Mathematical induction and its applications, Binomial theorem for a positive integral index,
properties of binomial coefficients,
1. MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION AND ITS APPLICATIONS
It is often used to prove a statement depending upon a natural number n.
Type I: If P(n) is a statement depending upon n, then to prove it by induction, we proceed
as follows:
(i) Verify the validity of P(n) for n = 1.
(ii) Assume that P(n) is true for some positive integer m and then using it
establish the validity of P(n) for n = m + 1.
Then, P(n) is true for each n eN.
Illustration 1: Prove that if sin o = 0, then
n 1
n
n 1
sin2
cos cos2 cos4 ...... cos2
2 sin
+
+
a
a a a a =
a
, holds for each n en.
Solution: If P(n) denotes the given statement, then for n = 1, P(1):
sin4
cos cos2
4sin
a
a a =
a
, which is true
because
sin4 2sin2 cos2
4sin 4sin
a a a
=
a a
2 2sin cos cos2
4sin
a a a
=
a
= cos o cos 2o.
Suppose that P(n) is true for some positive integer m,
i.e.
m 1
m
m 1
sin2
cos cos2 ...... cos2
2 sin
+
+
a
a a a =
a
Using (1), we shall prove P(n) is true for n = m + 1
i.e.
m 2
m m 1
m 2
sin2
cos cos2 ...... cos2 cos2
2 sin
+
+
+
a
a a a a =
a
L.H.S.
m 1
m 1
m 1
sin2 sin
cos2
2 sin
+
+
+
a
= a
a
m 1 m 1
m 1
2sin2 cos2
2 2 sin
+ +
+
a
=
a
m 1
m 2
sin(2 2 )
2 sin
+
+
a
=
a
R.H.S.
Hence, P(n) is true for each n.
Type II: If P(n) is a statement depending upon n but beginning with some positive integer k,
then to prove P(n), we proceed as follows:
(i) Verify the validity of P(n) for n = k.
(ii) Assume that the statement is true for n = m > k. Then, using it establish the
validity of P(n) for n = m + 1.
Then, P(n) is true for each n > k
Illustration 2: Prove the inequality:
n
2
4 (2n) !
n 1 (n !)
<
+
, for n > 2.
Solution : Let P(n) :
n
2
4 (2n) !
n 1 (n !)
<
+
.
For n = 2, P(2):
2
2
4 4 !
2 1 (2)
<
+
or
16 24
3 4
which is true.
Suppose that P(m) is true for n = m > 2
i.e.
m
2
4 (2m) !
m 1 (m!)
<
+
. . . (1)
Using (1), we shall prove P(m + 1)
i.e.
m 1
2
4 (2(m 1))!
m 2 ((m 1)!)
+
+
<
+ +
L.H.S.
m 1 m
2
4 4 4(m 1) (2m) ! 4(m 1)
m 2 m 1 m 2 (m!) m 2
+
+ +
= = <
+ + + +
[Using (1)]
2
2 2
(2m)! (2m 1) (2m 2) 4(m 1) (m 1)
(2m 1) (2m 2) (m!) (m 1) (m 2)
+ + + +
=
+ + + +
2
2 2
(2(m 1))! 2(m 1) (2(m 1))!
((k 1)!) (2m 1) (m 2) ((m 1)!)
+ + +
= <
+ + + +
2 2
2
2(m 1) 2m 4m 2
(2m 1)(m 2) 2m 5m 2
+ + +
=
+ + + +
Hence, P(n) is true for n > 2
Note: 1. Product of r consecutive integers is divisible by r !.
2. For x = y, x
n
y
n
is divisible by
(i) x + y if n is even
(ii) x y if n is even or odd.
2. BINOMIAL EXPRESSION
An algebraic expression containing two terms is called a binomial expression.
For example, (a + b), (2x 3y),
2
1 3 2 1
x , x ,
y x x x
 
