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INTRODUCTION

Hotel Industry
Hotel industry is an essential part of tourism. The expansion of tourism is well inevitable bringing out development of the hotel industry. Hotel industry is so closely linked with the tourism industry that it is responsible for about 50% of the foreign exchange earning form tourism trade and enterprises. The rising volume of tourism influx brought into light, the shortage of hotels in important tourists centres. Keeping in view the changing standards in the international hotel keeping,the Indian industry has to make a number of improvements. Its not enough to have adequate hotel accommodations, it is equally necessary to have at various levels, low priced, moderately priced, high priced, and a few luxury hotels.

Hotels may be categorized depending upon factors such as: Locations Categorization according to plan Categorization according to number of rooms. Categorization by type of clientele. Categorization by the length of stay of guests. Categorization by the facilities that the hotel offers. The Indian hotel business focuses largely on foreign tourists with only 30% of the business coming from the domestic business and the leisure travels. The tourist arrivals in India are seasonal in nature, with the best season being from September to December followed by a steep fall till May. The period June to September gains momentum once the monsoons are over. The slack season is generally used for renovation work and the period is characterized by discounts to attract clients. Hotels form one of the most important support service that affect the arrival of tourist to a country. The major players in the industry are Indian Hotels Company Ltd (IHCL) operating under the Taj brand, the Oberoi, Oriental Hotels, Hotel Leela Venture and the Ashoka chain of hotels, owned and operated by the Indian Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC).

SWOT ANALYSIS HOTEL INDUSTRY

STRENGTHS A very wide variety of hotels is present in the country that can fulfill the demand of the tourists. There are international players in the market such as Taj and Oberoi. Thus, the needs of the international tourists travellers are seen to while they are on a visit to India. Manpower costs in the Indian hotel industry are one of the lowest in the world. This provides better margins for Indian hotel industry. India offers a readymade tourist destination with the resources it has. Thus the magnet to pull customers already exists.

WEAKNESSES The cost of land in India is high at 50% of total project cost as against 15% abroad. This acts as a major deterrent to the Indian hotel industry. The hotel industry in India is heavily staffed. Indian hotel companies have a staff to room ratio of 3:1, this ratio is 1:1 for international hotel companies. In India the expenditure tax, luxury tax and sales tax inflate the hotel bill by over 30%. Effective tax in the South East Asian countries works out to only 4-5%. Only 58,000 hotel rooms are available in India today, which is less than the Bangkok hotel capacity. The services currently offered by the hotels in India are only limited value added services.

OPPORTUNITIES Demand between the national and the inbound tourists can be easily managed due to difference in the period of holidays. For international tourists the peak season for arrival is September to March when the climatic conditions are suitable whereas the national tourist waits for school holidays, generally the summer months. In the long-term the hotel industry in India has latent potential for growth. This is because India is an ideal destination for tourists as it is the only country with the most diverse topography. For India, the inbound tourists are a mere 0.4% of the global figures. This number is expected to increase at a phenomenal rate thus pushing up the demand for the hotel industry

THREATS Guesthouses replace the hotels. This is a growing trend in the west and is now catching up in India also, thus diverting the hotel traffic. Political turbulence in the area reduces tourist traffic and thus the business of the hotels. In India examples of the same are Insurgency in Jammu Kashmir and the Kargil war. The economic conditions of a country have a direct impact on the earnings in hotel industry. It can see that the present economic slowdown in India has led to a 51.6% fall in the industry average net profits for the second quarter of the current financial year, 2000.

Destinations
These include the several religious, historical and trade places in India like Delhi, Agra (TajMahal), Rajasthan, Tirupathi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Manali, Goa etc. which are not just tourist hot spots but also business Centres for tourism industry.

Some of the most Popular tourist destinations in India:

Dal lake-Kashmir

Taj Mahal-Agra

Kerala

Charminar-Hyderabad

2.2 Barriers in Industry


Government:
The government is the most important player in this industry and all the other players have to follow the lead taken by it. However, the actions of the government have not been proactive. Rather it has been late in rising to the opportunity that the tourism industry offers. There are not enough incentives being offered to the other players like Hotels and the travel agencies. The government should be taking the lead and attracting the industry to places that have vast tourist potential but have still not fully developed. There are various restrictions in areas like Sikkim and the Northeast that should be relaxed so that more people can visit those places.

