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An India Case Study on



Produced for AEDs training program under the USAID SARI/Energy project, by the School of Environmental Management and Sustainable Development (schEMS) in Nepal, with support from IRG Systems South Asia

1. Description of Proposal
1.1 The project Proposal The rapid industrialization and urbanization process coupled with increased use of electric power for irrigation in Karnataka state has created a situation, where demand for power has surpassed the growth in power generation. So in order to build up a reliable, stable and effective power generation system, the integrated operation of hydro and thermal power stations is considered to be necessary, with thermal power supplying base load and hydro power as an effective supplement. Based on this strategy, the government of Karnataka has taken a step to build up adequate thermal power generation capacity. Karnataka Power Corporation Limited (KPCL) has proposed to set up thermal power plant with capacity of 1 x 500 MW in the first stage at the proposed Vijayanagar Thermal Power Station located at 2.5 kms from Kudatini village, Bellary district. KPCL generates most of the power required in Karnataka. KPCL is a premier public sector specialized in power, with a total generation capacity of 3868 MW. (Note: A brief description on project features would be appropriate to include here) 1.2 Location of Project The proposed project covers an area of 1963.5 and includes Bellary and Chitradurga districts of Karnataka and Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh. Most parts of the project area are located within Bellary, however the proposed project marginally touches three other talukas and include 269 villages. 1.3 Environment Impact Assessment and focus of the study Environmental Impact Assessment essentially involves four steps Base Line Study (Existing Environmental status) Identification, Prediction, and mitigation measures Evaluation of impacts on environment due to project. Based on these four steps, the Environment Management Plan (EMP) has been formulated to implement the mitigation plan in order to minimize adverse impacts.

The scope of the EIA study includes a detailed characterization of the pre-project environment within area of the proposed project as per the guideline of Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India. Under the scope of the study, the following areas have been selected to be analyzed from Environmental Assessment point of view:

assess the present status of air, noise, water, land, hydrogeology and socioeconomic components of the environment. identify and quantify significant impacts of the proposed project on the environmental components. evaluate the proposed pollution control measures, to prepare an Environmental Management Plan, and suggest adequate control technologies for mitigation of impacts. delineate post constructional environmental quality monitoring program to be pursued by the KPCL.

1.4 Nature and Scope of Issues Following issues were identified in the process of Scoping.

Topography, Air Quality Water Environment, Noise Levels Land Environment Land-use Ecology Terrestrial Ecology Socio-economic Aspects Agriculture, employment and income Health Civic amenities Transmission lines

2. Social and Environmental Setting

The study area covers 25-km radius around the project site. The following sections describe the existing social and environmental setting within the project area.

Topography The proposed project area is a flat terrain, located within Kudatini village of Bellary District and surrounded hill ranges on South, North and West sides. The highest point of Sandur hills is 3400 feet (1036 m) above the Sea level. The average elevation of the project site is 475 m above mean sea level. Tungabhadra is the major river of Bellary district, flows from southwest to the north east of the proposed project. Daroji tank is another major water source of the area, located at 7.5 kms in of the proposed plant site. Forest and Wild animals Forests in the area can be divided into two main categories: dry deciduous and scrub forests. The deciduous forests are mostly available in Sandur taluk at a distance of about 20-km from the proposed site. The Bellary and Hospet taluks have only scrub type of forests. No noticeable wild animals are available in the project area. Climate and Rainfall The coldest months in the project area is November to the end of February. The lowest mean temperature of 22.6 0c in the month of December. The maximum temperature 37.50C and the mean daily minimum is 18.50C maximum temperature is 42.50C. The Southwest monsoon commences at the start of June and lasts up to the end of August while the Northeast monsoon sets in by September and lasts until the end of December. The average rainfall in the area ranges from 492 mm to 846 mm. Wind Speed and Direction The predominant wind direction in the month of Jan and Feb is from E to W and SE to NW, with wind speed 2 kmph to 18 kmph, March and April E to W, with highest speed of 19 kmph and wind direction in March to September is W to E, SW to NE and NW to SE. The Maximum wind speed is below 25 kmph. Population Density The maximum population density has been recorded at Hospet Taluk of 163.20 persons per sq. km. At other places, the population density ranges from 119.71 to 154.04 persons per square kilometer. Sex Ratio The male dominates the female population and for 1000 males the number of females varies from 952 to 975. Literacy The maximum average literacy rate of 36.62% but it varies from 26 to 27%.