   
+ +
  
\ . \ .
\ .
etc. are binomial expressions.
BINOMIAL THEOREM FOR POSITIVE INDEX
Such formula by which any power of a binomial expression can be expanded in the form of
a series is known as Binomial Theorem. For a positive integer n , the expansion is given by
(a+x)
n
=
n
C
0
a
n
+
n
C
1
a
n1
x +
n
C
2
a
n2
x
2
+ . . . +
n
C
r
a
nr
x
r
+ . . . +
n
C
n
x
n
=
n
0 r
r r n
r
n
x a C .
where
n
C
0
,
n
C
1
,
n
C
2
, . . . ,
n
C
n
are called Binomial coefficients. Similarly
(a x)
n
=
n
C
0
a
n
n
C
1
a
n1
x +
n
C
2
a
n2
x
2
. . . + (1)
r
n
C
r
a
nr
x
r
+ . . . +(1)
n n
C
n
x
n
i.e. (a x)
n
= ( )
n
0 r
r r n
r
n r
x a C 1
Replacing a = 1, we get
(1 + x)
n
=
n
C
0
+
n
C
1
x+
n
C
2
x
2
+ . . . +
n
C
r
x
r
+ . . . +
n
C
n
x
n
and (1 x)
n
=
n
C
0
n
C
1
x+
n
C
2
x
2
. . . + (1)
r
n
C
r
x
r
+ . . . +(1)
n
n
C
n
x
n
Observations:
There are (n+1) terms in the expansion of (a +x)
n
.
Sum of powers of x and a in each term in the expansion of (a +x)
n
is constant and
equal to n.
The general term in the expansion of ( a+x)
n
is (r+1)
th
term given as T
r+1
=
n
C
r
a
nr
x
r
The p
th
term from the end = ( n p + 2)
th
term from the beginning .
Coefficient of x
r
in expansion of (a + x)
n
is
n
C
r
a
n  r
x
r
.
n
C
x
=
n
C
y
x = y or x + y = n.
In the expansion of (a + x)
n
and (a x)
n
, x
r
occurs in (r + 1)
th
term.
Illustration 3: If the coefficients of the second, third and fourth terms in the
expansion of (1 +x)
n
are in A.P., show that n =7.
Solution: According to the question
n
C
1
n
C
2
n
C
3
are in A.P.
2n(n 1) n(n 1)(n 2)
n
2 6
= +
n
2
9n + 14 = 0 (n 2)(n 7) = 0 n = 2 or 7
Since the symbol
n
C
3
demands that n should be > 3
n cannot be 2, n = 7 only.
Illustration 4: Find the
(i) last digit (ii) last two digit (iii) last three digit of 17
256
.
Solution: 17
256
= 289
128
= (290 1)
128
=
128
C
0
(290)
128
128
C
1
(290)
127
+ ..+
128
C
126
(290)
2
128
C
127
(290)+1
= 1000m +
128
C
2
(290)
2
128
C
1
(290) + 1
= 1000m +
2
127 128
(290)
2
1
290 128
+ 1 = 1000m + 683527680 + 1
Hence the last digit is 1. Last two digits is 81. Last three digit is 681.
Illustration 5: If the binomial coefficients of (2r + 4)
th
, (r 2)
th
term in the
expansion of (a +bx)
18
are equal find r.
Solution: This is possible only when
either 2r + 3 = r 3 .(1)
or 2r + 3 + r 3 = 18 ..(2)
from (1) r = 6 not possible but from (2) r = 6
Hence r = 6 is the only solution.
Illustration 6: Find the coefficient of (i) x
7
in
11
2
1
ax
bx
 
+

\ .
, (ii) and x
7
in
 

\ .
11
2
1
ax
bx
. Find the relation between a and b if these coefficients
are equal.
Solution : The general term in
11 r
2 11 2 11 r
r
1 1
ax C (ax )
bx bx
   
+ =
 
\ . \ .
=
11 r
11 22 3r
r r
a
C x
b
If in this term power of x is 7, then 22 3r = 7 r = 5
coefficient of x7 =
6
11
5 5
a
C
b
(1)
The general term in
11 r
r 11 11 r
r 2 2
1 1
ax ( 1) C (ax)
bx bx
   
=
 
\ . \ .
=
11 r
r 11 11 3r
r r
a
( 1) C x
b
If in this term power of x is 7, then 11 3r = 7 r = 6
coefficient of x
7
= (1)
6
11 6 5
11 11
6 5 6 6
a a
C C
b b
=
If these two coefficient are equal, then
6 5
11 11
5 5 5 6
a a
C C
b b
=
6 6 5 5 5 5
a b a b a b (ab 1) 0 ab 1(a 0, b 0) = = = = =
MIDDLE TERM
There are two cases
(a) When n is even
Clearly in this case we have only one middle term namely T
n/2 + 1
. Thus middle term in the
expansion of (a + x)
n
will be
n
C
n/2
a
n/2
x
n/2
term.
(b) When n is odd
Clearly in this case we have two middle terms namely
2
3
2
1 + + n n
T and T . That means the
middle terms in the expansion of (a +x)
n
are
2
1 n
2
1 n
2
1 n
n
x . a . C
+
and
2
1 n
2
1 n
2
1 n
n
x . a . C
+
+
.
Illustration 7: Find the middle term in the expansion of
9
3
6
x
x 3


.

