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Isiaka Olajide Odewale et al.

, IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 14-22



International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries

Review Article

An International peer Review Journal for Science

Available online through


Ceramic and Glass Technology Department, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Nigeria

Received: 14-01-2013 Accepted: 15-02-2013

*Corresponding Author

ABSTRACT Ceramic technology equipment/machines/products resulting from Research and Development (R&D) work and prospects in Nigeria. The problems facing Ceramic machine parts design and technology research and its interrelationship/linkages among tertiary and private sectors ways to improve the quality of Research and Development of Tertiary enhancing Research and Development growth as well as stability of our national economy. Technology, Ceramic Industry, Ceramic Products. Keywords: chance of advancement in the field of ceramic technology. It also, suggested to government institutions, research institutes, and industry were highlighted. The paper stated the Institutions and Research Institutes through increased funding and stable power supply. It provides clear strategies to establish proper linkages among the institutions involve in This paper discusses the hindrances facing local design and manufacture of

Address: Name: Isiaka Olajide Odewale Place: PMB 1007, Afikpo, Nigeria E-mail:

Ceramic Technology, Research and Development, Ceramic Design and

International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013


Isiaka Olajide Odewale et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 14-22 the art of producing ceramic pot for cooking and drinking before the advent of Europeans. Earthenware were used to the pots and these were fired by open air firing method using leaves and wood. Much progress was not made in Ceramic technology Humanities, Law and Public Administration. These lead to late development of Ceramic Technology Education in Nigeria [1]. because the Europeans who brought civilization to Nigeria laid emphasis on languages to facilitate communication, The term Ceramics was originally used for pottery and earthenware collectively. Today, it comprises a much wider The art of Ceramic production was done in Nigeria from the earliest period of history. Nigerians mainly women, learn INTRODUCTION

range of materials, including metallic oxides, nitrides and carbides. These materials are used in application areas ranging from them highly suitable for applications where the product is subjected to high mechanical or thermal stress. Another important industries, including automotive and semiconductors [2].

household items (porcelain, sanitarywares, artwares) to high-performance tools for industrial use (ball bearings, cutting tools, isolators, catalysts). In addition to their great hardness, ceramics are also resistant to thermal and chemical influences, making impurities may not only influence the physical and chemical properties of the product but can also prove to be harmful to the definitions is that, which defines a ceramic product as an article made from clay with or without the addition of materials and then fired to give the product the required strength and durability. Nowadays, ceramics includes vast range of products many is mindful of the fact that some ceramic articles nowadays are also produced by hot pressing e.g Silicon Nitride Ceramics [4]. economy. It must be indigenously developed if long term industrialization is to be sustained science and engineering foundation based on research and development capabilities.

factor is the purity of the material, as even slight impurities can lead to rejects during the manufacturing process. Such health of the user. Ceramics, with their unique properties and diverse applications, hold the potential to revolutionize many Many authors have defined ceramics in various ways according to their experiences at the time. One of such

of which contain no clay whatsoever, thus making a simple definition impossible [3,4]. Also ceramic can be defined as a product dry pressing, the shaped dried and fired to give the product the required strength and durability. Even with this definition, one a nation. Research and Development is necessary to achieve this for enhanced growth as well as stability of our national fact that countries which are now economically and technologically dominating the world are those with a highly developed It is generally accepted that technology with adequate infrastructure is an indispensable instrument for the industrialization of

made from inorganic, nonmetallic materials, shaped in the cold by either slip casting or in the plastic state or by dry or semi-

commodities production, food etc are those that pragmatically pursued their policy on science and engineering research and development over the years with well-planned and well-financed relentless will. Then, any country with immense human and aspects of technology are not harnessed. And a country with little natural resources but with sound Research and Development capability and capacity can develop into thriving self-reliant and affluent national economy [5]. natural resources but with no proper Research and Development capability and capacity would ever remain poor if those research institutes, only a limited number of tertiary institutions researches (on Ceramic) reach commercial states. Indeed, programs of the tertiary institutes have not responded adequately to the developmental needs of Nigeria. The bulk of research International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013

The so-called third world countries which have now successfully industrialized and attained self-sufficiency in

This is in agreement with the

at the tertiary institutions is targeted at publications and career advancements and tends to have little socio-technological

Most commercializable industrial research and development in Nigeria are carried out by government-owned


relevance. Notwithstanding this, appreciable research is done and awareness of the need for more research at Nigerian tertiary institutions has been created [6]. System in Nigeria Condition of Research and Development in the Local Design and Manufacture of Ceramic Technology Machines and Research. The public has the impression that indigenous Technologist/Engineers cannot achieve what their counterparts that the Ceramic Technology sector is dominated by imported technology. Nigerian Technologist/Engineers have been previously accused of not being practical in engineering Design and Let us look at the oil sector/industry, which is the main stream of Nigeria economy. Most of the equipment,

Isiaka Olajide Odewale et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 14-22

oversees can achieve [7]. This perception of the public is not unfounded. A look at any sector of the Nigerian economy shows engineering manpower sector that you can find Nigerian engineers. Even at that, most of them work under expatriate staff. foreign designed machines imported use of foreign exchange.

machinery and techniques used in prospecting, transportation and refining of the products are imported. It is only in the Other factories such as the breweries, soft drink companies, textile, ceramics, glass, cement, soap and detergents etc are run by up because of the down turn in the economy which makes it impossible for these companies to buy all the needed machinery This is probably why most of the companies are operating below capacity or folding

and raw materials for production. This has led to lay-offs, increase in unemployment and drain on the economy through the development in the country. There are establishments of research institutions like: Projects Development Institute Enugu designed technological objective of the nation [6]. (PRODA), Scientific Equipment Development Institutes Enugu and Minna (SEDI-E & SEDI-M), Engineering Materials Development Institute Akure (EMDI-A) e.t.c. and a number of Universities and Polytechnics with facilities of science, and machinery/equipment in tertiary institutions and research institutes with other production companies. However, due to resources is enormous [5]. In the last 35years, Nigeria has spent substantial amount of money on importation of various Ceramic components engineering and technology. A significant amount of national resources should be devoted to research if they are to achieve the lack or inadequacy of spare parts/components, vis--vis proper and timely maintenance, many of these equipment and machinery have either broken-down or been shut-down. Of course, the loss to the country in term of productivity and financial Hindrance to Ceramic Design & Technology Research and Development in Nigeria Development in machinery, equipment and materials: Difficulty in accessing research funds Lack of research skills in modern methods have all these establishments. The following are the constraints to local Ceramic Design and Technology Research and Constraint of equipment for carrying out state of the art research. Overloaded teaching and administration schedules. One may therefore wonder why machinery and engineering systems cannot be fully developed in Nigeria even though we These are in spite of several efforts by government in establishing institutional framework for technology

and Development among which are:

In addition to problems highlighted above there are several other obstacles to Ceramic Design and Technology Research International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013

Poor marketability network and irrelevance of some research outputs.


Lack of awareness

Isiaka Olajide Odewale et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 14-22

High mortality rate of Ceramic industries. Inadequate funding by government. Poor/inadequate power supply. development.

Absence of research culture and appreciation of the role of research and development (R&D) in national Lack of statutory backing requiring industries to patronize local research in Ceramic Design and Technology. commercializing researches that can attract patronage from the industries. Improper policy implementation. Poor patronage of local research outputs.

Poor synergy between respective tertiary institutions and the department of Ceramic Design and Technology in

Technology research in the tertiary institutions and research institutes against the execution of these researches are discussed below Lack of Awareness secondary and tertiary institutions [5].

There are several advantages to technological development accruing from carrying out Ceramic Design and The study and knowledge of ceramic and its technology is simultaneously the oldest and the newest technology. Many However some of the major constraints militating

people are not aware of the importance of Ceramics. Not much attention has been given to this discipline in our primary, as of today. Auchi Polytechnic still offering Ceramic art. High Mortality Rate of Ceramic Industries.

Federal Polytechnic Ado Ekiti and Institute of Management and Technology Enugu are offering Ceramic Technology in Nigeria

For instance only three Polytechnics, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana,

are our oldest and the newest solids, in 1970s and 80s many Ceramic industries sprang up in Nigeria, today they are no power supply and lack of specialized service industries. In Europe and America such specialized service industries exist [1]. Lack of Adequate Funding by Government In tertiary institutions, funding of programmes and researches has been low. As a result laboratories and workshops

more. Almost all of them are folded up. The high mortality rate of Nigerian Ceramic industies is due to poor or inadequate are ill-equipped for meaningful research. Even for demonstrating practical teaching, the laboratories are inadequate. The same to research efforts.

The importance of teaching lies in the fact that knowledge must be passed from generation to generation. Ceramics

fate befalls the various research institutes [8]. No doubt a well-developed research in Ceramic Design and Technology targeted at a particular need, translate to the benefiting community in which the institution is located. Funding is therefore very crucial education sector. This was a commendable improvement over previous years although it was (and still is today) below the 26% recommended by UNESCO in 1998 [9]. Poor and Inadequate Power Supply capacity resulting in the low spinning reserve and weak security

For instance, the federal government budget for 2006 was N1.88 trillion and 11% of this was allocated to the

deteriorating machinery and equipment, the nations infrastructural facilities are highly deficient. This has often necessitated International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013

The Nigeria power supply system like its counterparts in the developing world is characterized by deficient available Owing largely to inadequate power supply and


remedial, but cost inducing measures undertaken by industries to remain in business. It is no longer news in our circumstances that many companies have to make huge investment outlays on backup facilities, including expensive generators, water boreholes and similarly, the unending erratic power supply as well as sharp increase in tariff of electricity with all kinds of communication equipment leading to unnecessary escalation in production cost [11]. This is one of the major problems of the development of this country. Majority of the imported goods (Ceramic

Isiaka Olajide Odewale et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 14-22

products) are cheaper than homemade. Nearly all Ceramic companies are shut down or operating below capacity while baked product of tertiary institutions which increases the number of unemployment in Nigeria. Examples of such companies are Royal Ceramic Limited Suleja, Textile industries, Dunlop, Nico glass etc. and technology development in order to improve economic growth of the nation. It is high time that government should pay attention to power generation, transmission, and distribution to boost the research Lack of Statutory Backing Requiring Industries to Patronize Local Research in Ceramic Design and Technology There are new prototype machines or inventions and breakthrough in researches in Ceramic Design and Technology

research works in our institutions are half done for years due to erratic power supply. This leads to layoff of workers and half

in Nigeria. Nevertheless, no major attempts have been made to commercialize these innovations which have resulted in their being kept on the shelves or rack/stores. Beside trade fairs, regular expositions should be organized for the display of such backing that should require these industries to patronize these institutions researched products. for not patronizing the researches from our tertiary institutions: Low quality of research. Irrelevant researching. Inadequate research orientation. Lack of database on inventions and research results. The industry is the primary beneficiary of technical/technological research and development system anywhere; and Nigeria Design and Technology inventions with a view to attract industries for commercialization. Again, there should be statutory therefore should fund and utilize the results/findings of such researches. Often times, the industries give the following reasons

multinationals do not even have confidence in the quality of personnel and research outputs of the Nigerian Research and Development (R & D) organizations. Even when the tertiary institutions Research and Development organizations conduct driven or have no industrial support [12]. Appreciation of the Role Ceramic Design and Technology Research and Development in National Development

research that may be relevant to Ceramics industries, these industries reject their findings because they are not demandgrowth. Several countries worldwide allocate a large percentage of their researches to science and technology Researches and pursued at all. We are in a technology-driven world where science and technology was used as the key to progress and industrial

But it has been noted that even our local industries have preference for foreign technology. The foreign-based

Development in order to compete or catch up with more advanced nations [12]. Even a few Nigerian Research and Development are being conducted in different fields, yet Research and Development in Ceramic design and technology is very low/not

their R&D activities were radical in nature, with 70% of them claiming to focus on incremental R&D or modification of existing International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013

In a study conducted on research and development efforts by institutions, 80% of the respondents said that some of


products and/or processes. However, only 30% of the industries (indigenous) claimed to have used the prototype/invention/research results from Nigerian institutions/institutes [12]. A recent survey on March 2005 was used by Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC) to update Lack of funding organization

Isiaka Olajide Odewale et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 14-22

information on the state of innovation management in Nigeria. This study covered tertiary institution, Federal Ministries, or obstacles to the commercialization of inventions /prototypes/research in Nigeria as follows Inadequate infrastructural facilities. Instability of government policies Inadequate motivation for commercialization.

industrial firms and technology brokerage/interface organizations. In it, the respondents rated the severity of the constriction

In the study by RMRDC in 2005, about 53% of the researchers said that they received some support in form of research grants, staff exchange/sabbatical, travel fellowships to research facilities and materials [13]. Tight budget Lack of relevance of the research activities to their needs and; Inadequate information about the activities of the institutions [13]. Some of the firms also surveyed gave the following reasons for not sponsoring the institutions:

Inadequate enforcement of intellectual property rights

Poor technological entrepreneurial culture in the educational institutions

and research institutes.

For Ceramic Design and Technology Research and Development to contribute to national development, the institutions offering Ceramic Technology Programmes must adopt a more radical approach to innovation in order to achieve rapid

industrialization [8]. In addition, patenting and patent procedures should be made readily available to researchers/institutions Failure of Research in Ceramic Design and Technology to Attract Patronage from the Ceramic Industries

potential entrepreneurs and employers of labour. This is a major shift towards national self-sufficiency [14]. The new challenge the need of these industries. These trained researchers should have personal projects which are basic or curiosity-oriented. The best approach should be to engage in inter-disciplinary research which would be industry-related. Through this approach, Ceramic Design and Technology training institutions would attract the interest of the industry thereby receiving funds for their research and development efforts. The Role of the Productive Sector in Utilization of Nigerian Design Ceramic Manufacturing Prototype Machines Information obtained from the productive sector of Ceramic Industries indicated that decisions to adopt an innovation

to Ceramic Engineering Designers and Technologist is to train researchers in the specialization of Ceramic Technology to meet

The new thinking now in the formulation of education policy at the tertiary level is to produce graduates who are

come from their parent companies. These make foreign established Ceramics industries in Nigeria not to be in a position to said that outstanding local results of these Ceramic Industries were usually forwarded to a central research laboratory in the United States or U.K. for consideration [6]. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013

establish links with Nigerian tertiary institution in these areas of material engineering specialization. The parent companies abroad guide their branches in Nigeria on how to carry out their research activities and innovation that is acceptable. Some


their overseas parent bodies had considered and approved the scientific data. Efforts in R&D within these local firms were limited to in-house process modification [6]. Prospect to Natural and Industrial Developments in Ceramic Technology

These firms stated that no research and development decision was made in Nigeria to adopt local innovations until The chance of advancement in Ceramic technology development in Nigeria can be achieved if government and private

Isiaka Olajide Odewale et al., IJSID, 2013, 3 (1), 14-22

sector improves the quality of R&D at tertiary/research institutions through increase funding, clear policies and proper links and others involve perform their roles effectively. For example, the production of domestic earthen dinner wares such as dishes of all shapes and sizes ,flat plates, teacups and created. Currently, Nigeria produces less than 5% of her domestic needs stonewares etc.

among the institutions involves and industry. Stated below are the prospects of Ceramic Technology in Nigeria if government saucers etc is a labour intensive operation employing hundreds (if not thousands of workers) depending on the sophistication of the industry. About 90% of the raw materials are locally sourced and the market is abundant. If Nigeria can produce It is easy to pick out the first class of ceramics, that is, the pottery or white ware and consider the industry under it.

between 40-60% of her domestic needs, it means a significant number of this grade of dinnerware industries have to be creation of wealth and the saving of the expensive, scarce foreign exchange for the country from the hitherto, wasting solid continue to increase both productivity and energy efficiency. For instance, a German kiln manufacturer has developed a control system, producing 23,000 pounds (11,500 kilograms) of porcelain in 24 hours

minerals and human resources. This explanation can also be extended to the production of domestic bone-china products, prefabricated tunnel kiln for fast firing high-quality porcelain in less than 5 hours. Firing is achieved by partly reducing produce 40-60% of her building materials (wall tiles and sanitary wares), many of such industries will be established with attendant benefit to economy. Again, Nigeria produces less than 5% of her domestic need in his area at moment [4]. Furthermore, from studies on structural ceramics, it is now generally accepted that building with bricks gives High-quality porcelain art and dinnerware will continue to enhance the culture. Improvements in manufacturing will

Increased productive capacity will result in the

atmosphere at a maximum firing temperature of 2,555 0F (1,4000C). The kiln uses high-velocity burners and an automatic

