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User Manual

MN024-08

Copyright Andrew Wireless Systems Srl

Andrew Wireless Systems Srl Via Pier De Crescenzi 40 48018 Faenza, Italy Tel: +39 0546 697111 Fax: +39 0546 682768 www.andrew.com

This publication is issued to provide outline information and is not aimed to be part of any offer and contract. The Company has a policy of continuous product development and improvement and we therefore reserve the right to vary information quoted without prior notice. System and Customer care is available world-wide through our network of Experts. The company is certified ISO 9001 and ISO14000.

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INDEX
0. Index 1. Introducing Britecell Plus 1.1 The Features 1.2 Brief Description of Britecell Plus 1.3 Britecell Plus features 1.4 Britecell Plus typical applications 2. Equipment Overview 2.1 The Britecell Plus Remote Unit and its relevant accessories 2.2 the Britecell Plus Master Unit 2.2.1 The Fast Master Unit 2.2.2 The Rack-based Master Unit 2.3 Block diagrams 3. TFAx Remote Unit 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Case A remote unit 3.3 Case B remote unit 3.4 Case L remote unit 3.5 Case F remote unit 3.6 Wi-Fi Booster TFBW 4. Fast Master Unit 5. Rack based master unit 5.1 19 Subrack TPRNx4 5.2 Master Optical TRX, TFLN 5.3 Two-way splitter/combiner TLCN2 5.4 Four-way splitter/combiner TLCN4 5.5 RF dual band coupler TLDN 5.6 RF tri-band coupler TLTN 5.7 RF Duplexer TDPX 5.8 Base Station Interface TBSI 5.9 Power Limiter TMPx-10 5.10 Wi-Fi Local Interface 5.11 The interconnect link (i-link) 5.11.1 Introduction 5.11.2 TILx-HL Interconnect link 5.11.3 TILx-HLW Interconnect link 5.12 Remote Supply Unit TRS/TRSN 6. Warning and Safety Requirements 6.1 Environmental conditions 6.2 Installation site Features 6.3 Safety and Precautions during Installation or maintenance 6.4 Power Supply Connection 2 4 5 5 6 7 9 10 12 12 12 16 22 23 25 45 63 79 90 100 113 114 126 138 142 146 150 154 158 162 168 172 173 177 195 216 222 223 223 224 225

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6.5 6.6 6.7 6.7

Safety and Precautions for Lasers Health and Safety Warnings Electromagnetic Fields and RF Power Warning Labels

226 226 227 230 231 231 233 237

7. Technical support 7.1 Returning Equipment Appendix A: System Commissioning Appendix B: EU Guidelines for WEEE disposal

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1. Introducing Britecell Plus

User Manual

1.1 The Features


Britecell Plus is an innovative platform designed in order to provide an effective and flexible coverage to a large variety of indoor scenarios. Thanks to its high modularity, its low power consumption, and its fulltransparency to protocols and modulation formats, Britecell Plus is the perfect plug&play solution to distribute any wireless standard (including GSM, GPRS, EDGE, CDMA, WCDMA, and WLAN IEEE 802.11b) to the in-building environments requiring reliable and interference-free communications, as well as high traffic capacity and maximum flexibility about future expansions. These unique features make the Britecell Plus platform suitable also for applications to critical areas experiencing difficulties in establishing and keeping phone calls, while its compact design always guarantees a minimum aesthetic impact.

1.2 Brief Description of Britecell Plus


Britecell Plus is a Distributed Antenna System (DAS) based on the Radio-overFibre (RoF) technology, and capable of carrying wireless mobile signals through the 800MHz - 2500MHz frequency range regardless of their protocol and their modulation format. The system has two basic components, a Master Unit and a Remote Unit. The Master Unit is made of one or more subracks typically connected to the BTS (Base Tranceiver Station) through either a repeater (RF interface) or a coaxial cable. Each Remote Unit is connected with a dedicated pair of single-mode optical fibres (one for UL and one for DL) to the Master Unit. These optical fibres work on 1310 nm wavelenght and provide low losses and almost unlimited bandwidth, available for future system developments. Britecell Plus is a modular system whose basic components are: one Master Unit made of one or more subracks, each providing 12 module slots. Each slot can host either an active or a RF passive device (chosen among the wide range of Britecell Plus options), in order to meet the planned design requirements; a variable number of Remote Units (TFAx), whose function is feeding the antenna passive network; a proper number of indoor antennas, suitable to provide radio coverage to the area. Britecell Plus is fully compatible with any type of indoor antennas; the optical cables required to connect the 19 subracks to the TFAx.

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12 4

BTS

RF interface

TFLN 1
Two F.O. per RU

REMOTE UNIT 1

Fig. 1.1: Britecell Plus system block diagram.

1.3 Britecell Plus Features


The following lines report a brief summary of Britecell Plus main features: multiband 2G, 2.5G and 3G 802.11b WLAN compatible: Britecell Plus is completely transparent to any transmission protocol and modulation format, and it can distribute any 2G, 2.5G, 3G wireless standard. In addition, it allows to carry also the WLAN (802.11b/g) service over the same infrastructure; modular configuration for flexible design: by properly setting some parameters like the amount of RUs and the antenna locations, the Britecell Plus architecture can follow the environment specific features in order to obtain the most effective radio-coverage of the indoor area. The modularity of the system allows easy modifications for future growth and increasing traffic; easy to install: the intelligent plug & play Britecell Plus system includes an Automatic Gain Control (AGC), that eliminates system gain variations regardless of optical loss. This avoids the need for field adjustments, thus reducing design, installation and optimization time. low-power consumption: establishing a quasi line-of-sight propagation towards all mobile phones inside the area, Britecell Plus works with low power levels. Low power levels have two great advantages: 1) allow mobile phones to work at lower power levels, thus limiting the radiated emissions and increasing their battery life; 2) allow a better control of interference effects between adiacent cells. central supervision functions: all individual alarms of Britecell Plus system are stored in an internal flash memory, and available to both local and remote connections. Detailed alarm information is provided by special software (i.e. by Supervision or Maintenance software tools) running on a locally connected host, as well as any information about alarm status and alarm history is available to remote connections via TCP/IP protocols, SNMP agent, or HTTP servers. This alarm information is visible also by means of LEDs present on the front panels of both the MU and the RUs; multiple-carriers system: there are no restrictions on the number of carriers that the Britecell Plus can convey. Obviously, the more carriers per service, the less power per carrier;
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remote power supply: in case mains cannot be used for the Remote Units, Britecell Plus offers a centralised power supply option, which distributes both a DC low-voltage (-48V) power and the optical signals through a composite fibre optic/copper cable; wide variety of RF passive devices: the connections between the DAS and the local BTSs can be arranged so as to get the best fit for customers needs. Britecell Plus equipment provides RF splitters/combiners, cross band couplers, attenuators, duplexers for UL/DL paths, thus allowing the maximum design flexibility; high reliability: high MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure).

1.4 Britecell Plus typical Applications


Thanks to its unique features Britecell Plus is the ideal solution to set up radio coverage in may situations: Multi operator shared infrastructure: each mobile operator has its own carriers, which must be transported without affecting the others. Britecell Plus is capable of transmitting multiple carriers simultaneously, while providing an independent level adjustment for each of them, ensuring maximum performance and reducing infrastructure costs High rise buildings: RF signals from surrounding macrocells or external BTSs are usually quite strong inside high rise buildings, and cause so much interference that indoor mobile communications often become impossible. By strategically placing antennas along the exterior walls of the building, the signal to noise ratio can be optimised. This interference control solves many problems, such as the ping pong effect that sometimes is experienced when a mobile frequently changes from an indoor to an outdoor coverage. Exhibition, conventions, and shopping centres: the critical point of these environments is due to the high traffic loads, which are furthermore highly variable. Thus, the main goal to achieve is setting up a radio coverage which could effectively manage these variable traffic loads, with neither undervalued nor overvalued infrastructure expenses. A unique feature of Britecell Plus is that RF frequencies can be allocated quickly when and where they are needed, thus reducing the implementation cost. This makes Britecell Plus the proper solution also for temporary or last minute requests (such as conferences). Airports: they require modular and flexible radio coverage, in order to meet present needs while foreseeing future expansions. Britecell Plus can manage high traffic loads providing high quality with minimum environmental impact, while its modularity allows future extensibility. Corporate Building: inside a corporate building, difficult mobile communications may limit business transactions. These environments are often complex and densely populated with specific requirements to be fulfilled: high traffic capacity, maximum expectations on Quality of service, full compatibility with wireless standards and future expandability. Britecell Plus guarantees high quality radio coverage
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under all conditions, while maintaining maximum flexibility in managing any traffic condition. Subways and Highly Dense Metropolitan Areas: These areas are distinguished by large distances, and may require that RUs are placed far away from the BTSs. Britecell Plus guarantees the signal integrity at distances up to 3 km, and through the wideband interconnect link option distances of 20 km can be reached. Moreover, these environments need gradual investments, because initially operators provide radio coverage only in the busiest areas, and then extend it in order to reach complete coverage. The modularity of Britecell Plus helps operators to gradually expand the system. Some large cities often need to set up seamless and reliable radio systems for emergency services. The required RF infrastructure needs to be unobstrusive and environmental friendly; this can be achieved using a Britecell Plus DAS. When redundancy is required, two interleaved Britecell Plus systems can be used, management and supervision for these systems can be remotely established by means of an external modem and an open protocol such as SNMP.

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2. Equipment Overview

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2.1. Introduction
Basically, a Britecell system is composed of: a Master Unit, able to bring mobile radio signals from the BTS to different remote units and vice-versa, so as to remotise the distribution and collection of any mobile and wireless signal; a variable number of Remote Units, conveying and receiving mobile signals by low-power antennas. We hereby will provide a brief introduction to the main components of the Master and Remote Units which make up the Britecell system, while further details about each component will be given in the next sections of the present manual.

2.2. The Britecell Plus Remote Unit


and its relevant accessories
The Remote Unit (TFAx) is a device providing optical-to-electrical downlink conversion and electrical-to-optical uplink conversion, thus allowing a bidirectional transmission of signals between the Master Unit and the remote antennas. It is available in 3 different power configurations (Low/Medium/High), housed by 4 different architectures (Case A, Case B, Case F and Case L), so as to fulfil different coverage and band requirements.

Case-A

Case-L Case-F Case-B Fig.2.1: Different Remote Unit cases

In downlink, each TFAx receives an optical signal from the Master Unit, performs an optical-to-RF conversion, and transmits the resulting signal to the 2 antenna ports. In uplink, it receives a RF signal from remote antennas, provides a RF-tooptical conversion, and conveys the converted signal to the Master Unit through optical fibres.
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Power supply (available either in 90264 Vac or in -72-36 Vdc version) is internal in Case L, in Case F and in most Case A remote units: vice-versa, all Case B and some Case A remote units are provided with an external power supply (TPSN), whose dimensions are shown in table 2.1(a). The TFBW unit is a booster which can be cascaded with a TFAx in order to distribute Wi-Fi signals (802.11b and g) through dedicated Wi-Fi antennas (see scheme 2.2b).

(a)

Fig. 2.2 (a) TFBW booster ; (b) block diagram of a Britecell Plus system with Wi-Fi Interface

Access Point

BTS

Master Unit with Wi-Fi interface

Remote Unit

Wi-Fi booster (b)

The case-A and Case-B Remote Units and the TFBW boosters can be provided with the TKA installation kit (optional), which contains a fiber optics splice holder and a compact case, in order to allow an easy installation on walls or poles. TKA compact cases allow different IP protection levels, depending on the specific environmental requirements.

Fig. 2.3: TKA mounting kit for Case A and Case B remote units
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2.3. The Britecell Plus Master Unit


The Britecell Plus Master Unit is a widely-flexible system. It is available both as a stand-alone version (the Fast Master Unit) and as a rack-based version. In the followings we will give a brief overview of the components of these units.

2.3.1 The Fast Master Unit


The Master Fast (TFLF): designed into a stand-alone mechanical case, it includes all required ancillary and support functions. It is available in various frequency ranges, from 800MHz up to 2200MHz and allows feeding up to 4 Remote Units. Module dimensions: 240 x 200 x 38mm

Fig. 2.4: The Fast Master Unit

2.3.2 The rack-based Master Unit


The Sub-rack (TPRN) is a 19 subrack hosting the Britecell Plus modules; it accommodates 12 slots, whose sizes are 7TE x 4HE. As each Britecell Plus module takes up one or two slots, each Master Unit can sustain up to 12 modules, depending on design configuration and requirements.

Fig. 2.5: The TPRN Subrack

The Master Optical TRX (TFLN): in downlink it provides an RF-to-optical conversion of the signal coming from the BTS, and transmits it to 4 optical outputs, so as to feed 4 TFAx. In uplink it provides optical-to-RF conversion for 4 optical signals coming from RUs, and it combines them into a single RF output, while providing automatic gain control in order to balance the fibre losses. Module dimensions: Width = 7TE, Height = 4HE (one slot in the master unit subrack).

Fig. 2.6: The TFLN Master Optical TRX

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The duplexer (TDPX): it combines the downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) paths into a single one, while maintaining the required isolation. The module dimensions are: Width = 7TE, Height = 4HE.

Fig. 2.7: The TDPX duplexer

The variable RF attenuators (TBSI): it provide independent attenuations (adjustable from 0 to 30dB, with 1dB steps) on uplink and downlink RF paths, and allow the designer to optimize the signal level close to the BTSs. TBSI is an override attenuator, its dimensions are: Width = 7TE, Height = 4HE.

Fig. 2.8: The TBSI variable attenuator

The dual band coupler (TLDN): in downlink it combines a low band RF signal (800 to 1000 MHz) and a high band RF signal (1700 to 2500 MHz) into a common RF port; in uplink it splits a composite signal between a low band RF port and a high band RF port. Module dimensions are: Width = 7 TE, Height = 4 HE.

Fig. 2.9: The TLDN tri- band coupler

The tri band coupler (TLTN): in downlink it combines the low band signals (800 or 900MHz), the 1800MHz band signal and 2000MHz signal into a common one; in uplink it splits the triple band signal between three different RF single band paths. Module dimensions are: Width = 7 TE, Height = 4 HE.

Fig. 2.10: The TLTN tri-band coupler


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The RF splitters/combiners (TLCN2 and TLCN4): TLCN2 is a 2-way splitter/combiner. TLCN4 is a 4-way splitter/combiner. They can be used in a variety of different situations, such as: To connect a BTS with several master optical TRXs. In uplink the TLCN2 (or TLCN4) combines 2 (4) RF signals coming from different master optical TRXs onto a common RF signal, entering the BTS. In downlink the TLCN2 (or TLCN4) splits the downlink composite RF signal coming from the BTS onto 2 (4) RF ports, entering different master optical TRXs; To connect several BTSs to a master optical TRX. In downlink the TLCN2 (TLCN4) combines the RF signals coming from different BTSs onto a common RF signal, entering the master optical TRX. In uplink TLCN2 (TLCN4) splits the composite RF signal coming from a master optical TRX into 2 (4) RF signals Fig. 2.11: The TLCN2 and entering different BTSs. TLCN4 splitters/combiners The WLAN interface board (TWLI):.it connects 3 WLAN Access Points to each TFLN, and it is necessary when 802.11b/g WLAN distribution through the DAS is required. Dimensions: Width = 14 TE, Height = 4HE (2 slots in the master unit sub-rack).

Fig. 2.12: The TWLI Wi-Fi interface board

The power limiter (TMPx-10): it monitors the DL power coming from the BTS, and attenuates it by 10 dB in case of overcoming of a programmable threshold level. TMP2-10 Power Limiter is for 2G and 2.5G signals, working at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. TMP3-10 Power Limiter is for 3G signals. Both modules are 7TE wide and 4HE high.

Fig. 2.13: The TMPx-10 power limiter

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The interconnect-link (TILx) is a multi-module kit which allows to expand our system by connecting an additional Britecell Plus subrack station to the main one, at a distance of up to 20 km. In details: The TDTX and TMRX cards make up the master side of the i-link; thus, they have to be housed inside the main Britecell Plus subrack, and take 1 slot each; Fig. 2.14: The TILx interconnect link (i-link) The TDTX and TSRX cards make up the slave side of the i-link; thus, they have to be housed inside the remotised Britecell Plus subrack, and take 1 slot and 3 slots respectively. The TILx kit is available either in simple (TILx-HL) or in WDM (TILx-HLW) version. The remote supervision unit (TSUN): it is able to control up to 14 master units fully populated. It is available both as a plug-in module (Width = 14 TE, Height = 4HE, 2 slots in the master unit sub-rack) and as stand alone device (Width= 19, Height=1HE). It consists in a CPU, a flash memory and an Interface Board

Fig. 2.15: The TSUN remote supervision unit

The Remote Power Unit (TRS/TRSN): it is a sub-rack unit (whose sizes are 7TE x 4HE) providing remote power supply to up to 24 remote units through standard AWG14/16 copper lines. It is available in 2 versions: The TRSN version is able to supply 1 A per port and it can feed all remote units. The TRS version is able to

Fig. 2.16: The TRSN subrack

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supply 0.5A per port: it can feed only single and dual band TFAN remote units, as well as the TFAM20 one.

2.4. Block diagrams


In order to better understand the functionalities of the different units and modules, some block diagrams of the Britecell Plus system are reported hereafter. Systems based on Fast Master Unit must be directly connected to the BTS station. The scheme of a typical Fast Britecell system is reported here in fig. 2.17.

Mixed fibre-copper cable

TFAx TFAx

Mixed fibre-copper cable

BTS

Fixed Attenuator

TFLF

Mixed fibre-copper cable

TFAx
Mixed fibre-copper cable

TFAx

Fig. 2.17: Block diagram for a Fast system

A more complex distribution system requires a rack-based Master Unit. It allows the employment of a splitting/combining section (built by some passive modules TLTN, TLDN, TLCN, and TBSI described above) in order to interface one or more BTSs with several TFLN optical TRXs and with an higher number of TFAx remote units. Firstly, lets assume that our BTSs are not duplexed. In this case, no TDPX module (see fig. 2.7) is required. Moreover, lets assume that the Master Unit is made up of one or more subracks located in a single site, so that we do not need an interconnect link in order to remotise a second subrack. The scheme of this network configuration is reported hereafter in figure 2.18.

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TFAx TFAx

TFLN Triple-band system not duplexed BTSs TFLN local units 8


TFAx

TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx

TFLN
Fixed Atten.

GSM 900 BTS

TFAx

TFAx TFAx TFAx

TBSI

TLCN4

TFLN

TFAx

TFAx TFAx TFAx

TFLN
Fixed Atten.

TFAx

GSM 1800 BTS

TBSI

TLTN

TLCN2 TFLN

TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx

Fixed Atten.

TFLN TBSI TLCN4 TFLN

UMTS BTS

TFAx TFAx

TFAx

TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx

TFLN

Level adjustment

Services combining / splitting

Signal splitting / combining

Electrical / optical conversion

Optical / electrical conversion

Britecell Plus MASTER UNIT

Britecell Plus REMOTE UNITS

Fig. 2.18: Block diagram for a triple-band system with not-duplexed base stations. This scheme involves a rack-based Master Unit, with 8-TFLN optical TRXs and 32 TFAx remote units.

Now lets consider the same network configuration, but with duplexed BTSs. In this case, some TDPX modules (see fig. 2.7) are required in order to combine UL and DL ports on single RF channels.
.

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The scheme of this network configuration is reported hereafter in figure 2.19.

TFAx TFAx

TFLN Triple-band system duplexed BTSs 8 TFLN TFLN GSM 900 BTS TDPX 91
TFAx

TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx

Fixed Atten.

TBSI

TLCN4

TFLN

TFLN GSM 1800 BTS


Fixed Atten.

TFAx TFAx

TDPX 18

TBSI

TLTN

TLCN2 TFLN

TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx

TFLN UMTS BTS


Fixed Atten.

TDPX 20

TBSI TLCN4 TFLN

TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx

TFLN

DL - UL splitting / combining

Level adjustment

Services combining / splitting

Signal splitting / combining

Electrical / optical conversion

3 km max optical link

Optical/electrical conversion

Britecell Plus MASTER UNIT

Britecell Plus REMOTE UNITS

Fig. 2.19: Block diagram for a triple-band system with duplexed base stations. This scheme involves a rack-based Master Unit, with 8-TFLN optical TRXs and 32 TFAx remote units.

Lets assume we need to expand our network in a wider area, by using a second subrack station at a distance of up to 20 km from the site where the main subrack station is located. This new network configuration requires to use an interconnect link, whose master side will be at the main subrack station, and whose slave side will be at the new remotised station. The scheme of this new network topology is shown hereafter, in figure2.20.
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TFAx TFAx

Triple-band system duplexed BTSs i-link

TFLN
TFAx

TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx

TFLN GSM 900 BTS TDPX 91

TFAx

TFAx TFAx TFAx

TBSI

TLCN4

TFLN

TFAx TFAx

TFAx

TFLN GSM 1800 BTS TDPX 18

TFAx TFAx

TBSI

TLTN

TLCN2 TFLN

TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx

TFLN UMTS BTS TDPX 20 TBSI TLCN4 TFLN

TFAx TFAx TFAx

TDTX

TMRX

Fig. 2.20: Block diagram for a Britecell system with remotised station connected through i-link. This scheme refers to a triple-band system with duplexed base stations. It involves 7 TFLN optical TRXs and 28 TFAx remote units on the master side, 2 TFLN optical TRXs and 8 TFAx on the slave side .

TSRX

TDTX

TFAx TFAx

TFLN
TFAx TFAx

TFAx TFAx

TFLN
TFAx TFAx

DL - UL splitting / combining

Level adjustment

Services combining / splitting

Signal splitting / combining

Electrical / optical conversion

3 km max optical link

Optical/electrical conversion

Britecell Plus MASTER UNIT

Britecell Plus REMOTE UNITS

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Lastly, the next tables show a brief overview of the available Britecell equipment:

REMOTE UNITS and accessories Unit name/ Module name


TFAx TFAx TFAx TFAx case case case case A B L F Remote Remote Remote Remote

Description
unit unit unit unit

Dimensions (L x W x H)
240 240 455 546 x x x x 200 240 255 253 x x x x 38 38 167 207 (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

TFBWx TKA01 TKA04 TPSN 1-40 TPSN 3-30

WLAN booster Remote Unit installation kit Remote Unit installation kit External power supply External power supply

240 x 200 x 38 280 x 240 x 55 340 x 240 x 55 175 x 80 x 54 175 x 80 x 51

Table 2.1(a): Overview of the Britecell Plus remote units and accessories

FAST MASTER UNIT Unit name/ Module name


TFAF

Description
Fast Master Unit

Dimensions (L x W x H)
240 x 200 x 38 (cm)

Table 2.1(b): Britecell Plus fast master unit

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RACK-BASED MASTER UNIT Unit name/ Module name


TPRN04 TPRNx4 TFLNx TLCN 2 TLCN 4 TBSI 2-30 TDPXx TLDNx TLTNx TMPx-10 TWLI TILx-HL TILx-HLW TSUN6

Description
Passive subrack Active subrack Master Optical TRX 2-way splitter 4-way splitter Adjustable attenuator UL/DL duplexer Dual band coupler Tri band coupler 10 dB power limiter WLAN interface i-link kit WDM i-link kit Remote supervision unit standalone

Dimensions (L x W x H)
19 x 4HE 19 x 4HE 7TE x 4HE 7TE x 4HE 7TE x 4HE 7TE x 4HE 7TE x 4HE 7TE x 4HE 7TE x 4HE 7TE x 4HE 14TE x 4HE 14TE x 4HE 28TE x 4HE 14TE x 4HE 28TE x 4HE 19 x 4HE 14TE x 4HE 19 x 1HE (master side) + (slave side) (master side) + (slave side)

TSUN1 or TSUN3 Remote supervision unit plug in TRS/TRSN Remote supply unit

Table 2.1(c): Overview of the Britecell Plus components and accessories for the rack-based master unit

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3. TFAx Remote Unit

TFAx (intro)

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Module name: 3.1. Introduction Main tasks of the TFAx unit:

Remote Unit
TFAx
(TFAN,TFAM,TFAH)

Downlink (DL): Optical-to-RF conversion of the input optical signal Automatic Gain Control (AGC) of each converted signal, in order to compensate optical losses; RF amplification: the converted RF signal is boosted in order to maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio RF filtering: a proper filter rejects the spurious emissions RF duplexing and splitting: the boosted RF signal is conveyed to 2 antenna ports Uplink (UL): RF amplification: a low noise amplifier boosts the signal received from antennas so as to maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio RF filtering: the boosted signal is cleaned from the spurious emissions Automatic Level Control (ALC): the RF signal level is adjusted according to blocking requirements RF-to-optical conversion of the signal, which is finally conveyed to the output optical port

TFAx (intro)

Different types of Case-A remote units


In order to allow radio coverages with different power and band requirements, Britecell architecture provides a wide variety of remote units. This allows the customer to choose the solution which best fits its coverage and environmental demands.
Case A remote unit Case B remote unit

Case L remote unit

Case F remote unit

Figure 3.1: The four different case of the Britecell Plus remote unit

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Depending on the bands where the radio coverage has to be provided and on the required signal power to cover the environment, your remote unit can have one of the topologies shown in figure 3.1. The following 4 sections of the manual refers to these 4 different topologies of remote units. Please follow the instructions described in the section which exactly corresponds to the case (A,B,L,F) of your remote unit. The output powers and coverage bands of each remote unit are uniquely associated to model codes which you can easily read on both on the remote unit and on its package box (see picture 3.2 below).
Figure 3.2

TFAx (Intro)

The case of your remote unit can be easily identified from the pictures 3.1: as an alternative, you can refer to the Britecell Plus Bulletin PA-100595EN or to the dedicated Bulletin of your remote unit. For example, lets refer to the Model Number TFAM20 we read on our remote units label, like in the Ficture 3.2. On the Britecell Plus bulletin PA-100595EN, we read:
Band Configurations Power Class Case Model Code Details in Bulletin

UMTS2100

Medium

A Figure 3.3

TFAM20

PA-100592EN

This line states that the remote unit whose model is TFAM20 has a case A architecture (see picture 3.1), manages UMTS (2100 MHz) signals, and works with Medium output powers. Once we identified the case of our remote unit (case A, in this example), lets refer to this manuals section which exactly corresponds to our remote unit case, so as to perform proper installation and maintenance procedures. Each Britecell Plus remote unit belongs to one of the following 3 power classes: Low, Medium and High Power. Once we know the Power Class of our remote unit (Medium, in our example), and its working bands (e.g. 2100 MHz UMTS), we can look through the remote unit dedicated bulletin (described under the column Details in bulletin: PA-100592EN, in our example) in order to get all the technical specifications concerning the remote unit itself.

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Module name: 3.2. Case A remote unit Dimensions and Weight:

Remote Unit
TFAx Case A

Dimensions: 38 x 240 x 200 mm (1.5 x 9.4 x 7.9 inches) Weight : please refer to the Britecell Plus bulletin PA-100595EN or to the remote unit dedicated bulletin in order to know the updated data about the weight of your case A remote unit An external power supply is provided only for Case A remote unit TFAM20.

TFAx
CaseA

Green LED = power on Red LED = major alarm Warm side

External alarm connectors

Power Supply connector

RF antenna port (N-f)

UL optical port (SC-APC)

RF antenna port (N-f)

Fig. 3.4: 3D-drawing of a Case A remote unit

RF auxiliary channel output (SMA-f)

DL optical port (SC-APC)

RF auxiliary channel input (SMA-f)

RF ports:

2 RF antenna ports, transmitting/receiving signals to/from distributed antennas. RF antenna ports are duplexed N-female connectors. These RF ports can be connected to the antennas either directly (ie. through RF jumper cables) or through splitters, thus allowing more antennas to be fed. Unused RF ports have to be terminated with a 50 load. 1 RF auxiliary input and 1 auxiliary output (designed to receive and transmit additional signals). Auxiliary input and output ports are SMA-female connectors.

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Optical ports:

1 optical output port, transmitting UL signals to TFLN master optical TRX 1 optical input port, receiving DL signals from TFLN master optical TRX

Visual alarms:
Two control LEDs are provided on the TFAx front side (see fog. 3.19). The green LED describes the power supply status, while the red LED describes the major Remote Unit failures (please refer to the table 3.1).
TFAx
CaseA

Led colour

Red
Fig. 3.5 : LED panel on the Case-A warm side

Green

Meaning Low optical power at DL input and/or RF amplifier failure Power supply OK

Table 3.1: summary of TFAx LEDs meaning

External alarms:
TFAx is provided with two dry contacts inputs, which can be connected (through .062 MOLEX plugs) to any external device. In such a way, the alarm information about this external device can be signalled through the red LED of TFAx LED panel and displayed into the supervision system.
Fig. 3.6 : Dry-contacts on Case A back side dry contacts

Power supply
Case A remote units can be powered by universal mains (90 to 264 Vac) or by negative supply (-72 to -36 Vdc). Power supply is internal for all Case A remote units, except for TFAM20 which has an external adapter. Fig. 3.9a,b shows the different power supply connectors which are provided on 90/264 Vac and on -72/-36 Vdc versions (except TFAM20). TFAM20 remote unit is provided with the TPSN external power supply (fig. 3.8 a,b), available either for universal mains (90 to 264) or for negative supply. (-72 to -36 Vdc). They both provide the remote units with a +5Vdc power, by means of a 3-pole connector (fig. 3.10c).

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User Manual

(a)

(b)

Fig. 3.7 : (a) IEC connector on the rear side of a 220Vac-powered case A remote unit. (b) 4-pole connector on the rear side of a -48 Vdc -powered case A remote unit. These connectors are not available on TFAM20, which is provided with an external adapter (see below).

TFAx
CaseA

Ground

(a)

Positive +5 Vdc (c)

Fig. 3.8 : TPSN external adapters for 220 Vac (a) and -48 Vdc (b) TFAM20 versions. Power supply connector on the rear side of TFAM20 remote unit (c).

(b)

Warnings (to be read before the remote units are installed)


Dealing with optical output ports

The TFAx remote unit contains semiconductor lasers. Invisible laser beams may be emitted from the optical output ports. Do not look towards the optical ports while equipment is switched on.

Choosing a proper installation site for the remote units

TFAx remote units have to be installed as close as possible to the radiating antennas, in order to minimize coaxial cable length, thus reducing downlink power loss and uplink noise figure.

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27

When positioning the TFAx remote unit, pay attention that the placing of related antennas should be decided in order to minimize the Minimum Coupling Loss (MLC), so as to avoid blocking. The TFAx remote unit is intended to be fixed on walls, false ceilings or other flat vertical surfaces (TKA installation kits are available, in order to provide a protective cover for TFAx remote unit, while making the TFAx installation easier and faster).

WRONG

(a)

TFAx
CaseA

Handling optical connections

When inserting an optical connector, take care to handle it so smoothly that the optical fibre is not OPTIMAL damaged. Optical fibres are to be single-mode (SM) 9.5/125m. (b) Typically, Britecell Plus equipment is provided with SC-APC optical connectors (other connectors may be provided on request). Inserting any other Fig. 3.9: Improper (a) and optimal (b) radius connectors will result in severe damages. bending for a fiber optics Do not force or stretch the fibre pigtail with radius cable. of curvature less than 5cm. See rightward figure for optimal fibre cabling. Remove the adapter caps only just before making connections. Do not leave any SC-APC adapter open, as they attract dirt. Unused optical connectors must always be covered with their caps. Do not touch the connector tip. Clean it with a proper tissue before inserting each connector into the sleeve. In case connector tips need to be cleaned, use pure ethyl alcohol.

TFAx Case A installation


(all Case A remote units, except TFAM20) Case A remote units can be fixed on walls, false ceilings or other flat vertical surfaces, either directly or through a TKA01 installation kit (optional). Installing a Case A remote unit (except TFAM20) WITHOUT the TKA kit The TFAx kit includes: A. 1 remote unit TFAx B. a 50 load C. a VDE connector or a -48 Vdc plug (according to the chosen model)

Versions with internal power supply

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User Manual

Remote units are provided with cooling fins which allow to optimize heat dissipation. In order to let them work, the environment where the remote unit is mounted should allow the necessary air changeover. Do not place any remote unit face downwards on a horizontal surface, because this would prevent heat dissipation. Once you have chosen the position of the remote unit, please follow these steps in order to carry out the installation: 1. Drill into the wall so as to install the M4 screw anchors (not included) according to the case A or case B layouts indicated by the installation drawings in fig.3.15 (a) 2. Fix the TFAx remote unit to the wall by firmly screwing the anchors. 3. Take the splice tray (not included). Fix the splice holder inside the splice tray. (see fig. 3.10a,b) 4. Splice the optical fibres and close the splice tray. While handling the fibers, take care of the fiber bending. 5. Fix the splice tray beside the remote unit 6. If the remote unit is -48 Vdc powered, use the -48 Vdc plug (included) in order to connect the unit to the -48 Vdc mains. If the remote unit is 85/264 Vac-powered, fix the 85/264 Vac plug (included) on to a power cord (not included), and use this cable in order to connect the unit to the mains. 7. Connect the antenna RF cables to the RF antenna ports. Connect the UL and DL optical connectors (please refer to fig. 3.4). Apply a 50-Ohm load to the RF which are no connected to any antenna cable. 8. Once the installation is finished, please follow the section Start-up for case A and case B remote units, in order to carry out a proper system start up.