\

.
Solution: There will be two middle terms as n = 9 is an odd number. The middle
terms will be
th
2
1 9

.

\
 +
and
th
2
3 9

.

\
 +
terms.
t
5
=
9
C
4
(3x)
5
17
4
3
x
8
189
6
x
=


.

\

t
6
=
9
C
5
(3x)
4
19
5
3
x
16
21
6
x
=


.

\

.
Illustration 8: Find the middle term in the expansion of
12
a
bx
x
 
+

\ .
.
Solution : 7
th
term is the middle term
T
6+1
=
12
C
6
.
6
x
a

.

\

. (b x)
6
=
12
C
6
a
6
b
6
GREATEST BINOMIAL COEFFICIENT
In the binomial expansion of (1 + x)
n
, when n is even, the greatest binomial coefficient is
given by
n
C
n/2
.
Similarly if n be odd, the greatest binomial coefficient will be
n 1 n 1
n n
2 2
C and C ,both being equal.
+ 
NUMERICALY GREATEST TERM
If t
r
and t
r + 1
be the r
th
and (r + 1)
th
term in the expansion of (1 + x)
n
, then
r
1 r n
x C
x C
t
t
r n
1 r
n
r
r
n
r
1 r
+
= =
+
x.
Let numerically, t
r + 1
be the greatest term in the above expansion. Then t
r + 1
> t
r
or
r
1 r
t
t
+
> 1
r
1 r n +
x > 1
r s
( )
( )  x  1
 x  1 n
+
+
(2)
Now shifting values of n and x in (2), we get r s m + f or r s m
Where m is a positive integer, f is a fraction such that 0 s f < 1.
Now if f = 0 then t
m + 1
and t
m
both the terms will be numerically equal and greatest while if f
= 0, then t
m +1
is the greatest term of the binomial expansion.
i.e. to find the greatest term (numerically) in the expansion of (1 + x)
n
.
(i) Calculate m =
) x  1 (
 x  ) 1 n
+
+ (
.
(ii) If m is integer, then t
m
and t
m + 1
are equal and are greatest term.
(iii) If m is not integer, then t
[m] + 1
is the greatest term (where [.] denotes the greatest
integer function).
Illustration 9: Find the value of the greatest term in the expansion of
20
1
3 1
3
 
+

\ .
.
Solution: Since
r
20
r 20
r 1 r
r 1 20
r r 1
20
r 1
1
3 C
t C 1 21 r 1
3
t C r
3 3
1
3 C
3
+
 

\ .
= = =
 

\ .
r 1 r
t t
+
> if only 21 r > r 3
if only r s
21 21( 3 1)
2
3 1
=
+
= 7.686
Hence t
1
< t
2
< t
3
< t
4
< t
5
< t
6
< t
7
< t
8
> t
9
> t
10
Hence t
8
is the greatest term and its value is
7
20
7
1
3 C
3
 

\ .
=
( )
20 20
7 7 6 3
1 1 25840
3 C C 2871.11
3 9
3
= = =
Illustration 10: Find numerically the greatest term in the expansion of ( )
11
3 5x
when x =
1
5
.
Solution : Since
11
(3 5x) =
11
11
5x
3 1
3
 

\ .
Now in the expansion of
11
5x
1
3
 

\ .
, we have
r 1
r
T (11 r 1) 5x
T r 3
+
+
=
=
12 r 5 1
r 3 5
 

\ .
1
x
5
 
=

\ .
=
12 r 1
r 3
  
 
\ .\ .
=
12 r
3r
 

\ .
r 1
r
T 12 r
1 1
T 3r
+
> >
4r 12 s
r 3 r 2,3 s =
so, the greatest terms are
2 1
T
+
and
3 1
T
+
.
Greatest terms (where r = 2) =
11
2 1
3  T 
+
=
2
11 11
2
5
3 C x
3
 