Poor Infrastructure:
Delayed or absence of connectivity to different locations, lack of proper accommodation facilities, bad roads and no communication facilities are some of the factors that are stopping people from visiting many places. Unless the infrastructure is properly developed, a large majority of tourists will give the country a skip.

Apprehensions about the law and order situations:


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The lack of security that is faced by a lot of tourist is also a major cause for concern. There have been many instances where tourist have been physically assaulted, robbed and sexually harassed. Any such incident reflects badly on the country and creates a negative image.

Misconception about the Country:


The image of the country has taken a long time for the change from the old image of the land of snake charmers. There are many places where the image of India is one of poverty, superstition, and diseases. One of the main reasons why tourist do not visit the country has been the fear of been infected by some exotic disease. The case of Plague in Surat in 1994 led to a decrease of 36% in arrival of foreign tourists in India All these misconceptions unless addresses immediately will create a problem for the growth of the industry.

3.1 FRAGMENTATION
Total Product Concept:

Future

Augmented

Formal

Core product

The Destination Product :


Core product The basic benefit An experience providing an insight into a different culture, tradition and lifestyle.

Formal

Comfort during the tour Instruction manual provided for better understanding of the places of visit; brand name e.g. Kerala known as Gods own country The Quality assurance and TQM e.g. Kerala has quality expected assurance and TQM implemented for all its products (backwater life and habitats and traditional houseboats), services and facilities. This implies it has complete cleanliness in its surroundings and eco-tourism is also assured. Providing the tourist with guide cassettes and also an interpreter to increase interactivity and understanding. Eg tours to historical and archeological sites requires elucidation, which can be ensured through the mentioned means; serving multi-purpose tourism, i.e. forming a chain of destination, circuit theme by cuddling different states. Eg 1 educational circuit, business circuit, pilgrimage circuit, beach circuit Kerala backwaters, Goa ,TamilNadu. Eg 2 - Rendezvous with Maharashtra and the Mughals.

In addition to the Augmented expected benefit

Future

An experience through which a tourist gets physically invigorated, mentally rejuvenated, culturally enriched and spiritually elevated. E.g. The New Beyond the Rajasthan Gift: Palace On Air. British Airways will usual, convert its 70-seater Boeing into a flying palace with serendipity all possible luxuries flavored with the Rajasthani (pleasant ambience. Tourists (who will be treated as Kings) will surprise) tour Rajasthan in Limousines (one for each) and will have personal assistants Darbaris to take care of every need.

The Airline Product:


Transportation, serving food drinks, staff

Core product

The basic benefit

Formal

The expected

Cleanliness, timely flights, polite and courteous behavior, safety Comfortable seats, smiling employees, on par with international standards Welcome flowers, managers word of thanks, entertainment shows to delight and surprise the travelers on the flight

Augmented

In addition to the expected benefit

Future

Beyond the usual, serendipity (pleasant surprise)

The Hotel Product:

Core

The basic benefit

Serving rooms, kitchen and staff.

food,

Formal The expected

Cleanliness, timely service, polite and courteous behavior, menu availability, music.

Augmented

Sparkling floors, ambience, In addition to the expected smiling employees, music of benefit choice, Welcome flowers, welcome drink. Cookies in the room, managers word of thanks, Beyond the usual, giving surprise parties to the serendipity (pleasant guest and delight the guest. surprise) The emphasis is on relationship marketing.