TFAx
CaseA

(b) Fig. 3.10. (a) Splice tray. (b) Inside of the splice tray, with the splice holder properly positioned.

(a)

Installing the Case A remote unit (except TFAM20) WITH the TKA01 installation kit The TFAx kit includes: 1. a remote unit TFAx 2. a 50 load 3. a VDE connector or a -48 Vdc plug (according to the chosen model) A. 4 screw anchors (fixing the wall bearing to the wall) B. 5 screw anchors (fixing the TFAx case A to the wall mounting box C) C. A wall mounting boc D. a splice holder
29

The TKA01 kit includes: (please refer to fig. 3.11)

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Fig. 3.11: The TKA01 installation kit

TFAx
CaseA

Once you have chosen the position of the remote unit mounting case, please follow these instructions: 1. Unscrew the 4 screws which lock the lower cover of the TKA01 wall bearing (see fig. 3.12a) 2. In order to install the M4 screw anchors (included) which shall hold up the TKA01 wall bearing, drill into the wall according to the TKA layout shown in fig. 3.15c. 3. Fix the TKA01 wall bearing by firmly screwing the anchors. 4. Carefully open the splice tray by using a screwdriver as in fig. 3.12b. Fix the splice holder inside the splice tray. (see fig. 3.12c). Splice the optical fibres and close the splice tray. While handling the fibers, take care of the fiber bending. Close the splice tray. 5. Fix the remote unit to the wall bearing by using the included screws 3.12d. 6. If the remote unit is -48 Vdc powered, use the -48 Vdc plug (included) in order to connect the unit to the -48 Vdc mains. If the remote unit is 85/264 Vac-powered, fix the 85/264 Vac plug (included) on to a power cord (not included), and use this cable in order to connect the unit to the mains. 7. Connect the antenna RF cables to the RF antenna ports. Connect the UL and DL optical connectors (fig.3.12e). If the power cable has properly been connected to the main, both the green and the red LEDs should turn on. The green LED will remain on to indicate that the unit is powered on, while the red LED will turn off as soon as the local unit will be switched on (for further details about the start up of the system, please refer to the section TFAx Start-up) 8. Fix the lower cover by fastening the 4 screws (fig.3.12f).

TFAM20 installation
TFAM20 remote unit can be fixed on walls, false ceilings or other flat vertical surfaces, either directly or through a TKA01 installation kit (optional).

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User Manual

Installing a TFAM20 remote unit WITHOUT the TKA kit The TFAM20 kit includes: 1. a remote unit TFAM20 2. a 50 load 3. a TPSN external power supply adapter (90 to 264 Vac or -72 to -36 Vdc, according to the chosen model) 4. a VDE connector or a -48 Vdc plug (according to the chosen model)
TFAx
CaseA

Please consider carefully these guidelines in order to choose a proper positioning of the remote unit and of its power supply: o Each piece of equipment should not be affected by the heating of any other piece. The remote unit and its external power supply should be mounted so as to avoid reciprocal heating. Side-by-side configuration is suggested (fig. 3.13 a,b) o Remote units are provided with cooling fins which allow to optimize heat dissipation. In order to let them work, the environment where the TFAM20 is mounted should allow the necessary air changeover. o It is strongly recommended not to mount the external power supply on a horizontal surface, because this position does not allow heat dissipation. External power supplies must be mounted on vertical surfaces. o In order to assure a proper heat dissipation, the external power supplies must be mounted in vertical position with the power socket downwards (see fig. 3.13a,b). Once you have chosen the position of the remote unit, please follow these instructions: 1. In order to install the M4 screw anchors (not included) which shall hold up the TFAM20 remote unit, drill into the wall according to the case A layout shown in fig. 3.15a. 2. Fix the TFAM20 to the wall by firmly screwing the anchors. 3. In order to install the M4 screw anchors (not included) which shall hold up the power supply external adapter, drill into the wall according to the power supply layout shown in fig.3.15b. 4. Fix the external power supply adapter to the wall by firmly screwing the anchors. 5. Take the splice tray (not included). Fix the splice holder inside the splice tray. (see fig. 3.10a,b) 6. Splice the optical fibres and close the splice tray. While handling the fibers, take care of the fiber bending. 7. Fix the splice tray beside the remote unit 8. Connect the external adapter to the TFAM20 remote unit through the 9. proper cable. 10. If the remote unit is -48 Vdc powered, use the -48 Vdc plug (included) in order to connect the external adapter to the -48 Vdc mains (fig. 3.12b). If the remote unit is 90/264 Vac-powered, fix the 90/264 Vac plug

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31

(included) on to a power cord (not included), and use this cable in order to the external adapter to the mains (fig. 3.12a). 11. Connect the antenna RF cables to the RF antenna ports. Connect the UL and DL optical connectors. 12. Once the installation is finished, please follow the section TFAx case A remote unit, in order to carry out a proper system start up.

TFAx
CaseA

neg. supply (-72 to -36Vdc) universal mains (90 to 264Vac)

(a)

(b)

Fig. 3.12. Example of proper mounting configuration, which assures heat dissipation. Note that the remote unit and its power supply adapter are mounted side-by-side, and the power supply adapter has the socket downwards. The pictures refer to a 90/264 Vac powered TFAM20 (a) and to a 72/-36 Vdc powered TFAM20 (b).

Installation of the TFAM20 remote unit WITH the TKA01 installation kit The TFAM20 kit includes: 1. a remote unit TFAx 2. a 50 load 3. an external power supply adapter (86 to 264 Vac or -72 to -36 Vdc, according to the chosen model) 4. a VDE connector or a -48 Vdc plug (according to the chosen model) A. 4 screw anchors (fixing the wall bearing to the wall) B. 5 screw anchors (fixing the TFAx case A to the wall mounting box C) C. A wall mounting boc D. a splice holder

The TKA01 kit includes: (please refer to fig. 3.11)

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User Manual

TFAx
CaseA

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Fig. 3.13: Mounting the TFAx Case A with a TKA01 installation kit

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33

TFAx
CaseA

Please consider carefully these guidelines in order to choose a proper positioning of the remote unit and of its power supply: o Each piece of equipment should not be affected by the heating of any other piece. The remote unit and its external power supply should be mounted so as to avoid reciprocal heating. Side-by-side configuration is suggested (fig. 3.14 a,b) o It is strongly recommended not to mount the external power supply on a horizontal surface, because this position does not allow heat dissipation. External power supplies must be mounted on vertical surfaces. o In order to assure a proper heat dissipation, the external power supplies must be mounted in vertical position with the power socket downwards (see fig. 3.14a,b). Once you have chosen the position of the remote unit mounting case, please follow these instructions: 1. Unscrew the 4 screws which lock the lower cover of the TKA01 wall bearing (see fig. 3.13a) 2. In order to install the M4 screw anchors (included) which shall hold up the TKA01 wall bearing, drill into the wall according to the TKA layout shown in fig. 3.15c. 3. Fix the TKA01 wall bearing by firmly screwing the anchors. 4. In order to install the M4 screw anchors (not included) which shall hold up the power supply external adapter, drill into the wall according to the power supply layout shown in fig.3.15b 5. Fix the external power supply adapter to the wall by firmly screwing the anchors. 6. Carefully open the splice tray by using a screwdriver as in fig. 3.13b. Fix the splice holder inside the splice tray. (see fig. 3.13c). Splice the optical fibres and close the splice tray. While handling the fibers, take care of the fiber bending. Close the splice tray. 7. Fix the remote unit to the wall bearing by using the included screws 3.13d. 8. If the remote unit is -48 Vdc powered, use the -48 Vdc plug (included) in order to connect the external adapter to the -48 Vdc mains (fig. 3.14a). If the remote unit is 90/264 Vac-powered, fix the 90/264 Vac plug (included) on to a power cord (not included), and use this cable in order to connect the external adapter to the mains (fig. 3.14b). 9. Connect the antenna RF cables to the RF antenna ports. Connect the UL and DL optical connectors (fig.3.13e). If the power cable has properly been connected to the main, both the green and the red LEDs should turn on. The green LED will remain on to indicate that the unit is powered on, while the red LED will turn off as soon as the local unit will be switched on (for further details about the start up of the system, please refer to the section TFAx Case A Start-up) 10. Fix the lower cover by fastening the 4 screws (fig.3.13f).

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User Manual

Universal mains (90 to 264 Vac)

(a)

Neg. supply (-72 to -36Vdc)

TFAx (b)
CaseA

Fig. 3.14. Example of proper mounting configuration, which assures proper heat dissipation. Note that the remote unit and its power supply adapter are mounted side-by-side, and the power supply adapter has the socket downwards. The pictures refer to a 90/264 Vac powered TFAM20 (a) and to a -72/-36 Vdc powered TFAM20 (b).

TFAx Case A start-up


Before the TFAx remote unit is switched on, make sure that: the modules hosted in the master unit have been connected each other with RF jumpers, according to the system design every TFLN master optical TRX has been connected to its remote units each remote unit has been connected to its coverage antennas For a correct system start-up, all the remote units have to be switched on before the master unit. Once the TFAx has been switched on, its behaviour can be summarized as per the following steps: 1. when the remote unit is turned on, both the LEDs upon the warm side turn on for a couple of seconds 2. After that, the unit green LED remains on (thus indicating proper power supply), while the red LED switches off as soon as the master unit is turned on (meaning that DL optical power is OK and no alarms are present). 3. Once the master unit has been switched on, the status of both LEDs have to be the one reported in table 3.1. In case the red LED remains on, please refer to the troubleshooting section. 4. After being switched on the remote unit starts working correctly. Anyway, in order to be recognized by the supervision management system, it is necessary for the corresponding TFLN master optical TRX to carry out the discovery phase (please refer to Supervision System Manual for more details). During this phase which can last at max. 4min, depending on the system complexity, the TFLN LED blinks.
MN024-08
35

Do not connect/disconnect any cable or any piece of equipment during the discovery phase! This may result in failing the identification of the remote unit. Note: in case discovery doesnt start automatically, check through the LMT or the remote supervision whether it has been disabled (refer to LMT or remote supervision system manuals for further information).

Case A TFAx troubleshooting


Faults can be revealed by LEDs on the TFAx front panel as well as by LMT or supervision system (running on the remote supervision unit) Both LMT and supervision system provide full information about the device causing the alarm. As a consequence, troubleshooting procedure can be very immediate when failure detection is directly carried out through LMT or supervision system. Britecell Plus modules are designed in order to exchange information, so that each remote unit can receive failure notifications from its external equipment through dry-contact connections. Moreover, the TFAx constantly monitors the optical signal received from its TFLN unit to control optical losses. Tables 3.2 and 3.3 show a brief description of the alarms related to a Case A remote unit, with a reference to the corresponding alerted LEDs and to the actions to be carried out in the case of a fault.

TFAx
CaseA

TFAN
ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
Antenna DC loop alarm DL optical power fail The optical power received on the DL is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received is under the allowed 3dB optical loss but it can be compensated HW failure on the DL low band RF section HW failure on the DL high band RF section Alarm on the device connected on drycontact 1 Alarm on the device connected on drycontact 2

ALARM DESCRIPTION

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL


ALWAYS OK

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)

RED

MAJOR

Check the DL fibre and the TFLN laser status

MAJOR

AGC out of range DL RF low band alarm DL RF high band alarm External 1 alarm External 2 alarm

NONE

WARNING

Clean optical connectors

MINOR

RED RED RED

CRITICAL CRITICAL MAJOR

Return the unit Return the unit Check the external device or alarm connection Check the external device or alarm connection

MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR

RED

MAJOR

MAJOR

Table 3.2. Description of the alarms of the TFAN Case A Remote Unit, as they are presented on LMT or Supervision Interface

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User Manual

As the tables show, minor alarms (low priority alarms) are revealed only by LMT or supervision system, but not by LEDs. Minor alarms detect critical situations which should be checked and tested in order to avoid future possible system faults. Each remote unit is provided with an AGC system which comes in after the optical-to-RF conversion. This AGC can correctly compensate optical losses when these are estimated to be <3 dB. In case optical losses are in the 3dB4dB range, the whole system still works, but AGC is near to its borderline levels. The red LED switches on when the estimated optical losses are >4dB, the AGC not being able to compensate these losses any more. As shown in the previous table, the same red LED switches on to reveal any major failure. Following the troubleshooting procedure reported hereinafter it is possible to better understand what problem occurred.
Note: Each remote unit is provided with an AGC system which comes in after the optical-to-RF conversion. This AGC can correctly compensate optical losses when these are estimated to be <3 dB. In case optical losses are in the 3dB- 4dB range, the AGC is said to be out of range: the whole system still work, but AGC is near to its borderline levels. The DL power LED switches on when the estimated optical losses are >4dB, the AGC not being able to compensate these losses any more. As shown in the previous table, the same red LED switches on to reveal any major failure. Following the troubleshooting procedure reported hereinafter it is possible to better understand what problem occurred.
1

TFAx
CaseA

TFAM20
ALARM CODE (TSUN descriptio n)
Antenna DC loop alarm Power Supply alarm Internal Bus alarm DL optical power fail The optical power received on the DL is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received is under the allowed 3dB optical loss but it can be compensated HW failure on the DL UMTS section Over-temperature alarm UPS HW failure malfunction. RF is turned OFF or RED MAJOR

ALARM DESCRIPTION

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL


ALWAYS OK

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)

Check the external PSU. If it works properly, return the unit

MAJOR

ALWAYS OK Check the DL fibre and the TFLN laser status

RED

MAJOR

MAJOR

AGC out of range DL UMTS band alarm Temperature alarm

NONE

WARNING

Clean optical connectors

MINOR

RED RED if temperature >85C

CRITICAL MINOR

Return the unit Check ventilation and environment

MAJOR MINOR

Table 3.3. Description of the alarms of the TFAM20 Remote Unit, as they are presented on LMT or Supervision Interface

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37

TFAx
CaseA

Fig. 3.15(a): CASE A layout with wall anchor quotes

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User Manual

TFAx
CaseA

Fig. 3.15(b): External Power Supply layout with wall anchor quotes. It is highly recommended to mount it on a vertical surface in vertical position with the socket downwards.

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39

TFAx
CaseA

Fig. 3.15(c): TKA layout with wall anchor quotes

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User Manual

Quick troubleshooting procedure (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 3.16a) In case the red LED is ON, please follow these steps: 1. First of all, refer to dry-contact troubleshooting in order to understand whether the alarm can depend on any external equipment failure or not. 2. In case dry-contact troubleshooting has not revealed any failure, clean the optical adapters 3. If the problem still persists, refer to the fibre optic DL troubleshooting to check if optical cables or optical connections have any problem on DL path. 4. If previous actions didnt make the LED switch off replace the unit with a new one or contact for assistance. Dry contact troubleshooting (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 3.16b) This procedure needs to be considered if at least one TFAx dry-contact is connected to some external equipment. If not, return to main troubleshooting procedure. These steps aim to detect any failure inside the external equipment or inside the dry-contact port. If dry-contacts dont reveal equipment malfunction or a port failure, return to the main troubleshooting procedure. For any dry-contact connected to some external equipment, follow these steps: 1. Disconnect it, and check the TFAx LED status after the disconnection. 2. If the red LED has switched off, external equipment connected to the dry contact port should be faulty. Please test it. 3. If the TFAx red LED still remains on after the disconnection, measure voltage between the terminals of the dry contact port. a. If the terminals are electrically closed, the dry-contact port is faulty. Contact the manufacturer for assistance. b. If the terminals are open, this means neither the analysis of the present dry contact nor the one of its external equipment has revealed failures. Re-connect the present dry contact port to its external equipment. In case the TFAx has another unchecked drycontact connected to some external equipment, apply the whole procedure (i.e. the steps 1-3) to this new port Fibre optic DL troubleshooting (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 3.16c) 1. Check if there is any point where fibre experiences a short radius of curvature. In this case, rearrange the optical path in order to avoid sharp bends (if necessary, replace the optical cable with a longer one). If TFLN red LED switches off, troubleshooting has been successfully carried out. Otherwise, follow next steps. 2. Check if SC-APC connectors are properly installed at both fibre ends. In case they are not, fix better SC-SPC connectors to adapters. If TFLN red LED switches off, troubleshooting has been successful. Otherwise, follow next steps. 3. Disconnect the optical fibre and clean it better at both ends then clean the SC-APC ports on both the TFLN and the remote unit. Re-connect the fibre to relevant ports after cleaning. If it doesnt made TFLN red LED switch off, follow next steps.
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41

TFAx
CaseA

4. Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from remote unit DL port, and measure the output power POUT(DL) at the corresponding fibre end. Then, go to the TFLN side, disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TFLN DL port and measure the input power PIN(DL) coming out of the TFLN DL port. Calculate the DL fibre attenuation ADL as ADL [dB] = PIN(DL) POUT(DL) a. If ADL > 4dB, then the fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it with a new one. b. If ADL < 4dB troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact assistance.

TFAx
CaseA start

Is the red LED ON upon the TFAx? Yes

No

Verify if any external equipment or any dry contact port have some problems. Refer to dry-contact troubleshooting (fig. 3.16b)

Is red LED upon TFAx still ON?

No

Yes

Clean the SC-APC optical adapters and connectors

Is red LED upon TFAx still ON?

No

Yes Optical cable or optical connections are supposed to have problems on DL path. Refer to fibre optic DL troubleshooting (fig. 3.16c) end

Fig. 3.16( a): Flow-chart describing the quick troubleshooting procedure on Case A TFAx

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User Manual

start

Is any dry contact connected to some external equipment? Yes Is red LED upon TFAx still ON? Yes

No

Disconnect the dry contact port

No

External equipment connected to this dry contact port should be faulty. Test it. TFAx
CaseA

Measure voltage between the terminals of this dry contact port

Is this dry contact electrically closed? No

Yes

The dry contact port is faulty. Contact the manufacturer for assistance.

Analysis about this dry contact and its external equipment has not revealed any failures. Connect the dry contact to its external equipment again.

Is the other dry contact connected to external equipment? Yes

No

end Fig. 3.16(b): Flow-chart describing the external alarm troubleshooting on Case A TFAx.

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43

start

Is there any point where the fibre experiences a small radius of curvature? No

Yes

Rearrange the optical path to avoid sharp bends. If necessary replace the optical cable with a longer one.

Yes

Is red LED upon remote unit still ON?

No

TFAx
CaseA

Are SC-APC connectors properly installed at both fibre ends? Yes

No

Fix better SC-APC connectors

Yes

Is red LED upon remote unit still ON?

No

Disconnect fibre optic and clean it at both ends.

Clean optical SC-APC ports on both TFLN and remote unit.

Reconnect the fibre to relevant ports

Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from remote unit DL port

Yes

Is red LED upon remote unit still ON?

No

Measure the output power at corresponding fibre end.

Go to TFLN side.

Disconnect optical SC-APC connector from TFLN DL port.

Calculate DL fibre attenuation ADL[dB]=input power - output power

Measure the input power coming out of the TFLN DL port.

Is ADL > 4dB? No

Yes

Fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it. Troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact assistance

end

Fig. 3.16 (c): Flow-chart describing the fibre optic DL troubleshooting User Manual

44

Module name: 3.3. Case B remote unit Dimensions and Weight:

Remote Unit
TFAx Case B

Dimensions: 38 x 240 x 240 mm (1.5 x 9.4 x 9.4 inches) Weight : please refer to the Bulletin PA-100595EN or to the remote unit dedicated bulletin in order to know the updated data about the weight of your case L remote unit
Green LED = power on Red LED = major alarm Warm side

External alarm connectors

TFAx
CaseB

Power Supply connector

RF antenna port (N-f)

UL optical port (SC-APC)

RF antenna port (N-f)

Fig. 3.17: 3D-drawing of a Case B remote unit

RF auxiliary channel output (SMA-f)

DL optical port (SC-APC)

RF auxiliary channel input (SMA-f)

RF ports:

2 RF antenna ports, transmitting/receiving signals to/from distributed antennas. RF antenna ports are duplexed N-female connectors. These RF ports can be connected to the antennas either directly (ie. through RF jumper cables) or through splitters, thus allowing more antennas to be fed. Unused RF ports have to be terminated with a 50 load. 1 RF auxiliary input and 1 auxiliary output (designed to receive and transmit additional signals). Auxiliary input and output ports are SMA-female connectors.

Optical ports:

1 optical output port, transmitting UL signals to TFLN master optical TRX 1 optical input port, receiving DL signals from TFLN master optical TRX
45

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Visual alarms:
Two control LEDs are provided on the TFAx front side (fig.3.18). The green LED describes the power supply status, while the red LED describes the major Remote Unit failures (please refer to the table 3.4).
Led colour

Red Green

Meaning Low optical power at DL input and/or RF amplifier failure Power supply OK
Fig. 3.18 : LED panel on the Case-B warm side

Table 3.4: summary of TFAx LEDs meaning

TFAx
CaseB

Dry contact alarms:


TFAx is provided with two dry contacts inputs, which can be connected (through .062 MOLEX plugs) to any external device. In such a way, the alarm information about this external device can be signalled through the red LED of TFAx LED panel and displayed into the supervision system.
dry contacts

Fig. 3.19 : Dry-contacts on Case B back side

Power supply
The Case B remote unit is provided with an external power supply TPSN (fig. 3.20 a,b), available either for universal mains (90 to 264) or for negative supply. (-72 to -36 Vdc). Each TPSN external power supply provides the remote units with a +5Vdc power, by means of a 3-pole connector (fig. 3.20c).

Warnings (to be read before remote units are installed)


Dealing with optical output ports
The TFAx remote unit contains semiconductor lasers. Invisible laser beams may be emitted from the optical output ports. Do not look towards the optical ports while equipment is switched on.

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User Manual

Ground

(a)

Positive +5 Vdc (c) Fig. 3.20: TPSN external adapters for 220 Vac (a) and -48 Vdc (b) Case B remote units. Power supply connector on the rear side of Case-B remote unit (c). TFAx
CaseB

(b)

Choosing a proper installation site for the remote units


TFAx remote units have to be installed as close as possible to the radiating antennas, in order to minimize coaxial cable length, thus reducing downlink power loss and uplink noise figure. When positioning the TFAx remote unit, pay attention that the placing of related antennas should be decided in order to minimize the Minimum Coupling Loss (MLC), so as to avoid blocking. The TFAx remote unit is intended to be fixed on walls, false ceilings or other flat vertical surfaces (TKA installation kits are available, in order to provide a protective cover for TFAx remote unit, while making the TFAx installation easier and faster).

Handling optical connections


When inserting an optical connector, take care to handle it so smoothly that the optical fibre is not damaged. Optical fibres are to be single-mode (SM) 9.5/125m. Typically, Britecell Plus equipment is provided with SC-APC optical connectors (other connectors may be provided on request). Inserting any other connectors will result in severe damages. Do not force or stretch the fibre pigtail with radius of curvature less than 5cm. See rightward figure for optimal fibre cabling. Remove the adapter caps only just before making connections. Do not leave any SC-APC adapter open, as they attract dirt. Unused optical connectors must always be covered with their caps. Do not touch the connector tip. Clean it with a proper tissue before inserting each connector into the sleeve. In case connector tips need to be cleaned, use pure ethyl alcohol.

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TFAx Case B installation


CaseB remote unit can be fixed on walls, false ceilings or other flat vertical surfaces, either directly or through a TKA04 installation kit (optional). Installing a Case B remote unit WITHOUT the TKA kit The TFAx kit includes: a. a remote unit TFAx b. a 50 load c. a TPSN external power supply adapter (86 to 264 Vac or -72 to -36 Vdc, according to the chosen model) d. a VDE connector or a -48 Vdc plug (according to the chosen model)

TFAx
CaseB

Please consider carefully these guidelines in order to choose a proper positioning of the remote unit and of its power supply: o Each piece of equipment should not be affected by the heating of any other piece. The remote unit and its external power supply should be mounted so as to avoid reciprocal heating. Side-by-side configuration is suggested (fig. 3.22 a,b) o Remote units are provided with cooling fins which allow to optimize heat dissipation. In order to let them work, the environment where the TFAx is mounted should allow the necessary air changeover o It is strongly recommended not to mount the external power supply on a horizontal surface, because this position does not allow heat dissipation. External power supplies must be mounted on vertical surfaces. o In order to assure a proper heat dissipation, the external power supplies must be mounted in vertical position with the power socket downwards (see fig. 13.22a,b). Once you have chosen the position of the remote unit, please follow these instructions: 1. In order to install the M4 screw anchors (not included) which shall hold up the TFAx remote unit, drill into the wall according to the case B layout shown in fig. 3.24a. 2. Fix the TFAx to the wall by firmly screwing the anchors. 3. In order to install the M4 screw anchors (not included) which shall hold up the power supply external adapter, drill into the wall according to the power supply layout shown in fig.3.24b 4. Fix the external power supply adapter to the wall by firmly screwing the anchors. 5. Take the splice tray (not included). Fix the splice holder inside the splice tray. (see fig. 3.21a,b)

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(b) Fig. 3.21. (a) Splice tray. (b) Inside of the splice tray, with the splice holder properly positioned.

(a)

6. Splice the optical fibres and close the splice tray. While handling the fibers, take care of the fiber bending. 7. Fix the splice tray beside the remote unit 8. Connect the external adapter to the TFAx remote unit through the proper cable. 9. If the remote unit is -48 Vdc powered, use the -48 Vdc plug (included) in order to connect the external adapter to the -48 Vdc supply (fig. 3.22b). If the remote unit is 90/264 Vac-powered, fix the 90/264 Vac plug (included) on to a power cord (not included), and use this cable in order to connect the external adapter to the mains (fig. 3.22a). 10. Connect the antenna RF cables to the RF antenna ports. Connect the UL and DL optical connectors. 11. Once the installation is finished, please follow the section TFAx Case B Start-up in order to carry out a proper system start up.

TFAx
CaseB

Universal mains (90 to 264 Vac)

(a)

Neg. supply (-72 to -36 Vdc )

(b)

Fig. 3.22. Example of proper mounting configuration, which assures heat dissipation. Note that the remote unit and its power supply adapter are mounted side-by-side, and the power supply adapter has the socket downwards. The pictures refer to a 90/264 Vac powered TFAx Case B (a) and to a -36/-72 Vdc powered TFAx Case B (b).

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Installation of the Case B remote unit WITH the TKA04 installation kit The TFAx Case B kit includes: 2. a remote unit TFAx 3. a 50 load 4. a TPSN external power supply adapter (86 to 264 Vac or -72 to -36 Vdc, according to the chosen model) 5. a VDE connector or a -48 Vdc plug (according to the chosen model)

The TKA04 kit includes:

TFAx
CaseB

A. 4 screw anchors (fixing the wall bearing to the wall) B. 5 screw anchors (fixing the TFAx Case B to the wall bearing) C. a wall mounting box (wall bearing + cover) D. a splice holder

Fig. 3.23: The TKA installation kit

Please consider carefully these guidelines in order to choose a proper positioning of the remote unit and of its power supply: o Each piece of equipment should not be affected by the heating of any other piece. The remote unit and its external power supply should be mounted so as to avoid reciprocal heating. Side-by-side configuration is suggested (fig. 3.24 a,b) o It is strongly recommended not to mount the external power supply on a horizontal surface, because this position does not allow heat dissipation. External power supplies must be mounted on vertical surfaces. o In order to assure a proper heat dissipation, the external power supplies must be mounted in vertical position with the power socket downwards (see fig. 3.24a,b). Once you have chosen the position of the remote unit mounting case, please follow these instructions: 1. Unscrew the 4 screws which lock the lower cover of the TKA04 wall bearing (see fig. 3.26a) 2. In order to install the M4 screw anchors (included) which shall hold up the TKA04 wall bearing, drill into the wall according to the TKA layout shown in fig. 3.25c.
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3. Fix the TKA04 wall bearing by firmly screwing the anchors. 4. In order to install the M4 screw anchors (not included) which shall hold up the power supply external adapter, drill into the wall according to the power supply layout shown in fig.3.25b. 5. Fix the external power supply adapter to the wall by firmly screwing the anchors. 6. Carefully open the splice tray by using a screwdriver as in fig. 3.26b. Fix the splice holder inside the splice tray (fig. 3.26c). Splice the optical fibres and close the splice tray. While handling the fibers, take care of the fiber bending. Close the splice tray.

TFAx
CaseB

(a) Universal mains (90 to 264 Vac) Neg. supply (-72 to -36 Vdc

(b)

Fig. 3.24. Example of proper mounting configuration, which assures proper heat dissipation. Note that the remote unit and its power supply adapter are mounted side-by-side, and the power supply adapter has the socket downwards. The pictures refer to a 220 Vac powered TFAx Case B (a) and to a -48 Vdc powered TFAx Case B (b).

Fix the remote unit to the wall-bearing by using the included screws (fig. 3.26d). 8. If the remote unit is -48 Vdc powered, use the -48 Vdc plug (included) in order to connect the external adapter to the -48 Vdc mains (fig. 3.24b). If the remote unit is 90/264 Vac-powered, fix the 90/264 Vac plug (included) on to a power cord (not included), and use this cable in order to connect the external adapter to the mains (fig. 3.24a). 9. Connect the antenna RF cables to the RF antenna ports. Connect the UL and DL optical connectors (fig. 3.26e). If the power cable has properly been connected to the main, both the green and the red LEDs should turn on. The green LED will remain on to indicate that the unit is powered on, while the red LED will turn off as soon as the local unit will be switched on (for further details about the start up of the system, please refer to the section TFAx Case B Start-up) 10. Fix the lower cover by fastening the 4 screws (fig. 3.26f) 7.

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TFAx Case B start-up


Before the TFAx remote unit is switched on, make sure that: the modules hosted in the master unit have been connected each other with RF jumpers, according to the system design every TFLN master optical TRX has been connected to its remote units each remote unit has been connected to its coverage antennas For a correct system start-up, all the remote units have to be switched on before the master unit. Once the TFAx has been switched on, its behaviour can be summarized as per the following steps: 1. When the remote unit is turned on, both the LEDs upon the warm side turn on for a couple of seconds 2. After that, the unit green LED remains on (thus indicating proper power supply), while the red LED switches off as soon as the master unit is turned on (meaning that DL optical power is OK and no alarms are present). 3. Once the master unit has been switched on, the status of both LEDs have to be the one reported in table 3.4. In case the red LED remains on, please refer to the troubleshooting section. 4. After being switched on the remote unit starts working correctly. Anyway, in order to be recognized by the supervision management system, it is necessary for the corresponding TFLN master optical TRX to carry out the discovery phase (please refer to Supervision System Manual for more details). During this phase which can last at max. 4min, depending on the system complexity, the TFLN LED blinks. Do not connect/disconnect any cable or any piece of equipment during the discovery phase! This may result in failing the identification of the remote unit. Note: in case discovery doesnt start automatically, check through the LMT or the remote supervision whether it has been disabled (refer to LMT or remote supervision system manuals for further information).

TFAx
CaseB

TFAx Case B troubleshooting


Faults can be revealed by LEDs on the TFAx front panel as well as by LMT or supervision system (running on the remote supervision unit) Both LMT and supervision system provide full information about the device causing the alarm. As a consequence, troubleshooting procedure can be very immediate when failure detection is directly carried out through LMT or supervision system. Britecell Plus modules are designed in order to exchange information, so that each remote unit can receive failure notifications from its external equipment through dry-contact connections. Moreover, the TFAx constantly monitors the optical signal received from its TFLN unit to control optical losses.

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TFAx
CaseB

Fig. 3.25 (a): CASE B layout with wall anchor quotes

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TFAx
CaseB

Fig. 3.25 (b): External Power Supply layout with wall anchor quotes. It is highly recommended to mount it on a vertical surface in vertical position with the socket downwards.

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240 100

TFAx
CaseB

242

150

98

212

Fig. 3.25 (c): TKA layout with wall anchor quotes

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TFAx
CaseB

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Fig. 3.26: Mounting the TFAx with a TKA installation kit. Please note that these pitctures refers to the mounting of a Case A TFAx with a TKa01 kit. However, the installation procedure is identical for mounting a TFAx case B with a TKA04 kit.
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Tables 3.5 and 3.6 show a brief description of the alarms related to a Case B remote unit, with a reference to the corresponding alerted LEDs and to the actions to be carried out in the case of a fault.

