal base density. Excess fog; the film shall be rejected for radiography. The film can be used and the density of the radiograph includes the fog density.

46 Frilling of emulsion layer is due to: A. B. C. D. High temperature of the processing solution. Exhausted fixer solution. Both A and B. High-energy radiation.

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47. A film receives 10 R from Ir-192 and 10 R from Co-60. The density of the radiograph will be: A. B. C. D. More for Ir-192. More for Co-60. Equal for both sources. Based on the specimen exposed.

48. A sand casting radiograph shows a ring-shaped dark image with well-defined edges. The interpreter records this as a(n): A. B. C. D. False indication. Unfused chaplet. Sand inclusion. Hot tear.

49. A weld with a crown width of 20 mm (0.79 in.) is radiographed. The radiographic image indicates nearly half of the weld bead with a darker image compared to the other half. The interpreter records this as: A. B. C. D Lack of sidewall fusion. Root concavity. Mismatch or hi-low. A toe crack.

50. A pipe of OD 60 mm (2.36 in.) and ID of 40 mm (1.57 in.) with a circumferential butt joint is to be radiographed. The best and most suitable technique is: A. B. C. D. SWSI. DWSI. DWDI. Double-wall exposure/superimposed technique with three exposures.

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51. The permissible density variation on the plus side is 30% while on the negative side it is only 15%. This is because: A. Of higher density and higher contrast. B. Lower density and higher contrast are not permitted. C. No image of a discontinuity will form if the density is less than 15%. D. No variation in density is allowed. 52. A 3 in. (7.6 cm) outside diameter (OD) pipe circumferential weld is radiographed with double-wall exposure and double-wall viewing. The weld towards the source would be: A. Enlarged compared to the film side of the weld. B. Distorted and without any enlargement for the weld bead only. C. Sharper compared to the film side. D. None of the above.

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Volume 6 Self-Test Answer Key


Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
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Answer B D A B C C D A B B B A D A A A A B D A E C B B D C C B D B C B B E C D

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Question 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

Answer D D C B D A B C C C C B C D A A

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