Infrastructure and other services facilities There are 8 government hospitals, 18 private hospital, 42 nursing homes and 24 health centers. Primary schools, secondary schools and colleges are many in the project area. Transport facilities and communication services of provided by the States have served by both road and rail transport. The road network consists of asphalted roads in urban area as well as kutcha roads in rural area. Drinking water sources constitute wells; bore wells and water supply schemes. Backwardness, low agricultural output, lack of industrialization and irrigation facilities has worsened the economy of the project area. Geology The Granite and gneisses of Archean age occupy the low-lying area. Most parts of the areas have been covered by red soil, thickness of which varies from 1 to 5m. Thick bed of alluvium varying in the thickness from 2 to 25 with pebbly bed ranging in thickness from 3 to 15 are seen along the entire course.

3. Policy & Regulatory Review

Currently, the MoEF is the nodal agency at the central level responsible for planning, promoting, and coordinating environmental programs and formulating environmental policy. At the center, responsibilities for industrial pollution prevention and control are primarily executed by the CPCB, a statutory authority attached to the MoEF. The CPCB was constituted in September 1974 for implementing provisions of the Water Act and, in 1981, the Air Act. The State Department of Environment and Forests (SDEF) the state pollution control board (SPCB) are the designated agencies to perform these functions at the state level. Environment Protection Act, 1986 This is an umbrella legislation to provide for the protection and improvement of environment and for matters connected there with. This act gives specific definitions, which are to be used in all rules enacted under this act. This Act provides power to the Central Government to take all such measures, as it deems necessary for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of the environment and preventing and abating environmental pollution. The central government also has to lay down standards for emission or discharge of environmental pollutants from various sources having regard to the quality or composition of the emission or discharge of environmental pollutants from such sources.

The penalties set under this act are imprisonment, which may extend to 5 months and/ or fines of up to rupees hundred thousand of Rupees. In case of continuing offences fines of Rs. 5000/day may be charged. Minimum National Standards (MINAS) The rules under the Environment Protection Act provide for industry specific standards (total of 79 industry sectors) and general standards of discharge of environmental pollutants in Inland Surface water i.e. like lakes and rivers, Public Sewers, Land for Irrigation and Coastal Areas. Minimum National Standards for thermal power plants have been formulated for pollution control in India. The Environmental Impact Assessment Notification, 1994 The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India notified the Impact (EIA) Notification, 1994 under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. As per the notification, 30 types of industries scheduled therein have to obtain the environmental clearance from the Government of India. Any organization, which desires to undertake any new project or the expansion or modernization of any existing industry or project, with investment of more than Rs.5 crores, requires conducting an environmental impact assessment. These projects require an environmental clearance from the central government. The clearance granted shall be valid for a period of five years from commencement of the construction or operation of the project. No construction work, preliminary or otherwise, relating to the setting up of the project may be undertaken till the environmental and/or site clearance is obtained. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, The Water Act established the general standards for effluent discharge into receiving water in order to prevent water pollution. The major responsibilities of SPCBs under the Act include granting consent to establish and operate facilities, restricting areas of operation, conducting surveys and determining the use and misuse of streams and wells within its jurisdiction. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, as amended in 1987to 99 The general legislative conditions of this act are similar to the Water Act in terms of obligations, responsibilities and penalties. The primary responsibility for controlling air pollution resides with the SPCB. Under the Air Act the state governments are authorized to designate any area or areas within the state as an air pollution control area, after consulting with the SPCB and notifying the official gazette. Depending upon the quality of

air in the designated area(s), the SPCB may set air emission standards in the notified area. The standards set by the SPCBs shall not be more lenient than the ambient air standards set by the CPCB. For any industry to be established in the air pollution control area, the consent to establish and consent to operate must be given by the state. Noise Pollution (Control And Regulations) Rules, 1999 This rule is to reduce the noise pollution from various sources, inter-alia, industrial activities, public address systems, generator sets, construction activity, that may affects the physical and psychological well being of the people. Ambient noise standards for different areas have been specified in Annexure of these rules. The Central Government or its designated authorities may categorize areas into industrial, commercial, residential or silence zones for the purpose of implementation of noise standards for different areas. An area up to 100 meters around hospitals, educational institutions and courts and sensitive areas (i.e. forests) shall be declared as a silence zone for the purpose of these rules. Other rules, which may be applicable from case to case, are as follows:

The Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989. The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules (MSIHC), 1989 (as amended in October 1994 and January 2000). Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 The National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995. Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness & Response) Rules, 1996. The Factories Act, 1948, as amendment in 1976 and 1987. The Petroleum Act, 1934 and rules framed there under The Motor Vehicles Act as amended in 1988 Gas Cylinder Rules, 1981

4. Impact Assessment and Mitigation measures.

Ecology The study area covers major Sandur State Forest. The proposed site is having an extensive agricultural land with small patches of vegetative cover. However, the project activity will not have much impact on the vegetative cover. There are no wild animals in the project area and the clearing of the area will not create any loss of habitat to the animals and birds. Development of green belt and forestation program in the affected area as suggested in EIA report will improve the situation of forest and habitat.

Environmental Pollution Water: There is only a marginal increase in the water pollution due to sanitary and wastewater generated from plant operation. However treatment facilities will be developed and the used water will be discharged only after proper treatment. Air: There will be marked increase in dust and NOX level during construction phase of project. Different measures have been prescribed to control such pollution. During the operational phase, there will be some concentrations of SPM and SO2 due to the usage of fossil fuel, which will be controlled by the use of Electrostatic Precipitator. Land: The project implementation will not affect the land because the land procured will be dry and un-irrigated and non-productive. However the private land will be compensated and effect on clearing of the vegetation cover will be offset by the green belt development. Noise: During the construction phase the increase in Noise level is 80- 85 dB (A) due to the erection, construction and commissioning of equipments. During the operational phase the increase in the sound levels is mainly due to boilers, compressors, and turbines etc. However, with proper implementation of EMP, this effect can be mitigated. Aesthetics: There will not be any change in the topographical characteristics of the area due to the project. Human Interest: The area is having little industrial growth due to non-availability of power. Hence, with the setting up of Thermal Power Plant as a major industry, will enhance the socio-economic condition of the project area. Overall Impact Evaluation: The overall changes are mostly due to the improved economic output, better land use due to the green belt and minor changes in the NOx levels. By proper implementation of EMP most of the effects can be mitigated.

5.0 Environmental Management Plan (EMP)

The Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is the document that ensures the implementation of mitigation prescriptions for environmental protection and sustainable development. EMP requires the involvement of project related stakeholders e.g. industry, Government, regulating agencies and the affected population of the project area. The salient features of EMP are as follows: 1. Management during construction phase. 2. Management during the post construction phase


Post Project Monitoring

Management during construction phase Following are the briefs measures suggested by EMP for the proposed project:

Frequent water sprinkling in the vicinity of the construction activity to control the dust emission, Paving the exposed surface to control dust and erosion Plantation of bare and exposed area and development of green belts Adopt noise control devices, storing of fuels in safe place and dumping of debris and waste in proper sanitary landfill site

Management during the operational phase: The measures to be taken during the operational phase of the plant are as follows: Air pollution and proposed control measures Air Pollution Concentration Parameter SPM 410 Kg / hr from the stack SO2 NOx 1436.4 Kg / hr from the < 100 PPM

Control measures Electro Static Precipitator having 99.5 % Efficiency Height of Proposed stack Is 275 meter Low Nox burners will be used

The Green Belt will act as a cushion between the stack emissions and the outside environment. On-line monitoring of stack emissions for SPM, SO2 and NOx should be carried out regularly to meet the statuary requirements. Green belt will be provided around the project area and along the internal roads in the premises. Water pollution and proposed control measures The sources of water pollution are, ash pond, leaching from coal yard, and boiler blow down, and oil/water mixture from fuel oil system, sewage disposal and effluent treatment plant. The pollution control measures are given below: Minimize quantity of effluents through reuse to maximum extent feasible. The cooling water chlorination will be carried out to the bare minimum requirement in order to have minimum impact on the receiving bodies.

The treatment schemes proposed are constructed before the commissioning the plant. The effluent samples will be collected and analyzed at the inlet and the outlet daily to ascertain the efficiency of the treatment plants and to meet the statuary requirements.

