Sie sind auf Seite 1von 62

A Dissertation Titled



ROLL NO: 0 4 4 7 - BH - 0 8

SESSION: 2008-2012

Department of Geography


A Dissertation Titled


Submitted to GC University, Lahore-Pakistan in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Award of the degree of

B.Sc (Hons) in Geography (GIS)

ROLL NO: 0 4 4 7 - BH - 0 8

SESSION: 2008-2012

Department of Geography



Rana Waqar Aslam Roll No: 0447-BH-Geog-08, student of B.Sc. (Hons) in the subject of Geography (GIS) session (2008-2012), hereby declare that the matter printed in The dissertation titled MIGRANT IMPACT ON GULSHAN-E-RAVI INFRASTRUCURE AND ENVRIONMENT USING GIS & REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES is my own work and has not been printed, published and submitted as a research work.

... Dated:. Signature of Deponent.


Certified that the work contained in this dissertation titled MIGRANT IMPACT ON GULSHAN-E-RAVI INFRASTRUCTURE AND ENVIRONMENT USING GIS & REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES has been carried out and completed by Rana Waqar Aslam, Roll No.0447-BH-Geog-08 under my supervision during his B.Sc. (Hons) in Geography. The quantum and the quality of the work contained in this dissertation is adequate for the award of Degree of Bachelors of Science.


Submitted through

.... Chairman Department of Geography GC University, Lahore

... Controller of Examination GC University, Lahore


Certified that the quantum and the quality of the research work contained in this dissertation titled MIGRANT IMPACT ON GULSHAN-E-RAVI INFRASTRUCURE AND

ENVIRONMENT USING GIS & REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES is adequate for the award of Degree of Bachelors of Science.

.. External Examiner

. Internal Examiner

Department of Geography GC University, Lahore.


I dedicate all of my efforts and success to my Grandfather (Late) Ever loving Parents, Uncle and my Teachers. To whom never shall I return their love, nor shall fulfill their sacrifices.


I humbly bow my head before ALMIGHTY ALLAH, Who bestowed on me His blessings and gave me courage to present this piece of work. I invoke peace for Holy Prophet HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PBUH) who is forever a torch of guidance for humanity as whole. I would like to thank my Parents for being there for me. They are always there to support me and boost up my courage. I am very grateful to my Grandparents for all their prayers and moral support. And my brothers and sister for all their help and time to keep me relaxed. I want to express my heartiest obligation and gratitude to supervisor Prof. Dr. Ali Iqtadar Mirza (Chairperson Department of Geography) for his enthusiastic guidance, throughout our research work. I want to offer my heartily gratitude to my external supervisor, Mr. Mumtaz Qadri (Director in PHATA) Lahore for his enthusiasm, technical support and consistent guidance throughout my research work. Without his support, this study was not possible. I cannot overlook the assistance of Ms. Kiran Zahra for their learned co-operation. I would like to thank the Incharge of (WASA) and CDGL department.

Rana Waqar Aslam





14 16 19 22 22 23 25 25 27 27 28 30 30



31 32 33





In the world population survey of year 1998, over six billion people exist on earth today and an increase of about 97 million people occurs annually (Greep 1998). A growing population leads to several environmental problems as well as social problems and infrastructure problems. An increasing population can be attributed to several variables. Within the countries, we can credit the growth to increased immigration or lack of migration. Lack of education and contraceptive use and the need or desire for more children also adds to the population increase. In more developed countries, we can attribute the population rises to better medical facilities, thus a longer lifespan and/or fewer deaths. As a result of this overpopulation we experience social issues such as increased rates of poverty, crime, disease, and environmental problems such as increased global warming, natural disasters, loss of habitat, pollution, infrastructure problems and many more. Fig 1.1: Resources and Population

These threats are very necessary to be addressed, as they will affect people worldwide presently and in future. It is important that we should look at these problems and stop the all causes of overpopulation which is necessary for the future generation and our resources. A growing population puts major strains on the available freshwater and forest area

(deforestation). We can see that more people indicate more consumption of freshwater, a greater need for developed area. In order to know the reasons and causes of

overpopulation first of all I need to explain the necessary material regarding the

population, I have searched for the reasons as to why population is growing within each country. After founding the main reasons then I would move on to see the strains such growth exerts upon the individual

environment of each country.In order to get the increasing numbers of population we took the population growth rate and multiplied it by the initial population and added that number to each preceding year rate.There is also an issue of depleting forest area and freshwater resources, many other environmental impacts exist because of a rapidly growing population. For example, a growing population puts strains on other natural resources as well. Although Pakistan having a great natural resources on and beneath the earths surface, it not well endowed with natural resources. Coal, iron, ore, and bauxite are Pakistans primary mineral reserves. Furthermore, a growing population also leads to an increase in pollution. In a 1990 report sponsored by the US Department of Energy, it said CO 2 emissions had grown 5.6% per year from 1950 (Economist Intelligence Unit 2006). This inevitably leads toincrease in greenhouse gas emissions, thus there is more global warming. These emissions mainly come from coal combustion and heavy use of oil. Fig 1.2: Over population