Future

TOUR-OPERATOR PRODUCT: Core product The basic benefit Packaged tour which includes travel guidance, planning, pricing, accommodation, local travel and sight seeing

Formal

The expected

Insurance, airport pick-ups, foreign exchange assistance (Raj Travels), airline ticketing, safe travel guide, branding the product for easy identity. Eg SOTC, Cox & Kings, etc

Augmented In addition to the expected benefit

Payment option travel now, pay later (on the basis of bank affiliations), tourism on credit card (Raj Travels); premium offers special package deals; guarantees in case of cancellation of flights, tour failures, bad weather, etc. ; loyalty schemes; weather reports of different countries, with month wise maximum, minimum temperature, humidity and rain; recommended tours for every age group and interests; take away gifts (souvenirs) - at the end of every tour

Future

Beyond the usual, serendipity (pleasant surprise)

Make your own package (customized packages); free photo sessions; video shooting of the entire trip by the tour operators; incentives with every tour package, one more, at half the price.

3.2 Industry Trend (Emerging or Declining)


The tourism industry not unlike the other industries grows with the increase in the spending of the people. The more the people spend the more the industry grows. The spending power of the people has been increasing in the country and all over the world. Since India is concentrating on the international tourists, the large increase in the spending power in most developed countries has left a large amount of idle cash in their hands. This has led to the tourism boom the world over and India has been no exception. The tourism industry has been growing steadily. Below are the charts depicting the growth in of the tourism industry various dimensions - Foreign tourist arrivals, Foreign exchange earnings, etc.

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Tourism as a product and service oriented industry, could generate widespread benefits and impacts to the economy and society. It could contribute to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) particularly those concerning poverty alleviation, environmental

conservation, and generation of employment opportunities for women, indigenous communities and young people. Further, tourism could be a source of revenue (foreign exchange earnings, tax revenue) to the government and because of its multiplier effect, could provide opportunities for local economic development (LED). The direct, upstream, and downstream industries involved in tourism activities have the potential for
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creating sectoral linkages and economic opportunities in the localities.

The major subsectors prevalent in Philippine tourism include ecotourism; medical, health and wellness and retirement; meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions (MICE); adventure, outdoor and sports; amusement, entertainment and leisure; and cultural and heritage tourism (Alvia and Libosada, Jr., 2009). In 2005, the Philippines gross domestic product (GDP) at market prices was estimated at US$99 billion. Tourisms direct contribution to GDP is around 2% and employment generated is around 1.5 million jobs. In 2006, there were over 3.49 million people directly and indirectly employed in the tourism industry. From 2004 to 2007, the industry registered annual average growth rates of 10.5% and 34.9% in terms of tourist arrivals and receipts, respectively (Gutierrez, 2008). In 2007, travel and tourism contributed an estimated 3.8 million jobs across the economy (or around 8.8% of total employment).

In view of the socio-economic benefits that could accrue to communities, it is imperative that communities capitalise on opportunities from tourism. One of the major authorities which provide the key roles to this success is that of local government units (LGUs). LGUs could provide the ideal, authority, infrastructure, policy and planning procedures to maximise the benefit for its
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communities. LGUs play a major role in a communitys development, provide the links between the people and government, address its communitys problems and concerns, enforce policies and hold influence over its communities. The LGUs are also intermediaries in channelling the framework of government into each individual community in order to create a beneficial outcome.

In the context of sustainable development, local governments also play important roles on the success of its local tourism industry, as well as have a strong influence in conserving its resources. Sustainable tourism development refers to the management of all resources that meets the needs of tourists and host regions while protecting the opportunities for the future, in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems (Tourism Act of 2010). Vital to this approach is the contribution of a full range of stakeholders and the community in planning and decision making in order to determine the communitys long term interest. On this basis, the local government can have a profound influence on the local tourism industry, and plays a part in conserving the very asset on which its future depends.

Further, local governments institutional capacity to provide for tourism


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development will be affected by a number of issues, including: individual capacities, resources (financial and physical), community acceptance, and governance.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The role of local government is to promote the social, economic, environmental and cultural wellbeing of their communities and their involvement in tourism must be related to that. The LGUs have the mandate to craft their own tourism plan which sets out the priorities over the medium to longer term and how the local authority intends to contribute to community wellbeing. The plan must set out the following the community outcomes as a result of tourism development, how these have been identified and how the local authority will contribute to these. The Local Government Tourism Strategy may contribute to economic development strategies and or regional as well as national tourism strategies and serve as the basis of the role of LGUs (Figure 1).

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Figure 1. Interrelation between local and regional/national tourism strategy and community outcomes (Adapted from Local Government New Zealand (2004).

Community

Outcomes

Contribut es

Contributes

Local governments contribution identified

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Economic Develop ment Local Tourism Plan Strategy Governments involvement Provides basis for local

May be part of

Provides basis for local Governments involvement Regional/Nation

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al Tourism Strategy

RA 9593

TOURISM APPROACH TO LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (LED)

The Philippine government sees the need to focus on tourism in order to capitalize on the lost opportunities that could have been captured from it. As early as 2007, the DOT has identified the development of tourism real estates, establishment and modernization of tourist accommodation facilities as priority activities (Business World, 2007).
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Republic Act (RA) 9593 also known as the Tourism Act of 2009 was enacted in May 12, 2009. The law is considered as the Omnibus Tourism Code. Its general provision stated in Section 1 is to harness its potentials as an engine of socio-economic growth and cultural affirmation to generate investment, foreign exchange and employment and to continue to mold an enhanced sense of national pride for all Filipinos. The states perspective of tourism, as with the rest of the other countrys experience and plans, is seen through the direct contributions on job creation, foreign exchange generation and stimulation of large and usually foreign investments.

This policy statement reflects the government perspective on tourism that has remained largely unchanged since the creation of the DOT in 1973. The message has been consistent for almost 40 years: tourism is a powerful economic growth engine for the country with great potential to generate direct and indirect jobs, upgrade the levels of investment, and facilitate foreign exchange movements. Thus, it was not surprising that the policy framework of the 2004-2010 Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) remains geared towards attracting more visitors, extending their length of stay, and increasing the attractiveness of tourist products to encourage travelers to spend more (Alampay, 2009 as cited by Javier, 2010).
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The Tourism chapter of the MTPDP has a product market, destination, building tourism priority zones and tourism infrastructure focus. Three priorities for product market has been identified aggressive multichannel promotion of the short-haul beachgoer and sightseeing/shopper, and domestic market segments, related products, and destinations. These markets should receive between 60 and 70 percent of the promotional budget; Niche-based tailored promotion of the short-haul recreation travellers and ecotourists; and the strategic ambassadors backpacker and balikbayan segments, and related products. These should receive between 20 and 30 percent of the promotional budget focusing on rifle shot promotions aimed at specific niches such as golf, diving, among others; and long-term tactical marketing to the long-haul markets and MICE segments, and related products which should receive 20 to 30 percent of the promotion budget in the long-term, focusing on non-media based campaigns (MTPDP, 2004-2010).

The MTPDP 2004-2010 and the RA 9593 puts premium in establishing the Tourism Economic Zones (TEZs). This shall be the main vehicle for focused development at a local level within the priority destinations together with the creation of a Tourism Industrial and Economic Zone Authority (TIEZA) in place of the Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA). The TIEZA
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shall designate the TEZs, upon recommendation of any LGUs or private entity or through joint venture of private and public sectors (Chapter IV, Section 60, and RA 9593).

POLICYAND INSTITUTIONAL LANDSCAPE OF LGUs ROLES

The formation of institutional structures and the implementation of tourism policies and strategies require enabling legislation and regulatory framework. Below is a discussion of the policy and institutional setting that govern the tourism industry in the Philippines.

Republic Act No. 7160 of 1991- The Local Government Code

The Code (Section 17) provides for LGUs responsibility in basic services and facilities that include tourism development and promotion programs, tourism facilities and other tourist attractions, including the acquisition of equipment, regulation and supervision of business concessions, and security services for such facilities. LGUs, as a corporate entity (Section 15) are also vested corporate powers with full autonomy (Section 22) in proprietary functions and management of their economic enterprises. However, the condition that this provision is subject to the
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limitations provided in this Code and other applicable laws negates the full autonomy.

The recent emphasis of the current administration towards the practice of the LGUs as corporate entities became very favourable for the tourism industry. Tourism together with agribusiness development was seen as the LGUs best bet for increasing local revenues. These two sectors were identified by the initial four pilot LGU clusters where the Local Governance Support Program-Local Economic Development (LGSP-LED) operates. The LGSP-LED is an eight-year collaborative program of the Governments of Canada and the Philippines implemented in partnership with the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) and geared towards reducing poverty by strengthening local governance and supporting sustainable LED (LGSP-LED, 2009).

In terms of structure, the Local Development Councils (LDCs) at the provincial, city, and municipal level (Section 109) have the mandate to formulate socioeconomic development plans and policies; public investment programs; local investment incentives to promote the inflow and direction of private investment capital. At the same time, the LDCs are the ones that appraise and prioritize socioeconomic development programs and projects. The Sanggunian approves local development plans which are submitted to
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the regional development council, which shall be integrated into the regional development plan for submission to the National Economic and Development Authority, in accordance with existing laws.

Also very recently, a Memorandum Circular (DILG-MC 2010-113) was issued by the DILG encouraging provinces and cities for the creation of a Local Economic and Investments Promotions Officer (LEIPO). The LEIPOs are tasked primarily to facilitate the preparation, coordination, and execution of local economic and investment promotion policies, projects, and activities of the provincial/city government. Tourism development was identified by the LEIPOs as a good investment priority as planned in the initial roll-out of the LEIPOs orientation on LED (Javier, 2010).

Republic Act No. 9593 - The Tourism Act of 2009

The Act provides for the development of a national tourism action plan for implementation by national and local governments; enlisting the participation of local communities, including indigenous peoples, nongovernment organizations (NGOs), peoples organizations (POs) and the private sector. It also emphasizes capability-building of LGUs, in partnership with the private sector, in the management of local tourism
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projects and initiatives, and the establishment of tourism enterprise zones (TEZs). Local tourism development planning LGUs, in consultation with stakeholders, are encouraged to utilize their powers under the Local Government Code to ensure the preparation and implementation of a tourism development plan, the enforcement of standards and the collection of statistical data for tourism purposes. The plan should integrate zoning, land use, infrastructure development, the national system of standards for tourism enterprises, heritage and environmental protection imperatives in a manner that encourages sustainable tourism development (Section 37). Institutional arrangements

The Department of Tourism (DOT) shall be the primary planning, programming, coordinating, implementing and regulatory government agency in the development and promotion of the tourism industry. It shall monitor the LGUs compliance to national standards in the licensing of tourism enterprises; and ensure the proper coordination, integration, prioritization and implementation of local tourism development plans. It shall provide technical assistance to LGUs in destination development, standard setting and regulatory enforcement; preparation, implementation and monitoring of local tourism development plans, gathering of statistical
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data, and enforcement of tourism laws and regulations.

There are a number of activities where LGUs have to coordinate with DOT. These include:

- integration and coordination of local and national plans for tourism development

- approval (by LGU resolution) of designating TEZ

- designation of a permanent position and performance of functions of a tourism officer in every province, city or municipality where tourism is a significant industry - promulgation (also in consultation the private sector industries and other tourism stakeholders) of rules and regulations on the operation of all tourism enterprises, such as a national standard for licensing, accreditation and classification of tourism enterprises - establishment of tourist information and assistance centers at strategic locations (province, city or municipality where tourism is a significant industry)

- provision to DOT of an inventory of all the resources available to the


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DOT for use in the implementation of the Act

- periodic reporting to the DOT on the status of tourism plans and programs, tourist arrivals, and tourism enterprises, among others, within their jurisdictions

- issuance of timely advisories on the safety or viability of travel to particular places

- report to DOT of incentives provided by LGUs for tourism enterprises through, among others, reductions in applicable real estate taxes and waivers of fees and charges

Rationalization of tourism areas, zones andspots

Under the Act, the Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA) is reorganized as the Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority (TIEZA). The TIEZA shall be a body corporate which shall designate, regulate and supervise the TEZs as well as develop, manage and supervise tourism infrastructure projects in the country. TEZ is an area specifically defined or organized as a tourism area, zone or spot under any special or general law, decree or presidential issuance (Section 32).
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With respect to tourism zones, areas or spots not organized into TEZs, the DOT, through appropriate arrangements, may transfer control over the same or portions thereof, to another agency or office of the government, or to a LGU upon DOT approval. The Department shall exercise supervisory powers over such agency, office or LGU in accordance with the terms of the transfer or the development plan of the zone, area or spot.

No TEZ shall be designated without a development plan duly approved by the TIEZA and without the approval, by resolution, of the LGU concerned. LGUs which comprise, overlap, embrace or include a TEZ in their territorial jurisdictions shall retain their basic autonomy and identity in accordance with the Local Government Code.

Under the Act, The Philippine Conventions and Visitors Corporation (PCVC) are reorganized as the Tourism Promotions Board (TPB). The Bureaus for Domestic and International Tourism Promotions, and the Office of Tourism Information of the Department, are absorbed into the Tourism Promotions Board. The DOT, the TPB and the TIEZA shall prioritize promotion and development assistance for LGUs which successfully adopt and implement their tourism development plans.

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Funding schemes

The Act provides for the Tourism Development Fund to be disbursed and administered by the DOT for the development, promotion and marketing of its tourism and other projects. DOT may provide financial to LGUs for the preparation, implementation and monitoring of their tourism development plans.

Tourism enterprises registered with the TIEZA shall further be ordered to pay back taxes in the amount equivalent to the difference between the taxes that they should have paid had they not availed of the incentives under the Act and the actual amount of taxes being paid by them under the same incentive scheme. The back taxes to be collected shall be computed up to three (3) years directly preceding the date of promulgation of the decision or order finding that the tourism enterprise violated the terms of its accreditation.

Local bodies role is important in tourism development Babulal

Urban Administration and Development, Gas Relief & Rehabilitation

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Minister Shri Babulal Gaur said that the role of local bodies in tourism development is very important. He said that keeping the tourism places clean, removing encroachment as part of beautification scheme and providing basic facilities are the job of the local bodies. If the city is kept clean, more and more tourists will visit the tourism interested places. Shri Gaur was addressing a workshop organised jointly by the M P Tourism Development Corporation and Urban Administration and Development Department on the subject 'Role of Local Bodies in Tourism Development'. Tourism Development Corporation Chairman and MLA Shri Dhruvnarayan Singh said that the Tourism Development Corporation had banned use of polythene two and half years ago. He said that the government should make a policy banning use of polythene in the state. Shri Dhruvnarayan Singh talked in detail about role of local bodies in development of tourism. Earlier, Madhya Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation Managing Director Shri Hari Ranjan Rao threw light on the organisation of workshop on role of local bodies in tourism development. Secretary, Urban Administration Shri S. P. S. Parihar, and Commissioner Urban Administration Shri S. N. Mishra were also present. During the second session Assistant Director General, Tourism Ministry, Government of India Sri K N. Thakur spoke in detail about the importance of

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tourist destination, decoration, cleanliness, and role and contribution of local bodies. Shri Thakur informed about the prizes established by the Government of India for the local bodies and said that tourism develop will be possible only through coordinated efforts by all departments. Specialist in tourism Shri Jayant Sanyal informed about the tourism development made at Orchha and with reference to rural tourism he talked about the developmental works done at Orchha. Managing Director of MP Tourism Development Corporation Shri Hari Ranjan Rao delivered a lecture on the subject 'Challenges and Opportunities in the context of Tourism in Madhya Pradesh'. Deputy Superintendent of Archaeological Survey of India and Archaeologist Shri S. S. Gupta spoke on the problems faced while protecting monuments and protection of heritages. Secretary, Urban Administration Department Shri S. P. S. Parihar spoke in detail about the role of local bodies in tourism development and its implementation. At the end of the workshop M P Tourism Corporation Managing Director informed about the prizes established by the Government of India and Madhya Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation for local bodies and local administration. People's representatives from local bodies, regional managers of MP Tourism Development Corporation and officers of the Corporation participated in the workshop.

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