TFAN (tri band)


ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
Antenna DC loop alarm DL optical power 1 fail

ALARM DESCRIPTION
ALWAYS OK The optical power received on the DL is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received is under the allowed 3dB optical loss but it can be compensated HW failure on the DL low band RF section HW failure on the DL high band RF section Alarm on the device connected on drycontact 1 Alarm on the device connected on drycontact 2 UPS HW failure or malfunction. RF is turned OFF A malfunctioning on the digital part involves a fault in monitoring functionalities Over-temperature alarm HW failure on the DL UMTS band RF section

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)

RED

MAJOR

Check the DL fibre and the TFLN laser status

MAJOR

AGC out of 1 range DL RF low band alarm DL RF high band alarm External 1 alarm

NONE

WARNING

Clean optical connectors

TFAx
MINOR

CaseB

RED RED RED

CRITICAL CRITICAL MAJOR

Return the unit Return the unit Check the external device or alarm connection Check the external device or alarm connection Check the external PSU. If it works properly, return the unit

MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR

External 2 alarm

RED

MAJOR

MAJOR

Power supply alarm

RED

MAJOR

MAJOR

Internal BUS alarm Temperature alarm DL UMTS band alarm

RED

CRITICAL

Return the unit

MAJOR

NONE RED

MINOR CRITICAL

Check ventilation and environment Return the unit

MINOR MAJOR

Table 3.5. Description of the alarms of the TFAN Case-B Remote Unit, as they are presented on LMT or Supervision Interface

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TFAM
ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
Antenna DC loop alarm DL optical 1 power fail

ALARM DESCRIPTION
ALWAYS OK The optical power received on the DL is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received is under the allowed 3dB optical loss but it can be compensated HW failure on the DL UMTS section Alarm on the device connected on drycontact 1 Alarm on the device connected on drycontact 2 UPS HW failure or malfunction. RF is turned OFF ALWAYS OK

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)

RED

MAJOR

Check the DL fibre and the TFLN laser status

MAJOR

AGC out of 1 range DL UMTS band alarm External 1alarm External 2 alarm Power Supply alarm Internal Bus alarm

NONE

WARNING

Clean optical connectors

MINOR

TFAx
CaseB

RED RED

CRITICAL MAJOR

Return the unit Check the external device or alarm connection Check the external device or alarm connection Check the external PSU. If it works properly, return the unit

MAJOR MAJOR

RED

MAJOR

MAJOR

RED

MAJOR

MAJOR

Table 3.6. Description of the alarms of the TFAM Case-B Remote Unit, as they are presented on LMT or Supervision Interface

As the tables show minor alarms (low priority alarms) are revealed only by LMT or supervision system, but not by LEDs. Minor alarms detect critical situations which should be checked and tested in order to avoid future possible system faults. Each remote unit is provided with an AGC system which comes in after the optical-to-RF conversion. This AGC can correctly compensate optical losses when these are estimated to be <3 dB. In case optical losses are in the 3dB4dB range, the whole system still works, but AGC is near to its borderline levels. The red LED switches on when the estimated optical losses are >4dB, the AGC not being able to compensate these losses any more. As shown in the previous table, the same red LED switches on to reveal any major failure. Following the troubleshooting procedure reported hereinafter it is possible to better understand what problem occurred.
Note: Each remote unit is provided with an AGC system which comes in after the optical-to-RF conversion. This AGC can correctly compensate optical losses when these are estimated to be <3 dB. In case optical losses are in the 3dB- 4dB range, the AGC is said to be out of range: the whole system still work, but AGC is near to its borderline levels. The DL power LED switches on when the estimated optical losses are >4dB, the AGC not being able to compensate these losses any more.
1

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As shown in the previous table, the same red LED switches on to reveal any major failure. Following the troubleshooting procedure reported hereinafter it is possible to better understand what problem occurred.

Quick troubleshooting procedure (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 3.27a) In case the red LED is ON, please follow these steps: 1. First of all, refer to dry-contact troubleshooting in order to understand whether the alarm can depend on any external equipment failure or not. 2. In case dry-contact troubleshooting has not revealed any failure, clean the optical adapters 3. If the problem still persists, refer to the fibre optic DL troubleshooting to check if optical cables or optical connections have any problem on DL path. 4. If previous actions didnt make the LED switch off replace the unit with a new one or contact for assistance. Dry-contact troubleshooting (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 3.27b) This procedure needs to be considered if at least one TFAx dry-contact is connected to some external equipment. If not, return to main troubleshooting procedure. These steps aim to detect any failure inside the external equipment or inside the dry-contact port. If dry-contacts dont reveal equipment malfunction or a port failure, return to the main troubleshooting procedure. For any dry-contact connected to some external equipment, follow these steps: 1. Disconnect it, and check the TFAx LED status after the disconnection. 2. If the red LED has switched off, external equipment connected to the dry contact port should be faulty. Please test it. 3. If the TFAx red LED still remains on after the disconnection, measure voltage between the terminals of the dry contact port. a. If the terminals are electrically closed, the dry-contact port is faulty. Contact the manufacturer for assistance. b. If the terminals are open, this means neither the analysis of the present dry contact nor the one of its external equipment has revealed failures. Re-connect the present dry contact port to its external equipment. In case the TFAx has another unchecked drycontact connected to some external equipment, apply the whole procedure (ie steps 1-3) to this new port Fibre optic DL troubleshooting (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 3.27c) 1. Check if there is any point where fibre experiences a short radius of curvature. In this case, rearrange the optical path in order to avoid sharp bends (if necessary, replace the optical cable with a longer one). If TFLN red LED switches off, troubleshooting has been successfully carried out. Otherwise, follow next steps. 2. Check if SC-APC connectors are properly installed at both fibre ends. In case they are not, fix better SC-SPC connectors to adapters. If TFLN red LED switches off, troubleshooting has been successful. Otherwise, follow next steps.
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TFAx
CaseB

3. Disconnect the optical fibre and clean it better at both ends then clean the SC-APC ports on both the TFLN and the remote unit. Re-connect the fibre to relevant ports after cleaning. If it doesnt made TFLN red LED switch off, follow next steps. 4. Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from remote unit DL port, and measure the output power POUT(DL) at the corresponding fibre end. Then, go to the TFLN side, disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TFLN DL port and measure the input power PIN(DL) coming out of the TFLN DL port. Calculate the DL fibre attenuation ADL as ADL [dB] = PIN(DL) POUT(DL) a. If ADL > 4dB, then the fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it with a new one. b. If ADL < 4dB troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact assistance.

TFAx
CaseB

start

Is the red LED ON upon the TFAx? Yes

No

Verify if any external equipment or any dry contact port have some problems. Refer to dry-contact troubleshooting (fig. 3.27b)

Is red LED upon TFAx still ON? Yes

No

Clean the SC-APC optical adapters and connectors

Is red LED upon TFAx still ON? Yes

No

Optical cable or optical connections are supposed to have problems on DL path. Refer to fibre optic DL troubleshooting (fig. 3.27c)

end

Fig. 3.27 (a): Flow-chart describing the quick troubleshooting procedure on TFAx Case B

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start

Is any dry contact connected to some external equipment? Yes

No

Disconnect the dry contact port

Is red LED upon TFAx still ON? Yes

No

External equipment connected to this dry contact port should be faulty. Test it.

Measure voltage between the terminals of this dry contact port

Is this dry contact electrically closed? No

Yes

The dry contact port is faulty. Contact the manufacturer for assistance.

TFAx
CaseB

Analysis about this dry contact and its external equipment has not revealed any failures. Connect the dry contact to its external equipment again.

Is the other dry contact connected to external equipment? Yes

No

end Fig. 3.27 (b): Flow-chart describing the external alarm troubleshooting on Case B TFAx.

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start

Is there any point where the fibre experiences a small radius of curvature? No

Yes

Rearrange the optical path to avoid sharp bends. If necessary replace the optical cable with a longer one.

Yes

Is red LED upon remote unit still ON?

No

TFAx
CaseB

Are SC-APC connectors properly installed at both fibre ends? Yes

No

Fix better SC-APC connectors

Yes

Is red LED upon remote unit still ON?

No

Disconnect fibre optic and clean it at both ends.

Clean optical SC-APC ports on both TFLN and remote unit.

Reconnect the fibre to relevant ports

Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from remote unit DL port

Yes

Is red LED upon remote unit still ON?

No

Measure the output power at corresponding fibre end.

Go to TFLN side.

Disconnect optical SC-APC connector from TFLN DL port.

Calculate DL fibre attenuation ADL[dB]=input power - output power

Measure the input power coming out of the TFLN DL port.

Is ADL > 4dB? No

Yes

Fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it. Troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact assistance

end

Fig. 3.27 (c): Flow-chart describing the fibre optic DL troubleshooting


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Module name: 3.4. Case F remote unit Dimensions and Weight


Dimensions: Weight:

Remote Unit
TFAH Case L

546 x 253 x 207 mm (inches 21.5 x 10 x 8.1) please refer to the Britecell Plus bulletin PA-100595EN or to the remote unit dedicated bulletin in order to know the updated data about the weight of your case-L remote unit.

TFAx
CaseL

Figure 3.28 : (a) Case-L remote unit; (b) connection panel of the Case-L remote unit

Power supply connector

(a)

External alarms port Green LED = power ON Red LED = major alarm

RF ANTENNA PORT

UL AUX DL AUX

(b)
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UL optical cable 63

RF ports:
1 RF antenna port, transmitting/receiving signals to/from distributed antennas. This RF antenna port is a duplexed N-female connectors. The port can be connected to the antenna either directly (ie. through RF jumper cables) or through splitters, thus allowing more antennas to be fed. 1 RF auxiliary input and 1 RF auxiliary output (designed to receive and transmit additional signals). Auxiliary input and output ports are SMAfemale connectors.

Optical ports:

TFAx
CaseL

1 optical output port, transmitting UL signals to TFLN master optical TRX; 1 optical input port, receiving DL signals from TFLN master optical TRX.

Visual alarms:
Two control LEDs are provided on the Case-L upper side (see fig. 3.29). The green LED describes the power supply status, while the red LED describes the major Remote Unit failures (please rfer to the table 3.7).

Fig. 3.29 : LED panel on the Case-B warm side

Led colour

Red Green

Meaning Low optical power at DL input and/or RF amplifier failure Power supply OK

Table 3.7: summary of Case-L LEDs meaning

External alarms
The Case-L remote unit can collect the alarm information of any external device, so that the two LEDs of the visual panel will take account both of the alarms of the remote unit itself and of the external devices which have been properly connected. The alarms signals coming from external devices can be carried through proper cables (provided with 0.62 molex plugs), which have to pass through the external alarms port (see picture 3.28) and have to be connected to the proper pins on the motherboard. Please refer to fig. 3.30 in order to connect the external alarms cables to the proper pins.
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Pin 1: EXTERNAL 1 Pin 2: GROUND 1

Pin 3: EXTERNAL 2

Pin 4: GROUND 2

TFAx
CaseL

Fig. 3.30 : External alarm contacts on Case F board

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Power supply:
The Case-L remote Unit is available in two versions: one feeded by universal mains (85 to 265 Vac), the other by negative power supply (-72 to -36 Vdc): in figure 3.31, the 85/220 Vac connector and the -72/-36 Vdc connector are described. Power feeder is always internal. The power cable is always included in the Case-L remote unit kit

PE 4 1 2 6

(a)
TFAx
CaseL

(b) -36/-72Vdc Connector

85/264Vac Connector

PE: ground 1: N 2: L

4: 0V 6: -48V

Figure 3.31 : (a) 85/264 Vac and (b) -36/-72 Vdc connectors on a Case-L Remote Unit

Warnings (to be read before remote units are installed)


Dealing with optical output ports
The Case-L remote unit contains semiconductor lasers. Invisible laser beams may be emitted from the optical output ports. Do not look towards the optical ports while equipment is switched on.

Choosing a proper installation site for the remote units


Case-L remote units have to be installed as close as possible to the radiating antennas, in order to minimize coaxial cable length, thus reducing downlink power loss and uplink noise figure. When positioning the Case-L remote unit, pay attention that the placing of related antennas should be decided in order to minimize the Minimum Coupling Loss (MLC), so as to avoid blocking. The Case-L remote unit is intended to be fixed on walls or other flat vertical surfaces.

Handling optical connections

When inserting an optical connector, take care to handle it so smoothly that the optical fibre is not damaged. Optical fibres are to be single-mode (SM) 9.5/125m.

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Typically, Britecell Plus equipment is provided with SC-APC optical connectors (other connectors may be provided on request). Inserting any other connectors will result in severe damages. Do not force or stretch the fibre pigtail with radius of curvature less than 5cm. See rightward figure for optimal fibre cabling. Remove the adapter caps only just before making connections. Do not leave any SC-APC adapter open, as they attract dirt. Unused optical connectors must always be covered with their caps. Do not touch the connector tip. Clean it with a proper tissue before inserting each connector into the sleeve. In case connector tips need to be cleaned, use pure ethyl alcohol.

TFAx Case-L installation


Each case-L Remote Unit kit includes: 1 Case-L Remote Unit; 1 key, required to open the Case-L connector cover 1 power supply cable (85 to 264 Vac or -48Vdc, depending on the power supply which has been chosen); 1 pair of mounting plates; 1 screw kit, including four hexagonal-head screws and a torque key. The operations which need to be carried out in order to perform a proper installation of the Case-L Remote Unit are hereby described: 1- Take down the 2 mounting plates which are fixed to the case L (fig. 3.33a). Fix the two mounting plates to the wall by firmly screwing the anchors. 2. Drill the wall to install four M8 screw anchors (not included) as indicated by the installation drawing shown in fig. 3.33b. 3 Take two of the hexagonal-head screws included in the kit, and fasten them at the top of the case-L unit (fig. 3.33c, step 1) by using the torque key: while fastening the screws, take care to leave the space required to hang the L-case to the plates. Fasten the screws further only after hanging the L-case. Then take the other two hexagonal screws (included) and use them to fasten the bottom sides of the unit to the bottom side of the plates (see fig. 3.33c, step 2). 4 Fix a splice holder (not included) inside the proper splice tray (not included; fig. 3.32). Makes the splices between the fiberoptics patchcords coming from the
TFAx
CaseL

Fig. 3.32: (a) Splice tray. (b) Inside of the splice tray, with the splice holder properly positioned.

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Case-L remote unit and the fiberoptics cables which go to the local units. House the optical splices inside the splice holder. Close the splice tray. During these operations, please take care not to bend the fibres too much. Mount the splice tray beside the remote unit. 5 -Turn the key which is provided in order to open the connector cover, and remove the connector cover as in fig. 3.33e. If you need to use the Remote Unit to control alarms on external devices, please refer to fig. 3.30 and to the section external alarms in order to perform a proper cabling of the external alarms connections. 6 - Loosen the four screws fixing the cover (fig. 3.33f), and take the cover off. Unscrew the three screws indicated in fig. 3.33g, and open the unit (3.33h). 7 - Connect the antenna RF cable to the RF antenna port (refer to fig. 3.33i). In order to meet the IP65 compliance, please follow this procedure to carry out the optical UL / DL connections. During these operations, take care not to bend the fibers too much. Take off the PG13,5 Nut, the split-seal, the PG 13,5, and the pipe connection. Make the optical patchcord pass through the PG 13,5 nut, the PG 13,5 and the pipe connection. Connect the UL and DL optical connectors to the corresponding UL and DL adapters the unit. Screw the pipe connection to the unit. Fasten the PG 13,5 to the pipe connection. House the fiber optic cables (Ul and DL) on one half of the split-seal. Close the two halves of the split-seal, while paying attention not to stretch the fibers. Insert the split-seal inside the PG13,5. Screw the PG 13,5 nut onto the PG 13,5. 8 - Connect the Power cable to the power connector. In case the power cable has been connected to the mains, both the green and the red LEDs should turn on. The green LED will remain on to indicate that the unit is powered on, while the RED led will turn off as soon as the local unit will be switched on (for further details about the start-up of the whole system, please refer to the section TFAx Case L start-up). 9 - Close the cover, and fasten the 3 screws indicated in fig. 3.33g. Fasten the 4 screws indicated in fig. 3.33f. Mount both the external cover and the connector cover. Turn the key to close the connector cover.

TFAx
CaseL

TFAx Case-L start-up


Before the Case-L remote unit is switched on, make sure that: the modules hosted in the master unit have been connected each other with RF jumpers, according to the system design every TFLN master optical TRX has been connected to its remote units each remote unit has been connected to its coverage antennas

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For a correct system start-up, all the remote units have to be switched on before the master unit. Once the Case-L Remote Unit has been switched on, its behaviour could be checked by turning the key, removing the connector cover, and looking at the control LEDs. When the system starts-up, their status can be summarised as per the following steps. 1. When the remote unit is turned on, both the LEDs turn on for a couple of seconds. 2. After that, the unit green LED remains on (thus indicating proper power supply), while the red LED switches off as soon as the TFLN master unit is turned on (meaning that DL optical power is OK and no alarms are present). 3. Once the TFLN master unit has been switched on, the status of both LEDs have to be the one reported in table 3.7 In case the red LED remains on, please refer to the troubleshooting section. 4. Once it has been switched on, the remote unit starts working correctly. Anyway, in order to be recognized by the supervision management system, it is necessary for the corresponding TFLN master optical TRX to carry out the discovery phase (please refer to Supervision System Manual for more details). During this phase, (whose duration depends on the system complexity, and which can last at max. 4min) the TFLN LED blinks. Do not connect/disconnect any cable or any piece of equipment during the discovery phase! This may result in no identification of the remote unit. Note: if then discovery doesnt start automatically, check through the LMT or the remote supervision whether it has been disabled (refer to LMT or remote supervision system manuals for further information).

TFAx
CaseL

TFAx Case-L troubleshooting


Faults can be revealed by LEDs on the Case L front panel as well as by the LMT software or the TSUN supervision system. Both the LMT software and the TSUN supervision interface provide full information about the device causing the alarm. As a consequence, troubleshooting procedure can be very immediate when the failure detection is directly carried out through the LMT software or the supervision system. Britecell Plus modules are designed in order to exchange information each other: each remote unit can receive failure notifications from their external equipment through dry-contact connections. Moreover, each TFAx constantly monitors the optical signal received from its TFLN unit, so as to control optical losses. Table 3.8 shows a brief description of the alarms related to a Case L remote unit, with a reference to the corresponding alerted LEDs and to the actions to be carried out in the case of a fault.

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Fig. 3.33 (a): Side plates to be taken down from the case L remote unit

TFAx
CaseL

150

356,50

Fig. 3.33 (b): Layout for the installation of the case L remote unit plates

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1 1

TFAx
CaseL

Fig. 3.33 (c): When fastening the upper screws (1), leave the space required in order to hang the case (2) to the plates which have just been fixed to the wall

Fig. 3.33 (d): After hanging the case to the plates fixed to the walls, fasten the lower screws.

Fig. 3.33 (e): Open the connector cover

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TFAx
CaseL

Fig. 3.33 (f): loosen the four screws and remove the external cover

Fig. 3.33 (g): after removing the external cover, loosen the three screws

Fig. 3.33 (h): open the cover of TFAx Case-L

Fig. 3.33 (i): Detail of theUL / DL optical connections meeting IP65 requirements.

Split-seal

Optical DL PG13,5

pipe connection

PG13,5-Nut Optical UL
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User Manual

ALARM CODE (TSUN description)


DL optical power

ALARM DESCRIPTION
The DL received optical power is too low and can no more be compensated by 1 AGC The DL received optical power experiences a loss > 3dB, which nevertheless can still 1 be compensated Alarm on the device connected on drycontact 1 Alarm on the device connected on drycontact 2 UPS HW failure malfunction. RF is turned OFF or

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)


MAJOR

RED

MAJOR

Check the DL fibre and the TFLN laser status

AGC out of range

NONE

WARNING

Clean optical connectors

MINOR

External 1 alarm

RED

MAJOR

External 2 alarm

RED

MAJOR

Power supply alarm

RED

MAJOR

Check the external device or alarm connection Check the external device or alarm connection Check the external PSU. If it works properly, return the unit Return the unit

MAJOR

MAJOR

MAJOR

TFAx
CaseL

Internal BUS alarm Temperature alarm DL UMTS band alarm

A malfunctioning on the digital part involves a fault in monitoring functionalities Over-temperature alarm HW failure on the DL UMTS band RF section

RED

CRITICAL

MAJOR

NONE RED

MINOR CRITICAL

Check ventilation and environment Return the unit

MINOR MAJOR

Table 3.8: Description of the alarms of the TFAN Case-B Remote Unit, as they are presented on LMT or Supervision Interface

As table shows, not all the alarms are revealed by the LEDs placed on the remote unit control panel: in fact, LEDs reveal only major alarms (i.e., the high priority ones), whereas the minor alarms (i.e., the low priority ones) are revealed only by the LMT software or through the TSUN supervision system. The minor alarms usually detect critical situations which should be checked so as to avoid future possible system faults.
Note: Each remote unit is provided with an AGC system which comes in after the optical-to-RF conversion. This AGC can correctly compensate optical losses when these are estimated to be <3 dB. In case optical losses are in the 3dB- 4dB range, the AGC is said to be out of range: the whole system still work, but AGC is near to its borderline levels. The DL power LED switches on when the estimated optical losses are >4dB, the AGC not being able to compensate these losses any more. As shown in the previous table, the same red LED switches on to reveal any major failure. Following the troubleshooting procedure reported hereinafter it is possible to better understand what problem occurred.
1

Quick troubleshooting procedure (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 3.34a) In case the red LED is ON, please follow these steps:

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5. First of all, refer to external alarm troubleshooting in order to understand whether the alarm can depend on any external equipment failure or not. 6. In case external alarm troubleshooting has not revealed any failure, clean the optical adapters 7. If the problem still persists, refer to the fibre optic DL troubleshooting to check if optical cables or optical connections have any problem on DL path. 8. If previous actions didnt make the LED switch off replace the unit with a new one or contact for assistance. External-alarm troubleshooting (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 3.34b) This procedure needs to be considered if at least one external alarm terminal is connected to some external equipment (see section external alarms). If not, return to main troubleshooting procedure. These steps aim to detect any failure inside the external equipment or inside the external alarm terminal. If the external alarm terminals dont reveal any equipment malfunction or any terminal failure, return to the main troubleshooting procedure. For any external alarm terminal connected to some external equipment, follow these steps: 4. Disconnect it, and check the TFAx LED status after the disconnection. 5. If the red LED has switched off, external equipment connected to the alarm terminal should be faulty. Please test it. 6. If the TFAx red LED still remains on after the disconnection, measure the voltage between the poles of the alarm terminal. c. If the poles of the alarm terminal are electrically closed, the circuit board should have any problem. Contact the manufacturer for assistance. d. If the poles of the alarm terminal are open, this means neither the analysis of this alarm terminal nor the one of its external equipment has revealed any failure. Re-connect this alarm terminal to its external equipment. In case the TFAx has another alarm terminal connected to some external equipment and still to be checked, apply the whole procedure (i.e,, the steps 1-3) to this still unchecked terminal. Fibre optic DL troubleshooting (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 3.34c) 1. Check if there is any point where fibre experiences a short radius of curvature. In this case, rearrange the optical path in order to avoid sharp bends (if necessary, replace the optical cable with a longer one). If TFLN red LED switches off, troubleshooting has been successfully carried out. Otherwise, follow next steps. 2. Check if SC-APC connectors are properly installed at both fibre ends. In case they are not, fix better SC-SPC connectors to adapters. If TFLN red LED switches off, troubleshooting has been successful. Otherwise, follow next steps. 3. Disconnect the optical fibre and clean it better at both ends then clean the SC-APC ports on both the TFLN and the remote unit. Re-connect the

TFAx
CaseL

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fibre to relevant ports after cleaning. If it doesnt made TFLN red LED switch off, follow next steps. 4. Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from remote unit DL port, and measure the output power POUT(DL) at the corresponding fibre end. Then, go to the TFLN side, disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TFLN DL port and measure the input power PIN(DL) coming out of the TFLN DL port. Calculate the DL fibre attenuation ADL as ADL [dB] = PIN(DL) POUT(DL) c. If ADL > 4dB, then the fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it with a new one. d. If ADL < 4dB troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact assistance.

start

Is the red LED ON upon the TFAx? Yes

No

TFAx
CaseL

Verify if any external equipment or any external alarm terminal has some problems. Refer to external alarm troubleshooting (fig.3.34b)

Is red LED upon TFAx still ON?

No

Yes

Clean the SC-APC optical adapters and connectors

Is red LED upon TFAx still ON?

No

Yes Optical cable or optical connections are supposed to have problems on DL path. Refer to fibre optic DL troubleshooting (fig. 3.34c) end

Fig. 3.34a: Flow-chart describing the quick troubleshooting procedure on Case LTFAx

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start

Is any external alarm terminal connected to some equipment? Yes

No

Disconnect the external alarm terminal

Is red LED upon TFAx still ON? Yes

No

External equipment connected to this external alarm terminal should be faulty. Test it.

TFAx
CaseL

Measure voltage between the two poles of this external alarm terminal

Is terminal electrically closed? No

Yes

The circuit board should have some problems. Contact the manufacturer for assistance.

The analisys on this alarm terminal and its external equipment has not revealed any failure. Re-connect this alarm terminal to its external equipment.

Is the other external alarm terminal connected to some equipment? Yes

No

end Picture. 3.34b: Flow-chart describing the external alarm troubleshooting on Case L TFAx

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start

Is there any point where the fibre experiences a small radius of curvature? No

Yes

Rearrange the optical path to avoid sharp bends. If necessary replace the optical cable with a longer one.

Yes

Is the red LED upon the TFAx still ON?

No

Are SC-APC connectors properly installed at both fibre ends? Yes

No

Fix better SC-APC connectors

Yes

is the red LED upon TFAx still ON?

No

TFAx
CaseL

Disconnect fibre optic and clean it at both ends.

Clean optical SC-APC ports on both TFLN and remote unit.

Reconnect the fibre to relevant ports

Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from remote unit DL port

Yes

Is red LED upon remote unit still ON?

No

Measure the output power at corresponding fibre end.

Go to TFLN side.

Disconnect optical SC-APC connector from TFLN DL port.

Calculate DL fibre attenuation ADL[dB]=input power - output power

Measure the input power coming out of the TFLN DL port.

Is ADL > 4dB? No

Yes

Fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it. Troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact assistance

end

Fig. 3.34c: Flow-chart describing the fibre optic DL troubleshooting

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CaseL

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Module name: 3.5. Case F remote unit Dimensions and Weight


Dimensions: Weight:

mm. 564 x 255 x 167 (inches 21.5 x 10 x 8.1) please refer to the Britecell Plus bulletin PA-100595EN or to the remote unit dedicated bulletin in order to know the updated data about the weight of your case-F remote unit.

Remote Unit TFAH Case F

TFAx
CaseF

Fig. 3.35: (a) Case F remote unit ; (b) connection panel of the Case F remote unit

(a)

GREEN LED = power on RED LED = major alarm

DL aux RF port UL aux RF port RF antenna port

(b)

DL optical port

UL optical port

Power supply

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RF ports:

1 RF antenna port, transmitting/receiving signals to/from distributed antennas. This RF antenna port is a duplexed N-female connectors. The port can be connected to the antenna either directly (ie. through RF jumper cables) or through splitters, thus allowing more antennas to be fed. 1 RF auxiliary input and 1 RF auxiliary output (designed to receive and transmit additional signals). Auxiliary input and output ports are SMA-female connectors.

Optical ports:

1 optical output port, transmitting UL signals to TFLN master optical TRX; 1 optical input port, receiving DL signals from TFLN master optical TRX.

Visual alarms:
Two control LEDs are provided on the Case-F upper side (fig. 3.36). The green LED describes the power supply status, while the red LED describes the major Remote Unit failures (fig. 3.9).

TFAx
CaseF

Fig. 3.36 : LED panel on the Case F warm side

Led colour

Red Green

Meaning Low optical power at DL input and/or RF amplifier failure Power supply OK

Table 3.9: summary of Case F LEDs meaning

External alarms
Case F architecture does not provide any external alarms control.

Power supply:
Case-F remote Unit is available in two versions: one feeded by universal mains (85 to 265 Vac), the other by negative power supply (-72 to -36 Vdc): in figure 3.37, the 85/220 Vac connector and the -72/-36 Vdc connector are described. Power feeder is always internal. The power cable is always included in the Case-F remote unit kit.
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User Manual

PE 4 1 2 6

(a) 85/264Vac Connector

(b) -36/-72Vdc Connector

PE: ground 1: N 2: L

4: 0V 6: -48V

Figure 3.37 : (a) 85/264 Vac and (b) -36/-72 Vdc connectors on a Case-F Remote Unit

Warnings (to be read before remote units are installed)


Dealing with optical output ports
TFAx
CaseF

The Case-F remote unit contains semiconductor lasers. Invisible laser beams may be emitted from the optical output ports. Do not look towards the optical ports while equipment is switched on.

Choosing a proper installation site for the remote units


Case-F remote units have to be installed as close as possible to the radiating antennas, in order to minimize coaxial cable length, thus reducing downlink power loss and uplink noise figure. When positioning the Case-F remote unit, pay attention that the placing of related antennas should be decided in order to minimize the Minimum Coupling Loss (MLC), so as to avoid blocking. The Case-F remote unit is intended to be fixed on walls or other flat vertical surfaces.

Handling optical connections


When inserting an optical connector, take care to handle it so smoothly that the optical fibre is not damaged. Optical fibres are to be single-mode (SM) 9.5/125m. Typically, Britecell Plus equipment is provided with SC-APC optical connectors (other connectors may be provided on request). Inserting any other connectors will result in severe damages. Do not force or stretch the fibre pigtail with radius of curvature less than 5cm. See rightward figure for optimal fibre cabling. Remove the adapter caps only just before making connections. Do not leave any SC-APC adapter open, as they attract dirt. Unused optical connectors must always be covered with their caps. Do not touch the connector tip. Clean it with a proper tissue before inserting each connector into the sleeve. In case connector tips need to be cleaned, use pure ethyl alcohol.
81

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TFAx Case-F installation


Each case-F Remote Unit kit includes: 1 Case-F Remote Unit; 1 power supply cable (85 to 264 Vac or -48Vdc, depending on the power supply which has been chosen); 1 pair of mounting plates; 1 screw kit, including four hexagonal-head screws and a torque key. The operations which need to be carried out in order to perform a proper installation of the Case-F Remote Unit are hereby described: 1- Drill the wall to install four M8 screws anchors (not included) as indicated by the installation drawing shown in fig. 3.39a. Fix the two mounting plates to the wall by firmly screwing the anchors. 2 Take two of the hexagonal-head screws included in the kit, and fasten them at the top of the case-F unit (fig. 3.39b, step 1) by using the torque key: while fastening the screws, take care to leave the space required to hang the case-F to the plates (fig. 3.39b, step 2).. Fasten the screws further only after hanging the case-F. Then take the other two hexagonal screws (included) and use them to fasten the bottom sides of the unit to the bottom side of the plates (fig. 3.39b, step 3). 3 Fix a splice holder (not included) inside the proper splice tray (not included, fig. 3.38). Makes the splices between the fiberoptics patchcords coming from the Case-F remote unit and the fiberoptics cables which go to the local units. House the optical splices inside the splice holder. Close the splice tray. During these operations, please take care not to bend the fibres too much. Fix the splice tray inside a splice box (not included), and mount the splice box beside the remote unit. 4 - Use the torque key in order to loose the four screws fixing the cover (fig. 3.39c), and open the unit. Connect the antenna RF cable to the RF antenna port. Connect the UL and DL optical connectors to the corresponding UL and DL adapters on the unit. Connect the Power cable to the power connector. In case the power cable has been connected to the mains, both the green and the red LEDs should turn on. The green LED will remain on to indicate that the unit is powered on, while the RED led will turn off as soon as the local unit will be switched on (for further details about the start-up of the whole system, please refer to the section TFAx
82

TFAx
CaseF

(a)

(b) Fig. 3.38: (a) Splice tray. (b) Inside of the splice tray, with the splice holder properly positioned.

User Manual

Case F start-up). 5 - Close the unit, and fasten the 4 screws indicated in fig. 3.39c by using the torque key.

TFAx Case F start-up


Before the Case-F remote unit is switched on, make sure that: the modules hosted in the master unit have been connected each other with RF jumpers, according to the system design every TFLN master optical TRX has been connected to its remote units each remote unit has been connected to its coverage antennas For a correct system start-up, all the remote units have to be switched on before the master unit. Once the Case-F Remote Unit has been switched on, its behaviour could be checked by unscrewing the four hexagonal screws (see fig on the sides of the case-F), removing the cover, and looking at the control LEDs. When the system starts-up, their status can be summarised as per the following steps. 1. When the remote unit is turned on, both the LEDs turn on for a couple of seconds. 2. After that, the unit green LED remains on (thus indicating proper power supply), while the red LED switches off as soon as the TFLN master unit is turned on (meaning that DL optical power is OK and no alarms are present). 3. Once the TFLN master unit has been switched on, the status of both LEDs have to be the one reported in table 3.9. If the red LED remains on, please refer to the troubleshooting section. 4. Once it has been switched on, the remote unit starts working correctly. Anyway, in order to be recognized by the supervision management system, it is necessary for the corresponding TFLN master optical TRX to carry out the discovery phase (please refer to Supervision System Manual for more details). During this phase, (whose duration depends on the system complexity, and which can last at max. 4min) the TFLN LED blinks. Do not connect/disconnect any cable or any piece of equipment during the discovery phase! This may result in no identification of the remote unit. Note: if then discovery doesnt start automatically, check through the LMT or the remote supervision whether it has been disabled (refer to LMT or remote supervision system manuals for further information).

TFAx
CaseF

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Fig. 3.39 (a) : layout for the installation of the Case F plates

TFAx
CaseF

1 2

Fig. 3.39 (b) : while fastening the two hexagonal screws to the top of the case (step 2), take care to leave the space required to hang the case to the plates (step 2) Then fasten the other two hexagonal screws to the bottom of the case (step 3)

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Fig. 3.39 (c) : loose the four screws fixing the cover and open the unit

TFAx
CaseF

Fig. 3.39 (d) : power supply, optical and RF connections on the TFAx Case F

RF antenna port
DL optical port UL optical port

Power supply

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TFAx Case F troubleshooting


Faults can be revealed by LEDs on the Remote Unit (RU) front panel as well as by LMT or supervision system (running on the remote supervision unit) Both LMT and supervision system provide full information about the device causing the alarm. As a consequence, troubleshooting procedure can be very immediate when the failure detection is directly carried out through LMT or supervision system. Britecell Plus modules are designed in order to exchange information each other: each RU constantly monitors the optical signal received from its TFLN unit, so as to control optical losses. Table 3.8 shows a brief description of the alarms related to a Case L remote unit, with a reference to the corresponding alerted LEDs and to the actions to be carried out in the case of a fault.

ALARM CODE (TSUN description)

ALARM DESCRIPTION
The DL received optical power is too low and can no more be compensated by 1 AGC The DL received optical power experiences a loss > 3dB, which nevertheless can still 1 be compensated HW failure on the DL RF low band HW failure on the UL RF low band

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL

ACTION RECOMMENDE D
Check the DL fibre and the TFLN laser status

TFAx
CaseF
DL optical power

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)


MAJOR

RED

MAJOR

AGC out of range

NONE

WARNING

Clean optical connectors

MINOR

DL low band alarm (not implemented on TFAH 19) DL high band alarm (not implemented on TFAH 80 and TFAH 85)

RED

CRITICAL

Return the unit

MAJOR

RED

CRITICAL

Return the unit

MAJOR

UPS HW failure or Power supply alarm malfunction. RF is turned OFF A malfunctioning on the digital part involves Internal BUS alarm a fault in monitoring functionalities Temperature alarm Over-temperature alarm

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

RED

CRITICAL

Return the unit Check ventilation and environment

MAJOR

NONE

MINOR

MINOR

Table 3.10. Description of the alarmi of the TFAx Case F Remote Unit, as they are presented on LMT or Supervision Interface

As table shows, not all the alarms are revealed by the LEDs placed on the remote unit control panel: in fact, LEDs reveal only major alarms (i.e., the high priority ones), whereas the minor alarms (i.e., the low priority ones) are revealed only by the LMT software or through the TSUN supervision system. The minor alarms usually detect critical situations which should be checked so as to avoid future possible system faults.
1

Note:

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User Manual

Each remote unit is provided with an AGC system which comes in after the optical-to-RF conversion. This AGC can correctly compensate optical losses when these are estimated to be <3 dB. In case optical losses are in the 3dB- 4dB range, the AGC is said to be out of range: the whole system still work, but AGC is near to its borderline levels. The DL power LED switches on when the estimated optical losses are >4dB, the AGC not being able to compensate these losses any more. As shown in the previous table, the same red LED switches on to reveal any major failure. Following the troubleshooting procedure reported hereinafter it is possible to better understand what problem occurred.

Quick troubleshooting procedure (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 3.40a) In case the red LED is ON, please follow these steps: 1. First of all, clean the optical adapters 2. If the problem still persists, refer to the fibre optic DL troubleshooting to check if optical cables or optical connections have any problem on DL path. 3. If previous actions didnt make the LED switch off replace the unit with a new one or contact for assistance. Fibre optic DL troubleshooting (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 3.40b) 1. Check if there is any point where fibre experiences a short radius of curvature. In this case, rearrange the optical path in order to avoid sharp bends (if necessary, replace the optical cable with a longer one). If TFLN red LED switches off, troubleshooting has been successfully carried out. Otherwise, follow next steps. 2. Check if SC-APC connectors are properly installed at both fibre ends. In case they are not, fix better SC-SPC connectors to adapters. If TFLN red LED switches off, troubleshooting has been successful. Otherwise, follow next steps. 3. Disconnect the optical fibre and clean it better at both ends then clean the SC-APC ports on both the TFLN and the remote unit. Re-connect the fibre to relevant ports after cleaning. If it doesnt made TFLN red LED switch off, follow next steps. 4. Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from remote unit DL port, and measure the output power POUT(DL) at the corresponding fibre end. Then, go to the TFLN side, disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TFLN DL port and measure the input power PIN(DL) coming out of the TFLN DL port. Calculate the DL fibre attenuation ADL as ADL [dB] = PIN(DL) POUT(DL) a. If ADL > 4dB, then the fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it with a new one. b. If ADL < 4dB troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact assistance.

TFAx
CaseF

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start

Is the red LED ON upon the TFAx? Yes

No

Clean the SC-APC optical adapters and connectors

Is the red LED upon the TFAx still ON? Yes

No

Optical cable or optical connections are supposed to have problems on DL path. Refer to fibre optic DL troubleshooting (fig. 3.40b) Picture. 3.40(a): Flow-chart describing the quick troubleshooting procedure on Case F TFAx TFAx
CaseF

end

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User Manual

start

Is there any point where the fibre experiences a small radius of curvature? No

Yes

Rearrange the optical path to avoid sharp bends. If necessary replace the optical cable with a longer one.

Yes

Is the red LED upon the TFAx still ON?

No

Are SC-APC connectors properly installed at both fibre ends? Yes

No

Fix better SC-APC connectors

Yes

Is the red LED upon the TFAx still ON?

No TFAx
CaseF

Disconnect fibre optic and clean it at both ends.

Clean optical SC-APC ports on both TFLN and remote unit.

Reconnect the fibre to relevant ports

Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from remote unit DL port

Yes

Is the red LED upon the TFAx still ON?

No

Measure the output power at corresponding fibre end.

Go to TFLN side.

Disconnect optical SC-APC connector from TFLN DL port.

Calculate DL fibre attenuation ADL[dB]=input power - output power

Measure the input power coming out of the TFLN DL port.

Is ADL > 4dB? No

Yes

Fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it. Troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact assistance

end

Fig. 3.40(b): Flow-chart describing the fibre optic DL troubleshooting


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3.6. Wi-Fi Booster TFBWx

TFBW

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User Manual

Description

Module name:

Britecell Plus system allows to distribute the WLAN services (802.11b and g) through the auxiliary channels of the remote units, while concentrating all the Access Points together with the Master Unit. The TFBW booster has to be connected to the remote unit auxiliary ports and to a pair of WLAN dedicated antennas (one transmitting and the other one receiving). Moreover, an additional Wi-Fi booster (slave TFBW) can be cascaded to the first one (master TFBW) so as to obtain a larger WLAN coverage.

Wi-Fi booster TFBWx

(N-f), RF ports DL RF port a TFAx connected to or to the master TFBW

MASTER/SLAVE dip-switch

UL RF port (N-f), connected to a TFAx or to the master TFBW

1 1 1 1 1 1

DL RF auxiliary input port for the signal from TFLN DL RF auxiliary output port for the signal to a TFBW slave TX antenna port UL RF auxiliary input port for the signal from a TFBW slave UL RF auxiliary output port for the signal to TFLN RX antenna port
TFBW

boosters.

Power supply

DL AUX

UL AUX

alarm output port

Fig. 3. 41 (a). TFBW booster: Front view

RX antenna (N-f)

TX antenna (N-f)

Fig. 3. 41 (b). TFBW booster: back view

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Dimensions and weights


Dimensions: Weight: mm 38 x 240 x 200 (inches 1.5 x 9.4 x 7.9) please refer to Bulletin PA-100596EN in order to know the updated data about the TFBW weight.

Visual alarms:
Two control LEDs are provided on the TFBW front side (fig.3.42). The green LED describes the power supply status, while the red LED describes the major booster failures.
GREEN LED: power on RED LED: major alarm

TFBW

Fig. 3.42: LED alarms on the TFBW warm side

Dry contact alarms:


TFBW is provided with an alarm output port (fig. 3.41), which can be connected to one of the dry-contacts ports available on TFAx remote units. When a TFBW booster is been connected to the relevant TFAx remote unit through dry-contact ports, any major alarm affecting the TFBW booster will be conveyed to the remote unit itself, and signalled by the red LED both on the TFBW warm side (fig. 3.42), and on the TFAx remote unit. Moreover, the LMT software and the TSUN supervision interface (please refer to TFBW troubleshhoting) will consider any TFBW major alarm as an external alarm of the TFAx remote unit the TFBW booster is connected to.

Power supply:
TFBW WLAN booster is available both in a universal mains version (85 to 265 Vac powered: fig. 3.43a) and in a negative supply version (-72 to -36 Vdc powered: fig. 3.43b). The power consumption of each TFWB module is 16W max.

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User Manual

Warnings (to be read before the TFBW booster is installed)


Choosing a proper installation site for the WLAN booster
WLAN boosters are to be installed as close as possible to the radiating antennas, in order to minimize coaxial cable length. When positioning the TFBW booster, consider that the position of the related antennas should guarantee at least a 50dB isolation between the antennas and the booster itself The TFBW booster is intended to be fixed on walls, false ceilings or other flat vertical surfaces

Fig. 3.43 : (a) IEC connector on the rear side of a 220Vacpowered TFBW booster. (b) 4-pole connector on the rear side of a -48 Vdc -powered TFBW TFBW (a) (b)

TFBW installation and start-up


The TFBW booster can be fixed on walls, false ceilings or other flat vertical surfaces, either directly or through a TKA01 installation kit (optional). Installing a TFBW booster WITHOUT the TKA01 kit The TFBW kit includes: 1 TFBW booster 2 50 SMA loads 2 RF jumpers (SMA-m; N-m), 1m-long 1 alarm cable, 1m-long mains plug or -48 Vdc plug (according to the chosen model). To install the TFBW booster, please follow the next steps: 1. drill into the wall so as to install four M4 screw anchors (not included) according to the dimensions indicated by the installation drawing in fig. 3.45a. 2. fix the TFBW booster to the wall by firmly screwing the anchors. 3. connect the RF cables according to what planned by the designer. Use a specific torque wrench to fix each cable to the relevant ports.
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4. connect the TFBW to the power supply. If the TFBW booster works properly, both the green and the red LEDs should turn on for a while and then switch off. If the LED red does not switches off, please contact the manufacturer. After installing the booster, please refer to the section TFBW booster start-up in order to start-up the system properly. Installing a TFBW booster WITH the TKA01 kit The TFBW kit includes: 1. a TFBW booster 2. a 50 load 3. a VDE connector or a -48 Vdc plug (according to the chosen model) A. 4 screw anchors (fixing the wall bearing to the wall) B. 5 screw anchors (fixing the TFAx case A to the wall mounting box C) C. A wall mounting boc D. a splice holder (pleased note that this standard TKA01 accessory is not used for mounting the TFBW booster, since it has no optical

The TKA01 kit includes: (please refer to fig. 3.44)

TFBW

Fig. 3.44: The TKA01 installation kit

Once you have chosen the position where the TKA01 mounting case is going to be mounted, please follow these instructions: 1. Unscrew the 4 screws which lock the lower cover of the TKA01 wall bearing (see fig. 3.46a) 2. In order to install the M4 screw anchors (included) which shall hold up the TKA01 wall bearing, drill into the wall according to the TKA layout shown in fig. 3.45b. 3. Fix the TKA01 wall bearing by firmly screwing the anchors. 4. Fix the TFBW booster to the wall bearing by using the included screws (fig. 3.46b). 5. Connect the RF cables coming from the transmitting and the receiving antennas to the proper RF antenna ports (fig. 3.41b). Connect the UL and DL RF ports (fig.3.41a, 3.46c). If the TFBW booster works as a master unit and supports a slave one, connect also the DL and UL AUX ports. 6. Connect the alarm output port (fig. 3.41a) if you want the major alarms on the TFBW booster could be checked through the relevant remote unit

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and controlled through the LMT software or through the TSUN supervision interface. 7. If the booster -48 Vdc powered (fig., use the -48 Vdc plug (included) in order to connect the unit to the -48 Vdc mains. If the booster is 85/264 Vac-powered, fix the 85/264 Vac plug (included) on to a power cord (not included), and use this cable in order to connect the unit to the mains. If the TFBW booster works properly, both the green and the red LEDs should turn on for a while and then switch off. If the LED red does not switches off, please contact the manufacturer. Fix the lower cover by fastening the 4 screws (fig.3.12f).

TFBW booster troubleshooting


The red LED on the TFBW warm side (fig. 3.45) reveals a power amplifier bias fault. If such a fault occurs, the alert notification is signalled also by the switching on of the red LED on the relevant TFAx remote unit, provided that the TFBW alarm output port has been properly connected to the TFAx external alarm connector (fig. 3.46). If controlled through the LMT software or through the TSUN supervision interface, the TFBW power amplifier fault appears as an external alarm of the TFAx remote unit to which its alarm output port is connected. Please refer to the LMT or to the TSUN supervision manual for further details. When the TFBW power amplifier fault is signalled by the red LED on the TFBW booster and on its relevant remote unit, or by the LMT software or the TSUN interface, please contact the manufacturer.

TFBW

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TFBW

Fig. 3.45 (a): Layout of the TFBW booster, with wall anchor quotes

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TFBW

Fig. 3.45 (b): Layout of the TKA01 wall bearing, with wall anchor quotes

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(a)

(b)

TFBW

(c)

(d)

Fig. 3.46: Mounting the TFBW booster with a TKA01 installation kit.

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4. Fast Master Unit

TFLF

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Main tasks carried out by the TFLF module

Module name:

Downlink (DL): Power level adjustment (ALC) RF-to-optical conversion of the input RF signal Optical splitting: input RF signal is split onto 4 optical outputs Uplink (UL): Uplink Gain adjustment (0 to 20dB, 5dB step) Optical-to-RF conversion of the 4 input optical signals Automatic Gain Control (AGC) of each converted signal to compensate optical losses RF combining of the 4 adjusted signals into a single RF path then they are filtered and duplexed into the RF port.
UL Step Attenuator

Fast remote unit TFLF

RF ports:
1 Duplexed DL/UL RF port
Note: The maximum input levels at RF ports is +27dBm (please refer to datasheet for further information), as well as the UL path may require a power adjustment to fill within the BTS receiving range (use the built-in adjustable attenuator). Master Unit alarm and status LEDs

Remote Units alarm and link status LEDs

Store Button

TFLF

Power Supply Switch

Optical ports
4 DL optical output ports (SC/APC) 4 UL optical input ports (SC/APC)
Power Supply Connector (-48Vdc)

Optical UL and DL Connectors to Remote Units

DL/UL RF Port to BTS

Alarm Contacts

Remote Unit Power Supply Connectors

Fig. 4.1 Fast Remote Unit

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Dimensions and Weight


Dimensions: Weight: mm 240 x 200 x 36 (inches 9.5 x 7.9 x 1.4) please refer to Britecell Plus Bulletin PA-100595EN in order to know the updated data about the TFBW weight

TFLF visual alarms


The TFLF is provided with 6 LEDs (see on the right) showing status and alarm information. LEDs meaning is reported on the rightward table.
Note: In case the four TFLF optical ports are not all connected to Remote Units, the unused ports must be properly masked, through the STORE button, at commissioning to avoid spurious alarms

Fig. 4.2 The 6 LEDs on the warm side of the Fast Remote Unit TFLF

Label PWR ON LU

LED colour Green Red

Meaning Power Supply status OK General TFLF failure, it can be: - DL optical power fail - UL or DL amplifier failure - Temperature alarm From Remote Unit 1 it monitors: - UL or DL AGC out of range (flashing) - UL or DL optical power fail - DL amplifier failure - External alarm 1 - External alarm 2 From Remote Unit 2 it monitors: - UL or DL AGC out of range (flashing) - UL or DL optical power fail - DL amplifier failure - External alarm 1 External alarm 2 From Remote Unit 3 it monitors: - UL or DL AGC out of range (flashing) - UL or DL optical power fail - DL amplifier failure - External alarm 1 External alarm 2 From Remote Unit 4 it monitors: - UL or DL AGC out of range (flashing) - UL or DL optical power fail - DL amplifier failure - External alarm 1 External alarm 2

RU1

Red

Table 4.1: Summary of TFLF LED meaning

RU2

Red

RU3

Red

RU4

Red

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Dry contact alarms:


TFLF is also provided with dry contacts outputs (connectable through .062 MOLEX plugs) to report alarm condition to third party equipment (i.e. BTS or repeater). The dry contact status is reported in the table rightwards. Note: in case of power supply failure the system is not powered and the dry contacts will be automatically driven to a closed condition.
Alarm Condition None Minor Major Contact Position Open Open Closed

Tab. 4.2: TFLF dry-contact meaning

UL Attenuation Adjustment:
The TFLF is designed to be compatible with most pico/micro BTSs. It is also provided with an internal adjustable attenuator for the UL path allowing 20dB attenuation range, 5dB step. Suggested settings are reported in the table 4.3.
TFLF
Composite Input Power +37dBm +33dBm +24dBm +20dBm +14dBm +13dBm External Attenuator 20dB (5W average) 20dB (2W average) 10dB 5dB 0dB 0dB UL Adjustable Attenuator Setting 0dB (Position nr. 0) 0dB (Position nr. 0) 10dB (Position nr. 2) 15dB (Position nr. 3) 20dB (Position nr. 4) 20dB (Position nr. 4)

Tab. 4.3: TFLF UL attenuation suggested values To adjust the value a flat screwdriver can be used as per the picture 4.2.

Fig. 4.3: Uplink Attenuator

TFLF power supply


Each TFLF Fast Master Unit requires -48Vdc power supply.
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The power consumption of each TFLF is 10W. An optional external adapter 220Vac to -48Vdc is available. The TFLF also provide connections for the distribution of the -48Vdc to the Remote Units by means of composite cable. Each supply port is protected against overloads, short and surge with a self recovery fuse and surge protection. The power switch will disconnect the remote unit power supply in case of overcurrent. The power consumption of each TFLF with 4 Remote Units is lower than 80W.

Warnings (to be read before the TFLF installation)


Dealing with optical output ports The TFLF Fast Master Unit contains semiconductor lasers. Invisible laser beams may be emitted from the optical output ports. Do not look towards the optical ports while equipment is switched on.

Handling optical connections


TFLF

When inserting an optical connector, take care to handle it so smoothly that the optical fibre is not damaged. Optical fibres have to be single-mode (SM) 9.5/125m. Typically, Britecell Plus equipment is provided with SC-APC optical connectors. Inserting any other connector will result in severe damages. Do not force or stretch the fibre pigtail with radius of curvature less than 5 cm. Remove adapter caps only just before making connections. Do not leave SC-APC adapters open, as they attract dust. Unused SC-APC adapters must always be covered with their caps. Do not touch the adapter tip. Clean it with a proper tissue before inserting each connector into the sleeve. In case adapter tips need to be better cleaned, use pure ethyl alcohol

TFLF cautions
The TFLF modules must be handled with care in order to avoid damage to electrostatic sensitive devices. Take care to meet expected requirements on RF ports. An external fixed attenuator could be necessary when the power coming from the BTS exceeds the required levels to avoid damages in circuitry or increase of spurious emissions.

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TFLF installation
First of all fix the Fast Master Unit to the wall by means of four screws (see fig. 4.5 for wall anchor quotes). Vertical position is suggested for ease thermal dissipation.

Fig. 4.4

Verify that the composite cable has been laid and already properly connectorised. Two preconnectorised fibre optic cables and a power supply cable with 4-pole connector should be ready for connection to each Remote Unit and to each port of the TFLF. Remove the caps from the optical connectors and connect the connectorised fibre optic cables to the optical ports of the unit. Then connect the previously connectorised copper cable to the proper power plug for each Remote Unit.
TFLF

Verify the output power of the BTS or repeater which is going to be connected and check if external attenuation is required then set the UL attenuation through a flat screw driver (refer to the table reported in the relevant section)

Fig. 4.4

Fig. 4.4

Apply the ferrite to the power supply cable. Connect the provided patchcord to the 48Vdc power supply and insert the connector into the TFLF power plug. Then switch one the unit by means of the ON/OFF power switch. Note: if 220Vac power supply is available on site, use the suitable optional adapter.

As you switch on the system, carefully refer to the TFLF Start-Up section.

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TFLF start-up
Before the TFLF Master Unit is switched on, make sure that: every Remote Unit has been connected to relevant port of the Master Unit each remote unit has been connected to its coverage antennas After that, remember that only when all the remote units are already on, the Master Unit itself can be turned on. Once the Master Unit has been switched on, the following steps have to be followed: 1. Wait until the communication between TFLF and Remote Units is established and alarms related to unused ports arise. 2. Verify that all used ports dont have any active alarm. In case an alarm is present follow the troubleshooting procedure. 3. Press the STORE button for at least 5sec. (all TFLF LEDs will flash for 3sec.) in order to mask unused ports.

TFLF

Removing the TFLF


Switch off the Master Unit power supply and remove the power cable. Remove the SC-APC optical connectors and insert the protection caps into TFLF optical ports. Then: unscrew the 4 screws and remove the unit put the removed TFLF unit in its safety box

TFLF troubleshooting
In case a TFLF Fast Master Unit has any problem, this will be easily revealed through LEDs which reveals not only failures of the TFLF itself but also malfunctions located on related remote units.
ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
DL optical power fail DL RF alarm UL RF alarm Temperature alarm Power supply alarm UL1 optical power fail

ALARM DESCRIPTION
TFLF DL optical power from the laser is too low DL RF amplifier UL RF amplifier Over-temperature alarm Power supply fault TFLF UL1 optical power is too low

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISI ON PRIORITY LEVEL


MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MINOR MAJOR MAJOR

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)


CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED OPEN CLOSED CLOSED

LU LU LU LU (flashing) LU (PWR ON off) RU1

Return the unit Return the unit Return the unit Check ventilation and environment Return the unit Check for fibre or splice stresses and

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UL2 optical power fail UL3 optical power fail UL4 optical power fail DL1 optical power fail DL2 optical power fail DL3 optical power fail DL4 optical power fail UL1 AGC out of range

UL2 AGC out of range

UL3 AGC out of range

UL4 AGC out of range

DL1 AGC out of range

DL2 AGC out of range

DL3 AGC out of range

DL4 AGC out of range DL1 RF alarm DL2 RF alarm DL3 RF alarm DL4 RF alarm

UL2 optical power is too low UL3 optical power is too low UL4 optical power is too low DL1 optical power is too low DL2 optical power is too low DL3 optical power is too low DL4 optical power is too low The optical power received on UL1 is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received on UL2 is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received on UL3 is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received on UL4 is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received on UL1 is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received on UL2 is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received on UL3 is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received on UL4 is too low and cant no more be compensated DL1 RF amplifier DL2 RF amplifier DL3 RF amplifier DL4 RF amplifier

RU2 RU3 RU4 RU1 RU2 RU3 RU4

MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MINOR (flashing)

clean the optical connectors. If the alarm still persists it reveals a laser fault so return the unit

CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED

Check for fibre or splice stresses and clean the optical connectors. If alarm still persists it reveals a laser fault so return the unit

CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED

RU1

OPEN

RU2

MINOR (flashing)

RU3

MINOR (flashing)

Check for fibre or splice stresses and clean the optical connectors. If alarm still persists it reveals a laser fault so return the unit

OPEN

OPEN

RU4

MINOR (flashing)

OPEN

RU1

MINOR (flashing) Check for fibre or splice stresses and clean the optical connectors. If alarm still persists it reveals a laser fault so return the unit

OPEN

RU2

MINOR (flashing)

OPEN

RU3

MINOR (flashing)

OPEN

RU4

MINOR (flashing) MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR Return the unit Return the unit Return the unit Return the unit Check the external device connected to external 1 and the RU1 dry-contact functionality Check the external device connected to external 1 and the RU2 dry-contact functionality Check the external device connected to external 1 and the RU3 dry-contact functionality Check the external device connected to external 1 and the

OPEN

RU1 RU2 RU3 RU4

CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED

RU1 External 1 alarm

External 1 alarm from RU1

RU1

MAJOR

CLOSED

RU2 External 1 alarm

External 1 alarm from RU2

RU2

MAJOR

CLOSED

RU3 External 1 alarm

External 1 alarm from RU3

RU3

MAJOR

CLOSED

RU4 External 1 alarm

External 1 alarm from RU41

RU4

MAJOR

CLOSED

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RU1 External 2 alarm

External 2 alarm from RU1

RU1

MAJOR

RU2 External 2 alarm

External 21 alarm from RU2

RU2

MAJOR

RU3 External 2 alarm

External 2 alarm from RU3

RU3

MAJOR

RU4 External 2 alarm

External 2 alarm from RU41

RU4

MAJOR

RU4 dry-contact functionality Check the external device connected to external 2 and the RU1 dry-contact functionality Check the external device connected to external 2 and the RU2 dry-contact functionality Check the external device connected to external 2 and the RU3 dry-contact functionality Check the external device connected to external 2 and the RU4 dry-contact functionality

CLOSED

CLOSED

CLOSED

CLOSED

Tab. 4.4: TFLF alarm description The previous table reports a brief description of the TFLF alarms, together with a reference to the corresponding alerted LEDs. As the table shows, all major alarms are signalled also closing the dry contacts available on the TFLF allowing sending this information to any external equipment (i.e. BTS or repeater) One of the LEDs RU1, 2, 3, 4 might turn on not only to indicate a high optical loss detected by the TFLF, but also to reveal a remote unit failure. Understanding the reason why one of this LEDs is on (a remote unit failure, an optical cable fault or an external equipment malfunction) can be done following the troubleshooting procedure reported hereinafter. Quick troubleshooting procedure (The following troubleshooting procedure is summarised by the flow-chart in fig. 4.7a) 1. In case the TFLF general alarm (LED LU) is on replace the faulty TFLF master unit with a new one and contact the manufacturer for assistance. 2. In case one of the LEDs RU1, 2, 3 or 4 is on, the corresponding TFLF adapter might be dirty. Try cleaning it using pure ethyl alcohol. If the LED is still on go to the corresponding remote unit side and check the red LED upon the warm side: a. If it is off, the optical cables or the optical connections are supposed to have some problem on UL path. Refer to fibre optic UL troubleshooting for more information (fig. 4.7b). b. If it is on, refer to remote unit troubleshooting presented in the previous remote unit section Fiber optic UL troubleshooting (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 4.7b) 1. Check if there is any point where the fibre experiences a small radius of curvature. In this case, rearrange the optical path in order to avoid sharp bends (if necessary, replace the optical cable with a longer one). If this makes the TFLF LED switch off, troubleshooting has been successful. Otherwise, follow next steps.

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2. Check if the SC-APC connectors are properly installed at both fibre ends (i.e. TFLF and TFAx ports). If not fix better SC-SPC connectors to relevant adapters. If this makes the TFLF LED switch off, troubleshooting has been successful. Otherwise, follow next steps. 3. Disconnect the optical fibre and clean it at both fibre ends (i.e. TFLF side and TFAx side) then reconnect the fibre to relevant ports. In case this makes the TFLF LED switch off, troubleshooting has been successful. Otherwise, follow next steps. 4. Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TFLF UL port, and measure the output power POUT(UL) at corresponding fibre end. Then, go to the TFAx side, disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TFAx UL port and measure the input power PIN(UL) coming out of the TFAx UL port. 5. Calculate the UL fibre attenuation AUL as: AUL [dB] = PIN(UL) POUT(UL) a. If AUL > 4dB, the fibre optic cable has some problems or cable path is too long. Replace it. b. If AUL < 4dB, then TFAx remote unit should be faulty. Before replacing it, contact for assistance

TFLF

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start

Is any red LED ON upon the TFLF? Yes

No

Which red LED is ON? RU1, 2, 3 or 4 Clean corresponding SC-APC optical adapter and connector

Replace the faulty TFLF

Is red LED upon TFLF still ON? Yes TFLF Go to corresponding remote unit side

No

Is red LED upon remote unit ON? Yes

No

UL optical cables or optical connections are supposed to have some problems. Refer to fibre optic UL troubleshooting (fig. 4.7b)

Verify if any external equipment or dry contact port has some problems Refer to the remote unit dry-contact troubleshooting

Is red LED upon remote unit still ON? Yes

No

Refer to remote unit troubleshooting

end

Fig. 4.7 (a): Flow-chart describing the quick troubleshooting procedure

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start

Is there any small radius of curvature of the fibre? No

Yes

Rearrange the optical path in order to avoid sharp bends. If necessary replace the optical cable with a longer one.

Yes

Is the red LED upon TFLF still ON?

No

Are SC-APC connectors properly installed at both fibre ends? Yes

No

Fix SC-APC connectors properly to adapters.

Yes

Is the red LED upon TFLF still ON?

No

Disconnect the optical fibre and clean it at both ends.

Clean the optical SC-APC ports both on TFLN and TFAx side.

Re-connect the fibre to relevant ports. TFLF Yes Is the red LED upon TFLF still ON? No

Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TFLN UL port.

Measure the output power at the corresponding fibre end

Go to the TFAx side

Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TFAx UL port.

Calculate the UL fibre attenuation: AUL[dB]=input power - output power

Measure the input power entering the fibre.

Is AUL > 4dB? No

Yes

Fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it.

The TFAx remote unit should be faulty. Before replacing it, contact for assistance.

end

Fig. 4.7 (b): Flow-chart describing the fibre optic UL troubleshooting

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5. Rack-based Master Unit

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5.1. TPRNx4 subrack

TPRN

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Major TPRN features

Module name:

The TPRNx4 is a 19subrack where all the Britecell Plus plug-in modules can be inserted. Britecell Plus equipment provides a wide variety of these sub-rack models differentiated by power supply. Each one is provided with: 12 free slots, each with Height=4HE, Width=7TE Power supply 220 Vac or -48 Vdc Locally or remotely connectable through: RS232 serial port RS485 two-wire bus sub-D 15 pin male-connector Internal microcontroller for I2CBUS alarm collection Manual reset button, able to re-initialize both the inserted modules and the TPRN microcontroller Manual stand-by button, able to re-initialize the inserted modules, while keeping the TPRN microcontroller working.

Subrack
TPRNx4

TPRN

Fig. 5.1: Front view of the TPRN sub-rack with power supply and communication ports on the back
RS485 ports

sub D 15 connector

Fig. 5.2: Back view of the TPRN subrack with power supply and communication ports on the back

RS232 port

buttons

Power supply (picture shows 220Vac version)

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TPRN models
A brief description of all the available TPRN sub-racks is reported hereinafter. Passive sub-rack (TPRN04) TPRN04 is a passive sub-rack. It does not provide power supply to any inserted module, and therefore it is designed to host passive modules only. It can be useful in a multi-sub-rack system, in case the customer decides to put all the active modules in an active sub-rack, to be chosen among the following ones. 220 Vac powered sub-racks (TPRN14 / TPRN24) TPRN14 is an active sub-rack designed to be fed through 220 Vac universal mains. Both the connector for 220Vac power supply and the communication ports are placed on the sub-rack rear. The 220 Vac power supply is not redundant (ie, no spare adapter is provided). TPRN24 is an active sub-rack designed to be fed through 220 Vac universal mains. Both the connector for 220Vac power and the communication ports are placed on the sub-rack rear, and the 220 Vac power supply is redundant: i.e., a spare adapter guarantees the correct system operations even in case the main 220Vac adapter has a breakdown.

-48Vdc powered sub-rack (TPRN34)


TPRN

TPRN34 is an active sub-rack designed to be fed through 48 Vdc negative supply. Both the connector for -48Vdc power supply and the communication ports are placed on the sub-rack rear.

TPRN power supply


All the TPRN models refer to one of the following power supplies. Universal mains
(85 to 264Vac, 50/60Hz).

This connector is mounted on the TPRN back panel either for the redundant version or the simple one. A ground terminal and a couple of fuses are also included. Fuses have to be replaced in case they fail (when it happens the supervision system detects the failure).
Fuses

Fig. 5.3: 85 to 264Vac connector


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-48 Vdc (-72 to -36 Vdc) This connector is mounted on TPRN back panel. A fuse is provided underneath the 48 Vdc connector, and has to be replaced in case it fails (when it happens the supervision system detects the failure). Fig. 5.4: -72-36Vdc connector

black terminal: 0V blue terminal:-72 to -36Vdc Fuse

Whatever power supply is chosen (85 to 264 Vac or -72 to 36 Vdc) an additional external ground terminal is provided on the TPRN rear (fig. 5.5).

Fig. 5.5: ground terminal on the rear The external power supply (220Vac or -48Vdc) is converted into a +12Vdc voltage allowing feeding the active modules inserted into the TPRN.

TPRN ports
The TPRN sub-rack is provided with a set of I/0 ports which allows the connection to any external device. RS232 serial port The RS232 serial port can be used to connect the TPRN sub-rack to the remote supervision unit or to a laptop running LMT software. Please note that a standard RS232 cable is needed. The connection baud rate can be set to 9600bps or 19200bps, by properly setting the dip-switch 5 standing on the interior TPRN backplane (fig. 5.6). The baud rate setting through dip-switch 5 is shown in table 5.1.
Baud-rate dip-switch (5)

TPRN

RS485-addressing dip-switches (1-4)

Fig. 5.6: Dip-switches on TPRN backplane.


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Baud rate [bps] 9600 19200

Dip-switch 5 OFF ON

Table 5.1: Setting RS232 baud rate through dip-switch 5

Whichever baud rate you choose through dip-switch 5, remember that: the same RS232 connection speed must be set up on the remote supervision unit the baud rate which is selected through the dip-switch 5 sets the connection speed for both the RS232 port and the RS485 port as the TPRN uses both ports with the same rate.

RS485 port The RS485 port consists of two RJ45 connectors, which can both work as input or output ports towards a RS485 bus. This RS485 bus has to be used in order to connect a multi sub-rack system to the remote supervision unit. In this case: the TPRN sub-racks have to be connected one another via RS485 bus in a daisy chain; In order to monitor the whole system, the remote supervision unit has to be connected to one of the TPRN sub-racks through RS232 port.

TPRN

Before connecting the TPRN sub-racks belonging to a multi-sub-rack system, remember to assign an exclusive binary address to each one. This is essential in order to let the supervision system recognize the different master units without any conflict. The binary address assignment can be done through dip-switches 1,2,3,4, which stand on interior TPRN backplane (see figure 5.6). A list of the correspondences between the addresses and the dip-switches is provided by table 5.2: simply note that dip-switch 1 is the least significant binary digit, while dip-switch 4 is the most significant one.
Address 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 Dip-switch 1 ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF Dip-switch 2 OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON Dip-switch 3 OFF OFF OFF ON ON ON ON OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON ON Dip-switch 4 OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON ON ON ON ON ON

Table 5.2: Dip-switches address settings


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The baud rate of the RS485 ports is the same of the RS232 port as per the dip-switch 5 setting. Whichever baud rate you choose, remember that: the same RS485 connection speed has to be set up on all the connected device (TPRN sub-racks or TSUN remote supervision unit); the baud-rate which is selected through the dip-switch 5 sets the connection speed for both the RS485 port and the RS232 port.

Sub-D 15 poles male connector The TPRN sub-rack provides a sub-D 15 poles male connector, shown in fig. 5.7.
PIN 1 PIN 8

Fig. 5.7: sub-D 15 poles male connector

PIN 9

PIN 15

PIN Name
1 2 Ground Digital input n.1 (SW assignable) Digital input n.2 (SW assignable) Disconnected pin Summary of major alarms Summary of minor alarms Digital input n.3 (SW assignable) Digital input n.4 (SW assignable) Disconnected pin

Meaning
It is a ground terminal for digital inputs, i.e. for pin 2, 3, 9, 10. This port can be used to monitor external equipment status. Once a default working status has been assigned (through supervision system) to this input port, any change is detected as a failure signal. This port can be used to monitor external equipment status. Once a default working status has been assigned (through supervision system) to this input port, any change is detected as a failure signal. No meaning These pins present an open circuit if a major alarm is active on the TPRN subrack or on any module hosted in it. These pins present an open circuit if a minor alarm is active on the TPRN subrack or on any module hosted in it. This port can be used to monitor external equipment status. Once a default working status has been assigned (through supervision system) to this input port, any change is detected as a failure signal. This port can be used to monitor external equipment status. Once a default working status has been assigned (through supervision system) to this input port, any change is detected as a failure signal. No meaning These pins are terminals of an output port (output relay 1), which can be driven through the supervision system. The output port can be set to open or close condition. These 2 statuses can be used to pilot any external device connected to subD-15 connector. These pins are terminals of an output port (output relay 2), which can be driven through the supervision system. The output port can be set to open or close condition. These 2 statuses can be used to pilot any external device connected to subD-15 connector.

TPRN

3 4 5,6 7,8 9 10 11

Digital output n.1 12,13 (SW assignable) Digital output n.2 (SW assignable)

14,15

Tab. 5.3: Functional description of pins provided by sub D male connector.


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As highlighted in the previous table, this connector provides: 4 opto-isolated input ports which can be used to reveal any failure condition on external equipment. The default status of these input ports can be defined through the supervision system. After that, any change from default status will be revealed as a failure signal. a summary of major and minor alarms related to failures detected not only on the TPRN sub-rack, but also on any active modules hosted by the TPRN itself. 2 relay output ports, which be can used to drive any external device connected to subD-15 pins adapter. By using the supervision system each of these output ports can set up on open or close conditions.

A more detailed description of the meaning and functionality of each pin are reported in table 8. The pins are numbered from left to right, and from top to bottom (refer to fig. 18). Note: The TPRN sub-rack uses I2Cbus standard protocol to collect status and alarm information from hosted modules. Thanks to that, the alarm summaries (provided through pins 5-6 and 7-8) report major and minor failures related not only to TPRN sub-rack but also to any hosted module.

TPRN alarms
A full description of all TPRN alarms is provided by the Supervision system. The table 4.8 provides a brief description of the TPRN alarms, as they are reported by the LMT software o
TPRN
ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
Redundant supply active (only for redundant power supply versions) Power Supply alarm

ALARM DESCRIPTION

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)

Backup power supply activated There is a degradation on the power supply provided to the boards Internal I2CBUS communication malfunction Over-temperature alarm The device connected to the input alarm port 0 caused an alarm condition The device connected to the input alarm port 1 caused an alarm

YELLOW

MAJOR

Return the unit

MINOR

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit Check if the fault is on the unit (see supervision system). If not return the unit Check ventilation and environment Check the status of the connected device Check the status of the connected device

MAJOR

I2CBUS bus error Temperature alarm Aux input alarm nr0

YELLOW

CRITICAL

MINOR

YELLOW

MINOR

MINOR

RED

CRITICAL

Aux input alarm nr1

RED

MAJOR

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Aux input alarm nr2

Aux input alarm nr3

condition The device connected to the input alarm port 2 caused an alarm condition The device connected to the input alarm port 3 caused an alarm condition

RED

MINOR

Check the status of the connected device Check the status of the connected device

RED

WARNING

Tab. 5.4: Description of the alarms of the TPRN subrack

Warning (recommended for system designing and installing)


Providing a correct heat dissipation
For a correct use of the TPRN sub-rack, it is important to verify that: the system is designed in order to put no more than 8 TFLN inside a TPRN sub-rack. This guarantees a proper heating dissipation for the system. In case you want to install more than 8 it is important to provide the sub-rack with a proper ventilation system; active and passive modules should be alternated as much as possible inside the TPRN sub-rack avoiding too many active cards being inserted close together; in case the system consists of more than one TPRN sub-rack, a minimum distance of 1 HE has to be kept between nearby TPRN subracks to ensure proper heat dissipation. The rack containing the TPRN sub-racks has to be large enough to guarantee this correct distance between master units.

TPRN

Minimizing equipment costs


In order to reduce the cost of Britecell Plus equipment, a multi-sub-rack system should be designed according to the following guidelines: a passive sub-rack (TPRN04) may be used to house only passive modules; an active sub-rack (TPRN14, TPRN24, TPRN34) may be used to sustain all the active modules, and some of the passive ones (as stated above, it is advisable to alternate active and passive cards into an active subrack).

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Setting the dip-switches in a multi sub-rack system


If you are installing a multi-sub-rack system, remember to assign each subrack an exclusive binary address, by properly setting dip-switches 1,2,3,4 on the interior TPRN backplane (see fig. 5.6 and Tab.5.2). Dip-switch 5 has to be set on each TPRN sub-rack in order to fix the baud rate for RS485 and RS232 port. Connecting TPRNs through RS485 port is necessary when supervising the whole multi sub-rack system through the remote supervision unit (to be set at the same baud rate).

TPRN Installation
The TPRN kit provides: 1 TPRN sub-rack 1 suitable power cord 1 standard RS232 cable (male-female), 2m 1 CD Manual

First of all insert the sub-rack into the cabinet and apply 4 screws (not provided) in order to fix it (fig. 5.8a). To have a correct TPRN installation, distance between the front door of the rack and the front side of the TPRN should be at least 15cm otherwise RF and optical cables can be damaged when cabinet door is closed.
TPRN

Fig. 5.8(a): At each front-corner the subrack is provided with a screw in order to be fixed to the

Leave at least 1HE distance between two subracks in order to facilitate air circulation. Leave at least a 1HE free space between the bottom or the top of the cabinet and the TPRNs. 1HE

Fig. 5.8(b): Distance between subracks should be at least 1HE in order to facilitate air circulation

Connect the ground to the safety ground terminal. Then, connect the power supply connector to the mains.
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Power supply

Ground terminal

Fig. 5.8(c) : Power supply and ground terminals on the rear side of the TPRN subrack

TPRN Start-up
Before switching on the TPRN sub-rack, make sure that: all expected modules have been inserted the modules have been connected each other by RF jumpers, according to what has been planned during system design every TFLN contained in the Master Unit has been connected to its TFAx remote units each TFAx remote unit has been connected to its coverage antennas the remote supervision unit (if present) has been connected/housed to/into the Master Unit different sub-racks have been connected each other via bus RS485 and each of them have different addresses the rack housing the TPRN is large enough to leave a minimum distance of 1HE between contiguous TPRN sub-racks
TPRN

Remember that TFAx remote units have to be switched on before relevant Master Unit. Once the TPRN sub-rack has been switched on, the system behaviour can be summarized as per the following steps: About 10sec after the TPRN sub-rack has been switched on, all TFLN modules housed in the TPRN itself begin a discovery phase in order to identify and collect status of the connected TFAx remote units. While the discovery phase is working (max. 4min. depending on the system complexity) each TFLN general alarm (i.e., LED ) blinks, whereas the other TFLN LEDs go on showing the detected status. Do not connect/disconnect any cable or piece of equipment until all TFLN modules have finished the discovery phase. This may result in failing the identification of TFAx. Anyway during the discovery phase, the whole system still works correctly as discovery process aims to collect information about TFAx but without affecting basic system functionalities.

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Note: in case discovery doesnt start automatically, check through the LMT or the remote supervision whether it has been disabled (refer to LMT or remote supervision system manuals for further information).

O nce the discovery has finished, the general alarm (i.e. the LED ) on each TFLN panel stops blinking and switches OFF (provided that the TFLN master optical TRX is not affected by a general failure).

TPRN troubleshooting
In case a TPRN sub-rack shows any problem a more detailed status and alarm description could be provided through the remote supervision unit. A complete overview of TPRN alarms is reported in the previous Table 5.4. The power supply degradation occurs in case the +12Vdc power falls below an in factory set threshold level. In this case, TPRN automatically turns to standby mode so that no over-current gets through the circuitry of hosted modules, thus preserving the system integrity. Once power supply has been repaired, the TPRN needs to be rebooted. In case the TPRN sub-rack is equipped with a redundant power supply (TPRN24), a degradation of the +12 Vdc power results in an automatic switching from main to spare converter. In case also redundant power supply degrades the TPRN automatically turns to stand-by mode. Once the power supply has been repaired the TPRN needs to be rebooted. I2Cbus alarm occurs when TPRN sub-rack cannot communicate with one or more hosted module. Each TPRN slot is able to automatically detect the presence of a module inside the slot. If the module is detected but TPRN is not able to communicate with it through I2Cbus alarm is activated. Note: at commissioning remember to mask the unused slots through LMT software (please refer to the relevant manual for more information) to avoid not significant alarm being switched on. In order to carry out a troubleshooting procedure, please check LMT or supervision system handbooks.

TPRN

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5.2. Master Optical TRX, TFLN

TFLN

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Main tasks carried out by the TFLN module

Module name:

Master Optical TRX


TFLN

Downlink (DL): RF-to-optical conversion of the input RF signal Optical splitting: input RF signal is split onto 4 optical outputs

Uplink (UL): Optical-to-RF conversion of the 4 input optical signals Automatic Gain Control (AGC) of each converted signal to compensate optical losses; RF combining of the 4 adjusted signals into a single RF output

UL RF Auxiliary Output (SMB-m) Status and Alarm LED DL RF Auxiliary Input (SMB-m) UL RF Main Output (SMA-f) DL RF Main Input (SMA-f)

TFLN

UL Optical Fibre Adapters (SC-APC)

DL Optical Fibre Adapters (SC-APC)

Fig. 5.9 . The TFLN Master Optical TRX

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RF ports
1 1 1 1 DL RF input port auxiliary DL RF input port UL RF output port auxiliary UL RF output port

Note: nominal input levels required at RF ports is +10dBm (please refer to datasheet for further information), as well as RF outputs may require a power adjustment to fill within the BTS receiving range. In order to fulfil these requirements, external UL and DL attenuations may be required (see TBSI module).

Optical ports
4 DL optical output ports (SC/APC) 4 UL optical input ports (SC/APC)

TFLN visual alarms


The TFLN front panel is provided with 6 LEDs (see on the right), showing status and alarm information. LED meaning is reported on the rightward table. Further information about alarm status is delivered by Britecell Plus supervision system. Note: In case the four TFLN optical output ports are not all connected to remote units, the unused ports must be properly masked at commissioning in order to avoid spurious alarms (please refer to LMT manual).
Label LED colour
= Green Red

TFLN

Meaning
Power supply status OK General TFLN failure, it can be: - TFLN laser failure - UL or DL amplifier failure - TFLN short circuit Low UL optical power received from remote unit 1 (fault in optical link 1 or remote unit 1 failure) Low UL optical power received from remote unit 2 (fault in optical link 2 or remote unit 2 failure) Low UL optical power received from remote unit 3 (fault in optical link 3 or remote unit 3 failure) Low UL optical power received from remote unit 4 (fault in optical link 4 or remote unit 4 failure)

Fig. 5.10 :LED panel on TFLN front side

1 2 3

Red Red Red

Red

Tab. 5.4: Meanings of the LEDs on TFLN front-side


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TFLN power supply


Each TFLN master optical TRX is supplied by the sub-rack back-plane (12V). The power consumption of each TFLN master optical TRX is 12W.

Warnings (to be read before the TFLN installation)


Dealing with optical output ports The TFLN master optical TRX contains semiconductor lasers. Invisible laser beams may be emitted from the optical output ports. Do not look towards the optical ports while equipment is switched on. Handling optical connections When inserting an optical connector, take care to handle it so smoothly that the optical fibre is not damaged. Optical fibres have to be single-mode (SM) 9.5/125m. Typically, Britecell Plus equipment is provided with SC-APC optical connectors. Inserting any other connector will result in severe damages. Do not force or stretch the fibre pigtail with radius of curvature less than 5 cm. See fig. 19 for optimal fibre cabling. Remove adapter caps only just before making connections. Do not leave SC-APC adapters open, as they attract dust. Unused SC-APC adapters must always be covered with their caps. Do not touch the adapter tip. Clean it with a proper tissue before inserting each connector into the sleeve. In case adapter tips need to be better cleaned, use pure ethyl alcohol

WRONG

OPTIMAL

TFLN

Fig. 5.11: Fibre Optic bending Inserting or removing TFLN modules Do not remove or insert any TFLN module into TPRN sub-rack before having switched off main power supply. The TFLN modules must be handled with care, in order to avoid damage to electrostatic sensitive devices. When installing TFLN modules in the sub-rack, take care to alternate active and passive cards in order to ensure proper heat dissipation.

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In a multi-sub-rack system, remember to assign to each sub-rack a proper RS485 bus address before installing the modules (please refer to TPRN section for further details).

TFLN positioning

In case no ventilation system is installed, do not insert more than 8 TFLN modules into a sub-rack. In case more than 8 TFLN modules have to be housed into a TPRN subrack, its advisable to install the TPRN sub-rack inside a rack with forced ventilation. Take care to meet expected requirements on RF ports. An adjustable attenuator could be necessary when the power coming from the BTS exceeds the required levels to avoid damages in Britecell Plus circuitry or increase of spurious emissions.

TFLN installation
The TFLN master optical TRX is housed in a TPRN sub-rack and its dimensions are 19 width and 4HE height. A TFLN module can be accommodated in any of these 12 slots. Note: In case a new TFLN module has to be installed in a still working Master Unit, switch off the sub-rack before inserting the plug-in TFLN module Firstly, gently insert the TFLN in one of the 12 available slots, and lock the 4 screws on the front corners.
TFLN

Fig. 5.12: Screws to be fixed at the corners of the TFLN front side

Then connect the UL and DL RF cable to the TFLN UL and DL ports, respectively. Use a specific torque wrench to fix these RF cables to DL and UL ports.

Fig. 5.13: UL and DL RF cables are to be fixed by a torque wrench

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Remove the caps from TFLN optical ports and connect the SC-APC fibre optic cables to the ports. UL and DL cables coming from the same remote unit have to be connected to UL and DL ports marked by the same number on the TFLN front panel.

Fig. 5.14: Take off the caps and connect the fiber optics cables properly As you switch on the system, carefully refer to the TFLN Start-Up section. Remember that remote units should be switched on before than the Master Unit in order to follow a correct Start-Up procedure.

TFLN start-up
Before the Master Unit is switched on, make sure that: all expected modules have been inserted into the Master Unit the modules have been connected each other by RF jumpers, according to what planned in the system design every TFLN master optical TRX has been connected to relevant remote units each remote unit has been connected to its coverage antennas the remote supervision unit, if present, has been connected to the Master Unit different Master Units are connected each other via bus RS485 After that, remember that only when all the remote units are already on, the Master Unit itself can be turned on. Once the Master Unit has been switched on, the TFLN behaviour at system start-up can be summarized as per the following steps: 1. When Master Unit is turns on all the six LEDs upon the TFLN front panel go on for a couple of seconds. After that, the green LED remains on (indicating proper power supply) while the other LEDs indicate the master optical TRX status, according to the following table. Note: In case unused optical ports of the TFLN have not been masked through LMT yet, corresponding LEDs will be on. If so, wait for the end of step 3 (discovery phase) then use LMT to mask them (please refer to relevant handbook) 2. About 10 seconds after the system has been switched on, TFLN module begins a discovery phase to identify connected remote units. This operation is necessary to collect all the information to be provided to the supervision system.

TFLN

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Label LED colour


= 1 2 3 4 Green Red Red Red Red Red

Status
ON (power supply is on) OFF (no major failure affects TFLN operations) OFF (no major failure affects corresponding remote connection) OFF (no major failure affects corresponding remote connection) OFF (no major failure affects corresponding remote connection) OFF (no major failure affects corresponding remote connection)

unit or UL unit or UL unit or UL unit or UL

Table 5.5: Status of the TFLN LEDs in full-working conditions During the discovery phase the TFLN general alarm (LED ) blinks while the other LEDs go on showing previously detected status. Time dedicated to discovery phase can be at maximum 4min and depends on system complexity. Do not connect/disconnect any cable or any piece of equipment during the discovery phase. This may result in failing the identification of remote units. Please note that, while the discovery phase is running, the whole system is working correctly as discovery operations aim only to collect information about remote units without affecting the system functionalities. Note: in case discovery doesnt start automatically, check through the LMT or the remote supervision whether it has been disabled (refer to LMT or remote supervision system manuals for further information). Once the discovery is finished, the TFLN general alarm (LED ) stops blinking and switches OFF. The power supply LED (green LED) remains on while LEDs 1,2,3,4 show either the status of the remote units or the quality of the UL connections. In case some of these LEDs remain on, check if they refer to unused optical ports or not. In this case use LMT software to mask it otherwise if they refer to connected remote units and remain on, please refer to troubleshooting procedure.

TFLN

Removing a TFLN module


Switch off the Master Unit power supply, remove the SC-APC optical connectors, and insert the protection caps into TFLN optical ports. Then unscrew the 4 screws and slowly remove the card. put the removed TFLN card in its safety box. switch on again the Master Unit power supply, and refer to Start Up section.

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TFLN troubleshooting
In case a TFLN master optical TRX has any problem, this will be easily revealed through LEDs on its front panels otherwise troubleshooting can be carried out through LMT or supervision system. LEDs on TFLN front panel detect not only failures of the TFLN board itself but they also reveals malfunctions located on related remote units.
ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
RX1 optical power fail

ALARM DESCRIPTION
The optical power received on the UL1 is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received is under the allowed 3dB optical loss but it can be compensated The optical power received on the UL2 is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received is under the allowed 3dB optical loss but it can be compensated The optical power received on the UL3 is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received is under the allowed 3dB optical loss but it can be compensated The optical power received on the UL4 is too low and cant no more be compensated The optical power received is under the allowed 3dB optical loss but it can be compensated Alarm from RU1 Alarm from RU2 Alarm from RU3 Alarm from RU4 A fault occurs on DL laser HW failure on the RF section HW failure on the RF section General failure board Over-temperature alarm the UL DL on

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL


CRITICAL

ACTION RECOMMENDED
Check the UL1 fibre and the remote unit laser status Clean connectors optical

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)


MAJOR

RED (LED1)

RX1 AGC out of range

NONE

MINOR

MINOR

RX2 optical power fail

RED (LED2)

CRITICAL

Check the UL2 fibre and the remote unit laser status Clean connectors optical

MAJOR

RX2 AGC out of range

NONE

MINOR

MINOR

RX3 optical power fail

RED (LED3)

CRITICAL

Check the UL3 fibre and the remote unit laser status Clean connectors optical

MAJOR

RX3 AGC out of range

NONE

MINOR

MINOR

RX4 optical power fail

RED (LED4)

CRITICAL

Check the UL4 fibre and the remote unit laser status Clean connectors Check status Check status Check status Check status optical

MAJOR

TFLN

RX4 AGC out of range Major Remote Unit 1 Major Remote Unit 2 Major Remote Unit 3 Major Remote Unit 4 DL laser alarm UL RF alarm DL RF alarm Board failure alarm Temperature alarm

NONE RED (LED1) RED (LED2) RED (LED3) RED (LED4) RED () RED () RED () RED () NONE

MINOR

MINOR

MAJOR MAJOR CRITICAL MAJOR MINOR

remote unit remote unit remote unit remote unit

MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR MINOR

Return the unit Return the unit Return the unit Return the unit Check ventilation and environment

Tab. 5.6: TFLN alarm description


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The previous table reports a brief description of the TFLN alarms, together with a reference to the corresponding alerted LEDs. As the table shows, LEDs on the TFLN front panel signal all high priority alarms while minor alarms, which detect critical situations which should be checked and tested in order to avoid future possible system faults, are only revealed by LMT or supervision system. Each TFLN is provided with an AGC system which compensates optical losses <3 dB. TFLN LED alarms switch on when the estimated optical losses are >4dB, the AGC not being able to compensate these losses any more. One of LEDs 1, 2, 3 or 4 might turn on not only to indicate a high optical loss detected by TFLN, but also to reveal a remote unit failure. Understanding the reason why one of LEDs 1, 2, 3 or 4 is on (a remote unit failure, an optical cable fault or an external equipment malfunction) can be done following the troubleshooting procedure reported hereinafter. Quick troubleshooting procedure (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 5.15a) 1. In case the TFLN general alarm (LED ) is on replace the faulty TFLN master optical TRX with a new one and contact the manufacturer for assistance. 2. In case one of the LEDs 1, 2, 3 or 4 is on, the corresponding TFLN adapter might be dirty. Try cleaning it using pure ethyl alcohol. If the LED is still on go to the corresponding remote unit side and check the red LED upon TFAx warm side: a. If it is off, the optical cables or the optical connections are supposed to have some problem on UL path. Refer to fibre optic UL troubleshooting for more information (fig. 21). b. If it is on, refer to remote unit troubleshooting presented in the previous remote unit section Fibre optic UL troubleshooting (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 5.15b) 1. Check if there is any point where the fibre experiences a small radius of curvature. In this case, rearrange the optical path in order to avoid sharp bends (if necessary, replace the optical cable with a longer one). If this makes the TFLN red LED switch off, troubleshooting has been successful. Otherwise, follow next steps. 2. Check if the SC-APC connectors are properly installed at both fibre ends (i.e. TFLN and TFAx ports). If not fix better SC-SPC connectors to relevant adapters. If this makes the TFLN red LED switch off, troubleshooting has been successful. Otherwise, follow next steps. 3. Disconnect the optical fibre and clean it at both fibre ends (i.e. TFLN side and TFAx side) then reconnect the fibre to relevant ports. In case this makes the TFLN red LED switch off, troubleshooting has been successful. Otherwise, follow next steps. 4. Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TFLN UL port, and measure the output power POUT(UL) at corresponding fibre end. Then, go
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to the TFAx side, disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TFAx UL port and measure the input power PIN(UL) coming out of the TFAx UL port. 5. Calculate the UL fibre attenuation AUL as: AUL [dB] = PIN(UL) POUT(UL) a. If AUL > 4dB, the fibre optic cable has some problems or cable path is too long. Replace it. b. If AUL < 4dB, then TFAx remote unit should be faulty. Before replacing it, check the TFAx status on supervision system and contact for assistance

TFLN

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start

Is any red LED ON upon the TFLN? Yes

No

Which red LED is ON? 1, 2, 3 or 4 Clean corresponding SC-APC optical adapter and connector

Replace the faulty TFLN

Is red LED upon TFLN still ON? Yes Go to corresponding remote unit side

No

Is red LED upon remote unit ON? Yes

No

TFLN

UL optical cables or optical connections are supposed to have some problems. Refer to fibre optic UL troubleshooting (fig. 5.15b)

Is red LED upon remote unit still ON? Yes Refer to remote unit troubleshooting

No

end

Fig. 5.15 (a): Flow-chart describing the quick troubleshooting procedure

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start

Is there any small radius of curvature of the fibre? No

Yes

Rearrange the optical path in order to avoid sharp bends. If necessary replace the optical cable with a longer one.

Yes

Is the red LED upon TFLN still ON?

No

Are SC-APC connectors properly installed at both fibre ends? Yes

No

Fix SC-APC connectors properly to adapters.

Yes

Is the red LED upon TFLN still ON?

No

Disconnect the optical fibre and clean it at both ends.

Clean the optical SC-APC ports both on TFLN and TFAx side.

Re-connect the fibre to relevant ports.

Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TFLN UL port.

Yes

Is the red LED upon TFLN still ON?

No

Measure the output power at the corresponding fibre end

Go to the TFAx side

Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TFAx UL port.

TFLN

Calculate the UL fibre attenuation: AUL[dB]=input power - output power

Measure the input power entering the fibre.

Is AUL > 4dB? No

Yes

Fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it.

The TFAx remote unit should be faulty. Before replacing it, verify its status through supervision system and contact for assistance.

end

Fig. 5.15 (b): Flow-chart describing the fibre optic UL troubleshooting

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5.3. Two-way Splitter/Combiner, TLCN2

TLCN2

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Description:

Module name:

The TLCN2, a bidirectional 2-way splitter/combiner, provides two identical combining sections for UL and DL which can be used: to combine 2 RF signals into a common RF output to split an RF input into 2 RF output signals It is a passive wideband module.

2-way splitter/ /combiner


TLCN2

RF ports:
1 2 1 2 DL DL UL UL common RF port (C) splitted RF ports (1,2) common RF port (C) splitted RF ports (1,2)

UL common RF port (SMA-f) DL common RF port (SMA-f)

Note: each port is bidirectional.

TLCN2 main applications


Main applications of the TLCN2 module are: Connecting a donor source to more than DL splitted RF one TFLN master optical TRX, so that: ports (SMA-f) TLCN2 splits the DL input coming from a donor source into 2 output UL splitted RF signals entering 2 different TFLN ports (SMA-f) master optical TRX TLCN2 combines the UL inputs Fig. 5.16: TLCN2 splitter/combiner coming from 2 TFLN master optical TRX into 1 common signal entering the donor source Connecting a TFLN master optical TRX to more than one donor source within the same service, so that: TLCN2 combines the two DL inputs coming from 2 donor sources into 1 output signal entering the TFLN master optical TRX or a cross band coupler TLCN2 splits the UL input coming from TFLN master optical TRX or a cross band coupler into 2 different output signals entering 2 different donor sources. More TLCN2 modules can be used in cascade connections.

TLCN2

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TLCN2 insertion loss


The TLCN2 insertion loss varies slightly with the frequency bands, as shown in table 5.7. When designing the system, remember to take into account the insertion loss of the TLCN2 if present. 700-1400MHz TLCN2 insertion loss 3.7 0.4dB 1400-2200MHz 4.1 0.5dB 2200-2500MHz 4.6 0.4dB

Table 5.7: Insertion loss values within different frequency bands

Warnings
The overall input power must not exceed +24dBm

TLCN2 Installation
Since the TLCN2 module doesnt require any power supply it can be housed either in an active or a passive TPRN sub-rack. 1. Unpack the kit which includes 1 TLCN2 4 RF jumpers (SMA-m), 2 x 25cm, 2 x 35cm 2. Carefully insert the TLCN2 module in any of the TPRN sub-rack slots and lock the 4 screws on the front corners. 3. Connect RF cables to UL and DL ports, according to what planned by designer. Use a specific torque wrench to fix each cable to relevant ports.
TLCN2

4. In case some ports remain unused remember to connect them to a 50 load (not included)

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5.4. Four-way Splitter/Combiner TLCN4

TLCN4

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Description:

Module name:

The TLCN4, bidirectional 4-way splitter/combiner, provides two identical combining sections for UL and DL which can be used to: combine 4 RF signals into a common RF output split an RF input into 4 RF output signals It is a passive wideband module.

4-way splitter/ /combiner


TLCN4

RF ports:
1 DL common RF port (C) 4 DL splitted 1,2,3,4) 4 UL splitted 1,2,3,4) RF ports (labelled

UL common RF port (SMA-f) DL common RF port (SMA-f)

1 UL common RF port (C) RF ports (labelled

Note: each port is bidirectional.

TLCN4 main applications


DL splitted RF Main applications of the TLCN4 module are: ports (SMA-f) Connecting a donor source to more than one TFLN master optical TRX, so that: UL splitted RF TLCN4 splits the DL input coming ports (SMA-f) from a donor source into 4 output signals entering 4 different TFLN Fig. 5.17: TLCN4 splitter/combiner master optical TRX TLCN4 combines the UL inputs coming from 4 TFLN master optical TRX into 1 common signal entering the donor source Connecting a TFLN master optical TRX to more than one donor source within the same service, so that: TLCN4 combines the two DL inputs coming from up to 4 donor sources into 1 output signal entering the TFLN master optical TRX TLCN4 splits the UL inputs coming from TFLN master optical TRX into 4 different output signals entering up to 4 different donor sources

TLCN4

More TLCN4 modules can be used in cascade connections.

TLCN4 insertion loss


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The TLCN4 insertion losses vary slightly with the frequency bands, as shown in table 5.8. When designing the system, remember to take into account the insertion loss of the TLCN4. 700-1400MHz TLCN4 insertion loss 7.4 0.4dB 1400-2200MHz 8.0 0.5dB 2200-2500MHz 8.4 0.4dB

Table 5.8: Insertion loss values within different frequency bands

Warnings
The overall input power must not exceed +24dBm

TLCN4 Installation
Since the TLCN4 module doesnt require any power supply it can be housed either in an active or a passive TPRN sub-rack. 1. Unpack the kit which include 1 TLCN4 8 RF jumpers (SMA-m), 1 x 18cm, 2 x 23cm, 2 x 28cm, 2 x 33cm, 1 x 36cm 2. Carefully insert the TLCN4 module in any of the TPRN sub-rack slots and lock the 4 screws on the front corners. 3. Connect RF cables to UL and DL ports, according to what planned by designer. Use a specific torque wrench to fix each cable to relevant ports. 4. In case some ports remain unused remember to connect them to a 50 load (not included)
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5.5. RF Dual band Coupler TLDN

TLDN

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Description:

Module name:

The TLDN is a passive RF dual band coupler designed to distribute signal within the master unit when coming from different bands. Main operations carried out are: in downlink it combines a low band RF signal (800MHz to 1000MHz) and a high band RF signal (1700MHz to 2200MHz) into a common RF path in uplink it filters the composite signal into a low-band (800MHz to 1000MHz) and a high-band (1700MHz to 2200MHz) one. It is a passive module.

RF dual-band coupler TLDN

RF ports
1 UL common RF input port (C) for the combined UL signal 1 UL highband RF output port 1 UL low-band RF output port 1 DL common RF output port (C) for the combined DL signal 1 DL highband RF input port 1 DL low-band RF input port

UL common RF port (SMA-f)

DL common RF port (SMA-f)

UL high-band RF port (SMA-f)

DL high-band RF port (SMA-f)

UL low-band RF port (SMA-f)

DL low-band RF port (SMA-f)

TLDN

TLDN main applications

Fig. 5.18: The TLDN dual-band coupler

Main applications of the TLDN module are: Connecting 2 donor sources with different services to one TFLN master optical TRX in a dual band system, so that: TLDN combines the DL inputs coming from the 2 different donor sources (carrying different services) into an output signal entering the TFLN master optical TRX

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TLDN filters the UL input coming from a TFLN master optical TRX into 2 UL outputs entering 2 different donor sources (carrying different services)

TLDN insertion loss


TLDN insertion loss = 1.0 0.5dB. When designing the system, remember to take into account the insertion loss of the TLDN.

Warnings
The overall input power must not exceed +27dBm

TLDN Installation
Since the TLDN module doesnt require any power supply it can be housed either in an active or a passive TPRN sub-rack. 1. Unpack the kit which include 1 TLDN 2 RF jumpers (SMA-m), 2 x 40cm 2. Carefully insert the TLDN module in any of the TPRN sub-rack slots and lock the 4 screws on the front corners. 3. Connect RF cables to UL and DL ports, according to what planned by designer. Use a specific torque wrench to fix each cable to relevant ports.

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5.6. RF Tri band Coupler TLTN

TLTN

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The TLTN is a passive RF tri band coupler designed to distribute signal within the master unit when coming from different bands. Main operations carried out are: in downlink it combines a 800MHz to 1000MHz, a 1700MHz to 2000MHz signal and a 2000MHz to 2200MHz signal into a single RF path in uplink it filters a composite signal into a 800MHz to 1000MHz, a 1700MHz to 2000MHz signal and a 2000MHz to 2200MHz one. It is a passive module.

Description:

Module name:

RF tri-band coupler TLTN

RF ports
1 DL common RF output port (C) for the combined DL signal 1 DL 2000MHz to 2200MHz RF input port 1 DL 1700MHz to 2000MHz RF input port 1 DL 800MHz to 1000MHz RF input port 1 UL common RF input port (C) for the combined UL signal 1 UL 2000MHz to 2200MHz RF output port 1 UL 1700MHz to 2000MHz RF output port 1 UL 800MHz to 1000MHz RF output port

UL common RF port (SMA-f)

DL common RF port (SMA-f)

UL 2000 to 2200MHz RF port (SMA-f)

DL 2000 to 2200MHz RF port (SMA-f)

UL 1700 to 2000MHz RF port (SMA-f)

DL 1700 to 2000MHz RF port (SMA-f)

UL 800 to 1000MHz RF port (SMA-f)

DL 800 to 1000MHz RF port (SMA-f)

Fig. 5.19: The TLTN tri-band coupler

TLTN main applications


Main applications of the TLTN module are: Connecting 3 donor sources with different services to one TFLN master optical TRX in a tri band system, so that:

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TLTN combines the DL inputs coming from 3 different donor sources (carrying different services) into an output signal entering the TFLN master optical TRX TLTN filters the UL input coming from the TFLN master optical TRX into 3 UL outputs entering 3 different donor sources (carrying different services)

TLTN insertion loss


TLTN insertion loss = 3.0 0.5dB When designing the system, remember to take into account the insertion loss of the TLTN.

Warnings
The overall input power must not exceed +27dBm

TLTN Installation
Since the TLTN module doesnt require any power supply it can be housed either in an active or a passive TPRN sub-rack. 1. Unpack the kit which include 1 TLTN 2 RF jumpers (SMA-m), 2 x 40cm 2. Carefully insert the TLTN module in any of the TPRN sub-rack slots and lock the 4 screws on the front corners. 3. Connect RF cables to UL and DL ports, according to what planned by designer. Use a specific torque wrench to fix each cable to relevant ports.

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5.7. RF Duplexer, TDPX

TDPX

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Description:

Module name:

TDPX is a frequency dependent duplexer that combines downlink and uplink signals while maintaining isolation and stability. This board has been designed to support where the source is duplexed.

RF tri-band coupler TDPX

RF ports
1 DL RF output port 1 UL RF input port 1 common RF port (C) for UL and DL combined signals

RF port for combined UL and DL signals

TDPX main applications


The TDPX main application is to connect the duplexed antenna port of the donor source to the Britecell Plus system. TDPX combines/ /splits the DL and UL signals coming from the donor port into two separated ports

DL RF port

UL RF port

Fig. 5.20: The TDPX duplexer

TDPX insertion loss


The TDPX insertion losses are described in table 5.9. UMTS 2100MHz 2.0 0.5dB 2.0 0.5dB All other bands 7.0 0.5dB 3.3 0.5dB

TDPX UL insertion loss TDPX DL insertion loss

Table 5.9: Insertion loss values of the TDPX module

When designing the system, remember to take into account the insertion losses of the TDPX.

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Warnings
The overall input power must not exceed +30dBm. As the module is band dependent be sure to choose the right single band version.

TDPX Installation
Since the TDPX module doesnt require any power supply it can be housed either in an active or a passive TPRN sub-rack. 1. Unpack the kit which include 1 TDPX 2 RF jumpers (SMA-m), 2 x 35cm 2. Carefully insert the TDPX module in any of the TPRN sub-rack slots and lock the 4 screws on the front corners. 3. Connect RF cables to common, UL and DL ports, according to what planned by designer. Use a specific torque wrench to fix each cable to relevant ports.

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5.8. Base station Interface TBSI

TBSI

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Description

Module name:

The TBSI module adjusts the signal level between the donor source and the Britecell Plus system. It has 2 independent variable attenuators to adjust both uplink and downlink separately (please refer to BriteTool manual to understand how to calculate the right value of attenuation through BriteTool software)

Base station interface TBSI

RF ports
1 DL RF input port 1 DL RF output port (attenuated signal) 1 UL RF input port 1 UL RF output port (attenuated signal) The attenuation required both on DL and UL can be properly set through relevant knobs (30dB range, 1dB step).
DL RF input port (from donor source)

DL attenuation knob

DL RF output port (to master unit)

UL RF input port (from master unit)

TBSI main applications

UL attenuation knob

Main applications of the TBSI module are: adjusting RF levels coming to/from a donor Fig. 5.21: The TBSI base station interface source: TBSI adjusts the DL signal to meet the required power level at TFLN DL RF input TBSI adjusts the RF UL signal coming from TFLN master optical TRX in order to meet the desired requirements about blocking level and receiver sensitivity to the donor source

UL RF output port (to donor source)

TBSI insertion loss


The TBSI insertion losses are described in table 5.10:
TBSI

TBSI insertion loss

800MHz to 2000MHz 2000MHz to 2200MHz < 1dB < 1.3dB

Table 5.10: Insertion loss values of the TBSI module


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When designing the system, remember to take into account the insertion loss of the TBSI.

Warnings
The overall input power must not exceed +30dBm

TBSI Installation
Since the TBSI module doesnt require any power supply it can be housed either in an active or a passive TPRN sub-rack. 1. Unpack the kit which include 1 TBSI 2 RF jumpers (SMA-m), 1 x 35cm, 1 x 45cm 2. Carefully insert the TBSI module in any of the TPRN sub-rack slots and lock the 4 screws on the front corners. 3. Connect RF cables according to what planned by designer. Use a specific torque wrench to fix each cable to relevant ports. 4. Set proper attenuation values.

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5.9. Power Limiter TMPx-10

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Description

Module name:

The TMPx-10 power limiter monitors the downlink input power and attenuates it by 10dB above a predetermined set point. The threshold is programmable through the supervision system. TMPx-10 power limiter is available in two versions, one suitable for GSM DL (800 to 1000MHz or 1800 to 2000MHz) and the other for UMTS 2100MHz DL.

Power Limiter
TMPx-10

RF ports
1 DL RF input port 1 DL RF output port
DL RF input port (from donor source)

TMP main applications


Main applications of the TMP module are: Check DL RF level coming from a donor source in order to protect the system if the level exceeds a specified threshold.
DL RF output port (to master unit)

TMP visual alarms


Fig. 5.22: The TBSI base station interface The TMP front panel is provided with 3 LEDs (see on the right) showing status and alarm information

LED meaning is reported on the rightward table. Further information about alarm status are delivered by Britecell Plus supervision system
Label
Power Alarm

LED colour
Green Red

Meaning
Power supply status OK It can be: - TMP power supply alarm - RF input overdrive It can be: - temperature alarm - no RF signal at the input port

Fig. 5.23: The LED panel on the TMP front-side

Warning Red

Tab. 5.11: Summary of TMP LEDs meaning


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TMP power supply


Each TMPx-10 power limiter is supplied by the sub-rack back-plane (+12V). The power consumption of each TMPx-10 is 2W max

TMP insertion loss


TMP insertion loss < 1.7dB. When designing the system, remember to take into account the insertion loss of the TMP.

Warnings
The overall input power must not exceed +35dBm. Inserting or removing TMP modules Do not remove or insert any TMP module into TPRN sub-rack before having switched off main power supply. The TMP modules must be handled with care, in order to avoid damage to electrostatic sensitive devices. When installing TMP modules in the sub-rack, take care to alternate active and passive cards in order to ensure proper heat dissipation. In a multi-sub-rack system, remember to assign to each sub-rack a proper RS485 bus address before installing the modules (please refer to TPRN section for further details).

TMP installation
The TMP power limiter can be accomodated in any of the 12 slots of a TPRN active sub-rack. Note: In case a new TMP module has to be installed in a still working Master Unit, switch off the sub-rack before inserting the plug-in TMP module 1. Unpack the kit which include 1 TMP 1 RF jumper (SMA-m), 35cm 2. Carefully insert the TMP module in any of the TPRN sub-rack slots and lock the 4 screws on the front corners. 3. Connect RF cables according to what planned by designer. Use a specific torque wrench to fix each cable to relevant ports. 4. Switch on the sub-rack. As you switch on the system, carefully refer to the TFLN Start-up section.
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Removing a TMP module


Switch off the Master Unit power supply and remove RF jumpers. Then unscrew the 4 screws and slowly remove the card. put the removed TMP card in its safety box. switch on again the Master Unit power supply and refer to TFLN Start-up section.

TMP troubleshooting
In case a TMP power limiter has any problem, this will be easily revealed through LEDs on its front panel otherwise troubleshooting can be carried out through LMT or supervision system.
ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
Power supply alarm Temperature alarm RF Input overdrive RF Input No signal

ALARM DESCRIPTION
UPS HW failure or malfunction. RF is turned OFF Over-temperature alarm The input signal has exceeded the threshold No RF signal at the input port

ACTIV E LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL


MAJOR MINOR WARNING MINOR

ACTION RECOMMENDED
Return the unit Check ventilation and environment Check the RF input signal Check the RF input signal

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)


MAJOR MINOR MAJOR MINOR

RED YELLO W RED YELLO W

Tab. 5.12:Description of the TMP alarms The previous table reports a brief description of the TMP alarm, together with a reference to the corresponding alerted LEDs. Understanding why one LED is on can be done following the troubleshooting procedure reported hereinafter. Quick troubleshooting procedure (The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 22) 1. In case the TMP red led is on and the green led is off there is a problem on the power supply. a. Check the TPRN sub-rack and if it is switched off, switch it on. b. If the sub-rack is switched on, check the backplane power supply connector to verify if the +12Vdc is provided to the TMP module. If not there is a fault on the TPRN backplane and you need to return the sub-rack. c. Otherwise the TMP power supply section is faulty. Return the unit. 2. In case the TPM red and green leds are on, the RF level at the input port has exceeded the specified threshold. Decrease the RF signal or change the threshold. 3. In case the yellow led is on, check the RF input level
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a. If there isnt any RF signal at the input, check if the RF cable is connected at the input port. If its connected check the power coming out from the donor source. b. Otherwise the temperature range is not within the specified range, change the temperature range or provide proper air flow.

start

Is red LED ON upon the TMP? No

Yes

Is green No LED OFF upon the TMP? Yes RF level @ input port has exceeded the threshold. Check the RF signal.

No

Is yellow LED ON upon the TMP? Yes

Problem on power supply

Yes

Is there any RF input level?

No

Is No TPRN sub-rack switched on? Yes Check TPRN backplane power supply No

Switch on the sub-rack

Is red LED ON and green OFF?

Yes

Check if the temperature is within the specified range.

Check the RF input level and if the RF cable is connected

Is +12Vdc provided? No TPRN backplane is faulty. Return the TPRN

No

TMP power supply section is faulty. Return the TMP.

end

Fig. 5.24: Flow-chart describing the troubleshooting procedure

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5.10.

Wi-Fi Local Interface, TWLI

TWLI

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Description

Module name:

Britecell Plus system allows distributing WLAN service (802.11b and g) through the auxiliary channel while concentrating all the Access Points together with the central equipment. The TWLI module allows connecting up to 3 Access Points to one TFLN master optical TRX and setting up to 4dB attenuation, if needed, on the DL path.

Wi-Fi Local Interface TWLI


TWLI

RF ports
3 DL RF input ports receiving signals from up to 3 different Access Points 1 DL RF output port to the TFLN auxiliary port 1 UL RF input port from the TFLN auxiliary port 3 UL RF output ports sending signals to up to 3 different Access Points

DL RF output to TFLN

DL RF input from Access Points 1 to 3

Attenuation setting buttons

UL RF output to Access Points 1 to 3

UL RF input from TFLN

Fig. 5.25: The TWLI wi-fi local interface

4dB attenuation range is available on the DL path in order to adjust levels coming from the Access Points.

TWLI main applications


Main applications of the TWLI module are: providing to the TFLN the WLAN signals coming from up to 3 Access Points concentrated on the equipment room.

TWLI power supply


Each TWLI WLAN interface module is supplied by the sub-rack back-plane (+12V). The power consumption of each TWLI is 2W max.

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Warnings
The overall input power must not exceed +19dBm The TWLI modules must be handled with care, in order to avoid damage to electrostatic sensitive devices.

TWLI

Inserting or removing TWLI modules


Do not remove or insert any TWLI module into TPRN sub-rack before having switched off main power supply. The TWLI modules must be handled with care, in order to avoid damage to electrostatic sensitive devices. When installing TWLI modules in the sub-rack, take care to alternate active and passive cards in order to ensure proper heat dissipation. In a multi-sub-rack system, remember to assign to each sub-rack a proper RS485 bus address before installing the modules (please refer to TPRN section for further details).

TWLI installation
The TWLI WLAN local interface can be accomodated in any of the 12 slots of a TPRN active sub-rack. Note: In case a new TWLI module has to be installed in a still working Master Unit, switch off the sub-rack before inserting the plug-in TWLI module 1. Unpack the kit which include 1 TWLI 2 RF jumpers (SMA-m; SMB-f), 2 x 40cm 2. Carefully insert the TWLI module in any of the TPRN sub-rack slots and lock the 4 screws on the front corners. 3. Connect RF cables according to what planned by designer. Use a specific torque wrench to fix each cable to relevant ports. 4. Switch on the sub-rack. As you switch on the system, carefully refer to the TFLN Start-up section.

Removing a TWLI module


Switch off the Master Unit power supply and remove RF jumpers. Then unscrew the 4 screws and slowly remove the card. put the removed TWLI card in its safety box. switch on again the Master Unit power supply and refer to TFLN Start-up section.

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5.11.

Interconnect Link (i-link)

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5.11.1. Introduction

Module name:

the interconnect link is a set of modules which allows to expand the system by connecting a second Britecell Plus subrack station to the main one, at a distance of up to 20 km. By using more interconnect links at the main station, more Britecell Plus stations could be connected to the main one, in a star configuration.

Interconnect link TILx-HL TILx-HLW


TILx (intro)

Each interconnect link (i-link) is made up by a master-side and by a slaveside. Both the master side and the slave side are composed by a receiver module and by a transmitter module (please refer to fig. 5.26, 5.27): the transmitter modules are identified by the code TDTX, while the receiver module is identified as TMRX at the master side and as TSRX at the slave side. The interconnect link is available both in simple version (identified as TILx-HL) and in WDM version (identified as TILx-HLW). A WDM i-link exploits the same fibre to transmit both from master to slave and vice-versa (please refer to fig. 5.28b), while the simple link uses a dedicate fiber for the transmission from master to slave, and a different one for the transmission from slave to master (please refer to fig. 5.28a). The following four section will describe in details the i-link modules both in WDM and not-WDM version.

Fig. 5.26: i-link modules: (a) master side; (b) slave-side.

t
(a) (b)

Fig. 5.27: WDM i-link modules: (a) master side; (b) slave-side.

(a)

(b)

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TFAx

TFLN GSM 900 BTS

TFAx TFAx TFAx

Fixed Atten
TFAx

TILx (intro)

GSM 1800 BTS

Fixe d

BTS INTERFACING SECTION + SPLITTING COMBINING SECTION

TFLN

TFAx TFAx TFAx

TMRX

TDTX
TFAx

UMTS BTS

Fixed Atten

TFLN
TFAx

TFAx

TDTX

TSRX
TFAx

TFAx

TFLN
TFAx

TFAx

TFAx

Fig. 5.28(a): Block scheme of a Britecell Plus system with a simple i-link

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TFAx

TFLN GSM 900 BTS

TFAx TFAx TFAx

Fixed Atten

GSM 1800 BTS

Fixe d

BTS INTERFACING SECTION + SPLITTING COMBINING SECTION

TFAx

TFLN

TFAx TFAx TFAx

TILx (intro)

TMRX

TDTX
TFAx

UMTS BTS

Fixed Atten

TFLN
TFAx

TFAx

TDTX

TSRX
TFAx

TFAx

TFLN
TFAx

TFAx

TFAx

Fig. 5.28(b): Block scheme of a Britecell Plus system with a WDM i-link

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Module name:
5.11.2. TILx-HL i-link Module description:

Interconnect link TILx-HL

The TILx interconnect link is a composite module, made up by a transmitter and a receiver module both on master and on slave side: Master side - TDTX 300 (transmitter module, hosted by 1 subrack slot) - TMRX 200 (receiver module, hosted by 1 subrack slot) Slave side - TDTX 300 - TSRX 2xx/8

TILx-HL
(transmitter module, hosted by 1 subrack slot) (receiver module, hosted by 3 subrack slots)

The TILx HL kit is available in EU tri-band version (EGSM 900MHz, GSM 1800MHz, UMTS), in US dual-band version (SMR 800MHz & Cellular 800MHz, PCS 1900 MHz), and in hybrid version (SMR 800MHz & Cellular 800MHz, GSM 1800MHz, UMTS). These versions just differs in the slave-side receiver TSRX module, which is the only module whose features vary with the RF transmitting band.

Block scheme
A scheme of the system, is reported hereinafter, so as describe the connections between the Interconnect-link modules and to give an insight of the function of the modules named above.

Fig.5.29 Interconnect link scheme


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Main TILx-HL functions:


Downlink: Master side: RF-to-Optical conversion of the signal coming from the splitting/combining section, and transmission to the slave i-link modules via fiberoptics cable; Modulation and RF-to-Optical conversion of the bus information, and transmission to the slave i-link modules via fiberoptics cable (on 1310 nm wavelength); Slave side Optical-to-RF conversion of signal and alarm information, with Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in order to compensate the optical losses; Distribution of the RF signal to the TFLN optical TRXs, and demodulation of the bus information Uplink: Master side: Optical-to-RF conversion of signal and alarm information, with Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in order to compensate optical losses Distribution of the RF signal to the splitting/combining section, and demodulation of the alarm information

TILx-HL

Slave side: RF-to-Optical conversion of the signal coming from the TFLN optical TRXs, and transmission to the master i-link modules via fiberoptics cable; Modulation and RF-to-Optical conversion of the alarm information, and transmission to the master i-link modules via fiberoptics cable (on 1310 nm wavelength);

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TILx-HL Master Side: TDTX300 transmitter + TMRX200 receiver

Fig.5.30 The i-link master side is made up by a TDTX300 transmitter and by a TMRX200 receiver
RF out port connected to TDTX300 master(SMA-f) DL RF port (SMA-f) Alarm in port connected to TMRX200 master (SMB-m) Alarm out port connected to TDTX300 master (SMB-m)

RF in port connected to TMRX200 master (SMA-f)

TILx-HL

GREEN LED: power on RED LED: major alarm

GREEN LED: power on RED LED: major alarm UL RF port (SMA-f)

Optical out port connected to TSRX 2xx/8 slave(SC-APC)

Optical in port connected to TDTX300 slave (SC-APC)

TDTX300

TMRX20

TILx HL Master-side: RF ports


TDTX300 transmitter: 1 RF input port , to be connected directly to the RF output port of the TMRX200 adjacent module 1 alarm input port, to be connected directly to the alarm output port of the TMRX200 adjacent module 1 RF output port, to be connected directly to the RF input port of the TDTX300 adjacent module 1 alarm output port, to be connected directly to the alarm input port of the TDTX300 adjacent module 1 RF DL port, sent to the passive devices which interface the Britecell with the BTS 1 RF UL port, coming from the passive devices which interface the Britecell with the BTS
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TMRX200 receiver:

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TILx HL Master-side: Optical ports


T DTX300 transmitter: 1 Optical output port, to be connected directly to the optical input port of the slave-side TSRX2xx/8 receiver

TMRX200 receiver:

1 Optical input port, to be connected directly to the optical output port of the slave-side TDTX300 transmitter

TILx-HL TILx HL Master-side: LED Alarms

TDTX300 transmitter:

Two control LEDs (one green, one red) are placed on the TDTX300 front panel. The green LED describes the power supply status of the TDTX module, while the red LED describes the major TDTX failure (please refer to table 5.13)

TMRX200 receiver:

Two control LEDs (one green, one red) are placed on the TMRX200 front panel. The green LED describes the power supply status of the TDTX module, while the red LED describes the major TMRX failure (please refer to table 5.14) Meaning Optical power failure, wavelength out of range, power supply failure Power supply OK

Led colour Red Green

Table 5.13: Summary of master TDTX300 LEDs meaning

Led colour Red Green

Meaning Power supply failure, modem failure, RF UL failure, AGC compensation failure Power supply OK

Table 5.14: Summary of TMRX200 LEDs meaning

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TILx - HL Slave-Side: TDTX300 transmitter + TSRX2xx/8 receiver

TDTX300

TSRX

Fig.5.31 The i-link master side is made up by a TDTX300 transmitter and by a TMRX200 receiver

RF in port connected to TSRX2xx/8 slave (SMA-f) Alarm in port connected to slave TSRX2xx/8 (SMB-m)

RF out port, connected to TDTX300 master (SMA-f)

TILx-HL

Alarm out port connected to master TDTX300 (SMB-m)

GREEN LED: power on RED LED:major alarm

GREEN LED: power on RED LED:major alarm

Optical out port , connected to TMRX200 master (SC-APC)

Optical in port, connected to TDTX-300 master (SC-APC)

DL RF ports connected to TFLN DL ports (SMA-f)

UL RF ports connected to TFLN UL ports (SMA-f)

TILx HL Slave-side: RF ports


TDTX300 transmitter: 1 RF input port , to be connected directly to the RF output port of the TSRX2xx/8 adjacent module 1 alarm input port, to be connected directly to the alarm output port of the TSRX2xx/8 adjacent module 1 RF output port, to be connected directly to the RF input port of the TDTX300 adjacent module 1 alarm output port, to be connected directly to the alarm input port of the TDTX300 adjacent module 8 RF DL ports, which can feed up to 8 TFLN local transmitters ; 8 RF UL ports, which can receive the UL signals from up to 8 TFLN local transmitters.
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TSRX2xx/8 receiver

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TILx -HL Slave-side: Optical ports


TDTX 300 transmitter:

1 Optical output port, to be connected directly to the optical input port of the master-side TMRX200 receiver 1 Optical input port, to be connected directly to the optical output port of the master-side TDTX300 transmitter

TSRX2xx/8 receiver:

TILx-HL

TILx HL Slave-side: LED Alarms


TDTX300 transmitter: Two control LEDs (one green, one red) are placed on the TDTX300 front panel. The green LED describes the power supply status of the TDTX module, while the red LED describes the major TDTX failure. TSRX2xx/8 receiver: Two control LEDs (one green, one red) are placed on the TSRX2xx/8 front panel. The green LED describes the power supply status of the TSRX module, while the red LED describes the major TSRX failure.

Led colour Red Green

Meaning Optical power failure, wavelength out of range, power supply failure Power supply OK

Table 5.15: Summary of slave TDTX300 LEDs meaning

Led colour Red Green

Meaning Power supply failure, modem failure, RF UL and DL failure, AGC compensation failure Power supply OK

Table 5.16: Summary of TSRX2xx/8 LEDs meaning

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Warnings (to be read before the TILx HL installation)


Dealing with optical output ports The TDTX modules (both on master and on slave side) contain semiconductor lasers. Invisible laser beams may be emitted from the optical output ports. Do not look towards the optical ports while equipment is switched on. Handling optical connections When inserting an optical connector, take care to handle it so smoothly that the optical fibre is not damaged. Optical fibres have to be single-mode (SM) 9.5/125m. Typically, Britecell Plus equipment is provided with SC-APC optical connectors. Inserting any other connector will result in severe damages. Do not force or stretch the fibre pigtail with radius of curvature less than 5 cm. Remove adapter caps only just before making connections. Do not leave SC-APC adapters open, as they attract dust. Unused SC-APC adapters must always be covered with their caps. Do not touch the adapter tip. Clean it with a proper tissue before inserting each connector into the sleeve. In case adapter tips need to be better cleaned, use pure ethyl alcohol Inserting or removing TDTX, TMRX, TSRX modules Do not remove or insert any module into TPRN sub-rack before having switched off main power supply. Modules must be handled with care, in order to avoid damage to electrostatic sensitive devices. When installing the modules in the sub-rack, take care to alternate active and passive cards in order to ensure proper heat dissipation. In a multi-sub-rack system, remember to assign to each sub-rack a proper RS485 bus address before installing the modules (please refer to TPRN section for further details). Placing the TILx -HL modules inside the subrack The i-link modules at slave side should be installed in the middle of the slave subrack, or at least they should have no more than 4 TFLN modules both on the right side and on the left side of the TSRX 2xx/8 module. This requirement is advised in order to allow connection between the TSRX module and all the TFLN transmitters (see fig. 5.33)

TILx-HL

TILx HL installation
Master Cable Installation Kit: 1 SMA-Male/SMA-Male RF jumpers 1 SMB-Female/SMB-Female RF jumper Slave Cable Installation Kit: 17 SMA-Male/SMA-Male RF jumpers 1 SMB-Female/SMB-Female RF jumper

Both on master side and on slave side, the i-link modules are to be housed into a TPRN active sub-rack.
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On the master-side station, the i-link modules are to be housed into 2 adjiacent slots, chosen among the 12 available ones in the subrack. On the slave-side subrack, the i-link modules are to be housed into 4 adjiacent slots: moreover, due to the particular cabling they require, these 4 adjiacent slots should be placed in mid-subrack, so that no more than 4 TFLN local units stay on each side of the i-link modules (as shown in fig. 5.33). Note: If the i-link modules are to be installed in an already working Master Unit, switch off the sub-racks before inserting the modules. Before inserting the boards into the TPRNx4 subracks, make sure to set proper RS485 addresses. A basic rule of the Britecell installation is that 2 subracks belonging to the same Master Unit should always have different RS485 addresses (please refer to TPRN Installation section): since the interconnect-link basically provides an extension of the Master Unit bus, any subrack on the i-link master-side should also have a RS485 address different from any subrack on the i-link slave side. Please refer to TPRNx4 Installation section for more information on setting the RS485 address. Firstly, carefully insert the TMRX200 and the TDTX300 boards in 2 adjacent slots of the Master side subrack. Lock the 4 screws on the corners of each boards. Use the provided SMA-m RF jumper in order to connect the RF Out Port of the TMRX200 module to the RF In Port of the adjacent TDTX300 module. Use the SMB-f jumper to connect the 10.7MHz ports of the two boards. Fix these RF jumpers to the RF ports through a proper torque wrench (not included). Remove the protection cap from the optical ports of the 2 modules on the master side. Take a SC-APC fiber, clean the fibre termination, and connect it to the optical

TILx-HL

RF jumper (SMA-m / SMA-m)

RF jumper (SMB-f / SMB-f)

UL optical cable
Fig. 5.32: TILx-HL master side

DL optical cable

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out port of the master-side TDTX300 module. (This fiber shall be directly connected to the optical in port of the TSRX2xx/8 module on the slave-side subrack) Take a SC-APC fiber, clean the fibre termination, and connect it to the optical in port of the TMRX200 module (This fiber shall be directly connected to the optical out port of the TDTX300 on the slave-side subrack) Carefully insert the TSRX2xx/8 and the TDTX300 boards in 4 adjacent slots of the Master side subrack. As already explained, take care not to have more than 4 TFLN modules on each side of the i-link pieces. Lock the 4 screws on the corners of each boards. Use the provided SMA-m RF jumper in order to connect the RF Out Port of the TSRX2xx/8 module to the RF In Port of the adjacent TDTX300 module. Use the SMB-f jumper to connect the 10.7MHz ports of the two boards. Use the longer RF jumpers (included) to connect each pair of TSRX UL and DL ports to the corresponding UL and DL ports of each TFLN module mounted on slave-side subrack. If less than 8 TFLNs are used at slave-side, make sure to mask the TSRX-2xx/8 unused DL and UL ports by SMA loads (not provided).

TILx-HL

Remove the protection cap from the optical ports of the 2 modules on the slave side. Take a SC-APC fibre, clean the fibre termination, and connect it to the optical out port of the master-side TDTX300 module. This fiber has to be directly connected to the optical in port of the TMRX200 module of the master-side subrack. Use a specific torque wrench to fix the RF cables to the RF ports. Take a SC-APC fiber, clean the fibre termination, and connect it to the optical in port of the TSRX200 module. This fiber has to be directly connected to the optical out port of the TDTX300 on the master-side subrack.

DL optical cable

UL optical cable

Fig. 5.33: TILx-HL slave side

As you switch on the system, carefully refer to the TILx-HL start-up section.

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Removing a TILx - HL module


To remove an i-link module, firstly switch off the TPRNx4 subrack which houses the module. Remove the fibers and the RF jumpers connected to the i-link module which is going to be removed. Insert the caps on the optical ports which has just been disconnected. Unscrew the 4 screws at the corners of the i-link module which is going to removed, and slowly remove the card.

TILx- Put the card in its safety box -HL

TILx HL start-up
Before both the master-side station and the slave-side station(s) are switched on, make sure that: all expected modules have been inserted into the Master Unit the modules have been connected each other by RF jumpers, according to what planned in the system design the i-link master modules have been connected to the relevant slave side modules through fiberoptics cables; every TFLN master optical TRX has been connected to relevant remote units each remote unit has been connected to its coverage antennas the remote supervision unit, if present, has been connected to the Master Unit both on the master-side and on slave-side stations, the different subracks are connected each other via bus RS485 After that, remember that all remote units have to be switched on before the master-side and the slave-side subracks. When all the remote units are on, the different subracks (at master-side and slave-side) can be switched on. Once all the active subracks have been switched on, the behaviour of the different i-link modules can be summarized as follows: o All the LEDs on the different i-link modules (both on master side and on slave side) turn on for a couple of seconds; o After that, all the green LEDs on the different modules remain ON (thus indicating proper power supply), while the red LEDs switch off as soon as the master-side and the slave-side detect each other; o During normal working operations, the LEDs on the front panels of the TILx modules should behave according to what described in table 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16; o Once all the master-side and slave-side subracks have been switched on, the system should begin to work correctly. Anyway, in order that the i-link modules are recognized by the supervision management system, it is necessary that the system carries out the discovery phase (please refer to Supervision System Manual for more details). During this phase,
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whose duration depends on the system complexity and which can last at max. 4min, the TFLN LEDs blink. Do not connect/disconnect any cable or any piece of equipment during the discovery phase! This may result in failing the identification of some equipment. Note: in case discovery doesnt start automatically, check through the LMT or the remote supervision whether it has been disabled (refer to LMT or remote supervision system manuals for further information). o Finally, please note that the receiver module TSRX2xx/8 has only one connection with the subrack backplane, so that the LMT software and the supervision system will detect it as a 1-slot card. More in details, only the slot which hosts the TSRX LED alarms is recognized by LMT or supervision. The other 2 slots hosting the TSRX receiver are therefore to be masked through the LMT or the Supervision System Interface (please refer to the relevant user manuals) in order to avoid fictitious alarm notifications.

TILx-HL

TILx HL troubleshooting
Faults on the i-link modules can be revealed: by LEDs on the front panels of the modules themselves by the LMT software running on a PC connected to a master side or a slaveside subrack via RS232 port; by the supervision system interface managed by the remote supervision unit, usually placed conveniently on the master-side. Both LMT and supervision system provide full information about the device causing the alarm. As a consequence, troubleshooting procedure can be very immediate when failure detection is directly carried out through LMT or supervision system. The tables 5.17, 5.18, 5.19 reports a brief description of alarm related to the different i-link modules, together with a reference to corresponding alerted LEDs and to possible recovery actions. As shown by these tables, the LEDs show only the alarms concerning the board where they are housed: so, a red LED which is switched on at TSRX front side reveals an alarm affecting the TSRX module itself (it does not deals with the alarms affecting the other module of the i-link slave-side, which is an TDTX300, and whose alarms will be detected by its own LEDs). Moreover, these tables show that the LEDs reveals only major alarms, whereas the minor alarms (i.e. the low priority ones) are revealed only by the LMT software or through the TSUN supervision system. The minor alarms usually detect critical situations which should be checked so as to avoid future possibile system faults. Although any alarm detected by a LED on the i-link modules should be verified through LMT or supervision software when an accurate check is needed, some ordinary maintenance procedures could be carried out quickly following the instructions described hereinafter

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TDTX 300 (master side or slave side)


ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
Vcc alarm

ALARM DESCRIPTION
There is a degradation on the power supply provided by the backplane The received optical power experiences a degradation which is near to the AGC working threshold (but it can still compensate losses) The transmitted optical power experiences a degradation which can no more be compensated by the AGC. Over-temperature alarm (lower than 0 C or higher than 65 C)

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL


MAJOR

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)


MAJOR

RED

Return the unit Check the optical loss / AGC status on the TSRX or TMRX module at the other side of the imterconnect link

TILx-HL

Optical power <1dB

NONE

MINOR

MINOR

Optical power <3dB

RED

MINOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

Temperature Alarm

NONE

WARNING

Check the subracks ventilation; verify the environmental conditions involving heating and air circulation

MINOR

Table 5.17: Description of TDTX300 alarms, as they are described by the LMT software or by the suspervision interface

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TMRX 200
ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
Power supply alarm

ALARM DESCRIPTION
There is a degradation in power supply distribution The received optical power experiences a degradation which is near to the AGC working threshold (but it can still compensate losses) The transmitted optical power experiences a degradation which can no more be compensated by the AGC

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL


MAJOR

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)


MAJOR

RED

Return the unit Check the optical loss / AGC status on the TSRX or TMRX module at the other side of the imterconnect link

RX1 AGC out of range

NONE

WARNING

MINOR

TILx-HL
MAJOR

RX1 Optical power fail

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

Temperature alarm

Over-temperature alarm

NONE

WARNING

Check the subrack and cabinet ventilation, verify the environmental conditions involving heating and air circulation Return the unit Return the unit Return the unit

MINOR

FSK modem alarm UL RF alarm Current Fail

HW problem on the 10.7 MHz FSK modem UL hardware failure Overcurrent alarm

RED RED RED

CRITICAL MAJOR MAJOR

MAJOR MAJOR MAJOR

Table 5.18: Description of TMRX200 alarms, as they are described by the LMT software or by the suspervision interface

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TSRX 2xx/8
ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
Power supply alarm

ALARM DESCRIPTION
There is a degradation in power supply distribution The received optical power experiences a degradation which is near to the AGC working threshold (but it can still compensate losses) The transmitted optical power experiences a degradation which can no more be compensated by the AGC

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL


MAJOR

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)


MAJOR

RED

Return the unit

RX1 AGC out of range

NONE

WARNING

TILx-HL
RX1 Optical power fail

Check the optical loss / AGC status on the TSRX or TMRX module at the other side of the interconnect link

MINOR

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

Temperature alarm

Over-temperature alarm

NONE

WARNING

Check the subrack and cabinet ventilation, verify the environmental conditions involving heating and air circulation Return the unit

MINOR

FSK modem alarm DL Low band RF alarm DL High band RF alarm DL UMTS RF alarm (only on TSRX 247/8 version) UL Low-band RF Alarm UL High-band RF Alarm UL UMTS RF alarm (only on TSRX 247/8 version) Current Fail

HW problem on the 10.7 MHz FSK modulator/demodulator HW failure on the DL RF low band HW failure on the DL RF high band HW failure on the DL RF UMTS band HW failure on the UL RF low band HW failure on the UL RF high band HW failure on the UL UMTS band Overcurrent alarm

RED

CRITICAL

MAJOR

RED RED

CRITICAL CRITICAL

Return the unit Return the unit

MAJOR MAJOR

RED

CRITICAL

Return the unit

MAJOR

RED RED

CRITICAL CRITICAL

Return the unit Return the unit

MAJOR MAJOR

RED

CRITICAL

Return the unit

MAJOR

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

Table 5.19: Description of TSRX2xx/8 alarms, as they are described by the LMT software or by the suspervision interface

TDTX-300 module troubleshooting


The TDTX module is an optical transmitter whose alarm status cannot be influenced by dirt optical adapters or by some problems in fiberoptics cables towards the opposite i-link side. If the red light is switched on in the TDTX front panel, please check if you have connected properly the

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RF jumper. If the RF connection proves to be ok and the red LED keep on switching on, please contact the manufacturer.

TMRX-200 module troubleshooting


Ordinary troubleshooting procedures which can be carried out on TMRX-200 module first involve a check of the optical adapter status and of the fiberoptics cable. If the alarm status still persists, a reboot of both the TMRX-200 module and of the TSRX-2xx/8 module can be performed so as to re-inizialize the link.

Quick TMRX-200 troubleshooting procedure


(The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 5.34a) In case the red LED is ON, please follow these steps: 1. Clean the optical adapter 2. If the problem still persists, refer to the TMRX/TSRX fiber optic troubleshooting so as to check if the optical cable or optical connection has any problem on DL path 3. If previous actions didnt make the LED switch off, a reboot of both the TMRX-200 module and of the TSRX-2xx/8 module (on the slave-side) could be performed so as to re-inizialize the link. 4. If the red LED still remains on, please check the alarm status by the LMT or the supervision unit in order to better understand the problem and its possible solution.

TILx-HL

TMRX/TSRX fiber optic troubleshooting


(The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 5.34b) 1. Check if there is any point where fibre experiences a short radius of curvature. In this case, rearrange the optical path in order to avoid sharp bends (if necessary, replace the optical cable with a longer one). If TMRX (TSRX) red LED switches off, troubleshooting has been successfully carried out. Otherwise, follow next steps. 2. Check if SC-APC connectors are properly installed at both fibre ends. In case they are not, fix more firmly the SC-SPC connectors to their adapters. If the TMRX (TSRX) red LED switches off, troubleshooting has been successful. Otherwise, follow next steps. 3. Disconnect the optical fibre and clean it better at both ends, then clean also the relevant SC-APC adapters. Re-connect the fibre to relevant ports after cleaning. If it doesnt make TMRX (TSRX) red LED switch off, follow next steps. 4. Disconnect the fiber from the TMRX (TSRX) port, and measure the power Pout which comes out from the fiber. Then, go to the module where the other end of the fiber is connected (it can be either on the slave side and on the master side, depending on the fiber or on the jumper you are verifying), disconnect it and measure the input power Pin coming out of the port. Calculate the fibre attenuation A due to the fiberoptics cable: Af [dB] = Pin Pout a. If ADL > 10 dB, then the fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it with a new one. b. If ADL < 10 dB troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact the manufacturer for assistance.

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TSRX-2xx/8 module troubleshooting


Ordinary troubleshooting procedures which can be carried out on TMRX-200 module first involve a check of the optical adapters status and of the fiberoptics cables. If the alarm status still persists, a reboot of both the TMRX-200 module and of the TSRX-2xx/8 module can be performed so as to verify if the problem depends on a failed modem connectivity.

Quick TSRX-2xx/8 troubleshooting procedure


(The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 5.34c) In case the red LED is ON, please follow these steps: 1. Clean the optical adapter 2. If the problem still persists, refer to the fibre optic DL troubleshooting so as to check if the optical cable or optical connection has any problem on DL path 3. If previous actions didnt make the LED switch off, a reboot of both the TSRX-2xx/8 module and of the TMRX-200 module (on the master side) could be performed so as to test modem connectivity. 4. If the red LED still remains on, please check the alarm status by the LMT or the supervision unit in order to better understand the problem and its possible solution.

TILx-HL

start

Is the red LED ON upon the TMRX 200? Yes

No

Clean the SC-APC optical adapter and connector

Is red LED upon TMRX 200 still ON? Yes

No

Optical cable or optical connections may have some problems. Refer to TMRX/TSRX fiberoptic troubleshooting (fig. 5.34c)

Reboot both the TMRX-200 module (on i-link slave side) and the TMRX-200 (on i-link master-side)

Yes

Is red LED upon TMRX 200 still ON?

No

Is red LED upon TMRX 200 still ON? No

Yes

Quick troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact the manufacturer

end

Fig. 5.34(a): Flow-chart describing the quick TMRX200 troubleshooting.


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start

Is there any point where the fibre experiences a small radius of curvature?

Yes

Rearrange the optical path to avoid sharp bends. If necessary replace the optical cable with a longer one.

No Yes Is red LED upon TMRX/TSRX still ON? No

Are SC-APC connectors properly installed at both fibre ends?

No

Fix better SCAPC connectors

TILx-HL

Yes Yes Is red LED upon TMRX/TSRX ON? No

Disconnect the fiber optic cable and clean it at both ends.

Clean the optical SC-APC ports corresponding to both the fiber ends

Reconnect the fibre to relevant ports

Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TMRX/TSRX

Yes

Is red LED upon TMRX/TSRX still ON?

No

Measure the output power at corresponding fibre end. Connect the adapter again

Go to the module where the other end of the fiber is connected, disconnect the corresponding SCAPC connector , and measure the corresponding input power. Then connect the adapter again.

Calculate fibre attenuation A[dB]=input power - output power

Is A > 10dB?

Yes

Fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it.

No Quick troubleshooting procedure has not identified any problem on the fiber optics cable end

Fig. 5.34(b): Flow-chart describing the TMRX/TSRX fiberoptic troubleshooting.

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start

Is the red LED ON upon the TSRX 2xx/8? Yes

No

Clean the SC-APC optical adapter and connector

Is red LED upon TSRX 2xx/8 still ON? Yes

No

TILx-HL

Optical cable or optical connections may have some problems. Refer to TMRX/TSRX fiberoptic troubleshooting (fig. 5.34c)

Reboot both the TSRX-2xx/8 module (on i-link slave side) and the TMRX-200 (on i-link master-side)

Yes

Is red LED upon TSRX 2xx/8 still ON?

No

Is red LED upon TSRX 2xx/8 still ON? No

Yes

Quick troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact the manufacturer

end

Fig. 5.34(c): Flow-chart describing the quick TSRX2xx/8 troubleshooting.

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Module name:
5.11.3. TILx-HLW i-link Module description:
The WDM interconnect link is a composite module, made up by a transmitter and a receiver module both on master and on slave side:

WDM interconnect link TILx-HLW

Master side -TDTX-300 (transmitter module, hosted by 1 subrack slot) -TMRX-500 (receiver module, hosted by 1 subrack slot) Slave side -TDTX-500 (transmitter module, hosted by 1 subrack slot) -TMRX-3xx/8 (receiver module, hosted by 3 subrack slots) The TILx HLW kit is available in EU tri-band version (EGSM 900MHz, GSM 1800MHz, UMTS), in US dual-band version (SMR 800MHz & Cellular 800MHz, PCS 1900 MHz), and in hybrid version (SMR 800MHz & Cellular 800MHz, GSM 1800MHz, UMTS). These versions just differs in the slave-side receiver TSRX module, which is the only module whose features vary with the RF transmitting band.

TILxHLW

Block scheme
A scheme of the system, is reported hereinafter, so as describe the connections between the Interconnect-link modules and to give an insight of the function of the modules named above.

Fig.5.35 Scheme of the WDM interconnect link


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Main TILx-HLW functions:


Downlink: Master side: RF-to-Optical conversion of the signal coming from the splitting/combining section, and transmission to the slave i-link modules via fiberoptics cable; Modulation and RF-to-Optical conversion of the bus information, and transmission to the slave i-link modules via fiberoptics cable (on 1310 nm wavelength); Slave side

TILxHLW

Optical-to-RF conversion of signal and alarm information, with Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in order to compensate the optical losses; Distribution of the RF signal to the TFLN optical TRXs, and demodulation of the bus information Uplink: Master side: Optical-to-RF conversion of signal and alarm information, with Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in order to compensate optical losses Distribution of the RF signal to the splitting/combining section, and demodulation of the alarm information Slave side: RF-to-Optical conversion of the signal coming from the TFLN optical TRXs, and transmission to the master i-link modules via fiberoptics cable; Modulation and RF-to-Optical conversion of the alarm information, and transmission to the master i-link modules via fiberoptics cable (on 1310 nm wavelength);

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TILx-HLW Master Side: TDTX300 transmitter + TMRX500 receiver


Fig. 5.36: WDM i-link master side is made up by a TDTX300 transmitter and by a TMRX500 receiver

RF port connected to TDTX300 master (SMA-f) RF port connected to TMRX500 master (SMA-f) DL RF port (SMA-f) Alarm out port connected to TDTX300 master (SMB-m) Optical port connected to slave TSRX3xx/8 (SCAPC) GREEN LED: power on RED LED: major alarm GREEN LED: power on RED LED: major alarm UL RF port (SMA-f) Optical port connected to TDTX300 master (SC-APC)

Alarm in port connected to TMRX500 master (SMB-m)

TILxHLW

Optical port connected to TMRX 500 master (SC-APC)

TDTX300

TMRX500

TILx-HLW Master-side: RF ports


TDTX300 transmitter 1 RF input port , to be connected directly to the RF output port of the TMRX500 adjacent module 1 alarm input port, to be connected directly to the alarm output port of the TMRX500 adjacent module 1 RF output port, to be connected directly to the RF input port of the TDTX300 adjacent module 1 alarm output port, to be connected directly to the alarm input port of the TDTX300 adjacent module 1 RF DL port, sent to the passive devices which interface the Britecell with the BTS 1 RF UL port, coming from the passive devices which interface the Britecell with the BTS

TMRX500 receiver

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TILx-HLW Master-side: Optical ports


TDTX300 transmitter: 1 output port (1310 out), to be connected directly to the optical input port of the master-side TMRX500 receiver 1 input port (1310 in), to be connected directly to the optical output port of the master-side TDTX300 transmitter 1 WDM TRX port (1310/1550), to be connected to the TSRX3xx/8 module on the slave side

TMRX500 receiver:

TILx-HLW Master-side: LED Alarms TILxHLW TDTX300 transmitter: Two control LEDs (one green, one red) are placed on
the TDTX300 front panel. The green LED describes the power supply status of the TDTX module, while the red LED describes the major TDTX failure. TMRX500 receiver Two control LEDs (one green, one red) are placed on the TMRX500 front panel. The green LED describes the power supply status of the TDTX module, while the red LED describes the major TMRX failure.

Led colour
Red Green

Meaning
Optical power failure, wavelength out of range, power supply failure Power supply OK

Table 5.20. Summary of TDTX300 LEDs meaning

Led colour
Red Green

Meaning
Power supply failure, modem failure, RF UL failure, AGC compensation failure Power supply OK

Table 5.21 summary of TMRX500 LEDs meaning

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TILx-HLW Slave-Side: TDTX500 transmitter + TSRX3xx/8 receiver


Fig.5.37: the WDM i-link master side is made up by a TDTX500 transmitter and by a TSRX3xx receiver
RF Rx port from TDTX500 slave (SMA-f)

TDTX 500

TSRX 3xx/8

RF port connected to TSRX3xx/8 slave (SMA-f)

RF port connected to TSRX3xx/8 slave (SMB-m)

RF Rx port from TDTX500 slave (SMB-m)

GREEN LED: pwr on RED LED:major alarm

GREEN LED: power on RED LED:major alarm

TILxHLW

Optical port to be connected to TMRX-500 master (SC-APC)

Optical ports to connect each other by the fiber optic jumper

DL ports connected to TFLN DL ports (SMA-f)

UL ports connected to TFLN UL ports (SMA-f)

WDM I-link Slave-side: RF ports


TDTX500 transmitter: 1 RF input port , to be connected directly to the RF output port of the TSRX3xx/8 adjacent module 1 alarm input port, to be connected directly to the alarm output port of the TSRX3xx/8 adjacent 1 RF output port, to be connected directly to the RF input port of the TDTX300 adjacent module 1 alarm output port, to be connected directly to the alarm input port of the TDTX300 adjacent module 8 RF DL ports, which can feed up to 8 TFLN local transmitters ; 8 RF UL ports, which can receive the UL signals from up to 8 TFLN local transmitters.

TSRX 3xx/8 receiver

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WDM I-link Slave-side: Optical ports


TDTX 500 transmitter: 1 output port (1550 out), to be connected directly to the optical input port of the slave-side TSRX 3xx/8 receiver 1 input port(1550 in), to be connected directly to the optical output port of the slave-side TDTX500 transmitter 1 WDM TRX port (1310/1550nm), to be connected to the TMRX500 module on the master side

TSRX 3xx/8 receiver:

TILxHLW

WDM I-link Slave-side: LED Alarms


TDTX500 transmitter: Two control LEDs (one green, one red) are placed on the TDTX300 front panel. The green LED describes the power supply status of the TDTX module, while the red LED describes the major TDTX failure. TSRX 3xx/8 receiver Two control LEDs (one green, one red) are placed on the TSRX3xx/8 front panel. The green LED describes the power supply status of the TDTX module, while the red LED describes the major TSRX failure.

Led colour
Red Green

Meaning Optical power failure, wavelength out of range, power supply failure Power supply OK

Table 5.22: Summary of TDTX500 LEDs meaning

Led colour
Red Green

Meaning Power supply failure, modem failure, RF UL and DL failure, AGC compensation failure Power supply OK

Table 5.23: Summary of TSRX3xx/8 LEDs meaning

Warnings (to be read before the TILx-HLW installation)


Dealing with optical output ports The TDTX modules (both on master and on slave side) contain semiconductor lasers. Invisible laser beams may be emitted from the
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Handling optical connections When inserting an optical connector, take care to handle it so smoothly that the optical fibre is not damaged. Optical fibres have to be single-mode (SM) 9.5/125m. Typically, Britecell Plus equipment is provided with SC-APC optical connectors. Inserting any other connector will result in severe damages. Do not force or stretch the fibre pigtail with radius of curvature less than 5 cm. Remove adapter caps only just before making connections. Do not leave SC-APC adapters open, as they attract dust. Unused SC-APC adapters must always be covered with their caps. Do not touch the adapter tip. Clean it with a proper tissue before inserting each connector into the sleeve. In case adapter tips need to be better cleaned, use pure ethyl alcohol Inserting or removing TDTX, TMRX, TSRX modules Do not remove or insert any module into TPRN sub-rack before having switched off main power supply. Modules must be handled with care, in order to avoid damage to electrostatic sensitive devices. When installing the modules in the sub-rack, take care to alternate active and passive cards in order to ensure proper heat dissipation. In a multi-sub-rack system, remember to assign to each sub-rack a proper RS485 bus address before installing the modules (please refer to TPRN section for further details). Positioning the TILx-HLW modules inside the subrack The i-link modules at slave side should be installed in the middle of the slave subrack, or at least they should have no more than 4 TFLN modules both on the right side and on the left side of the TSRX 3xx/8 module. This requirement is advised in order to allow connection between the TSRX module and all the TFLN transmitters (see fig. 5.39)

optical output ports. Do not look towards the optical ports while equipment is switched on.

TILxHLW

TILx-HLW installation
The TILx-HLW modules are provided with: Master Cable Installation Kit: 1 SMA-Male/SMA-Male RF jumpers 1 SMB-Female/SMB-Female RF jumper 1 Fiber Optic Jumper Slave Cable Installation Kit: 17 SMA-Male/SMA-Male RF jumpers 1 SMB-Female/SMB-Female RF jumper 1 Fiber Optic Jumper

Both on master side and on slave side, the WDM i-link modules are to be housed into a TPRN active sub-rack.
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On the master-side station, the WDM i-link modules are to be housed into 2 adjiacent slots, chosen among the 12 available ones in the subrack. On the slave-side subrack, the WDM i-link modules are to be housed into 4 adjiacent slots: moreover, due to the particular cabling they require, these 4 adjiacent slots should be placed in mid-subrack, so that no more than 4 TFLN local units stay on each side of the WDM i-link modules (see fig. 5.39). Note: If the TILx-HLW modules are to be installed in an already working Master Unit, switch off the sub-racks before inserting the modules. Before inserting the boards into the TPRNx4 subracks, make sure to set proper RS485 addresses. A basic rule of the Britecell installation is that 2 subracks belonging to the same Master Unit should always have different RS485 addresses (please refer to TPRN Installation section): since the interconnect-link basically provides an extension of the Master Unit bus, any subrack on the i-link master-side should also have a RS485 address different from any subrack on the i-link slave side. Please refer to TPRNx4 Installation section for more information on setting the RS485 address. Firstly, carefully insert the TMRX-500 and the TDTX-300 boards in 2 adjacent slots of the Master side subrack. Lock the 4 screws on the corners of each boards. Use the provided SMA-m RF jumper in order to connect the RF Out Port of the TMRX500 module to the RF In Port of the adjacent TDTX300 module. Use the SMB-f jumper to connect the 10.7MHz ports of the two boards. Fix these RF jumpers to the RF ports through a proper torque wrench (not included). Remove the protection cap from the optical ports of the 2 modules on the master side. Take the optical jumper, clean the fibre connectors, and use it to connect the 1310 output port of the TDTX 300 and the 1310 input port of the TMRX500 RF jumper (SMA-m / SMA-m)

TILxHLW

RF jumper (SMB-f / SMB-f)

optical jumper
Fig. 5.38: TILx-HLW master side

UL/DL optical cable


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module. Take a SC-APC fiber, clean the fibre termination, and connect it to the 1310/1550 TRX port of the TMRX 500 module (This fiber shall be directly connected to the 1310/1550 TRX port of the TSRX 3xx/8 on the slave-side subrack) Carefully insert the TSRX-3xx/8 and the TDTX-500 boards in 4 adjacent slots of the Master side subrack. As already explained, take care not to have more than 4 TFLN modules on each side of the i-link pieces. Lock the 4 screws on the corners of each boards. Use the provided SMA-m RF jumper in order to connect the RF Out Port of the TSRX 3xx/8 module to the RF In Port of the adjacent TDTX500 module. Use the SMB-f jumper to connect the 10.7MHz ports of the two boards. Use the longer RF jumpers (included) to connect each pair of TSRX UL and DL ports to the corresponding UL and DL ports of each TFLN module mounted on slave-side subrack. If less than 8 TFLNs are used at slave-side, make sure to mask the TSRX-3xx/8 unused DL and UL ports by SMA loads (not provided). Remove the protection cap from the optical ports of the 2 modules on the slave side. Take the optical jumper, clean the fibre connectors, and use it to connect the 1550 output port of the TDTX500 and the 1550 input port of the TSRX3xx/8 module. Connect the 1310/1550 TRX port of the TSRX3xx/8 module to the fiberoptics cable coming from the 1310/1550 TRX port of the TMRX500 module on the master-side.

TILxHLW

UL/DL optical cable

Optical jumper

Fig. 5.39: TILx-HLW slave side

As you switch on the system, carefully refer to the TILx-HLW start-up section.

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Removing a TILx-HLW module


To remove a TILx-HLW module, firstly switch off the TPRNx4 subrack which houses the module. Remove the fibers and the RF jumpers connected to the WDM i-link module which is going to be removed. Insert the caps on the optical ports which has just been disconnected. Unscrew the 4 screws at the corners of the WDM i-link module which is going to removed, and slowly remove the card. Put the card in its safety box

TILxTILx-WDM start-up HLW


Before both the master side station and the slave-side stations are switched on, make sure that: all expected modules have been inserted into the Master Unit the modules have been connected each other by RF jumpers, according to what planned in the system design the TILx-HLW master modules have been connected to the relevant TILxHLW slave modules through fiberoptics cables; every TFLN master optical TRX has been connected to relevant remote units each remote unit has been connected to its coverage antennas the remote supervision unit, if present, has been connected to the Master Unit both on the master-side and on slave-side stations, different subracks are connected each other via bus RS485 After that, remember that only when all the remote units are already on, the different subracks composing the Master Unit can be switched on. Once all the active subracks have been switched on, the behaviour of the different ilink modules can be summarized as follows: o All the LEDs on the different TILx-HLW modules (both on master side and on slave side) turn on for a couple of seconds; o After that, all the green LEDs on the different modules remain ON (thus indicating proper power supply), while the red LEDs switch off as soon as the master-side and the slave-side detect each other; o During normal working operations, the status of the LED should be the one described in table 3. o Once all the master-side and slave-side subracks have been switched on, the system should begin to work correctly. Anyway, in order that the i-link modules are recognized by the supervision management system, it is necessary that the system carries out the discovery phase (please refer to Supervision System Manual for more details). During this phase, whose duration depends on the system complexity and which can last at max. 4min, the TFLN LEDs blink. Do not connect/disconnect any
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cable or any piece of equipment during the discovery phase! This may result in failing the identification of some equipment. Note: in case discovery doesnt start automatically, check through the LMT or the remote supervision whether it has been disabled (refer to LMT or remote supervision system manuals for further information). o Finally, please note that the receiver module TSRX3xx/8 has only one connection with the subrack backplane, so that the LMT software and the supervision system will detect it as a 1-slot card. More in details, only the slot which hosts the TSRX LED alarms is recognized by LMT or supervision. The other 2 slots hosting the TSRX receiver are therefore to be masked through the LMT or the Supervision System Interface (please refer to the relevant user manuals) in order to avoid fictitious alarm notifications.

TILx-HLW troubleshooting
Faults on the i-link modules can be revealed: by LEDs on the front panels of the modules themselves by the LMT software running on a PC connected to a master side or a slaveside subrack via RS232 port; by the supervision system interface managed by the remote supervision unit, usually placed conveniently on the master-side. Both LMT and supervision system provide full information about the device causing the alarm. As a consequence, troubleshooting procedure can be very immediate when failure detection is directly carried out through LMT or supervision system. The tables 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27 report a brief description of alarm related to the different i-link modules, together with a reference to corresponding alerted LEDs and to possible recovery actions.

TILxHLW

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TDTX300 (master side)


ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
Vcc alarm

ALARM DESCRIPTION
There is a degradation on the power supply provided by the backplane The received optical power experiences a degradation which is near to the AGC working threshold (but it can still compensate losses) The transmitted optical power experiences a degradation which can no more be compensated by the AGC.

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)


MAJOR

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

Optical Power < 1dB

NONE

MINOR

Check the optical loss / AGC status on the TSRX or TMRX module at the other side of the imterconnect link

MINOR

TILxHLW

Optical power < 3 dB

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

Temperature Alarm

Over-temperature alarm

NONE

WARNING

Check the subrack and cabinet ventilation, verify the environmental conditions involving heating and air circulation

MINOR

Table 5.24: Description of the TDTX300 alarms, as they are described by the LMT software or by the supervisione interface

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TMRX500 (master side)


ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
Power supply alarm

ALARM DESCRIPTION
There is a degradation in power supply distribution The received optical power experiences a degradation which is near to the AGC working threshold (but it can still compensate losses) The transmitted optical power experiences a degradation which can no more be compensated by the AGC

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL


MAJOR

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)


MAJOR

RED

Return the unit Check the optical loss / AGC status on the TSRX or TMRX module at the other side of the imterconnect link

AGC out of range

NONE

WARNING

MINOR

Optical power fail

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

Temperature alarm

Over-temperature alarm

NONE

WARNING

Check the subrack and cabinet ventilation, verify the environmental conditions involving heating and air circulation Return the unit

TILxHLW
MINOR

FSK modem alarm

HW problem on the 10.7 MHz FSK modulator/ demodulator UL Hardware failure

RED

CRITICAL

MAJOR

UL RF alarm

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

Current Fail

Overcurrent alarm

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

Table 5.25: Description of the TMRX500 alarms, as they are described by the LMT software or by the supervisione interface

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TDTX500 (slave side)


ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
Vcc alarm

ALARM DESCRIPTION
There is a degradation on the power supply provided by the backplane The received optical power experiences a degradation which is near to the AGC working threshold (but it can still compensate losses) The transmitted optical power experiences a degradation which can no more be compensated by the AGC.

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)


MAJOR

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

Optical power < 1 dB

NONE

MINOR

Check the optical loss / AGC status on the TSRX or TMRX module at the other side of the imterconnect link

MINOR

TILxHLW

Optical power < 3 dB

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

Temperature Alarm

Over-temperature alarm

NONE

WARNING

Check the subrack and cabinet ventilation, verify the environmental conditions involving heating and air circulation

MINOR

Table 5.26: Description of the TDTX500 alarms, as they are described by the LMT software or by the supervisione interface

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TSRX3xx/8 (slave side)


ALARM CODE (TSUN description)
Power supply alarm

ALARM DESCRIPTION
There is a degradation in power supply distribution The received optical power experiences a degradation which is near to the AGC working threshold (but it can still compensate losses) The transmitted optical power experiences a degradation which can no more be compensated by the AGC

ACTIVE LED

SUPERVISION PRIORITY LEVEL


MAJOR

ACTION RECOMMENDED

REL PRIORITY LEVEL (subrack)


MAJOR

RED

Return the unit

AGC out of range

NONE

WARNING

Check the optical loss / AGC status on the TSRX or TMRX module at the other side of the interconnect link

MINOR

Optical power fail

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

TILxHLW

Temperature alarm

Over-temperature alarm

NONE

WARNING

Check the subrack and cabinet ventilation, verify the environmental conditions involving heating and air circulation Return the unit

MINOR

FSK modem alarm DL Low band RF alarm DL High band RF alarm DL UMTS RF alarm (only on TSRX 347/8 version) UL Low band RF alarm UL High band RF alarm UL UMTS RF alarm (only on TSRX 347/8 version) Current Fail

HW problem on the 10.7 MHz FSK modulator/demodulator HW failure on the DL RF low band HW failure on the DL RF high band

RED

CRITICAL

MAJOR

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

HW failure on the DL RF UMTS band HW failure on the UL RF low band HW failure on the UL RF high band HW failure on the UL RF UMTS band Overcurrent alarm

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

RED RED

MAJOR MAJOR

Return the unit Return the unit

MAJOR MAJOR

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

RED

MAJOR

Return the unit

MAJOR

Table 5.27: Description of the TSRX3xx/8 alarms, as they are described by the LMT software or by the supervisione interface

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TILxHLW

As shown by these tables, the LEDs show only the alarms concerning the board where they are housed: so, a red LED which is switched on at TSRX front side reveals an alarm affecting the TSRX module itself (it does not deals with the alarms affecting the other module of the i-link slave-side, which is an TDTX300, and whose alarms will be detected by its own LEDs). Moreover, these tables show that the LEDs reveals only major alarms, whereas the minor alarms (i.e. the low priority ones) are revealed only by the LMT software or through the TSUN supervision system. The minor alarms usually detect critical situations which should be checked so as to avoid future possibile system faults. Although any alarm detected by a LED on the i-link modules should be verified through LMT or supervision software when an accurate check is needed, some ordinary maintenance procedures could be carried out quickly following the instructions described hereinafter.

TDTX300 and TDTX500 troubleshooting


The TDTX modules are basically two optical transmitters whose alarm status cannot be influenced by dirt optical adapters or by some problems in fiberoptics cables. If any red light is switched on in a TDTX front panel, please check if you have connected properly the RF jumpers. If the RF connections prove to be ok and the red LED keeps on switching on, please contact the manufacturer.

TMRX500 module troubleshooting


Ordinary troubleshooting procedures which can be carried out on TMRX500 module first involve a check of the optical adapters status and of the fiberoptics cables. If the alarm status still persists, a reboot of both the TMRX500 module and of the TSRX3xx/8 module can be performed so as to re-inizialize the link.

Quick TMRX-500 troubleshooting procedure


(The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 5.40b) In case the red LED is ON, please follow these steps: 1. Clean the optical adapter 2. If the problem still persists, refer to TMRX/TSRX fiber optical troubleshooting so as to check if the optical connectors and, the optical cable and the optical jumpers have some problems. 3. If previous actions didnt make the LED switch off, a reboot of both the TMRX500 module and of the TSRX3xx/8 module (on the slave-side) could be performed so as to test modem connectivity. 4. If the red LED still remains on, please check the alarm status by the LMT or the supervision unit in order to better understand the problem and its possible solution.

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TMRX/TSRX fibre optic troubleshooting


(The following procedure is summarized by the flow-chart in fig. 5.40b) 1. Check if there is any point where fibre experiences a short radius of curvature. In this case, rearrange the optical path in order to avoid sharp bends (if necessary, replace the optical cable with a longer one). If TMRX (TSRX) red LED switches off, troubleshooting has been successfully carried out. Otherwise, follow next steps. 2. Check if SC-APC connectors are properly installed at both fibre ends. In case they are not, fix more firmly the SC-SPC connectors to their adapters. If the TMRX (TSRX) red LED switches off, troubleshooting has been successful. Otherwise, follow next steps. 3. Disconnect the optical fibre and clean it better at both ends, then clean also the relevant SC-APC adapters. Re-connect the fibre to relevant ports after cleaning. If it doesnt make TMRX (TSRX) red LED switch off, follow next steps. 4. Disconnect the fiber from the TMRX (TSRX) port, and measure the power Pout which comes out from the fiber. Then, go to the module where the other end of the fiber is connected (it can be either on the slave side and on the master side, depending on the fiber or on the jumper you are verifying), disconnect it and measure the input power Pin coming out of the port. Calculate the fibre attenuation A due to the fiberoptics cable: Af [dB] = Pin Pout a. If Af > 10 dB, then the fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it with a new one. b. If Af < 10 dB troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact the manufacturer for assistance.

TILxHLW

TSRX3xx/8 module troubleshooting


Ordinary troubleshooting procedures which can be carried out on TMRX200 module first involve a check of the optical adapters status and of the fiberoptics cables. If the alarm status still persists, a reboot of both the TMRX500 module and of the TSRX3xx/8 module can be performed so as to reinizialize the link.

Quick TSRX3xx/8 troubleshooting procedure


In case the red LED is ON, please follow these steps: 1. Clean the optical adapter 2. If the problem still persists, refer to the fibre optic troubleshooting so as to check if the optical cable or optical connection has any problem. 3. If previous actions didnt make the LED switch off, a reboot of both the TSRX3xx/8 module and of the TMRX500 module (on the master side) could be performed so as to test modem connectivity. 4. If the red LED still remains on, please check the alarm status by the LMT or the supervision unit in order to better understand the problem and its possible solution.
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start

Is the red LED ON upon the TMRX 500? Yes

No

Clean the SC-APC optical adapter and connector

Is red LED upon TMRX 500 still ON? Yes

No

TILxHLW
Reboot both the TMRX 500 module (on i-link master side) and the TSRX-347/8 (on i-link slave-side)

Optical cable, optical jumper or optical connections may have some problems. Refer to TMRX/TSRX fiberoptic troubleshooting (fig. 5.40b)

Yes

Is red LED upon TMRX 500 still ON?

No

Yes Is red LED upon TMRX 500 still ON? No

Quick troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact the manufacturer

end

Fig. 5.40a: Flow-chart describing the quick TMRX500 troubleshooting.

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start

Is there any point where the fibre experiences a small radius of curvature?

Yes

Rearrange the optical path to avoid sharp bends. If necessary replace the optical cable with a longer one.

No Yes Is red LED upon TMRX/TSRX still ON? No

Are SC-APC connectors properly installed at both fibre ends?

No

Fix better SCAPC connectors

Yes Yes Is red LED upon TMRX/TSRX ON? No

TILxHLW

Disconnect the fiber optic cable and clean it at both ends.

Clean the optical SC-APC ports corresponding to both the fiber ends

Reconnect the fibre to relevant ports

Disconnect the optical SC-APC connector from TMRX/TSRX

Yes

Is red LED upon TMRX/TSRX still ON?

No

Measure the output power at corresponding fibre end. Connect the adapter again

Go to the module where the other end of the fiber is connected, disconnect the corresponding SCAPC connector , and measure the corresponding input power. Then connect the adapter again.

Calculate fibre attenuation A[dB]=input power - output power

Is A > 10dB?

Yes

Fibre optic cable has some problems. Replace it.

No Quick troubleshooting procedure has not identified any problem on the fiber optics cable end

Fig. 5.40b: Flow-chart describing the TMRX/TSRX fiberoptic troubleshooting.


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start

Is the red LED ON upon the TSRX 2xx/8? Yes

No

Clean the SC-APC optical adapter and connector

Is red LED upon TSRX 2xx/8 still ON? Yes

No

TILxHLW
Reboot both the TSRX-2xx/8 module (on i-link slave side) and the TMRX-200 (on i-link master-side)

Optical cable or optical connections may have some problems. Refer to TMRX-TSRX fiberoptic troubleshooting (fig.5.40b)

Yes

Is red LED upon TSRX 2xx/8 still ON?

No

Is red LED upon TSRX 2xx/8 still ON? No

Yes

Quick troubleshooting procedure has not identified the problem. Refer to supervision system or contact the manufacturer

end

Fig. 5.40c: Flow-chart describing the quick TSRX3xx/8 troubleshooting.

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5.11.

Remote Supply TRS/TRSN

TRS TRSN

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The TRS/TRSN is a sub-rack unit which provides remote supply to up to 24 remote units, by means of dedicated outputs with short-circuit protection switches. It is available in 2 versions. The TRSN version is able to supply 1 A per port and it can feed all remote units. The TRS version is able to supply 0.5A per port: it can feed only single and dual band TFAN remote units, as well as the TFAM20 one. The TRS/TRSN unit provides DC power supply to the remote units through standard AWG14/16 copper lines. Maximum allowed distances depend on the section of these copper lines, on the remote unit current consumption, and on the voltage range.

Short-circuit protection switches

TRS TRSN

(a)

Power outputs

Short-circuit protection switches

Power outputs

(b)

Fig. 5.41. (a) Front panel of a TRSN or a TRS sub-rack provided with 24 power supply outputs. (b) Front panel of a TRSN sub-rack provided with 12 power supply outputs.

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Fig. 5.42. Picture of 12- output TRSN subrack.

Ports
TRS TRSN
The TRSN version (suitable to all types of remote units) is available with 12 supply outputs 24 supply outputs It can supply 1 A per port. The TRS version (suitable to single and dual band TFAN remote units and to TFAM20) is available with 24 supply outputs. It can supply 0.5 A per port.

Power supply
Both the TRS and the TRSN subracks can be feeded either by 115 Vac mains or by 230 Vac mains (50/60Hz). The proper feeding voltage has to be selected through a voltage selector which is placed on the back Mains panel, near the mains connector . connector and Thanks to the active distribution system Voltage (please refer to the electrical scheme in fig. selector 5.45a), a -48 Vdc power supply be conveyed to the remote units connected to the output ports.

(a)

(b)

Ground screw

Fig. 5.43. Picture of the rear side of the TRS/TRSN subrack feeded by 115Vac-230Vac mains (a). Mains connector, fuse, voltage selector and ground screw on the TRS/TRSN rear panel(b).
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The TRSN subrack is also available in passive version TRSNx-3, which can be feeded by direct current (72 to 36 Vdc). In this case, the -48 Vdc current is conveyed to the remote units thanks to a passive distribution system (please refer to fig. 5.45b). Please read carefully the cabling instructions in order to connect the provided power cable to the poles of the -48 Vdc connector properly (see fig.5.44b).

TRS TRSN

(b) (a) Fig. 5.44. (a): Power supply connector, fuse, voltage selector and ground screw on the the rear side of the TRSN subrack feeded by -48 Vdc current TRS/TRSN rear panel. (b) Cabling instructions for the -48 Vdc connector

Ground terminals are part of the power supply connectors. External grounding terminals (screw) are also available (see fig. 5.43a,b) Mains connectors also house the following fuses: 250V, 4A delayed type for the active version (feeded by 115 Vac mains or by 230 Vac mains) -48V, 15A delayed type for the passive version (feeded by -48 Vdc supply)

(a)
Fig. 5.45. (a) Active distribution system used by a TRS/TRSN subrack feeded by 115Vac-230Vac mains (b) Passive distribution system used by a TRSN subrack feeded by a -48 Vdc power supply,

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Warnings
Caution: do not open the unit before disconnecting the mains. Internal assemblies can be accessed by qualified personnel only. Do not connect supply outputs to remote units before switching off the unit or disconnecting the mains. Being a DC supply provided, a wrong connection can damage the remote unit. Verify the proper polarity before switching on the equipment

TRS/TRSN installation
The TRS/TRSN sub-rack should be placed as close as possible to the TPRN to allow an easy cabling in case of mixed fibre-copper cables. If the sub-rack mounting location is not provided with a good air circulation, leave at least one unit free between sub-racks. The kit includes 1 TRS/TRSN 1 power cable To install the TRS/TRSN remote supply unit follow next steps: 1. Fix the TRS/TRSN sub-rack to the cabinet with 4 screws 2. During the installation phase dont connect the power cable to the main power line and dont switch on the TRS/TRSN 3. Set the switch in accordance with your main power line (115 Vac or 230 Vac) for universal mains option. In case of negative supply option (-48 Vdc), no switch is provided. Then connect the ground screw. 4. Before connecting the wires from TRS/TRSN to the remote units, open all the fuses pulling the red circle then connect electrical wires for the remote units (5.46c) 5. When all electrical wires have been connected and the system is ready to start, connect the power cable, switch on the TRS/TRSN. Push one fuse at a time (5.46b). Each remote unit can be switched on/off by the relevant switch. The Pictures 5.46 below show how to do it.

TRS TRSN

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 5.46 Short circuit protection switches. (a): OFF position . (b): ON position: push down the black button. (c): Pull out the red collar in order to switch off.

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If a surge or an overloading condition occur the switch automatically jump into an OFF position.

TRS/TRSN behaviour at start-up


Check if power supply voltage selector is in the correct position (115 or 230 Vac). In passive distribution version this selector is not present. Have all the switches in off position Check the connection polarity is not wrong Power on the TRS/TRSN unit through the back general switch Power on each remote unit through the front panel switches Check if the remote units shows the proper green supply led on

TRS/TRSN troubleshooting
If the remote unit doesn't appear to be properly supplied: Check the fuses on the rear panel Check the voltage at the front panel screw connectors: nominal value without load is -59Vdc, nominal value with full load is -48Vdc. If those values are exceeded by 10% check if the mains are within the allowed limits. In passive distribution version, the output voltage depends on the supply source. Check the voltage at the remote side it should be in the range -36 to -72 Vdc that is the maximum allowed range admitted by the remote units. If the protection switch jump always in OFF position Check if there is any short on the line Check if the remote unit shows the nominal current power consumption Check if there was any long period overshooting related to the mains supply.

TRS TRSN

If the fuses blow up after a power-on with all the front switches on, there should be a too high initial peak current transient: check the proper fuse (delayed type) or substitute with an higher current fuse (i.e. 6A or 10A). If the problem still persists check the proper ground /mains connection.

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6. Warning and Safety Requirements

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6.1.

Environmental Conditions

This equipment is designed to be installed in indoor environments. Operating temperature: +5 to +40C -20 to +50C (for all the pieces of equipment, except remote units case L) (only for remote units case L)

Do not install in corrosive atmosphere or in critical environmental conditions such as hazardous classified areas (1).

6.2.

Installation Site Features

A trained technician should carry out the installation of the master unit. Since the system is designed for indoor installation, the master unit should be installed in a dry and suitable location where: no explosion risks is present; the environment is not classified as a high-risk one in case of fire; suspended particles are not to be found in great concentration; the environment is not subject to any traffic which could cause crash damages; the site is properly located with respect to the ergonomic positioning of the working environments; the system is placed in a private room, protected against any possible violation; do not install the system in direct sunlight or in place where water may drop on the device (for example under air-conditioning equipment). the site must be accessible by maintenance personnel; the site must be dry, with low humidity; the site must guarantee proper space for cables and natural ventilation to the system; 2 meters must be kept between the rack and any heating opening.

The remote units should be mounted in reasonable locations as well: do not install remote units inside heating or conditioning; do not install remote units inside cable pipeline or fire-prevention site (fire escape, lift tunnels, emergency exits, which have to guarantee defined safety standards); keep into consideration that the temperature in the upper part of a room is higher than at 2 meter height. For false ceiling installation of case-A and case-B remote units, verify that the environment temperatures do not exceed allowed limits;

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(1)

each remote unit requires its own power and a connection to the mains can be needed; keep into consideration that each remote unit transmits RF signal and safety volume must be respected (refer to country regulations for safety volume magnitude); remote units must be mounted according to what specified in the relevant installations instructions; Weight and dimensions of case-L and case-F remote units should be carefully considered when choosing the installation site and positioning. During any installation step, please consider the potential risk of any equipment drop off When choosing the installation site and position, please consider that any remote units must be accessible for tests and maintenance.

Hazardous locations are those areas "where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to flammable gases or vapours, flammable liquids, combustible dust, or ignitable fibres or flyings"

6.3.

Safety and Precautions during Installation or maintenance

During installation the following means and tools will be needed: Typical electrician tools: cross-point screwdriver, scissors, pliers, nippers, drill and bits, screws for fixing remote units to the wall. Typical means: proper ladder, scaffolding or air platform for installation of remote units. CAUTION: some modules are electrostatic-sensitive devices; electrostatic discharges are caused by direct contact or by an electrostatic field. If a charged body approaches an electrically conducting surface, the acquired potential is discharged. An equalising current can than flow in the associated circuitry and generate permanently damaging voltages by induction. The human body should be grounded at the same potential as the component or equipment being handled. A wrist strap creates an equipotential electrical connection between the object and the human. CAUTION: Do not paint or otherwise coat Britecell Plus equipment. CAUTION: Great caution should always be used when installing any equipment at a height upper than 2 meters. Personnel who are installing this equipment should be informed about the possible risks and safety measures when elevated.
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CAUTION: Case-F and Case-L remote units are provided with some door panels which have to be managed with care during installation or maintenance operations.. Always switch off the remote while working with the panel opened. When closing the panels, take care not to leave any tool inside the equipment, not to hurt your fingers, and not to trap clothes, bracelets, chains, or long hair. Never remove the cover from a TFAx remote unit or from a TPRN subrack when the power supply is ON.

6.4.

Power Supply Connection

Power connection has to be carried out following all necessary precautions: it must be properly made according to the due diligence rules (ex.: EN rules, IEC rules, etc.); in accordance with the rules for safety against direct or indirect contacts; in accordance with the rules for safety against the over current (short circuit, overloading); in accordance with the rules for safety against over voltage; connection is to be carried out by proper and competent staff CAUTION In North America this equipment is to be installed in accordance to National Electric Code (NEC) ANSI/NFPA 70 and Canadian Electric Code (CEC) Part 1, C22.1.

CAUTION Do not remove or insert any module into the TPRN sub-rack without prior switching power supply off.

CAUTION Do not connect AC power until you have verified that the line voltage is correct.

Do not remove the plastic cover of the external power supply adapter.

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6.5.

Safety and Precautions for Lasers

The optical transmitter used in Britecell Plus contains a laser which has a power level that is not dangerous for health. However it is classified as class 1 equipment (in accordance to EN60825). It is nevertheless prudent in the installation phase to observe the following rules: Never look directly inside the optic connector exit of the transmitters when it is switched on. The wavelength of the laser is not visible to the human eye, which means that long-term damage will not be immediately known. When working with the optical connectors, check at each end that both transmitting lasers are switched off.

6.6.

Health and Safety Warnings

Antenna installation must conform within the following guidelines to meet FCC RF exposure limits, otherwise an environmental evaluation is required if: Broadband PCS (subpart E):
Non building mounted antennas: Building-mounted antennas: Height above ground level to lowest point of antenna< 10m Radio (Part 24) and total power of all channels > 2000 W ERP (3280 W EIRP) Total power all channels>2000W ERP (3280W EIRP)

Narrowband PCS (subpart D):


Non-building-mounted antennas: Building-mounted antennas: Height above ground level to lowest point of antenna < 10m Radio (Part 24) and total power of all channels > 1000 W ERP (1640 W EIRP). Total power of all channels > 1000 W ERP (1640 W EIRP).

Cellular Radiotelephone Service (Part 22, subpart H):


Non-building-mounted antennas: Building-mounted antennas: Height above ground level to lowest point of antenna < 10m Radio (Part 22) and total power of all channels > 1000 W ERP (1640 W EIRP). Total power of all channels > 1000 W ERP (1640 W EIRP).

Paging and Radiotelephone Service (Part 22, subpart E):


Non-building-mounted antennas: Building-mounted antennas: Height above ground level to lowest point of antenna < 10m Radio (Part 22) and total power of all channels > 1000 W ERP (1640 W EIRP). Total power of all channels > 1000 W ERP (1640 W EIRP).

Private Land Mobile Radio\Specialized Mobile Radio (Part 90):


Non-building-mounted antennas: Building-mounted antennas: Height above ground level to lowest point of antenna < 10m Radio (Part 90) and total power of all channels > 1000 W ERP (1640 W EIRP). Total power of all channels > 1000 W ERP (1640 W EIRP).

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To meet RSS Canadian standards the following guidelines has to be taken into account: The manufacturer rated output power of the equipment is for single carrier operation. For situations in which multiple carrier signals are present, the rating would have to be reduced by 3.5dB especially when the output signal is re-radiated and can cause interference to adjacent band users. This power reduction is to be by means of input power or gain reduction and not by an attenuator at the output of the device. To satisfy RF exposure requirements, the antenna(s) used for the system must be installed to provide a separation distance of at least 20cm from all people and the highest antenna gain which can be used is 12dBi.

6.7.

Electromagnetic Fields and RF Power

Britecell Plus system generates electromagnetic radiation, which can exceed safety levels in the immediate vicinity of the antenna. The most widely accepted standards are those developed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Formula for minimum safety distances The formula for calculating the minimum safety distances uses the specifications of a particular antenna that could be driven by TFAx.

(G L )

rmin =

10

10

P
(6.1)

4S

This equation includes the following factors: G is the antenna gain (in dB) compared to isotropic radiating antenna; P is the RF power that is present at the antenna connector (in W); L is the total loss (in dB) between the TFAx remote unit output port and the antenna input port; S is the maximum allowed power density in air (in W/m2). Its values should be calculated according to the limit exposures to time-varying and magnetic fieds. The reference values are reported in ICNIRP guidelines, unless otherwise specified by specific regulations.

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(please note that, if regulations only define the maximum electrical field strength and the maximum magnetic field strength, the allowed power density can be obtained as: S= E2/377= B2377, where 377 is the characteristics impedance of the empty space).
Example 1. Lets suppose to use a High Power TFAH20 to distribute CDMA signals through a directional antenna, feeded by a 2-metre length RG223 cable (no splitters used). Lets suppose the antenna gain is 7 dB.

Lets assume, moreover, that the maximum allowed power density we have to comply with is: S = 10 W m-2 (typical ICNIRP reference level for general public exposure to time-varying electric and magnetic fields). By reading the Britecell bulletin, we know that the output power P at the TFAH20 antenna port is 37 dBm (=5.012 W). By reading the cable specs, we get that RG223 cable losses can be estimated as 0.55 dB/m. Total losses between the TFAH20 output port and the antenna input port can therefore be estimated as follows: L = 0.55 (dB/m) x 2 (m) = 1.1 dB By replacing the above values of G, L, P, S parameters inside the relation 6.1, we therefore get the the following minimum safety distance from the antenna: rmin = { 10 exp [ (7 - 1.1) / 10 ] 5.012} / (410) } exp (-1/2) = 0.394 m Example 2. Lets suppose to use a Low Power TFAM85/19 through a directional antenna, feeded by a 5 -metre length RG223 cable with a 2-way splitter. Lets suppose that the antenna Gain is 7 dB and that our Britecell system distributes one Cellular800 carrier and one PCS 1900. Lets assume that the maximum allowed power density we have to comply with is: S = 50 Wm2 (typical ICNIRP reference level for occupational exposure to time-varying electric and magnetic fields) By reading the Britecell bulletin, we know that the output power per carrier at the TFAM antenna port is 21 dBm (=0.126 W) for the Cellular 850 MHz frequency band, and 20 dBm (0.1 W) in the PCS 1900 MHz frequency band. The total output power at the antenna port is therefore P = 0.126 + 0.1 = 0.226 W. Lets assume that the splitter insertion losses are 3.5 dB. By reading the cable specs, we get that RG223 cable losses can be estimated as 0.55 dB/m. Total losses between the TFAM85/19 output port and antenna input port can therefore be estimated as follows: L = 0.55 (dB/m) x 5 (m) + 3.5 = 5.25 dB By replacing the above values of G, L, P, S parameters inside the relation 6.1, we therefore get the the following minimum safety distances from the antenna:
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rmin = { 10 exp [ (7 - 5.25) / 10 ] 0.226} / (450) } exp (-1/2) = 0.023 m Example 3. Lets suppose to have a Low Power TFAM90/20 connected to an omnidirectional antenna through a 20-metre length cable (no splitters used). Lets suppose that the antenna Gain is 7 dB and that our Britecell system distributes two GSM900 carriers and one UMTS2100 carrier. Moreover, lets assume that the maximum allowed electrical field strength is: E=6Vm (typical Italian reference level for exposure to time-varying electric and magnetic fields). The corresponding value of the maximum allowed power density is: S = E2 /377 = 0.1 W/m2 By reading the Britecell bulletin, we get that the output power at the TFAM antenna port is 14 dBm/carrier (=0.025 W) for a 2-carrier GSM900 MHz distribution, and 17 dBm (0.05 W) for 1 WCDMA carrier. The 900 MHz and 2100 MHz output powers at the remote unit ports are: P900MHz,TFAx = 0.025W+0.025W=0.05W (for 900MHz signals) (for 2100MHz signals) P2100MHz,TFAx= 0.05W Lets assume that the cable losses are 0.07 dB/m in the 900 MHz band and 0.18 dB/m in the 2100 MHz band; the total losses between the TFAM90/20 output port and the antenna input ports can therefore be estimated as follows: L900MHz = 0.07 (dB/m) x 10 (m) = 0.7 dB on 900MHz signals L2100MHz=0.18 (dB/m) x 10 (m) =1.8 dB on 2100MHz signals The term 10 exp (G-L/10) P which appears inside the relation 6.1 should therefore be calculated apart for each frequence, and then added in order to calculate the composite contribution: P900MHz, ant = 10 exp[(7-0.7)/10] 0.05 = 0.213 W P2100MHz,ant = 10 exp[(7-1.8)/10]0.05 = 0.165 W Pcomposite= P900MHz, ant + P2100MHz,ant= 0.378W By dividing the total power through (4S) and taking the square root according to the relation 6.1, we therefore get the the following minimum safety distances from the antenna: rmin = { Pcomposite /(40.1)} exp (-1/2) = 0.54 m

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6.8.

Warning Labels

CLASS 1 laser product

Fig. 6.1: Laser safety Label

GROUND - Use this terminal for a safety ground connection of the equipment.
Fig. 6.2: Ground Label

Fig. 6.3: WEEE Identification Label

When this equipment is no longer used, please do not throw it into a trush container as unsorted municipal waste. Waste electrical electronic equipment (WEEE) must be collected apart and disposed of according to the European Directives 2002/96/EC and 2003/108/EC. In order to comply with the proper WEEE disposal, it is suggested that you contact the manufacturer. Any failure to comply with the above regulations will be punished through fines Please refer to Appendix B for further details about the equipment disposal

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7. TECHNICAL SUPPORT
Andrew Corporation offers technical support by providing these 24-Hour call services: North America (toll free) to U.S.A. Telephone 1-800-255-1479 Fax 1-800-349-5444 Any Location (International) to U.S.A. Telephone + 1(708) 349-3300 Fax + 1 (708) 349-5410 Britecell Plus is developed by: Andrew Wireless Systems Srl Via Pier De Crescenzi 40 48018 Faenza, Italy Tel: +39.0546.697111 Fax: +39.0546.682768 Useful information about the product are available on the dedicated pages of Andrews website: http://www.andrew.com/products/inbuilding/ For further information about the product, please write to: Britecell@Andrew.com In order to address us any question, comment or suggestion, you can also go to following page of the Andrews website: http://www.andrew.com/contactus/contact.aspx?ct=11

7.1.

Returning equipment

Before returning some equipment to the manufacturer for repairing or replacing, the customer should give prior notice to the manufacturer and ask the Return Material Authorisation (RMA request).

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Before sending any piece of equipment to the manufacturer, you must send us the following RMA request form via fax (+39 0546 682768) or via e-mail (britecell@andrew.com). RMA REQUEST FORM Company name Address Contact person Invoice number Delivery note N. of pieces Model1 Serial Number1 Lot1 Year1 Description of the Failure/defect

Please refer to the serial label

Upon accepting your RMA request, the manufacturer will assign you a unique RMA code. You will therefore be able to return the equipment to the manufacturer. Please remember that: each piece of equipment must be packaged with care before shipment; a copy of the RMA request form must be enclosed inside the returning equipment packaging, with the clear indication of the RMA code you received from the manufacturer. The returned pieces can be repaired (when possible) or replaced (when no repairing can be carried out). These operations can be performed under warranty (please see the warranty conditions specified in the sales contract) or out-of-warranty. In the latter case, we will send you a quotation for equipment repairing or replacement. When returning the repaired or replaced equipment, the manufacturer will issue a check report, which will included in the packaging together with the returned pieces. The customer will be informed about any corrective actions suggested by quality assurance.

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Appendix A: System Commissioning


The following flow charts want to be a quick reference for Britecell Plus system installation and commissioning. The first flow chart (see Fig. A.1) highlights the main steps for system installation and commissioning starting from the equipment unpacking up to the check of the coverage and call quality.

START

UNPACK THE EQUIPMENT

ARE THERE ANY BOXES LEFT? NO

YES

INSTALL AND CABLE MASTER UNIT

INSTALL AND CABLE REMOTE UNITS (see flow chart in Fig. 29)

EVERYTHING COMPLETED? YES

NO

CALCULATE ATTENUATION VALUE USING BRITETOOL (see Britetool Manual)

SET DL AND UL ATTENUATION

CHECK DL LEVEL WITH A SPECTRUM ANALYSER

START UP THE SYSTEM (see flow-chart in Fig. 30)

NO

IS NOW WORKING PROPERLY? YES

GO THROUGH TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE

NO

IS SYSTEM WORKING PROPERLY? YES

DO THE WALK TEST TO VERIFY COVERAGE (DL) AND MAKE A CALL TO VERIFY ITS QUALITY (UL)

IS COVERAGE AND CALL QUALITY OK?

YES

Fig. A.1: Flow-chart describing main installation and commissioning steps

NO

CHECK THE DESIGN AND CHANGE IT IF NECESSARY

END

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The previous flow chart contains the following cross references: the master unit installation and cabling is described in more details in the flow chart in figure A.3. It takes care of the flow of actions from the sub-rack mounting on the cabinet up to the settings and connections needed in case a remote supervision has to be considered. An example of system layout at master unit side is presented in figure A.2 for a configuration consisting in 1 sector with 4 TFLN master optical TRXs. For more details about TSUNx configuration and start-up refer to the Remote Supervision manual.

TBSI DL
RF IN

TFLN

TFLN

TFLN

TFLN

AUX UL

MAIN

AUX UL

MAIN

AUX UL

MAIN

AUX UL

MAIN

= 1
2

= 1
2 DL

= 1
2 DL

= 1
2 DL

4 DL

UL
DL TXs

DL
UL RXs

UL RXs

DL TXs

UL RXs

DL TXs

UL RXs

DL TXs

DL

1 1 1 1 1

UL

2
RF IN

2 3

3 4

UL

Fig. A.2: Cabinet layout for a 1 sector with 4 TFLN master optical TRXs configuration

once the whole system has been installed, the attenuation on the base station interface has to be defined in order to set up the performances. Use the Britetool Software to calculate the required attenuation values for uplink and downlink. Refer to Britetool manual for more information on how to use it. the system start-up is described in more details in the flow chart in figure A.4. It takes care of the flow of actions from the remote and

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master unit switch on and discovery up to the system configuration through LMT Software and/or remote supervision system. For more details on how to use LMT and about TSUNx configuration and start-up refer to relevant manuals. in case the system is not working properly, refer to the troubleshooting procedures reported into relevant sections.
MOUNT THE SUBRACK INTO THE CABINET

START

SET THE SUBRACK BAUD RATE (THE SAME FOR ALL) (see Fig. 16 and Tab. 6)

SET THE SUBRACK ADDRESS (DIFFERENT FOR EACH) (see Fig. 16 and Tab. 7)

IS THERE ANY OTHER SUBRACK?

YES

NO

INSERT ALL THE BOARDS INTO THE SUBRACK ACCORDING TO DESIGN

CONNECT THE BOARDS USING RF CABLE KITS PROVIDED

NO

ARE ALL BOARDS INSERTED AND CONNECTED?

YES

IS THERE A TSUN1 OR TSUN3 DEVICE?

YES

CONNECT TSUNx COM2 PORT TO ONE SUBRACK RS232 PORT

CONNECT SUBRACKS IN A DAISY CHAIN USING RS485 PORTS

NO

IS THERE A TSUN6 DEVICE?

YES

NO

CONNECT THE POWER CABLES

Fig. A.3: Flow-chart describing master unit installation and cabling steps

SWITCH ON THE SUBRACK ONLY AFTER HAVING CONNECTED THE REMOTE UNITS

END

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START

ARE ALL REMOTE UNITS SWITCHED ON? YES

NO

SWITCH THEM ON

Fig. A.4: Flow-chart describing system start-up steps

ARE ALL SUBRACKS SWITCHED ON? YES

NO

SWITCH THEM ON

HAS DISCOVERY STARTED?


(TFLN general alarm LED blinking)

NO

ENABLE IT THROUGH THE LMT OR REMOTE SUPERVISION SYSTEM (see relevant manuals)

YES

WAIT UNTIL DISCOVERY IS FINISHED (TFLN general alarm LED stop blinking)

CONNECT A LAPTOP TO THE RS232 SUBRACK PORT

RUN LMT

SELECT QUICK CONFIGURATION MENU

MASK SLOTS (see LMT manual)

MASK TFA (see LMT manual)

FOLLOW TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE

NO

IS MASTER UNIT WORKING PROPERLY? YES

FOLLOW TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE

NO

ARE REMOTE UNITS WORKING PROPERLY? YES

IS SUPERVISION SYSTEM INCLUDED? YES ACCESS CONFIGURATION MENU AND REBOOT TO APPLY CHANGES OPEN AN INTERNET BROWSER AND TYPE DEFAULT ADDRESS (see Remote Supervision manual) CONNECT THE LAPTOP TO TSUNx LAN PORT

NO

LOGIN

ACCESS CONNECTIVITY MENU AND RUN SYSTEM DISCOVERY

IS SUPERVISION SYSTEM WORKING?

YES

NO

CHECK FOR CONFIGURATION AND RUN SYSTEM DISCOVERY AGAIN

NO

IS SUPERVISION SYSTEM NOW WORKING?

YES END

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Appendix B: EU Guidelines for WEEE disposal


All Britecell Plus products are properly labelled (please refer to fig. B.1) so as to inform the customer that no piece of equipment should be treated as unsorted municipal waste. Within the EU boundariers, any Britecell Plus equipment which is no longer used should be treated and disposed of according to European Directives 2002/96/EC and 2003/108/EC. The above regulations state that Waste Electric Electronic Equipment (WEEE) have to be disposed of by authorised centers with proper license for WEEE treatment. The customer can decide to dispose of the unused equipment only if he owns a WEEE disposal licence. Otherwise, he should contact the manufacturer or any center which is authorised for WEEE treatment. Any failure to comply with the above regulations will be punished through a penalty whose amount and terms are set by each EU Member State. The information reported hereinafter (table B.1) are aimed to provide the costumer and/or the WEEE treatment center with any information about recycling and disposing of the Britecell Plus equipment. These guidelines fall within Andrews efforts to increase re-use, recycling and other forms of recovery, leading to a reduction in the amount of waste going to landfill or incineration.

Fig. B.1: WEEE Identification Label

Products TFAx Case A TFAx Case B

Recyclable materials Alluminium (external case) Metal (RF connectors, screws, bottom cover) Plastic (optical connectors and adapters) Plastic (external case; inlet and plug in the 220 Vac version) Metals (wall bearing; screws)

Wastes to be disposed of by approved companies (licensees for European Waste No. 160216) cables, fiberoptics cables, internal circuit boards psu, inlet (for any TFAx Case A, except TFAM20) Cables, internal circuit board

Hazardous materials None

TPSN Power Supply

Electrolytic capacitors

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TFAH Case F

Alluminium (external case) Metal (RF connectors, screws, cavity filters) Plastic (optical connectors and adapters ; power connector; ) Alluminium (external case; wall-fixing plates; pipe connection and PG 13,5 ; strain reliefs) Metal (RF connectors, screws, cavity filters) Plastic (optical connectors and adapters ; power connector; ) Alluminium (wall bearing) Alluminium (external case) Metal (screws, bottom cover) Plastic (black guides housing the modules) Alluminium (front panel) Metal (RF connectors, screws) Plastic (optical connectors and adapters ; side protections of the electronic board) Metal (RF connectors, screws) Plastic (optical connectors and adapters ; side protections of the electronic board) Alluminium (front panel) Metal (RF connectors, screws) Alluminium (front panel) Metal (RF connectors, screws) Plastic (handles on the TBSI front panel)

cables, fiberoptics cables, internal circuit boards, psu, inlet

None

TFAH Case L

cables, fiberoptics cables, internal circuit boards, psu, inlet

None

TKA installation kit TPRN TFLN

None cables, internal circuit boards, psu, inlet

None None

cables, fiberoptics cables, internal circuit board

None

TFLF

cables, fiberoptics cables, internal circuit board

None

TLCN2, TLCN4, TLDN,TLTN, TDPX, TMP TBSI

cables, internal circuit board

None

cables, internal circuit board

None

TWLI

Alluminium (front panel) Metal (RF connectors, screws) Plastic (buttons on the front panel) Alluminium (front panel) Metal (RF connectors, screws) Plastic (optical connectors and adapters ; side protections of the electronic board)

cables, internal circuit board

None

TILx

cables, fiberoptics cables, internal circuit boards

None

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TRS / TRSN

TSUN 6 TSUN 1 / TSUN 3

Alluminium (external case) Metal (screws) Copper (Transformers model with active distributions) Alluminium (front panel) Metal (screws) Metal (screws, external case)

cables, internal circuits, circuit breakers

None

Internal circuit board Internal circuit board, psu, inlet

None None

Table B.1. Guidelines on recycling and disposing of Britecell Plus electrical and electronic equipment

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