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Biology Module 2012 : Locomotion & Support

PART A: Activities Section

Learning Outcomes:
- Describe problems that could be faced by humans and animals in support and
locomotion
- Explains how problems in support and locomotion are overcome in humans and
animals

1. What is the difference between locomotion and movement?


Locomotion: ______________________________________________________
Movement: _______________________________________________________
2. Three types of skeletons in animals are _______________, ______________and
________________ _________________.
3. Fill in the blanks using appropriate answers.
2.1 Support &
Locomotion in
Humans and animals
Overcomed by

Needs for
support

Problems of

Animals

Humans
Skeletal
system

Muscular
system

Joints

Consists of

Position & nature of

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Axial

eg.

5
Appendicular

Earthworm
Grasshopper
Fish

Muscles

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Tendon

Ligament

Muscles
action
Bring about
Movement

Learning Outcomes:
- Name the bones that make up the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton of
the human body
- Label the bones, the skeletal muscles and tendons in diagram of the arm
- Explain how movement is brought about in a limb

The Vertebral Column


4. Fill in the name of general vertebral structure parts:
1_________________
__________________
2_______________
_________________

5__________________

3_________________
6________________

4___________________

Vertebral General Structure


Name and describe special characteristic for each vertebrae
Special Characteristics:
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
1. Name: ______________________

___________________________________

Special Characteristics:
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
2. Name: ______________________

___________________________________

Special Characteristics:
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
3. Name: ______________________

___________________________________
Special Characteristics:
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________

coccyx

___________________________________
___________________________________

4. Name: ______________________

5. Label all the structures:

5
9

6
10
11
12

17

13

14

18
19

15
20

21
16

22
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Appendicular Skeleton
6. Name all of the appendicular parts.

10

2
11

3
4
13

12

5
6

14
7

15

16

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The Lower Limb

The Upper Limb

The action of antagonistic muscles


7. Fill in the blanks with correct answers.
B) Biceps muscle, B _____________
while
A) ____________

Triceps muscle, C - _____________

C) _________

D)____________

C
E)____________
__

____________

G)Biceps muscle, B _____________


while
Triceps muscle, C - _____________

F) _______________

C
H)_______________

Muscles Involved in Walking


8. Please arrange back all the process according to the right sequence:

a) The whole sequence is repeated with the left leg


b) Next, the quadriceps muscle contracts, pulls the femur forward and extends the
leg
c) The hamstring muscle contracts to pull the femur back and bends the knee. The
leg is raised
d) When the extension of the leg is completed, the foot then regains contact with the
ground with the heel touching the ground first. The weight of the body is now
supported on the right leg
e) The calf muscle contracts and raises the heel
f) In doing so, it exerts a forward thrust by pushing the ball of the foot against the
ground
g) As the right foot loses contact with the ground, the weight of the body is now
supported by the left leg which is still in contact with the ground
1
2
3
4
5
6
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Appreciating A Healthy Muscoskeletal System


9. Tick for the right statement and X for the wrong one.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Clothing should not inhibit the movement of the body


Keep the body adequately dehydrated during vigorous
activities
Exercising with objects tied around the waist, or with illfitting footwear can distort the posture
Do not warm up before involve in sport activities
because it will make you cramp
Drink a fruit juice or a sports beverage if you are
working out in hot weather
Physical activities strengthen joint structures, increase
muscular perfomance and delay the progress of arthritis
Stilettoes should not be used for walking because the
weight of the body is on the front part of the feet
Taking adequate amounts of calcium and phosporus will
help us maintain our musculoskeletal system

Supports in Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants


10. Fill in the blanks:
Need for

In

Achieved by

Achieved by

Collenchyma

Types

Cell turgidity

Xylem

Examples

Examples

Examples

Schlerenchyma

Examples

11. Complete all articles using the words given:


A. The mechanism of locomotion in an earthworm

downwards
strong
low
pressure

aerofoil

sternum
upper
coracoid
bottom

force
lifts
gliding

The locomotion of bird flight occurs through two ways, namely flapping the wings and
__________. When flapping the wings _________ , the ________ and large pectoral
muscles contract. Air resistance towards the movement of the wings downwards produces
a force that acts upwards against the wings.
This force is sent from the wings to the ________ until the _________ and ______ the whole
body of the bird upwards.
When gliding, the wing acts as an ___________. Air moves faster on the _________ surface of
the aerofoil. An area of ______ pressure exists on the upper surface and area of high pressure on
the ________ surface.
A lifting _______ is produced at the bottom of the wings and lifts the bird.

B. The mechanism of locomotion in an earthworm


shorter
hydrostatic
longitudinal

cavity
coelom
circular

muscles
chaetae
peristaltic

Earthworm have a _________ skeleton. The force is applied to a fluid-filled ________ called the
__________. The ___________ is surrounded by two antagonistic layers of __________: the
___________muscles and the ___________ muscles. When the circular muscles contract, the
longitudinal muscles relax. The earthworm becomes thinner and longer. When the longitudinal
muscles contract, the circular muscles relax. The earthworm becomes _________ and thicker. An
earthworm has _________ which anchor parts of the body to the ground so that the other parts
can be pulled towards the anchored parts. During locomotion, the contraction and relaxation of
both muscles produce a ____________ wave which begins at the front and moves towards the
end of the body.
C. The mechanism of locomotion in a grasshopper
antagonistic
jumping
pulled

extensor
flexor
propelling

contracts
upwards
extensor

A grasshopper has ___________ muscles called the flexor and ________ muscles which are
attached to the interior of the exoskeleton. The rear legs of a grasshopper are adapted for
___________. When the _____________ muscle in the upper part of a grasshoppers leg
___________, the lower leg is __________ towards the body. When the ___________ muscle
contracts, the leg jerks backwards, ____________ the grasshopper forward and __________ into
the air.

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C. The mechanism of locomotion in a fish


reduce
myotomes
sweep

Streamlined
contract
pushing

resistance
waves
backwards

A fish has a ____________ and slimy body to ________ water _____________ while swimming.
Each side of the fishs body has __________ which are W-shaped muscle segments. Myotomes
are antagonistic muscles. When the muscles on one side ___________, those on the other side
relax. This produces alternating ________ of contraction and relaxation which pass down the
myotomes on either side of the body to the tail. As a result, the different parts of the body
__________ from side to side, ____________ the water ____________ and the fish forwards.

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PART B: Structured Item Section


1. Figure 1 shows the arrangement of feathers and flight muscles of a bird

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(a) (i) Name two other groups of animal that can fly.
___________________________________________________________
______
(2 m)
(ii) State two differences between the musculoskeletal system of one group
named
in (a) (i) and the musculoskeletal system of birds.
___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
(2 m)
(b)

State three body characteristics that enable a bird to fly in air.

___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
(3 m)
(c)

How does the arrangement of feathers on a bird help it fly in the air?

___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
(2 m)
(d)
Describe the characteristics of birds bones that allow the bird to gain
elevation in
the air.

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___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
(3 m)
(e)

State one more feature of the bird that helps it to fly in the air.
___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
(1 m)

2.

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16

(a) Name the type of joint shown in the figure.


_____________________________________________________________
______
(1 m)
(b) What is the function of the structure labelled V?
_____________________________________________________________
______
_____________________________________________________________
______
_____________________________________________________________
______
(2 m)

(c) The ends of the two bones are covered by X. What is the main function of X?
_____________________________________________________________
______
_____________________________________________________________
______
_____________________________________________________________
______
(2 m)
(d) What is W?
_____________________________________________________________
______
_____________________________________________________________
______
(
1 mark)
(e) What is the importance of W?
____________________________________________________________
______

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____________________________________________________________
______
(1 mark)
(f) (i) Give one example of a pair of bones that has this type of joint.
____________________________________________________________
______
____________________________________________________________
______
(
1 mark)
(ii) Name a different type of joint from the one in the figure.
____________________________________________________________
______
____________________________________________________________
______
(1 mark)

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3. Figure 3 shows Ramu (A) and Johari (B) adopting two different postures. Examine
Figure 3 carefully and then answer the following questions

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(a) Define the term posture.


_____________________________________________________________
______
_____________________________________________________________
______
(1m)
(b) What is meant by a correct posture?
______________________________________________________________
______
______________________________________________________________
______
(2m)
(c) Which student is adopting the correct posture, student A or B?
__________________
(1m)
(d) How can you adopt the correct posture while standing?
______________________________________________________________
______
______________________________________________________________
______
(2m)
(e) What is the effect of a bad posture on the human body? Answer this question
in
terms of:
(i) Energy
___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
(2m)
(ii) Breathing mechanism

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___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
(2m)
(f) How can physical exercise help you to adopt the correct posture?
______________________________________________________________
______
______________________________________________________________
______
______________________________________________________________
______
(2m)
4. Figure 4(a) shows a series of movement of a worm on a surface. Figure 4(b)
hows
the muscle, bone and joint that are involved in the movement of the arm.

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4(A)

4(B)

(a) Name the muscle involved in the movement in the


(i) Worm:
____________________________________________________________
(ii) Arm:
_____________________________________________________________
(2m)
(b) Describe the muscle actions that allow movement in the
(i) Worm
____________________________________________________________
______
____________________________________________________________
______
(2m)
(ii) Arm
____________________________________________________________
______
____________________________________________________________
______
(2m)
(c) Explain the function of the liquid found in the worms body that allow it to
move
forward

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___________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
______
(2m)
(d) (i) Compare the skeletal strength of the worm and the vertebrate animal
___________________________________________________________
______
(1m)
(ii) Give reasons to your answers in (d)(i)
__________________________________________________________
______
__________________________________________________________
______
(1m)
(e) If bone X of a person breaks,
(i) State two nutrients that the person should take
__________________________________________________________
______
(2m)
(ii) Explain why these nutrients are needed
__________________________________________________________
______
__________________________________________________________
______
(2m)

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5. Figure 5 shows three types of plants P, Q and R. Each type of plants have special
adaptations to gain more support.

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(a) Classify all this plants to two categories according to its habitat
____________________________________________________________
______
____________________________________________________________
______
(2m)
(b) (i) Explain how plant P gains support which enable it to survive in its habitat.
____________________________________________________________
______
____________________________________________________________
______
____________________________________________________________
______
(1m)
(ii) Draw the special tissue involve in support in (b)(i) above

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(2m)
(c) Terrestrial plants need support for one main purpose. State the main
purpose.
___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
(1m)
(d) (i) Explain the differences between P and Q and R referring to the stem
condition.
___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
(1m)
(ii) How plant Q obtain support?
___________________________________________________________
______
___________________________________________________________
______
(2m)

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(e) Draw the cross section of area XY and label all parts that give support to Qs
stem.

(3m)

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