The World Resources Institute also declare that developing countries like Pakistan, rank higher among greenhouse gas emitters because of deforestation and other human activities resulting in carbon releases. Coal is the primary fuel for power generation, yet its high ash content makes it a strong pollutant and inefficient source of energy (Economist Intelligence Unit 2006). These problems are happen because of the little economic incentive to recycle and conserve energy. However, progress has been made with Pakistans taxation and corporate law. They have reduced excise taxes and custom duties for certified pollution control equipment, and have depreciation allowance for units designed to minimize pollution or conserve natural resources. Also there is an exemption from capital gains tax for industries relocating away from urban areas (Jasanoff 1993). Pakistan is a country which is located in South Asia that covers an area of 796,095 square kilometers (310,410 square miles). In Pakistan the growth of population is also increasing rapidly which is very dangerous for the economy of Pakistan and their resources. The government of Pakistan has estimated that Pakistan's population was 137.5 million in June 2000 survey, excluding about 1.5 million refugees from Afghanistan after Afghan War. Pakistan's Afghani refugee population has increased significantly in the fall of 2001 after the war against terrorism campaign against Afghanistan's ruling Taliban regime which caused thousands to flee to Pakistan. A large majority of Pakistanis are very young, owing to the high rate of population growth in recent decades. About 41 percent of the population is under the age of 15 years, and 55 percent is between the ages of 16 and 65 years. Population growth is still quite high at around 2.2 percent in 2000 survey. Pakistan has a very high infant mortality rate, with 88 deaths per 1,000 live births, but, on average, every woman in the country gives birth to minimum 4 children or more than 4. According to government surveys figures, only about a third of the population lives in towns (34 percent in 2000), while two-thirds (66 percent) are rural. The population density was 175 people per square kilometer in 1999, according to World Bank survey figures, which makes Pakistan a heavily populated country despite of its size. The largest towns are Karachi with 9.3 million inhabitants, Lahore (5.1 million), and Faisalabad (2 million). Pakistan has 4 major provinces: the Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhawan (past name NWFP), as well as some federally administered tribal areas. In 1998, 55.6 percent of the population lived in Punjab province, 23.0 percent in Sindh, 13.4 percent in

the NWFP, 5 percent in Baluchistan, 2.4 percent in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and 0.6 percent in the northern areas and the federal capital of Islamabad. Lahore city is the Capital of the Punjab province. The Lahore city is a historical city and is ruled by different rules throughout the history. It was the largest city of Pakistan at the time of independence in 1947. According to the population census of 1998, Lahore is second largest city of Pakistan and Karachi is the first largest city. For the better planning and management Lahore City the Britishs established a Municipal Committee for Lahore in 1862 and its first act was passed in 1911. Under the Municipal Committee of Lahore small housing schemes were designed and implemented. But population of Lahore was growing very rapidly and it is difficult to control the situation of Lahore expansion by one organization. Therefore in 1936 another new organization is developed in the name Lahore Improvement Trust. After the establishment of Lahore Improvement Trust (LIT) they developed large Housing Schemes like Samnabad (Gulshan-e-Ravi Society is developed in the Samnabad Scheme), Gulberg and Shadbagh and later on another large Industrial Township was developed. But the problem is remain exist in the presence of two authorities because of their little coordination. And then in 1963-65, the Provincial Town Planning Department started efforts for the preparation of master plan of Lahore City. But the absence of appropriate information and data the professional are restrict to use outdated base maps and collect necessary information and data again spending large amount of resources and time. The time period of data collection took almost ten years before master plan was ready for implementation. But till that moment the situation had changed drastically and this plan was of little use in planning and management. If the required data and information had been available on appropriate time and in up-to-date format, the plan would have been ready earlier with new and improved policies under the assistance of professionals and decision makers and also the financial resources use little and benefits are bigger. Later on after two years of master plan, the Lahore Improvement Trust (LIT) is converted into Lahore Development Authority (LDA) in 1975. The Lahore Development Authority (LDA) first major initiative was to prepare a structure for the Traffic control in the name of Lahore Urban Development Traffic Study (LUDTS) under the foreign assistance. For twenty years, Metropolitan Corporation Lahore (MCL) and Lahore Development Authority (LDA) had two different plans for the jurisdiction of Lahore.

Lahore Development Authority (LDA) had its own plan and Metropolitan Corporation Lahore (MCL) had its own structure plan for Lahore city. We can easily understand the how can a coordinated development achieved in the presence of two different development plans! In year 2001 the Lahore development Authority (LDA) and Metropolitan Corporation Lahore (MCL) were merged and they are working on a one plan for Lahore City. On the other side the Lahore Cantonment Board continued his work to develop the Cantonment areas of Lahore without the little coordination with Lahore Development Authority (LDA) and Metropolitan Corporation Lahore (MCL). The small housing schemes like Allama Iqbal Town, Johar Town and Jubilee Town develop under the Lahore Development Authority (LDA) and Metropolitan Corporation Lahore (MCL) is working only the maintenance work of its old stock of small housing societies. Mostly the planning and development information of these small housing societies is never integrated. The base maps are not updated and if updated then the quantity is very low and only for few areas is available. It is very difficult to identify routes, streets and buildings on the old base maps. Some base maps are lost due to the poor management and maintenance. In this situation the work of development is very difficult job when they do not have information and data and in the result the effects of this is encroachment, illegal construction of buildings and haphazard developments are clearly visible throughout the city. On the other side, detailed map of newly developed housing society like Johar Town by Lahore Development Authority (LDA) are available in digital and had form, there are a lot of plot ownership frauds with the help of Lahore Development Authority (LDA) employees. Recently 2200 double entries were found in the official record of Lahore Development Authority (LDA) for Johar Town (Qtidar, 2008). Most of schemes plans are prepared on large plans against the small portion and some housing societies are only exist in the documents. This mostly happen in private entrepreneurs with the help of some corrupt employees of Lahore Development Authority (LDA). According to recent news, Lahore Development Authority (LDA) started a crackdown operation against 103 illegal housing schemes in Lahore City (Dawn, 25 May 2008, P.17). Majority of people purchase the plots in these private societies without verification from concerned authorities as no appropriate verification system and if they provide then mostly are faked. And other factor is also there that it is very difficult to check the ownership of property and verify it, even for Lahore Development Authority (LDA) developed

schemes e.g. Johar Town. It is the responsibility of Government to restore the confidence of people in property ownership and provide facilities for safeguarding people from such frauds. Overpopulation of any area has many negative impacts on the environment and infrastructure. The major reason of any area overpopulation is the migration of people. Mostly this phenomena is occurs in the developed areas and developed countries. Where the better facilities are provided to the people, like better living life style, better health facilities, better education facilities and better job facilities which attract the people to migration toward those areas. When people coming in developed areas mostly are settled there and some are going back their areas on weekly and monthly basis. But they live in these developed areas. The same case is happened with Lahore City which is 2 nd largest city of Pakistan. In Lahore many of people migrate there for the jobs purposes, education, medical treatment and availing other facilities. Many of them are settled there for permanent basis and some are settled there for temporary basis. I have selected the area of Gulshan-e-Ravi for my research which is part of Lahore city. The population of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society is also increase rapidly according to the City District Government of Lahore (CDGL). It shows the many migrants resident here or lives here. After the war against terrorism by United States of America in Afghanistan many of refugees migrate toward the different areas of Pakistan and mostly come in Lahore and Karachi which are largest cities of Pakistan. 1.1 STUDY AREA: My study area is the migrant impact on Gulshan-e-Ravi, infrastructure and environment throw using different techniques. After the heavy migration of people toward Gulshan-e-Ravi society in Lahore, there are many negative impacts on the society environment and infrastructure by migrants. Because the society was developed in some parameters and its infrastructure was also developed for some limitation and condition which are compulsory, which having a limited capacity. When the population of Gulshan-e-Ravi society is increase then the infrastructure pattern is disturb and changed. Because the society does not complete the need of living person so the people change the infrastructure and expand the buildings in vertical shapes. The vertical expansion of buildings is only for the sake of money because the resident of society gives their house portions for rent to the migrants. This is beneficial for the house owner but not suitable for the society owner and administration and also the Government. Because after increasing the

population the consumption demands of all goods things are also increase, which is dangerous for the resources. When the demand became high the price of the thing is also become high. In the Gulshan-e-Ravi Society there is first problem regarding migrants impact is the water supply problem. Because when Gulshan-e-Ravi society was developed the water pipe lines was designed and set underground by Water and Sanitation Authority, Lahore (WASA) under some limitation regarding every house population. But now the population is increase and people of the Gulshane-Ravi Society facing the Water supply problem. Another problem is the Sewerage system, mostly the sewer pipes are damage by labors when they construct the roads and streets because un-professional and un-skilled labors. And some pipe lines are not good in quality wise so the age of sewer pipe lines is over. And also after the rain the sewerage pipe lines are blocked in many streets of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society and rain water is standing in the street. This standing rain water cause many harmful diseases for the residence people of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society. In the south edge of Gulshan-e-Ravi society the bad water drainage (Ganda Nala) run and discharges in the Ravi River Channel. This drainage water is also badly effects the health of the Gulshan-e-Ravi society people. It also causes many of diseases and also pollutes the environment. Due to this drainage water (Ganda Nala) the water of this Ganda Nala also mixed with our ground water which is provided us by WASA Lahore throw the Sucking Tube Wells. This water which is sucking from Tube Wells containing arsenic mineral sand, it is very harmful and dangerous for our health. This drainage water (Ganda Nala) is developed due to increasing of population Lahore City. 1.2PROBLEM STATEMENT: My topic of thesis is migrant impact on Gulshan-e-Ravi Infrastructure and Environment using GIS & Remote Sensing Techniques. I have mainly focuses on the all environmental and infrastructure impacts of migrants and knows the reason why they chose to lived here. 1.3HYPOTHESIS: Study of migrants impact on Gulshan-e-Ravi infrastructure and environment using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques.

1.3.1MIGRATION TRENDS IN LAHORE: There are two types of migrants trend dominate in Lahore district in 1981 data, IntraProvincial and International migration. The intra provincial, sometimes inter-district migration contributes half of the migrant population. The international migration contributes 38% to migrant population. However, inter-provincial migration has contributed marginally to migration.(Jamal, 2009) Table 1.1: Lahore Migrants Distribution 1998

LIFE TIME MIGRANTS, LAHORE 1998 Percentage Description of in-migrants Migrants from the same province Migrants from other provinces Migrants from AK/NA Migrants from other countries Migrants from places not reported All Areas 71.7 10.1 1.3 16.9 * Urban 70.5 10.7 1.4 17.4 * Ex-MCL 69.97 10.24 1.33 18.46 *

Source: demographic profile of Lahore 2008. Urban sector and policy management unit. 1.3.2 POPULATION PROJECTION OF LAHORE: Population projections are based on certain assumptions regarding the development of major components of population change, namely fertility, motility and migration, and show the changes in the size and age structure of the population within a specific time span. Since demographic processes evolve gradually in time and their full impact on the situation of the population often is not apparent until several decades later, official population projections frequently cover longer periods of 30 to 50 years. Thus, it is possible to disclose as yet invisible but pre-programmed future changes and to deliver important early indicators to politicians, the economy and society.(Jamal, 2009)

Table 1.2:Lahore projected Population 1981-2020

Table : Lahore projected Population 1981-2020

Years Pop (000)

District Growth Rate (%) Pop (000)

Urban Growth Rate (%)

1981 1998 2005 2010 2015 2020

3545 6319 7376 8592 10009 11660

3.46 2.23 1.10 3.10 3.10

2953 5143 6467 7614 8965 10555

3.32 3.33 3.32 3.32 3.32

Source: demographic profile of Lahore 2008. Urban Sector and Policy Management Unit. Fig 1.3:Lahore projected Population 1981-2020

1.4 OBJECTIVES: GPS surveys of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society Data Collection from the WASA Lahore Data collection of union council population from CDGL Downloading the Image of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society Digitization of the downloaded image of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society Collecting the Land use map of Gulshan-e-Ravi society from LDA Digitization of the land use map of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society Questionnaire survey regarding infrastructure of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society Questionnaire survey from the Doctors regarding diseases and environmental effects on the people of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society Analysis of data

