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# PLAIN & REINFORCED CONCRETE - I

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TENSILE STRENGTH MODULUS OF ELASTICITY MODULUS OF RUPTURE POISONS RATIO SHRINKAGE CREEP THERMAL EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION DURABILITY

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
Compressive strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand axially directed pushing forces(compressive forces).

COMPRESSIVE STRESS
The stress generated within a body by a force acting towards the center of the body is called compressive stress. Mathematically, the ratio of compressive force to that of cross-sectional area of the body is called compressive stress. C = P/A Where, C = Compressive stress P = Applied Compressive Load A = Cross-sectional Area The maximum compressive stress that a material can withstand without crushing is called its compressive strength.

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE UNDER COMPRESSION
Upon the application of compressive forces on concrete, the concrete follows an elastic behaviour until its elastic limit is reached after which permanent deformation occurs(i.e. cracking) as it is brittle in nature. The behaviour of concrete may be studied under following steps;
1. 2. 3. 4.

Cracking due to shrinkage (30% of fc) Development of bond cracks (up to 50% of fc) Development of mortar cracks (50 60 % of fc) Critical stress ( 80% of fc)

5.

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
Concrete is strong is compression and weak in tension. The compressive strength of concrete is often referred to as Concrete Strength.

## STANDARD TESTS 1. CUBE/CYLINDER TEST

The average maximum compressive stress that a 6 inch cylinder/cube of concrete samples, hardened at 60 to 80 F for 24 hours in a moist room and cured at 73 F for 28 days, can withstand without cracking is called the cylindrical/cube strength of concrete.
2.

CORE TESTS.

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
Concrete is strong is compression and weak in tension. The compressive strength of concrete is often referred to as Concrete Strength.

## STANDARD TESTS 1. CUBE/CYLINDER TEST

The average maximum compressive stress that a 6 by 12 inch cylinder/cube of concrete samples, hardened at 60 to 80 F for 24 hours in a moist room and cured at 73 F for 28 days, can withstand without cracking is called the cylindrical/cube strength of concrete(fc).
2.

CORE TESTS.

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
STANDARD VARIATION IN CONCRETE STRENGTH
The cylindrical/cube compressive strength of samples of concrete vary from the average value. The sample standard deviation is the root mean square deviation of the samples from the average value. Mathematically, And the coefficient of variation is,

## s = SQ( (x1 x)2 + (x2 x)2+..(xn x)2)/ n-1)

V = s/x
Where, s = sample standard deviation, x = average compressive strength, x1,x2,xn = sample compressive strength, n = number of samples, For, Poor Control, V > 0.140 Average Control, V = 0.105 Excellent control, V < .070

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
STANDARD VARIATION IN CONCRETE STRENGTH
The required mean strength of concrete (fcr) is, For specified compressive strength (fc) < 5000 psi,(larger of) fcr = fc + 1.34s OR fcr = fc + 2.33s -500 For specified compressive strength (fc) > 5000 psi,(larger of) fcr = fc + 1.34s OR fcr = 0.9fc + 2.33s

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FACTORS EFFECTING COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

WATER/CEMENT RATIO TYPE OF CEMENT SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTIOUS MATERIALS AGGREGATE MIXING WATER MOISTURE CONDITIONS DURING CURING TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS DURING CURING AGE OF CONCRETE MATURITY OF CONCRETE RATE OF LOADING

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

TENSILE STRENGTH
Tensile strength is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before necking, which is when the specimen's cross-section starts to significantly contract.

TENSILE STRESS
The stress generated within a body by a force acting away from the center of the body is called tensile stress. The tensile strength of the concrete is tested through two methods, Flexure test, Split Cylinder test. Mathematically, the tensile strength through split cylinder test is given as:

fr = 2P/ld
Where, fr = Split Cylinder tensile strength l = Length of cylinder

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

TENSILE STRENGTH
RELATIONSHIP WITH COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
The tensile strength of concrete increases with its compressive strength. However, the ratio of the tensile strength and compressive strength decreases as the compressive strength is increased. This implies that: tensile strength Compressive strength For, split cylinder tensile strength, Mean fct = 6.4 fc fr = 6.7 fc For, flexure test, Mean fct = 8.3 fc fr = 7.5 fc Where, Mean fct = Mean split cylinder strength fr = Modulus of rupture fc = 28-day Compressive strength of concrete = Constant.

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

TENSILE STRENGTH
FACTORS EFFECTING TENSILE STRENGTH

All the factors effecting the compressive strength of concrete effects its tensile strength as well,
Aggregates used in concrete effect the tensile strength.

Crushed rock gives 20% more tensile strength than round gravels.
Light weight concrete usually gives lesser tensile strength than that of normal weight concrete.

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

MODULUS OF RUPTURE
The materials ability to resist deformation under load is called its modulus of rupture. In brittle materials as concrete, the modulus of rupture defines the flexural strength of the material and hence the tensile strength.

MODULUS OF RUPTURE
The Modulus of rupture of concrete is tested through Flexure test(ASTM C78). A plain concrete beam of 6in x 6in x 30in is loaded in flexure at third points of a 24in span untill it fails due to cracking on the tension face. Mathematically, the modulus of rupture is given as:

fr = 6M/bh2
Where, fr = Modulus of rupture b = Width of specimen M = Moment h = Overall depth of specimen

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
The tendency of a material to retain its original position (strian) after an applied force(stress) is removed, within the elastic range, is called modulus of elasticity. The slope of the stress-strain curve untill the elastic limit of the material is achieved is called modulus of elasticity.

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
The elastic modulus of concrete is tested for concretes of several strengths by keeping them in compression for about 15 min and recording the stress-strain behaviour of the concrete. The values for the strain usually ranges between 0.015 to 0.003. Mathematically, the elastic modulus of concrete is given by,

Ec = 33(w1.5)fc psi
Where w = Weight of concrete in lb/ft3. For normal weight concrete,

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

POISSONS RATIO
Within the elastic limit, the material deforms longitudinally and laterally on application of axial loads. The ratio of unit lateral strain to the unit longitudinal strain is called poissons ratio. Mathematically,

## = Lateral Strain / Longitudinal Strain

MODULUS OF RIGIDITY
The modulus of rigidity is related to the shear strength of concrete when subjected to shearing stresses. The modulus of rigidity of concrete in compression is given by;

G = E / 2(1 + )

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

FACTORS EFFECTING DURABILITY

CORROSION OF STEEL FREEZE AND THAW CHEMICAL ATTACK TEMPERATURE FIRE ATTACK

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

SHRINKAGE
The decrease in volume of concrete during hardening and drying under constant temperature is called shrinkage. The amount of shrinkage increase with the time.

SHRINKAGE STRAINS
1. 2. 3.

## Drying shrinkage Auto-genius shrinkage Carbonation shrinkage

FACTORS
Humidity Type of cement Type of aggregate

## MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

CREEP
The volumetric deformation in concrete caused due to constant loading at a given temperature and humidity is called creep.

CREEP STRAINS
When concrete is loaded in compression, an instantaneous elastic strain develops. If this load remains on the member, creep strains develop with time because of the contraction of adsorbed water layers in concrete. The contraction occurs rapidly and reduce with time.

CREEP CO-EFFICIENT
The ratio of creep strain to that of elastic strain of concrete is called co-efficeient of creep.