Noise Pollution and Proposed Control Measures: All the equipment in the power plant will be designed to have a total noise level not exceeding 85-90 dB (A) as per the requirement of OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) standard. Turbines will be housed in closed buildings, which will reduce the noise levels from the turbine generators. Steam turbine generators will be provided with acoustic enclosures and the intake exhaust system will be provided with silencers for abating the noise. Vibration damping will be provided to reduce vibrations. Use of damping materials such as thin rubber / lead sheet for wrapping the work places like the turbine halls, compressor rooms, DG sets etc. Efficient flow techniques for noise associated with high fluid velocities and turbulence will be used. All the openings like covers; partitions will be acoustically sealed. Reflected noise should be diffused by the use of absorbing material on root walls and floors. Earplugs will be provided to the workers, and it should be enforced to be used by the workers. vegetated thickly with species of rich canopy in addition to green belt development. Solid Waste pollution and Proposed Control Measures: Ash Disposal Plan will be prepared An attempt will be made to use fly ash for following products: 1. Building blocks 2. Cement industry 3. Light weight aggregates 4. Area filling 5. Cellular concrete 6. Ready mixed fly ash concrete 7. Fly ash masonry / plasters 8. Cement asbestos products 9. Soil stabilization in road construction 10. Agricultural manure To sell fly ash to other consumers at a nominal price or free of cost.

Thermal pollution and proposed control measures: Regenerative feed heating cycle will be used in the process. Land management 1. Clearing of the existing vegetation will be kept to a minimum and only to the required extent. 2. Railway siding, water intake facility and water disposal facility will be so routed that, apart from techno-economic feasibility and other aspects, it will require minimum destruction of vegetation. The roadside plantation will save the existing ecological scenario. 3. Active help from the locals will be solicited in preserving the greenbelt. They will be educated and discouraged destroying the vegetation for fuel purposes etc. Green-belt development program will be implemented. Socio-economic Environment Before taking up of the project, the local population will be apprised of the impending changes. They will be educated and made to appreciate the implications of the setting of the project. The management will adopt nearby villages and undertake development activities to improve the standards of their Living. Dispensaries, schools, transport facilities, roads, streetlight, water supply etc., will be made available in these villages. Setting up of ancillary units and self-employment schemes should be encouraged. Post Project Monitoring Air Environment Online stack monitoring for estimating the concentrations of SPM, SO2, NOx and CO will be carried out. Stack Kit with ORSAT apparatus will also be kept as an alternative. Ambient air quality monitoring for variations in the ground level concentrations of SO2, NOx, CO and SPM will be carried out. Water environment Effluents as well as the samples from the down stream Nallah and the connecting will be collected monitored regularly. The sampling and analysis should be done as per IS: 2488.

6.0 Lessons Learned

1. Number of issues require higher degree of competence at functional and organization level. 2. Need for institutionalization of environment issues into organization structure for effective implementation. 3. Need for better infrastructure to address environmental monitoring. 4. Need for environment post project, monitoring and reporting. Conclusion MoEF and State government has cleared the project proposal and the project will be implemented shortly.

7. Bibliography

Environment Protection Act, 1986, Government of India Minimum National Standards (MINAS), Government of India Noise Pollution (Control and Regulations) Rules, 1999, Government of India The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, Government of India The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, as amended in 1987to 99, Government of India The Environmental Impact Assessment Notification, 1994, Government of India The Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989, Government of India The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules (MSIHC), 1989 (as amended in October 1994 and January 2000), Government of India Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, Government of India The National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995, Government of India Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness & Response) Rules, 1996, Government of India The Factories Act, 1948, as amendment in 1976 and 1987, Government of India The Petroleum Act, 1934, Government of India The Motor Vehicles Act as amended in 1988, Government of India Gas Cylinder Rules, 1981, Government of India EIA Notification, 1994 issued under EP Act, 1981, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India.

7.1 Contact Details Name of the writer and contact details: Amit Jain Managing Director IRg Systems South Asia Pvt. Ltd. C-57, Shivalik, Gitanjali-Panchsheel Road, New Delhi - 110 017 Tel:+91-11-2668 5313 / 5314 / 9457 Fax:+91-11-2668 9996 Mobile: 9811295055 e-Mail: URL: