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com/MrSherifYehiaAlMaraghy

Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 942 -
( )
1 The work done by a horizontal force
W F S
The work done by resistane
W - R S
=
=
( )
2 The work done by a force inclined
with horizontal by angle
W F S Cos
u
u =
u
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
3 The work done by weight
motion is downward
a W mg S
The work done by weight
motion is upward
b W - mg S
=
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
4 The work done by a force
on an inclined plane
If the motion is down
a W mg S Sin
The work done by a force
on an inclined plane
If the motion is upward
b W - mg S Sin
u
u
=
=

Energy is the ability to do work
Definition of the work done by a constant force :

Energy Work
If a constant force F acted upon a particle to transfer it form an initial position A to a new
position B , this position is called the displacement of the particle is S , then the work done
is the product of their algebraic measures

Rules of work

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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 952 -
( )
1 2 1 2
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
5 The work done by a force by given vector: If F a i a j and S b i b j
W F S a b a b Or F S F S Cos a b a b u
= + = +
= = + = = +
mg
R
F
( )
( )
2
2
1 1
S V t at S 0 122.5 20 24500 cm S 245 metre
2 2
The equation of motion of the body is F R ma
1225
F R ma 12 9.8 200 9.8 12 25 9.8 37 Newton 9.8 37kgm.wt.
1000
First the work done by F F S
= + = + = =
=
= + = + = + = =
= 37 245 9065kg.wt.m.
Second the work done R - R S -12 245 -2940 kgm.wt.m.
245
Third the work done F R ma S 200 245 245 245 joule
200

= =
= = =
= = =
( )
245 245 9.8 6125 kgm.wt.m.
Fourth the work done by the weight 0 mg S
= =
=

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Units of measure of work
Units of measure of work = unit of force magnitude unit of length

The important units are :

(1) joule or (Newton meter) (2) Erg or (dyne cm) (3) Kilogram meter (kgm.wt.m)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The relation between units of measure of work
7
kgm.wt .m 9.8 joule 9.8 10 Erg - = =
7
1
Joule 10 Erg kg.wt.m
9.8
- = =
-7
7
1
Erg 10 joule kgm.wt.m
9.8 10
- = =

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Example (1)
A body of mass 200 kg moves in a st. line on a horizontal plane with uniform acceleration of
magnitude 122.5 cm/sec
2
under the action of a horizontal force F and resistance of magnitude
12 kgm.wt starting from rest . calculate in kgm.wt.m the work done during 20 sec from the
start by each of the following :
(i)The force F . (ii)The resistance. (iii) The resultant force. (iv)The body weight .
Answer

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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 952 -
( )
( )
2 2 2
Engine stopped means that , Brakes are used means that acceleration is
Velocity is stopped means that - R ma 1
5 49
And V u 2as 0 63 2a 12.5 a - m / sec
18 4
Substi
=
= =
| |
= + = + =
|
\ .
F 0 negative
V 0
( ) ( )
49
tute in 1 : - R 1.5 1000 - R 18375 Newton 9.8 1875kg.wt
4
W -RS 1875 12.5 -23437.5 kg.wt.m
= = =
= = =
( )
( )
There is a uniform velocity F R 147 Newton
5
V 9 2.5 m / sec , t 60 sec and S V t Uniform velocity
18
S 2.5 60 150m W -RS -147 150 -22050 joules 9.8 -2250 kg.wt.m
= =
= = = =
= = = = = =
A car of mass 1.5 ton, moves along a horizontal straight road, its driving engine force is stopped
and its brakes are used when its velocity is 63 km/hr. So, it stopped after covering 12.5 m from
the starting instant. Find the work done by the brakes resistance during this distance assuming
that the magnitude of the resistance is constant.
( )
o o 2
2
2 2
1
F, R are neglected a - g Sin 9.8Sin30 -9.8Sin 30 -9.8 -4.9 m / sec
2
14.7 14.7 441
V U 2as 0 14.7 2 4.9S S m
2 4.9 20
16 441 1
W -mg s Sin - 9.8 -246.96 joule
7 20 2
= = = = =

= + = = =

= = =
o
2
A body of mass 2 kg is projected up a smooth plane inclined to the horizontal at 30 with
7
velocity 14.7 m / sec. Calculate in units of joule the work done by its weight during its maximum
displacement on the plane .
Example (2)
A car moves along a horizontal road with of magnitude 9 km/h. Find the work
done by the resistance force of the road during one minute from the start measure in kg.wt.meter
given that t
uniform velocity
he magnitude of the driving engine of the car equals 147 Newton.
Answer

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Example (3)

Answer

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Example (4)

Answer

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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 959 -
( )
( )
2
2
2
a 4.9m / sec u 0 W ?? t 8sec
1 1
S ut at S 0 4.9 8 156.8 m
2 2
As S is from the starting to the end of the inclined plane
So we will use the rule : F mg sin ma
F mg sin ma
u
u
= = = =
= + = + =
=
= + =
( ) ( )
( )
3
15 9.8 15 4.9 4.9 18 15 4.9 33 Newton 9.8 16.5 kgm.wt
5
W F S 16.5 156.8 2587.2 kg.wt.m
3
The work done by the weight - mg S Sin 15 9.8 156.8 - joules 9.8 -1411.2 kgm.wt.m
5
u
+ = + = =
= = =
= = =
mg sin u
mgcos u
u
u
F
mg
U
S
S
o
mg Sin 30
o
30
o
30
o
40 3Cos 30
o
30
40 3
o
A body of mass 4 kg is placed on a plane inclined to the horizontal at an angle 30 . A force 40 3
Newton lying in the vertical plane passing through the line of greatest slope and inclined at an
angle 3
( )
( )
0 upwards acts on the body and makes it move 3 meters up the plane. Find in units
of joule :
a The work done by the force during this displacement .
b The work done by the weight during the same displacement.
( )
o
3
The work done by the force F Cos30 S 40 3 3 180 joule
2
Important Note : we didn't use F mg Sin ma because S started from
the action of force not from the begining of the
u
= = =
=
o
plane
1
The work done by the weight - mg s Sin30 -4 3
2
-6 kg.wt.m -6 9.8 joule -58.8 joule
= =
= = =
o
mgCos 30
mg
3 m
Example (5)
A body of mass 15 kgm moves along the line of greatest slope of a plane inclined at an angle
3
whose Sine with the horizontal under a force F acting along the line of greatest slope up
5
the plane . If
=
2
the body moves with uniform acceleration of magnitude 4.9 m/sec starting from
rest. Calculate the work done by F and by the weight of this body during an interval of
magnitude 8 sec from start.

Answer

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Example (6)

Answer

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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 952 -
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
7
1 1
u 5.6 m / sec t sec V 0 and V u at 0 5.6 a
35 35
25
a -196 m/sec and - R ma -196 -4.9 Newton
1000
1 1 1 1
S ut at S 5.6 -196 0.08 m
2 35 2 35
W - R S W -4.9 0.08 -0.392 joules 10 -3920000 Er
= = = = + = +
= = = =
| |
= + = + =
|
\ .
= = = = g
2
4
1 1
S ut gt S 9.8 3 9.8 9 S -9.8 1.5 -14.7m
2 2
W - mg -S mg s W 200 980 1470 erg 28812 10 erg
= = = =
= = = =
Example (7)
A body of mass 200 gm. is projected vertically upward s with velocity 9.8 m / sec. Find the
work done by its weight during the interval of the first three seconds from the instant of
projection measured in units of Erg.

Answer

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Example (8)
A bullet of mass 25 gm. is fired horizontally at a fixed target with velocity 5.6 m/sec and
1
embedded through it and comes to rest after sec. Calculate the work done by the resistance
35
force during this interval assuming that it is constant.

Answer

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Example (9)
( ) ( )
A force F 21i 28 j acts on a body so that it moves from point A 2,-1 to point B -1,3
where i and j are two perpendicular unit vectors in the direction of OX ,OY.The magnitude of F
is measured
= = =
in Newton and the magnitude of the displacement is measured in metre. Prove that
the force and the displacement vectors are parallel, then find the work done in units of kg.wt.

Answer
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
-4
S AB B A -i 3 j 2i j -3i 4 j its slope is
3
-4
F 21i 28 j its slope is
3
F and S are parallel and in opposite directions.
W F S 21i 28 j -3i 4 j -63 112 -175 Newton.m.
W -
= = = + = +
=

= = + = =
=
175 125
- kg.wt.m
9.8 7
=

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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 954 -
Example (10)
( ) ( )
If i and j are two unit vectors in a cartisian system of 2 perpendicular axes and a force F -3i 7 j
acted upon a particle to move it from a point A -2,-1 to a point B 4,1 in a straight line and
= +
= =
( )

move under the same force in a st - line from B to a third point C 1,5 . Prove that the sum of work
done by this force during these 2 displacements equals the work done by the same force during thier
res
=
ultant displacment.

Answer

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
1
2
1 1
S AB B A 4i j -2i j 6i 2 j
S BC C B i 5 j 4i j -3i 4 j
S AC C A i 5 j -2i j 3i 6 j
The work done by F during S F S -3i 7 j 6i
= = = + = +
= = = + + = +
= = = + = +
= = +
( )
( ) ( )
1
2 2
2
2 j
w -3 6 7 2 -4 units .
The work done by the F during S F S -3i 7 j -3i 4 j
w -3 -3 7 4 37 units .
The work done by the
+
= + =
= = + +
= + =
( ) ( )
1 2
F during S F S -3i 7 j 3i 6 j
w -3 3 7 6 33 units w w -4 37 33 w
= = + +
= + = + = + = =

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Example (11)
( )
( ) ( )
2
A force F 5i 10 j acts on a body , and the displacement of the body at any instant t is
given by the relation S t 2 i t 1 j where i and j are two perpendicular unit vectors
in the directions of OX
= +
= + + +
, OY. and the magnitude of F is measured in units of gm.wt. and the
the unit of the displacement is in metre , calculate in units of Erg the work done by the force
between the two instants t 1 a = nd t 4. =

Answer

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
2 1
when t 1 S 3i 2 j & when t 4 S 6i 17 j
S The displacement between t 1 and t 4 S S
S 6i 17 j 3i 2 j 3i 15 j
W F S 5i 10i 3i 15 j 15 150 165 gm.wt.m.
W
= = + = = +
= = =
= + + = +
= = + + = + =
=
4
165 980 100 1617 10 erg =

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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 955 -
( )
( )
1 Definition of the power:
" Power is the time rate of doing work" Or "Power is the work done in unit of time"
dw
If the work done by force F during a time T Power
dt
2 Rule of power in the
=
linear motion under a constant force parallel to the line of motion :
The force F and the displacement S in the same direction
work F S , where F , S are the algebaric measures of F an =
( )
d S
d F S
dw ds
Power F F V Power F V
dt dt dt
: we can determine at any instant , while we can find between two
instants only or during a given displacement

= = = = =
Note Power Work
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
7
The Important Units are:
1 Watt Joul / sec Newton . Meter / sec 2 Erg/sec : dyne . cm /sec
3 Horse Power HP 735 Watt 735 10 Erg / sec
= =
= =
Power
* When the motion is horizontal : F R ma we can say : R ma
V
* When the motion is horizontal with : F R 0
Power
we can say : R 0
V
* When the mot
= =
=
=
maximum velocity
Power
ion is : F mg ma we can say : mg ma
V
Power
* When the motion is : F mg 0 we can say : m
V
* When the motion is on inclined plane to the horizontal : F R
= =
= =

upward
upward with maximum velocity
upward mg Sin ma
P
We can say : R mg Sin ma
V
* When the motion is on inclined plane to the horizontal upward with :
P
F R mg Sin 0 we can say : R
V
u
u
u
=
=
=
maximum velocity
mg Sin 0 u =

Power is how fast the work is done . so P= W/t

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The Power

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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 952 -
F mg 0 F mg 75 9.8 735 Newton
42
V 42 cm / sec 0.42 meter / sec
100
308.7
The man's power F V 735 0.42 308.7 watt 0.42 HP
735
= = = =
= = =
= = = = =
F
mg
A man of mass 75 kg ascends on a vertical ladder with uniform velocity 42 cm/sec. Calculate the
Power of the man in horse unit.
A train of mass 300 tons and the power of its driving force 480 horse is moving on horizontal
straight road with its maximum velocity which is 54 km / h. Find magnitude of the road resistance
per each t
=
on of train mass.
( )
The train is moving with uniform velocity : F R 0 F R
5
Power F V 480 735 R 54 R 23520 Newton
18
Resistance per ton 23520 300 78.4 Newton 9.8 8 kgm.wt
= =
= = =
= = =
F
R
F
R
mg sin u
u
5
In the motion on the horizontal road: Power F V 120 735 F 162
18
F 1960 Newton The train is moving with maximum velocity
The train motion is uniform R F 1960 Newton
= =
=
= =
In the motion on the inclined road: F mg sin R 0
P 1
And Power never change 98 1000 9.8 1960 0
V 140
120 735
8820 V 10 m / sec
V
u =
=

= =
Example (1)

Answer

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Example (2)

Answer

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Example (3)
A train of mass 98 ton and the power of its engine 120 horse moves along a straight horizontal
road with maximum velocity 162 km / h. Find magnitude of maximum velocity with which that
train can ascend
1
a straight road inclined at angle of sine with the horizontal given that
140
magnitude of resistance of the two roads are equal.
Answer

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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 952 -
1
1
1
5
P 30 735 22050 watt V 108 30 m / se
18
On horizontal road : The motion is uniform F R
P 22050
where F 735 Newton R 735 Newton
V 30
735
Then the resistance per each ton : 122.5 Newton
6
On
= = = =
=
= = = =
=
( )( )
2 2
2
2 2 2
inclined road : Mass 6 2 8ton 8000 kg
And the resistance per each ton 122.5 8 980
The motion is uniform F mg sin R 0 and the power is unchanged
P 22050 22050 1 2205
F 8000 9.8 980 0
V V V 100
u
= + = =
= =
=
| |
= = =
|
\ .
2
2
0
1764
V
V 12.5 m / s
=
=
Example (4)
A car of mass 6 tons and the power of its engine is 30 horses is moving along a horizontal road
against a constant resistance with maximum velocity of magnitude 108 km/h . Find the magnitude
of this resistance per each ton of the car mass, if this car pulled another car having a broken motor
1
and with mass 2 tons by means of a rope along a road inclined at angle of Sin to the horizontal.
100
Find the magnitude of the maximum velocity with which the two cars can move up this inclined road
given that the power of the first car and resistance per ton are not changed .
Answer

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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 952 -
R
F
mg sin u
u
2
F
1
A car of mass 15 tons moves upwards along a road inclined at an angle of sin with the
50
horizontal with maximum velocity 72 km/hr , and if the car moves downwards on the same road
with maximum velocity of magnitude 108 km/hr , find the power of the car engine given that the
magnitude of the road resistance is proportional to the magnitude of the car velocity .
mg sin u
R
u
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
1
1 1 1
1
1 1
5
first During the ascend of the car: V 72 20 m / sec
18
P P
The motion is uniform F mg sin R 0 where F
V 20
1 1 1
P 15 1000 9.8 R 0 P 2940 R 0 1
20 50 20
Second During the descend of the car: Po
u
= =
= = =
| |
= =
|
\ .
( )( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
wer never change
5
V 108 30 m / sec
18
P P
The motion is uniform F mg sin R 0 where F
V 30
1 1 1
P 15 1000 9.8 R 0 P 2940 R 0 30
30 50 30
P 88200 30R
u
= =
+ = = =
| |
+ = + =
|
\ .
+ =
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1
1 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
0 2
R V 20 2
And R V R R
R V 30 3
1 2 40
Then substitute in 1 : P 2940 R 0 20 P 58800 R 0 3
20 3 3
50 50
Then subtract 2 3 : 147000 R 0 R 147000 R 8820 Newton
3 3
Then substitute in 2 : P 88200 30 8820 0
o

= = =
= =
= = =
+ =
( )
P 176400 Watt 735 240 HP = =
Example (5)

Answer

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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 952 -
R
F
mg sin u
u
2
F
( )
A train of mass m tons moves upwards along the line of the greatest slope of a plane inclined
1
at an angle of sin to the horizontal with maximum velocity 36 km/hr against a resistance of
125
magnitude 16 kg.wt per each ton of the train mass, after reaching the top of the inclined plane, the
last wagon of mass 15 ton is separated from the train, then the train is moved once more downwards
along the inc
( )
lined road with maximum velocity 120 km/hr , given that the magnitude of the resistance
per ton is the same in the two cases, calculate the value of m and the power of the train engine .
mg sin u
R
u
( )
( )( )
train 1
1
1
1 1
5
first During the ascend of the car: M 1000m V 36 10 m / sec
18
P P
Resistance 16 9.8 m 156.8 m and F
V 10
The motion is uniform F mg sin R 0
1 1
P m 1000 9.8 156.8 m 0
10 125
1 1
P 78.4 m 156.8 m 0
10
u
= = =
= = = =
=
| |
=
|
\ .
=
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
train
2
2
P 235.2 m 0
10
P 2352 m 1
Second During the descend of the car: M m 15 1000
5 100
V 120 m / sec and Resistance 16 9.8 m 15
18 3
The motion is uniform Power never change
F
=
=
=
= = =
+
( )( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 2
2
P 3P
mg sin R 0 where F
V 100
3 1
P m 15 1000 9.8 156.8 m 15 0
100 125
3 3
P 78.4m 1176 156.8m 2352 0 P 78.4m 1176 0 100
100 100
3P 7840m 117600 0 2
Substitut
u = = =
| |
+ =
|
\ .
+ + = + =
+ =
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
e 1 in 2 3 2352m 7840m 117600 0 7056m 7840m 117600 0
784m 117600 m 150 ton
Then substitute in 1 : P 2352 150 352800 Watt 735 480 HP
+ = + =
= =
= = =
Example (6)

Answer

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Mr . Sherif Yehia Al Maraghy https://twitter.com/Mr_Sherif_yehia
01009988836 01009988826 Email : Rooshery@hotmail.com
Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 922 -
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
The work done by F during an interval t F S k i b j 4 t 3t 2 i 3t j
W 4k t 3t 2 3bt W 4k t 12k t 8k 3bt
The work done during 3 sec 4780 Erg 36k 36k 8k 27b 4780
80k 27b 4780 1
(
= = + + +

= + + = + +
= + + =
=
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
dw
And the power 8k t 12k 6bt
dt
So when t 2sec and P 1520 16k 12k 12b 1520 28k 12b 1520 2
from 1 and 2 : 80k 27b 4780 -28 -2240 756b -133840
28k 12b 1520
= = +
= = + = =
= + =
=
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
80 2240 960b 121600
after addition : -204b -12240 b 60 Then k 80
Then F 80i 60 j its magnitude is F 80 60 100 dyne
=
= = =
= + = + =
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2
2
1
The work done by F during an interval t F S 4i 3 j 2t 1 i t t j
2
1 3
W 4 2t 1 3 t t W t 5t 4
2 2
3
The work done during 2 sec w 2 2 5 2 4 20 Joule
2
The work done during 6
(
| |
= = + + +
|
(
\ .

| |
= + + = + +
|
\ .
= = + + =

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 3
sec w 6 6 5 6 4 88 Joule
2
The work done during the interval form 2 to 6 sec w 6 w 2 88 20 68 Joule
dw
the power 3t 5 so when t 3sec , the power 3 3 5 14watt
dt
= = + + =
= = =
= = + = = + =
Example (7)
( )
2
If i and j are the unit vectors parallel to the perpendicular axis of a cartisian system and
constant force F 4i 3 j acted upon practical to make a displacement given by :
1
S 2t 1 i t t
2
= +
| |
= + +

\
( )
( )
j where t is in sec and magnitude of F in Newton, S in meters
Calculate First the work done by F from t 2 sec to t 6 sec
Second the power of this force when t 3 sec
|
.
= =
=
Answer

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example (8)
( )
2 2
If i and j are the unit vectors parallel to the perpendicular axis of a cartisian system and
constant force F ki b j acted upon a particle to make a displacement given by :
S 4 t 3t 2 i 3t j
= +
= + + where t is in sec and magnitude of F in dyne, S in cm, and the
Work done by F during the first 3 seconds is 4780 Erg and the power of F when t 2 sec
is 1520 Erg/sec, then find the magnitud
=
e of F .
Answer

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Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 922 -
( )
h : height from the refrence point on the ground
the lowest possible point of the body
Depends on Position
P mg h =
2
1
K.E. T mV
2
= =
V : Velocity done by the body
Depends on Motion
The energy that is stored in an object The energy which is moved in an object
The Kinetic energy of a body denoted
by T is defined as the product of half
the mass of the particle times the
square of the magnitude of its velocity
The Potential energy of a particle denoted
by P at a certain instant is defined as the
work done by acting forces on the body if it
moved it from its position at this instant to a
fixed posiion on the straight line on which
motion occurs .
Joules Newton.m
Erg dyne.cm
=
=
Joules Newton.m
Erg dyne.cm
=
=
( )
A
1
When vector exists : P F AO When vector exists: T m V V
2
= =

We have two types of energy

Energy

Potential Energy

Kinetic Energy

Rule Rule
Definition Definition
units
units

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Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 929 -
1
final
P.E. mg h
K.E. 0 as V 0
=
= =
1
h
( )
big
high P.E. mg h
Zero K.E. u 0
=
=
Meduim P.E. K.E. +
high K.E.
( )
small
low P.E. mg h
Zero K.E. V 0
=
=
Reference point
Pendulum
Reference point
2
h
P.E. K.E. +
K.E.
exists only
3
P.E. mg h
K.E. 0
=
=
3
h
( )
2 2
o net
1
m V V F S
2
= ( )
o
mg h h -F S =
Change K.E. is the net of the work done Change P.E. is the work done

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

for more
understanding
Relation between Work and Energy

o net
T T W =

o
P P -W =

o o
T P T P + = +

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Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 922 -
( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 2 2 1

1 Kinetic energy must be Positive
2 To find the Kinetic energy lost T T 3 To find the Kinetic energy gained T T
4
= =
Very important notes :
( )
( )
max
When P.E. is maximum K.E. is Zero as h leads to V 0
5 When K.E. is maximum P.E. is Zero
=

o
The proof of the rule : T T W
The change of Kinetic energy of a particle when it moves from an initial position to
a final position is equal to the work done
=
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
by the force acting on it during displacement
between these 2 positions
1 dT 1 dv
T mv m 2v mv a ma v
2 dt 2 dt
dT dw
F V 1 The Power F V F V 2
dt dt
dT dw d
Substracting 1 2 : 0
dt dt dt
= = = =
= = =
=
( )
0 o o
0 0
0
T W 0
T W K Where k is constant but W 0 when T T T 0 K K T
T W T T T W
Then Change of K.E energy Work done or T T W
=
= = = = =
= =
= =
( ) ( )
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
2 2
To find m : mV mV mV' mV'
5 30 m 50 -5 10 m 0 m 4 kgm
To find K.E lost due to collision :
Sum of K.E of the 2 spheres before collision :
1 1
5 0.30 4 0.5 0.725 joule
2 2
Sum of K.E of the 2
+ = +
= + =
+ =
( )
2 1
spheres after collosion : 5 0.1 Zero 0.025 joule
2
And K.E lost Sum before Sum after 0.725 0.025 0.7 joule
+ =
= =

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example (1)
Two smooth spheres move in a horizontal straight line in two opposite directions, the mass of
the first is 5 kgm, the 2 balls get in impact, just before impact the velocity if the first is 30 cm/sec
and the second is 50 cm/sec and just after impact the first rebounds with velocity 10 cm/sec and
the second comes to rest, find the mass of the second sphere and the K.E lost due to collision.
Answer

before impact :
1
30 = v
5 kgm
1
10 ' = v
2
0 ' = v
I
I
m kgm
2
50 = v

After impact :

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Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 924 -
( )
5 5 7
0
2 2 2
0 o
2
First : The work done: W F S 180 980 500 882 10 Erg 882 10 10 8.82 Joule
Second : K.E gained : T T work done 8.82 Joule
1 1 1 1
Third : To find V : T T mV mV 4 V m zero 8.82
2 2 2 2
V 4.41
= = = = =
= =
= =
= V 2.1 meter / sec =
( )
A body of mass 4 kgm moves from rest along a horizontal straight line a distance 5 meter under
a horizontal force of magnitude 180 gm.wt , find
First the work done by this force during this distance
Sec
( )
( )
ond thekinetic energy gained at the end of this distance
Third the magnitude of the final velocity .
Reference level
B
A
A
T 0 =
A A
P mgh =
( )
B
P 0 as h 0 = =
B
T 245 joules =
A
h
6.4
C
T ?? =
C C
P mgh =
( )
( )( )
A A B B A
A
C C B B
C C
Always assume a reference level which is the lowest point
T P T P 0 P 245 0
P 245 joules 9.8 25 kg.wt.m
When the body is 6.4 m above the ground
T P T P
Where P mg h 2.5 9.8 6.4 1
+ = + + = +
= =
+ = +
= = =
( )
C C
2 2
C C
2
C C
56.8 joules
T 156.8 245 0 T 88.2 joules
1 1
mV 88.2 2.5 V 88.2
2 2
V 70.56 V 8.4 m / s
+ = + =
= =
= =
A body of mass 2.5 kg fell vertically from a point A above the ground surface to reach a point
B on the ground surface where its kinetic energy is 245 joule , find the potential energy of this
body at A in kg.wt.m , then calculate its kinetic energy and the magnitude of its velocity when
it is at a height 6.4 m above the ground surface .
Example (2)

Answer

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example (3)

Answer

[
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 925 -
A body starts motion from the top of an inclined plane to its bottom along the line of the
greatest slope, and starting from rest, if the potential energy at the top of the plane equals
17.64 joule and the magnitude of its velocity when it reaches the bottom of the plane is 8.4 m/s
Then find the mass of this body and the height of the plane .
( )
( )
A A A
A
A A B B B
Always assume a reference level which is the lowest point
When the body is at A : P mg h 17.64 m 9.8 h
mh 1.8 1
When the body moved from A to B
T P T P 0 17.64 T 0

= =
=
+ = + + = +
( ) ( )
B
2
2
B A
T 17.64 joules
1 1 1 1.8
mV 17.64 m 8.4 17.64 m kg then from 1 h 3.6 m
2 2 2 0.5
=
= = = = =
A
( )
A
A
P 17.64
T 0 u 0
=
= =
B Reference level
A
h
B
B
P 0
T ???
=
=
( )( )
( )( )
2 2 2
2
V u 2 g S V 2 9.8 40 784 V 28 m / s
1 1
T mV 50 784 19600 joule
2 2
To get the resistance inside the sand , we have two methods
= + = = =
= = =
st
1 method
( )
nd
2 method " I prefer this method when K.E. is
given in the problem" no acceleration is given
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
mg R ma where
V 0 u 28 S 0.8
And V u 2aS
0 28 2 0.8 a
a -490 m / sec
50 0.8 R 50 -490
R 24990 Newton 2550 kg.wt
=
= = =
= +
= +
=
=
= =
( )( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
2 1 net net
T T W F S mg R S
0 19600 50 9.8 R 0.8
-19600
50 9.8 R - 24500
0.8
R 24990 Newton 2550 kg.wt
= = =
=
= =
= =
a
sand
mg
2
T 0 =
0.8
u 0 =
R
40
1
T ?? =
A body of mass 50 kg is left to fall from height 40 m above the ground surface, calculate
the kinetic energy when it reaches the ground surface, and if this body embedded a distance
80 cm through the ground surface before coming to rest, prove that the magnitude of the
ground resistance equals 2550 kg.wt assuming that it is constant .
Example (4)

Answer

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example (5)

Answer

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 922 -
( )( )
( )
2
2 2
1 2 1 2
1 2
1 1 1
K.E. lost : T T mV mV 2000 7 0 49000 Joule
2 2 2
T T -W - -R S 49000 250 9.8 S S 20 meter
= = =
= = = =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1
2
2 2
2 2
2 1 2 1
5
m 2.45 1000 2450 kg V 27 7.5 m / s S 9 m
18
5
V 81 22.5 m / s F ??? R 80 kg per each ton
18
1 1
K.E. gained T T m V V 2450 22.5 7.5 551250 joule
2 2

= = = = =
= = = =
= = = =
56250 kg.wt.m
To get the force of the car motor , we have two methods :
=
st
1 method
( )
nd
2 method " I prefer this method when K.E. is
given in the problem" no acceleration is given
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )( )
2 2
2 2
2
F R ma where
R 80 9.8 2.45 1920.8 Newton
And V u 2aS
22.5 7.5 2 a 9
a 25m / sec
F 1920.8 2450 25
F 63170.8 Newton 6446 kg.wt
=
= =
= +
= +
=
=
= =
( ) ( )( )
2 1 net net
T T W F S
551250 F R S 551250 F 1920.8 9
551250
F 1920.8 61250
9
F 63170.8 Newton 6446 kg.wt
= =
= =
= =
= =
Example (6)
A car of mass 2.45 tons moves along a horizontal st. road with uniform acceleration, if its
velocity at a certain instant was 27 km/hr and after covering a distance 9 m , its velocity
became 81 km/hr , find the kinetic energy gained during this distance, and the magnitude
of the force of the car motor given that the magnitude of the resistance to the car motion
equals 80 kg.wt per ton .
Answer

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example (7)
A car of mass 2 tons, when its velocity was 7 m/sec , its engine stopped and it continued
a motion in a straight line under resistance of magnitude 250 kg.wt and it stopped.
find K.E lost and the distance it travelled during this motion
Answer

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 922 -
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
o
A

F 9,-12 and r t 5 i t 1 j

Point A means when t 0 r 5i j 5,-1

and point B means when t 3 r 14i 8 j 14,8
So i Potential energy at A : P F AO , where AO O A -5,1

= = + +
= = =
= = + =
= = =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
A
A B
A B
P 9,-12 -5,1 - 45 12 -57 joules
i Change in P.E. P P -W - F S , where S AB B A 9,9
P P 9,-12 9,9 - 81 108 27 joules
= = =
= = = = = =
= = =
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
o
F 8,-3 , B 5,-4 , T T W 34 joule
W F S , where S AB , so let the posotopn vector of A be x , y
So S AB B A 5,-4 x , y 5 x , -4 y
W F S 8,-3 5 x , -4 y 34
40 8x 12
= = = =
= =
= = = =
= = =
+ +
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
A
A A
3y 34 -8 x 3y -18 1
To get the Potential energy at A : P F AO , where AO O A - x ,- y
P 8,-3 - x ,- y -8 x 3y 2 , then from 1 and 2 : P -18 joule
= + =
= = =
= = + =
Example (8)
If i and j are the unit vectors parallel to the perpendicular axis of a cartisian system and
a force F 9i 12 j acted upon a particle , if the position vector of this particle as a function
of ti
=
( ) ( )
( )
2 2

me t in seconds is r t 5 i t 1 j , and the particle moved from A to another
point B during 3 seconds , find : i The potential energy of the particle at A

= + +
( )
ii The change in the potential energy during this interval
Given that the magnitude of F in Newton and the magnitude of r in meter.
Answer

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example (9)
If i and j are the unit vectors parallel to the perpendicular axis of a cartisian system and
a force F 8i 3 j acted upon a particle , if the change in kinetic energy of this particle when
it mov
=
( )

es from point A to point B 5i 4 j equals 34 joule, calculate the potential energy at A
given that 0,0 is the zero point of the potential energy and the magnitude of F in Newton
and the displacement i
=
n meter.
Answer

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 922 -
F
R
R
A
B
C
320 m 150 m
u 0 = B
T 1600 = C
T 1150 =
A cyclist is moving on a straight horizontal road starting from rest with uniform acceleration
and used his legs in moving the bicycle to cover a distance of 320 m, where the kinetic energy
of the bicycle and the cyclist together became 1600 kg.wt, at this instant the cyclist stopped
moving his legs to cover another 150 m, where their kinetic energy together became 1150 kg.wt
Calculate the magnitude of each of the driving force of the bicycle and the resistance of the
road assuming that it is constant .
2 1 net net
A B net
B A net net
K.E. is given in the problem , so we
will solve the problem by using:
T T W F S
Motion from A B T 0 , T 1600 9.8 15680 joule , F F R , S 320 m
T T W F S
= =
= = = = =
= =
( )( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
B C
C B net net
15680 F R 320 F R 49 1
Motion from B C T 15680 joule , T 1150 9.8 11270 joule , S 150 m
T T W F S 11270 15680 - R 150 R 29.4 N 9.8 3 kg.wt
Then substitute in 1 : F 29.4 49 F 78.4
= =
= = = =
= = = = =
= =
( )
Newton 9.8 8 kg.wt =
o
60
R
o
T Cos60
24.5 m
T
o
A tram wagon in the state of rest is pulled by a horizontal rope inclined at an angle of measure
60 to the direction of the tram rails so it moved a distance 24.5 m against a resistance of
magnitude 30
( ) ( )
( )
00 kg.wt and the kinetic energy gained during this distance equals 18375 kg.wt.m
calculate : i The work done by the resistance ii The work done by the tension in the rope
iii The magnitude of the tension force in the rope .
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 1
o
o
2 1 net
S 24.5 m R 3000 9.8 29400 N T T 18375 9.8 180075 joule
i W - RS -29400 24.5 -720300 joule 9.8 -73500 kg.wt.m
ii W T Cos60 S
we have two unknowns, so we will use the rule of K.E.
T T F S T Cos60 R
= = = = =
= = = =
=
= =
( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
( )
o
2 1
o o
o
o
S T T T Cos60 R S
180075 T S Cos60 RS 180075 T S Cos60 720300
Work done by the tension in the rope W T S Cos60 900375 joule 9.8 91875 kg.wt.m
900375
iii Then the tension force : T S Cos60 900375 T
24.5 Co
=
= =
= = = =
= =
( )
o
73500 joule
s60
=
Example (10)

Answer

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example (11)

Answer

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Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 922 -
A body of mass 4 kg is projected from the bottom A of an inclined plane towrds another point
B on the plane with velocity of magnitude 7 m/s along the line of the greatest slope AB . If the
kinetic
( )
( )
energy of this body at a point C bisecting AB equals 80.36 joule , and A lies on the
ground surface , find : first the potential energy of the body at C and its height
second Prove that the change in potential energy from C to B equals the change in kinetic
energy in the same distance -17.64 =
B
Reference level
B
h
C
h
C
( )( )
( )( )
2
A A C C C
C C C
C B B B C
1
When the body moved from A to C T P T P 4 7 0 80.36 P
2
17.64
P 17.64 joules mg h 17.64 h 0.45 m
4 9.8
To find the change in potential energy from C to B
P P 17.64 mg h where h 2h 0.9 m
+ = + + = +
= = = =
= = =
( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
C B
2
A A B B B
B C B
P P 17.64 4 9.8 0.9 -17.64 joule
To find the change in kinetic energy from C to B
then we have to get the velocity at B
1
T P T P 4 7 0 T 4 9.8 0.9
2
T 62.72 joules T T 62.72 80.36 -17.64 jou
= =
+ = + + = +
= = = le
Example (12)

Answer

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example (13)

Answer

A
0.4
A
B
o
30
o
60
o
60
1.8 m
0.9 m
0.9 m
o
B
B B
B B
2
B B
At the mid point of the path , then 60 h 0.9 m
And P mg h 0.4 9.8 0.9 3.528 joule
At the mid point of the path K.E. P.E.
1
K.E. mV 3.528 V 4.2 m / sec
2
u = =
= = =
=
= = =
B
h
( )
o
A simple pendulum consists of a light string of length 180 cm carrying at its end a body of
mass 400 gm and move through an angle of measure 120 , find :
i The potential energy lost due to the motion of t
( )
he body from the initial point of the path
of motion to the mid point of the path
ii The magnitude of the velocity of the body at the mid point of the path