Still under pottery, if Nigeria can

stronger and more durable structures than with ordinary sandcrete blocks. It is ultimately cheaper in that it saves the cost of cement for block moulding and plastering of walls, sand, gravel and paint. Also houses built with bricks are very ideal for requirements in bricks are produced locally; a lot of industries will be generated. To this end building with brick culture has to bricks are very much needed for paving the city roads works and highways. They could also be useful in erosion control places

tropical countries like Nigeria because they are cooler and are naturally beautiful. Moreover, 40-60% of the countrys

be promoted to enable the country reap the full benefit of its natural resources. Very strong and dense engineering paving generated here and roofing tiles are normally cheaper than the exorbitant corrugated sheets especially for low cost houses. Nigeria, like most countries of the third world has drainage problems. The establishment of clay sewer and drainage pipe industries in all the state of federation will go a long way in solving these problems and in providing job for the people Asbestos products are cancerous and use should be prohibited. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013 Clay roofing and floor tiles will complement bricks to give cooler and more comfortable homes. Industries will be



On refractory, this aspect of ceramics is very strategic in any nations industrial development effort since the feasibility of 100% of the refractory requirements of the countrys iron and steel industry (which is the largest consumer of the various grades of refractories) are still imported at very prohibitive costs (in hard currency) to the nation [15].

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many important industries depends critically on refractory products. Industries such as the Iron and Steel, Steel rolling mills, Aluminum Smelting Plants, Foundry, Ceramics, Glass and a host of others cannot operate without refractories. To date, almost The situation is the same with electrical porcelain insulators, which are used during electricity generation and power

distribution to consumers. So far, there is no single refractory or porcelain insulator factory in Nigeria. The establishment of these industries will obviously expedite Nigerias industrial development process and save the country huge sums of foreign exchange [4,15]. Increase in productive capacity will result in the creation of wealth and drastically reduce the unemployment Ceramic industrial base. The earlier Nigeria wakes up to this reality, the better. The Way Forward problem of the nation. The truth is that there is no industrialized nation in the world today which does not have a strong

at three levels in the society namely government level, non-governmental organizational level and private sector level.

Government at its level should initiate efforts at proper funding, co-ordination and control as well as equipping of relevant organizations and private sector at their levels should partner with tertiary institutions in training of professionals in Ceramic and Technology. Stability in government policies and adequate enforcement of intellectual property rights will help protect ceramic design and technology research products of industries and research institutions. and the private sector as a team can provide adequate facilities for research and development in the area of Ceramics Design A culture of technological entrepreneurship should be promoted at tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This would prepare

Research and Development (R&D) of Ceramic Design and technology tertiary research institutions. Non-governmental Engineering Design and Technology with the objective to motivate these institutions. Also non-governmental organizations

In order to solve the problem of research and development in Ceramic Design and Technology, efforts must be made

students to move away from academic pen-pushing and file moving-careers (including wage paying jobs) to self-employment and employer of labour. Moreover; research in Nigerian tertiary/research institutions should be inter-disciplinary that is industry-related. This would attract the interest of Nigerian Ceramic industries, funds for Research and Development in growth of the nation. Nigerian tertiary/research institutes. Also, government should pay attention to power generation, transmission, and The paper advises government and private sector to improve the quality of R&D at the tertiary/research institutions CONCLUSION distribution to boost the research and technology development in order to reduce unemployment and improve economic of Ceramic Design and Technology through increased funding. Clear policies and strategies to establish link between to put in place enabling policies and environment to overcome the aforementioned obstacles. RECOMMENDATIONS

Research/Tertiary Institutes and Industry in Nigeria are imperative for technical progress. This study shows Nigerians The role of the tertiary institutions that carryout research and development work in the area of Ceramic design and International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013

productive sectors refusal to enter into joint ventures with local research/tertiary institutions. There is need for government technology should not be confused with that of other research institutes set-up to develop prototypes of Ceramic manufacturing machines and processes. The role of Ceramic engineering design and technology Research and Development is


to translate the innovations into commercial capital products that are available and functional. When they are developed, they are transferred to the private sector. The model used is the hybrid technology development and diffusion approach which is a combination of the demand pull model and the technology push model. collaborate closely with appropriate departments of Nigerian tertiary institutions. Such a policy would encourage the A policy instrument is needed to compel or encourage Ceramic industries to set up R&D units in Nigeria and

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productive sector to intensify their interaction with the tertiary/research institutions within a set time frame and hence play a more significant role in generating innovations for the Nigerian economy. In addition, government should properly fund changes, they have to be well funded with high level of manpower and adequate power supply.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Research and Development at all levels to improve Nigerian economy. Therefore, for exploitation of inventions and research results, spin-off firms should be established. Spin-off firms if established would commercialize inventions and research results REFERENCES originating from tertiary institutions and research institutes. However, for the spin-off firms to be able to face todays rapid
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