The population refers to the number of living persons with the area at a given time in geographical location. The study of population is a major determinant of any citys socio economic profile. It helps to realize the in the future policy levers to manipulate the future size, structure of city and distribution of population. It is a basic tool for the understanding the factors which are responsible for population dynamics. In the planning point of view the study of Lahore population is very important, until and unless we do not know about a dual population size in more detail we cannot do successful planning. Throw the identification and analysis of population growth of Lahore, in advance will help out in effectual infrastructure planning in urban area of Lahore City. For the understanding the manners of such population growth which is crucial for sound environmental planning and resource management (natural and man-made), current study of Lahore is carried out. The study temporal population growth of Lahore city, prof. Dr. Tabassum Jamal and Faiza Mazhar write an article in which they describe all the towns of Lahore city and discussing the growth of Lahore population. They also discuss the district population of Lahore and urbanization trend in Lahore. They describe why and how migrants are coming in the Lahore city. Mostly the main reason is coming toward the city is the economic reason. (Jamal, 2009) Population and environment is deeply inter-connected with each other. With the increasing of population growth rate the environmental degradation is happen rapidly. Dr. Dewaram A. Nagdeve describes all the aspects of population and also describes the population impacts on the environment. With the passage of time the population is increasing rapidly and due to this the natural resources are under threat. The increasing of population already resulted in rapid growth of energy production and consumption in any country. With the incensement of population it causes the poverty also in the country. Mostly people are dependent on the natural soil and they utilize it, which is cause of soil degradation. (Nagdeve) Population growth and urban development have a strong relationship with each other. Increasing the population is because of migrant coming in any developed area. Because the migrant always moves toward the developing areas where as they find out the jobs and also better facilities. Some migrants are coming due to some political reasons which are called

refuges. Peter L. Doan also studies the refuges impact in Jordan with increasing of population density, urban centrality also. He is also identifying the most rapidly increasing population district due to migrant coming. He also point out the main reason of increasing population rapidly in some district. In very simplified terms transition theory postulates that economic changes affect the rate of population growth by low mortality rate and also low fertility rate. Due to the population rapidly growth it contribute political instability and also collapse of social and economic system. (Doan, 1995)

The migrant transnationalism practices are involved in deep seated patterns of change or structural transformation. These modes of transformation concern with other components of migrant transnationalism. The dual orientations have influence on the transnational family system life and also continue to affect among post migration generations. Steven Vertovec also discussing about the migration routes between nation to nation throw using the bordering areas. This arise a question regarding dual nationality and citizenship of the migrant. Many of migrants play an important role in development phase and also maintain the commitments that link with significant others but not all migrants. The ratio of migrants working for the betterment of economic environment is very low. (Vertovec, 2004) Dr. Abel Wolman discussing the population impact on the environment regarding the over population in any area. He describes all the aspects which are influencing on the environment throw the increasing of population. He describes all the terminologies which he use to measures the impact of population on the environment. He uses the techniques of physics, medical, metrology, hydrology, chemistry and many others to determine the impacts. After using many techniques he find outs many results which shows the overpopulation have a bad impact on the environment. The purpose of his study shows that he wants to aware people regarding burdening on the earth surface. Because with the high increase of population the wastage of natural resources is also increase and the people acquire land for their own use purposes. So the deforestation process is start which is not friendly for soil and environment.(Dr. Eng., 1965) The urban expansion is a multifaceted concept in which outwards spreading of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts in low density and auto dependent development. It has many direct and indirect effects on environment such as land occupation, car dependency, high per-capita use of energy and water, loss of time and productivity for commuting etc. Using life cycle assessment

(LCA) techniques we can check the additional environmental effects of urban expansion on the sewer infrastructure. These effects are helping us to discuss the relationship of land topography and population density with reference to urban planning issues. In this article the writer discussing the sewer problems which are in the results of urban sprawl. With the increasing of population the load of water supply is also increase but the pipe lines are unable to provide extra quantity of water and also the sewer pipe lines are unable to having extra capacity to load extra water for drainage. There is arising a problem of sewer and water supply. Because in any city sewer and water supply system is designed for living pattern and for that ratio of living person but when the load of population increase in any city or area then this problem is always arise. (Philippe Roux) Urban trees play an important role in landscape beautification, in reduction of air pollution, and in moderating the urban energy budget, water use, and storm runoff. Increasing the proportion of pavement area during the process of urbanization strongly influences energy exchange, hydrology, and micro-climate (Arnold et al., 1996).

For the assessment of impacts of migrant on the Gulshan-e-Ravi infrastructure and environment I have used the techniques of Cartography, Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System, which helps me to draw the temporal maps images and performing analysis. 3.1 GOOGLE EARTH PRO: The whole process of digitization of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society, related to my survey, is mainly depended upon the Image that will be used as a Base Layer. The image I have used as base layer was created of patches from Google Earth Pro. By using Google Earth Pro, first of all I identified my area of interest, which is Gulshane-Ravi Society. Then I have downloaded the patches of that area at high resolution using the Premium option in Google Earth Proand save the image. The patches were captured as 4 horizontally and 6 vertically summing up a total of 24 patches. There are many methods to download patches effectively but the method I have used is the grid system method, in which self-created grids are used as reference for creating blocks or cell which will provide equally spaced and same sized patches for image for more accuracy. After completing this process, move to the next step.(Allen, 2009)




3.2 MOSAICKING: Downloaded patches help to permute the Mosaicking process. It is one of those processes of digitizing that require intense care. This is the process in which I have used the dedicated program Adobe Photoshop CS4. Patches are mosaicked to particular scale and confirm a high resolution image. In this process, first of all create a new empty file in Adobe PS, set its canvas size, which will fulfill the criteria or requirement. For example, for four 4000 resolution horizontal images, it will have a suitable canvas 4000x4=16000 resolution horizontally, minimum. Now open the patches and add them to adobe Photoshop CS4. After adding the patches of imagesMosaic they throw overlaying one by one properly. Overlay some part as required and zoom in a-lot to check whether the image is mosaicked smoothly or not. After Mosaicking, of allthe patches of images,the Final Image of the Gulshan-eRaviSociety is acquired. Recheck for any errors. The image is ready for further processing.







3.3 GEO-REFERENCING: The widely used software for digitization by ESRI, Arc GIS 9.3 can be used for this process so I also did. After Mosaicking images, add this final image of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society into the Arc GIS 9.3 software for the Geo-referencing process. After adding the image as layer right click on layers go into properties. Then in coordinate systems select pre-defined then Projected Coordinates then World from within it and finally WGS1984. After this, close this window. Activate geo-referencing bar from tools throw click on empty space on the bar, then by pointer in this bar, give longitudinal and latitudinal information which we collected from the Google Earth while acquiring the image in the term of North and East. At least 4 points are required for geo-referencing process. After assigning all values check the log-table for residual error, the lesser it is the better the map geo-referenced. Maximum ignored error is 0.1 no further, as it will change the shape of image from original. After this process rectify the image in .img format which will enhance its contrast and save coordinate values in it. Also save the log file of coordinates for any future checking.


Geo-referencing Toolbar
Add Control Points




3.4 DIGITIZATION: I have extensive discussion with public in land use mapping process. I have made few lands use classes based on the very prominent land use types in the area of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society Lahore. All the classes are a result of detail work which has resulted in the development of final map of land use mapping of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society. It can be categorized into following small steps. 3.4.1 Creation of Shape Files:First of all I created shape files for each type of land use class. Without creation of shape files we cannot performing any type of analysis on the map. Because Shape files are actually files which store vector data and their attribute data. files are created in Arc Catalog. Shape files the combination of Optional files Mandatory files The shape

Optional files include .prj, sbn, sbxetc the number of files depends upon the work done on that shape file. Mandatory files include .shp, .shx and .dbf. .shp stores the geometry of the object while .dbf stores the attribute information and .shx file links the .shp and .dbf files .prj file store the information related to projection and coordinate system which I have assign to that shape file. I have created line shape files e.g. Roads and polygon shape files like Residential,
Shape file creation

Commercial and Boundary area etc.

Fig 3.14: CREATION OF SHAPE FILE FOR THE DIGITIZATION OF RESIDENTIAL AREA 3.4.2 Editing In Each Respective Shape File: Editing in shape files can be categorized into two further steps i. ii. Drawing features Entering attribute data of each feature

In the first step I have draw features from the source map in the respective shape file. Start editing from the editing toolbar in Arc Map 9.3 for respective shape file in which I want to make edits. Then I select sketch tool From Editor toolbar and draw features which should be drawn. The given screenshot shows polygon of Area. For fine drawing we zoom in the feature to be drawn. The other step is very important in which we have entered and associate attribute or aspatial information to every drawn feature. Then click stop editing and save edits for storing data. Right click the layer whose data I wanted to add and click open attribute table.


Open attribute table from here

Adding fields in attribute table

Add field window

And type the name of the field and data type like in the above screenshot the field name is owner_name and the data type are in text format. After adding field start editing and entered attribute data and save edits for storing data.

3.5 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) A GPS is the collection of hardware and software system that describe the location of any points in the longitude and latitude value in all weather, anywhere on or near the earth surface. GPS is developed and owned the United States America and is freely available to anyone with the GPS receiver (with standard positioning system). 3.5.1 Global Positioning System (GPS) Survey: A survey performed on the surface of earth to determine the relative or absolute position of the area of interest with the help of GPS receiver. GPS helps us to determine the location of any point by giving the information of longitude, latitude and elevation. My concerned area of study is Gulshan-e-Ravi Society Lahore, in which I have collected the points of the boundary of society. I also collected the points of my ground survey during my Questionnaire Performa filling. (French, 1996)


Schematic Presentation of GPS SurveyFor Gulshan-e-Ravi Society

GPS Survey

Field Survey

Adobe Photoshop


Pre survey ObservationsCal culations

Image Preparation According to Scale Chosen (Inches)

Assigning Coordinates in Arc GIS

Rough Sketch


Georeferencing Map

GPS Survey: A standard GPS survey involves the following major steps in it. 1. GPS field survey in the Gulshan-e-Ravi Society 2. Preparation of Rough Sketch of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society for point out location. 3. Collecting Coordinates points for Georeferencing 3.5.2 Instruments for GPS Survey: Hand held GPS Receiver Lead Pencil Field Book Measuring Tape Hand Levels Surveying Poles Magnetic compass Sun Glasses

3.5.3 Procedure of Survey: Procedure of GPS survey includes two steps: 1. Pre Survey

Proper field reconnaissance is a prerequisite for survey. It should include: A review of all existing control networks. Station selection. Pre survey visit of the selected site (Gulshan-e-Ravi).


Field work

a) Make a rough sketch of the selected area. In this survey we selected the Gulshan-e-Ravi Society, Lahore.

b) Then the measurement of the boundary of the selected society area is made with the help of distance measurement meter which is located on the vehicle and also include in the GPS Receiver. c) Select the locational points on GPS and mark the selected points. d) Switch on GPS receiver. e) Orientate the handheld GPS receiver with the help of magnetic compass. f) In order to find location with the help of GPS receiver, open Tool menu and go to Where am I? The GPS receiver shows the actual location on ground surface. g) Note down the locational coordinates (Longitude, Latitude and Elevation) of each selected point with the help of GPS receiver. And save them in the GPS receiver with any name.

h) Record the each measurement made by distance measuring meter and GPS receiver in note book for further processing in Adobe Photoshop. i) Select a scale for recording measurements. j) Usually measurements made by distance measuring meter is recorded in feets and the measurement made by GPS receiver are recorded in Degree (*), Minutes () and Seconds ().

k) The entire system of GPS equipment, personnel, and processing procedures should be proven with a validation survey as a final check to ensure all components interact properly. 3.5.4Documentation: The final GPS Survey project file should include the following information: Project report Project Sketch or Map Site Descriptions Site Diagrams

Raw GPS observation (tracking) data files Adobe Photoshop Processing Georeferencing in Arc GIS Final Coordinate list Table 3.1:GPS COORDINATE POINTS OF GULSHAN-E-RAVI.

Sr. 1 2 3 4

North Degree 313308.67 313238.16 313231.99 313257.76

East Degree 741614.97 741601.31 741709.25 741725.93


3.5.5 Limitations of GPS:

The main limitation of GPS technology for mapping is that survey productivity and accuracy can be limited by local terrain / canopy conditions.

Steep terrain and heavy forest cover can make GPS data capture slow due to reception of acceptable satellite coverage.

Position accuracy is often degraded in difficult terrain conditions, and in some cases may not meet accuracy standards and require re-surveying.

Another major limitation of GPS technology is the fact that, although GPS Data is inherently three-dimensional, the elevation is usually much less accurate (by a factor of 2 or 3) than the horizontal position.

Usually the elevation accuracy requirement is actually greater than the horizontal requirement for these surveys.

3.5.6 Significance of The GPS Survey:

GPS surveying is an evolving technology. GPS technology has effectively replaced older methods such as tight-chain traverses for most tasks.

In GPS positional information provides the location and other geographical characteristics of a site. Attribute information provides the physical and biological characteristics of a site.

GPS technology is considered to be the most accurate, reliable and productive means of capturing position information at present. Accuracy is possible, with appropriate equipment and careful field and office methods.

GPS data can be stored on a field computer to capture standardized and complete attribute note information in the field.

Corrected GPS positions are inherently geo-referenced, that is, they have global coordinates such as UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator).

GPS methods require only one person - if a second person is needed for safety, that person can perform other tasks such as measuring cross-sections or setting reference points.

GPS surveying is used extensively in the resource industry especially in Forest Industry.

3.6 COMPARATIVELY ANALYSIS OF POPULATION DATA: Comparatively Analysis of population data year 1998 and 2009 of Union Council 89, Gulshan-eRavi, Lahore. The data of population of Gulshan-e-Ravi union council, I have collected from the City District Government Lahore (CDGL). The data of population with 11 years differentiate shows the increasing number of population in the same union council Gulshan-e-Ravi, Lahore. This increasing number of population shows that the huge number of migrants is resident here year by year. The Total population of Gulshan-e-Ravi Union Council in year 1998 was (36602) and in year 0f 2009 it became with increase (48805). In 11 years the number of increasing population is 12203 and if we divide it in 11 years than the average of per year increasing population is 1109. When we more divide it on the monthly bases then the increasing number of population are 92 people per month in Gulshan-e-Ravi Union Council.

Table 3.2: UNION COUNCIL ADULTS POPULATION DATA OF GULSHAN-E-RAVI. Union Council Name GULSHAN E RAVI Population 1998 36602 Population 2009 48805

Source: City District Government of Lahore (CDGL) 3.6.1 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: For the comparison and analysis of population of Gulshan-e-Rvai Union Council I choose the mathhod of Pie Chart. In this pie chart the population of year 1998 is shown in Blue color in circle on the left side and it covers the less area. And the population of year 2009 is shown in Red color in circle on the right side and it covers the more area then yaer 1998. Which is shows the increasing number of population of Gulshan-e-Ravi Union Council in year 2009, mostly the number of increasing people are migrants. Further more comparison and analysis of Gulshan-e-Ravi Union Council Population I choose another mathod Bar Graph for better visually represantion of data. The Bar Graphs are usually use for the comparison of anay data and I use it for the comparison of year 1998 population data and year 2009 population data of Gulshan-e-Ravi Union Council. In this Bar GraphChart the population of year 1998 of Gulshan-e-Ravi Union Council is shown in Red color in vertical shape on the down side. Its vertical expansion shows the number of population in year 1998. And the population of year 2009 of Gulshan-e-Ravi, Union Council is shown in Green color in vertical shape on the up side. Its vertical expansion a;so shows the number of population in year 2009 which is increased. The increasing number of population shows the migrants have trend toward Gulshan-e-Ravi society. Because of the society is located

in very suitable place which provides all neccesary basic thing to migrants and the residence people.

DATA AND ITS TYPES There are two types of approaches which are being used in data collection of any project the first method of data collection is primary data collection and second one is secondary data collection. To determine the migrant impact on Gulshan-e-Ravi infrastructure and environment I also collect two types of data for my study. The recent data is acquired by adopting the first method, primary data collection procedure, in this I have use the techniques of Remote Sensing on the area of interest Gulshan-e-Ravi Society. Then the second set of data was acquired by using the method of secondary data collection. The land use map of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society, which I have acquired from Shehik Nisar Ahmed (Assistant Regional Director) an employee of LDA. He provided the raw data of the concerned area. 4.1 PRIMARY DATA: In the primary data collection I have collected different type of data for my research project. 4.1.1 GPS: As complete procedure of data collection of GPS and implementing its data is define in methodology chapter. The Global Positioning System (GPS) provide us very accurate location of the any object on the ground surface. I have used the Digital GPS (Garmin) which is a latest GPS receiver for obtaining ground points. I have collected the points of the boundary of Gulshan-eRavi scheme for digitization process. These points also help me for locating any object on the digital map throw assigning these coordinates. After collecting the points of the boundary of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society I also collect the points of all locations of Doctors Clinics where I have performed my questionnaire survey regarding environmental impacts of migrants. These points of GPS also help me to show the location of every clinic on digital map throw assigning the coordinates. Sr. 1 2 3 4 Latitudes (North Degree) 313308.67 313238.16 313231.99 313257.76 Longitudes (East Degree) 741614.97 741601.31 741709.25 741725.93

Table 4.1: Latitudes and Longitudes points of Gulshan-e-Ravi

4.1.2 GOOGLE EARTH DATA: Google Earth Pro is the software which provides the high resolution image of any area on the earth surface. Throw google earth pro software we can download premium resolution images free of cost. These images provide us a bird eye view of the surface which is helping us for completing the project. As my study area is Gulshan-e-Ravi Society, I have downloaded the whole area image from the Google Earth Pro. After downloading of premium images in patches, join all patches for obtaining a full image of concern area Gulshan-e-Ravi Society. 4.1.3 DIGITIZED MAPS OF DOWNLOADED IMAGE: After obtaining the satellite image of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society, I perform the digitization process on it. The map is recently updated in June 2012 by the Google Inc. which provide me all latest information and also show all the activities which are recently performed in that area. For the digitization process I have used the software of Arc GIS 9.3. This software is specially designed for the digitization of maps and also performing many types of analysis. In this I have digitized the whole area of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society and show many types features in different maps. The fig 4.1: shows the street map of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society where we can see the network of streets shows that the streets are well planned and have a hierarchy. The fig 4.2: is shows the digital map of Gulshan-e-Ravi society which is most recently. In this map all the features are shows and it shows the digitization process in done on the satellite image. In fig 4.3: is showing the all features of area Gulshan-e-Ravi Society through digitized map. In this digital map I have categorized it into three major categories and these three categories have its sub-categories. i) ii) iii) Commercial Residential Roads

These three major categories have their sub-categories which enhance all the attributes information which is visually represented on the digital map.