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Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 922 -
( )
( )( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2
1 1
2
1 1
1 1 2 2 1 2
i To get the velocity of the hammer before collision :
u 0 V ?? S 0.9 and V u 2 g S
V 2 9.8 0.9 17.64 V 4.2 m / s
So mV m V V' m m
210 4.2 140 0 210 140 V' V' 2.52 m / s
ii The kinetic energy before impa
= = = = +
= = =
+ = +
+ = + =
( )( )
( )( )
( )
2
2
1 1
2
2
2
1 2
ct :
1 1
T mV 210 4.2 1852.2 joule
2 2
1 1
The kinetic energy after impact : T mV' 350 2.52 1111.32 joule
2 2
Then the lost in kinetic energy T T 1852.2 1111.32 740.88 joule
iii To find R , it is e
= = =
= = =
= = =
( )( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )
3 2 net net
asy to use K.E. rule :
T T W F S mg R S 0 1111.32 350 9.8 R 0.18
-1111.32
350 9.8 R -6174 R 9604 Newton 980 kg.wt
0.18
= = = =
= = = =
mg
3
T 0 =
0.18
u 0 =
R
0.9
2
T
( )
When building the foundation of a house, a hammer of mass 210 kg is used to fall down from
height 90 cm on a cylinder of mass 140 kg to push it in the ground a distance 18 cm, find :
i The magnitude of
( )
( )
the common velocity of the cylinder and the hammer just after impact
ii The lost in kinetic energy due to impact
iii The magnitude of the average resistance of the ground to the cylinder in kg.wt
2
V 0 =
1
V
1
T
V'
Example (14)

Answer

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 922 -
1.5m
( )
mg Sino
R
o

A body of mass 20 kgm is projected with velocity 2.1 m/sec , from the top of an inclined plane in
the direction of its line of greatest slope downwards to reach its bottom with velocity 5.6 m/sec ,
Find the work done by the plane resistance given that the height of the plane 1.5 m , and if Sin the
3
angle of inclination of the plane with the horizontal is . Then find magnitude of the resistance
14
in
=
Newton.
( ) ( )
1 2
2 2
2 1 net 2 1
V 2.1 m / sec V 5.6 m / sec
Assume that the distance from the top of the plane to its bottom is S.
1.5 3 1.5
Sin S 7 m
S 14 S
we can apply rule of energy and work during S
1
So T T W m V V mg Sin R S
2
1
2
2
o
o
= =
= = =
= =

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 3
0 5.6 2.1 20 9.8 R S
14
- 24.5
269.5 42 S RS - RS 269.5 294 - 24.5 R 3.5 Newton
-7
| |
(
=
|

\ .
= = = = =
( )
( ) ( )
2 1 net 2 1
4 3 net 4 3
2
On the inclined : T T F S T T mg sin r S
4.41 9.8 0 4.9m R 18 1
On the horizontal : T T F S T T -R S
1 1
0 T -R S - 4.41 9.8 -R 0.5
4 4
R 2.205 9.8 Newton , From 1 m 4.9 kg
u = =
=
= =
= =
= =
mg Sin30
R
1
T 0 =
u 0 =
2
T 4.41 =
3
1
T 4.41
4
=
R
4
T 0 =
0.5 m
Example (15)

Answer

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Example (16)
A body is planed at the top of an inclined plane of length 18 m inclined at an angle of measure
30 to the horizontal and is left to slide along the line of greatest slope. If its kinetic energy at
the

bottom of the incline is 4.41 kg.wt.m and the body continues its motion on horizontal plane
under the same resistance of the inclined plane, and comes to rest after covering 50 cm on the
horizontal
3
plane. Given that the body looses of its kinetic energy when it moves from the
4
inclined plane to the horizontal plane. Find magnitude of the resistance and the mass of the body.
Answer

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Dynamic 3
rd
secondary Chapter Six work - Energy - 929 -
A body starts motion from the top of an inclined plane to its bottom along the line of the
greatest slope, and starting from rest, if the potential energy at the top of the plane equals
17.64 joule and the magnitude of its velocity when it reaches the bottom of the plane is 8.4 m/s
Then find the mass of this body and the height of the plane .
( )
( )
( )
B A
B A A
A
B A B
B
2
B B
T P 1.225 9.8 12.005 joules and W -3.675 9.8 -36.015 joules
i T T W 12.005 T -36.015
T 48.02 joules
ii P P -W P 12.005 36.015
P 48.02 joules
1
iii T 12.005 mV
2
= = = = =
= =
=
= =
=
= = ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
A A
2
2
A A A
A B 2
B B B
o
B A
B A B A
12.005 1
1
T 48.02 mV 48.02 1
2
V V V
Divide 2 1 : 4 4 2 V 2V 3
V V V
And a - g Sin -9.8 Sin30 -4.9 t 2 and V V at
V V 4.9 2 V V 9.8 4 , then substitute 3 in 4

u

= =
| |
= = = =
|
\ .
= = = = = +
= =

( ) ( )
( )( )
B B B A
2
V 2V 9.8 V 9.8 m / s then V 19.6 m / s
12.005 1
iv from 1 : m kg
4
0.5 9.8
= = =
= =
B
T 12.005 =
B
Reference level
t 2 sec =
A
P 12.005 =
Example (17)

Answer

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A
o
30