Fig 4.1: Gulshan-e-Ravi Street Map 2012

Fig 4.2: Gulshan-e-Ravi Digital Map with Base Layer 2012

Fig 4.3: Gulshan-e-Ravi Digital Map2012

4.1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY: For the assessment of the impact of migrants on Gulshan-e-Ravi environment I have conduct a questionnaire survey from the doctors of Gulshan-e-Ravi Society. In this questionnaire survey I have questioning to the doctors regarding the impacts of overpopulation and migrants on our society environment and they give me relevant answers. This Bar Graph Chart in fig 4.4: which is created in the software of SPSS showing the two answers variation which are given by the doctors. My major question from the doctors is that, Have people get awareness about the diseases caused by pollution? This Bar Graph shows the variation that 65% doctors said NO and 35% doctors said YES. Its mean the ratio is shows that mostly people are not aware from the diseases cause by pollution.

Fig 4.4: Awareness about diseases due to pollution 4.1.5 INFRASTRUCTURE SURVEY: For the assesment of infrastrucute problems in Gulshan-e-Ravi Society I also have conduct the questionnaire survey regarding impacts of migrants on infrastructure. Firstly I have collect the information regarding their living status that how long they live here. Through this question I also asses that is he/she is migrant or permanent residence of this society. For more information

see fig 4.5: where the Bar Graph Shows the ratio of peoples residence year that how long they live in this society. Mostly the maximum people lives here from past 10 years and minimum they live more than 20 years. The central value is sow the ratio of 15 years past living person also is on second number.

Fig 4.5: How long living here? After that I asked the second major question regarding sewerage problem in society the 60% people answer that it occurs occasionaly, 30% answer frequently and 10% answer very rare. See fig 4.6.

Fig 4.6: When Sewerage problem occurs?

On the last I physically asses the structure of the buildings in Gulshan-e-Ravi society when I was performed my questionnaire survey. Mostly the 65% of buildings are double story, 25% are triple story and very low ratio of is single story building which is maximum 10%. Its shows that the mostly houses are double story. See fig 4.7: bar graph chart.

Fig 4.7: Structure of Buildings

4.2 SECONDARYDATA: In the secondary data collection I have collected different type of data for my research project through different techniques and source. 4.2.1 LAND USE MAP OF GULSHAN-E-RAVI: The land use map or specifically a cartographic image of the area Gulshan-e-Ravi society which is generated by Lahore Development Authority(LDA) and Mr. Sheikh Nisar Ahmed (Assistant Regional Director) is a resource person for giving the data. So I emailed him, giving all the necessary information that was required like I need map of an area Gulshan-e-Ravi Society, required for research and analysis, not to misuse data, will be acknowledged, not for

commercial use, only educational purpose etc. Within span of 2 days I received an email from him attached with the file I asked for. The land use map of Gulshan-e-Ravi Lahore was generated many years ago and not updated by LDA. After receiving this map I started the digitization process on it. During digitization process I also concern the latest map of Gulshan-eRavi Lahore which is in form of satellite image and I updated my Land Use map through concern the google earth downloaded image. See fig 4.8:

Fig 4.8: Land Use Map Gulshan-e-Ravi Society 4.2.2 ADULTS POPULATION DATA OF GULSHAN-E-RAVI UNION COUNCIL: In secondary data collection i have collected the data of population of Gulshan-e-Ravi union council from the City District Government of Lahore. This data contain two decades

information. First data is year of 1998 Gulshan-e-Ravi Union Council population and second is year of 2009 Union Council Population. I already have performed comparative analysis on this data in methodology chapter. I also collected the Union Council Map of Lahore District. After collecting this map I have perform some digitization process and manage all the contents on it. Table 4.2: Adults Population Data of Gulshan-e-Ravi Union Council Union Council Name GULSHAN-E-RAVI Population 1998 36602 Population 2009 48805


Population_98 Population _09

Fig 3.18: Gulshan-e-Ravi Union Council


Population _09 Population_98 Population_98

Population _09

10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000

Fig 3.19: Gulshan-e-Ravi Union Council

Fig 4.9: Union Council Map of Lahore District

4.2.3 Photographs of Gulshan-e-Ravi Buildings Structure:

Fig 4.10: Double Story Building

Fig 4.11: Double Story Building

Fig 4.12: New Double Story Building

Fig 4.13: Drainage of Gulshan-e-Ravi (GandaNala)

Fig 4.14: Drainage of Gulshan-e-Ravi (GandaNala)

In Fig 4.13 and fig 4.14 shows the images of drainage which run from the south side of Gulshan-e-Ravi society. These two images are taken from two different sites first one is taken from Nonariyan Pull Gulshan-e-Ravi and second one is from Shera Kot Pull near Gulshan-eRavi G block.


5.1 DISCUSSION: Heavy migration of people towards Gulshan-e-Ravi can cause a lot of infrastructure problem. As we know that societies had developed according to the parameters predefined. Infrastructure has limited capacity to absorb population while overpopulation can cause over burden on infrastructure. Due to overpopulation, this infrastructure pattern has disturbed. This pattern changed due to need of living persons. This causes vertical expansion of building which was helpful and beneficent for the owner of house but its not suitable for the society owner and administration. When Gulshan-e-Ravi society was developed, pipe lines were designed under some limitations but the overpopulation has disturbed it. It also increases the consumption demands for all things. Next problem arises due to overpopulation is water supply and sewerage system. Sewer pipes are damaged by un-skilled and un-professional labor when they construct the roads and also by the residence of this society when they digging the road or street for different purposes. Sewerage pipe lines were damaged because they are not good in quality and most of pipes are expired but the authority of Gulshan-e-Ravi does not take any action for replacing it. Supply of water to houses has also affected by migrations of people in Gulshan-e-Ravi society. Due to them, waters supply was disturbed because it was designed under some limitations by WASA and pipes having a limited capacity to carriage the water for supply. With the increasing of population the demand of water is high but there is placed old water pipe lines which is not enough and water problem occurs in Gulshan-e-Ravi society and people suffer. The second major issue which I have discuss earlier that the migrants impact on Gulshane-Ravi society environment. Migration of people towards Gulshan Ravi society has bad impact on environment as well. Over population can cause drainage problems. After the rain, sewerage pipelines were blocked and rains water is standing in the street and also overflowing from the drain (GandaNala).This can cause many harmful diseases for the resident of Gulshan Ravi. It will result in breathing problem such as asthma for citizens. It has affected very badly the environment. This harmful water added into bad drainage system. Bad drainage water runs in the south edge of Gulshan-e- Ravi and ultimately falls in the River Ravi. This drainage water causes

polluted environment for the people of Gulshan Ravi. It also causes many diseases which has bad impact on the health of people and not suitable for environment. As we know about the vertical expansion of buildings due to overpopulation in Gulshan Ravi, there are also extension occurs in the pipelines of water supply. Now the thing to be noticed is that, this bad water of drainage mixes ultimately in the water of pipelines, which were provided us by lower tube wells. This water which is supplied through pipelines has contains arsenic mineral sand, this mineral sand is very harmful and dangerous for the health of citizens. It was mainly caused by the overpopulation in Lahore. 5.2 CONCLUSION: After collecting the data, study my area of interest, articles, surveys and performing different analysis on the data through using different techniques and methodology, I have obtaining the results from my study and conclude it. The results show the study is in positive field which gives very helpful information regarding the management in present and also useful in future. The results are not collected from one methodology; I have performed many types of methodology and techniques which gives me absolute answers and results. The first types of results I have got from the Arc GIS software which shows the different types features on maps which I have generated. The Land use map is shows the expansion of society when I compare old land use map (which is provided by LDA) and google earth downloaded image (which is digitized). It shows the surrounding small areas which were not part of Gulshan-e-Ravi society is now part of this society. After that I have collected the population data from CDGL which shows the trend of migrants in Gulshan-e-Ravi society. Than the survey data shows the vertical expansions of building and also the water and sewerage problems which the residence people of this society face.This research shows the migrants have very negative impacts on Gulshan-eRavi society. The migrants destruct the entire infrastructure of Gulshan-e-Ravi society and now the entire infrastructure has been changed. This is due to migrants trend in the Gulshan-e-Ravi society and also in Lahore. If the government provide basic facilities to the people and also fulfill the basic needs of village people and surrounding people which are living on the edges of the cities. Than the migration trend should become low. All the problems which citizens face in urban area due to

overpopulation it might be low. So, the government should take a necessary steps for stopping the migration towards cities. 5.3RECOMMENDATION: After studying the impacts of migrants on Gulshan-e-Ravi society I have some suggestions and recommendations for present and future. i) ii) iii) iv) Change Sewer Pipes and extend it Change Water supply pipes and extend it Cover Sewer Drainage (Ganda Nala) Restrict the housing people under some limitation regarding houses structure

5.4.1 SEWER PIPES CHANGE: My first recommendation is that to change the all sewer pipes in Gulshan-e-Ravi society. Because it is very important for resolving the problems of infrastructure in Gulshan-e-Ravi society. People face problem due to this bad sewer system and this is cause of many diseases. 5.4.2 WATER SUPPLY PIPES CHANGE: My second recommendation is to change the Water supply pipes because these are enough for the people of Gulshan-e-Ravi society. These pipe lines network were insert in underground in the starting but now the infrastructure has been changed and the demand of water supply is increase. 5.4.3 COVER DRAINAGE NETWORK: My third recommendation is to cover the drainage network (GandaNala). Because it is cause several environmental problems and bad for health.The City District Government of Lahore or Lahore Development Authority should take responsibility regarding this meter. If they cover this drainage network and built shops on it then it generate the revenue for the government and it helps for the better environment of Gulshan-e-Ravi infrastructure.

5.4.4 RESTRICTION ON BUILDING STRUCTURE: My last and very important recommendations to the authority that make a rules/regulation regarding the infrastructure development in all society which are newly developed.If the authority makes some rules and regulation for the societies than it is very helpful in future for the residence of this society.

Jamal, F. M. P. D. T. (2009). Temporal Population Growth of Lahore. journal of scientific research.

Nagdeve, D. D. A. Population Growth And Environmental Degradation In India.

Doan, P. L. (1995). Population Density, Urban Centrality, and Agricultural Intensification in Jordan. 14,No. 1 (Mar., 1995),, pp. 29-44.

Vertovec, S. (2004). Migrant Transnationalism and Modes of Transformation. 38, pp. 970-1001.

Dr. Eng., A. W., F.A.P.H.A. (1965). The Impact Of Population Changes On The Environment 55, pp. 1032-1038.

Philippe Roux, I. M., Eva Risch, and Catherine Boutin. Impact of Population density and land topography on environmental performances of wastewater treatment system. Urban Planning of Sewer Infrastructure. Arnold, C. L., and C. J. Gibbons, 1996. Impervious Surface Coverage - The Emergence of A Key Environmental Indicator, J. Am. Plan. Assoc., 62, 243-258.

French, G. T. (1996). An Introduction to the Global Positioning System (1st ed.). United States of America: GeoResearch, Inc.

Allen, D. Y. (2009). A MIrror of Our World: Google Earth and the History of Cartography.