\ .
=
2
11 11
2
5 1
3 C
3 5
 

\ .
1
x
5
 
=

\ .
=
11
11.10 1
3
1.2 9
9
55 3 =
and greatest term (where r = 3) =
11
3 1
3  T 
+
=
3
11 11
3
5
3 C x
3
 

\ .
=
3
11 11
3
5 1
3 C
3 5
 

\ .
=
11
11.10.9 1
3
1.2.3 27
9
55 3 =
From above we say that the values of both greatest terms are equal.
Alternative Method (Short Cut Method) :
Since
11 11
11 11 11
5x 1
(3 5x) 3 1 3 1
3 3
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
1
x
5
 
=

\ .
Now, calculate
 x  (n 1)
m
( x  1)
+
=
+
1
0
3
 
<

\ .
1
(11 1)
3
1
1
3
 
+

\ .
=
 
+

\ .
= 3
The greatest terms in the expansion are
3
T and
4
T
Greatest term (when r = 2) =
11
2 1
3  T 
+
=
2
11 11
2
1
3 C
3
 

\ .
=
11 9
11.10 1
3 55 3
1.2 9
=
and greatest term (when r = 3) =
11
3 1
3  T 
+
=
3
11 11
3
1
3 C
3
 

\ .
=
11
11.10 9 1
3
1.2.3 27
9
55 3 =
From above we say that the values of both greatest terms are equal.
PROPERTIES OF BINOMIAL COEFFICIENT
For the sake of convenience the coefficients
n
C
0
,
n
C
1
, . . .,
n
C
r
, . . . ,
n
C
n
are usually
denoted by C
0
, C
1
, . . . , C
r
, . . . ,C
n
respectively
 C
0
+ C
1
+ C
2
+. . . . . + C
n
= 2
n
 C
0
 C
1
+ C
2
. . . . . + (1)
n
C
n
= 0
 C
0
+ C
2
+ C
4
+. . . . . = C
1
+ C
3
+ C
5
+. . . . . = 2
n1

2 1
r
n
r
n
C C = r
1
= r
2
or r
1
+ r
2
= n

n
C
r
+
n
C
r1
=
n+1
C
r
 r
n
C
r
=n
n1
C
r1

1 n
C
1 r
C
1 r
1 n
r
n
+
=
+
+
+
.
Illustration 11: Find the value of
n
n
r
r 0
r 2
C
r 1
=
+  

+
\ .
Solution: The given value is
= =

.

\

+
+ = 
.

\

+
+
n
0 r
r
n
n
0 r
r
n
C
1 r
1
1 C
1 r
2 r
=
+
+
=
+
+ =
n
0 r
1 r
1 n
n
0 r
r
n
C
1 n
1
C ) 1 2 (
1 n
1
2
1 n n
+
+ =
+
1 n
1 ) 3 n ( 2
n
+
+
=
Illustration 12: If (1 + x)
n
= C
0
+ C
1
x + C
2
x
2
+ . . . . . + C
n
x
n
,
Show that (C
0
+ C
1
)(C
1
+ C
2
)(C
2
+ C
3
) . . . . . . (C
n1
+ C
n
) =
( )
.....
!
n
1 2 n
n 1
C C C
n
+
Solution: As we know t
r
= C
r 1
+ C
r
=
n + 1
C
r
=
)! r 1 n ( ! r
)! 1 n (
+
+
=
)! 1 r n ( )! 1 r (
! n
r
) 1 n (
+
+
=
1 r
C
r
1 n
+
Hence C
0
+ C
1
=
0
C
1
1 n

.

\
 +
C
1
+ C
2
=
1
C
2
1 n

.

\
 +
C
n  1
+ C
n
=
1 n
C
n
1 n
+
(C
0
+ C
1
)(C
1
+ C
2
) . . . . (C
n 1
+ C
n
) =
1 n 1 0
n
C ...... C C
! n
) 1 n (
+
PROBLEMS RELATED TO SERIES OF BINOMIAL COEFFICIENTS
Problems involving binomial coefficients with alternate sign:
Illustration 13: Evaluate C
0
 C
1
+C
2
 C
3
+...+(1)
n
C
n
.
Solution: Here alternately +ve and  ve sign occur
This can be obtained by putting (1) instead of 1 in place of x in
(1 + x)
n
= C
0
+ C
1
x +...+
n
C
n
x
n
, we get C
0
 C
1
+...+ (1)
n
C
n
= 0
Now to obtain the sum C
0
+ C
2
+ C
4
+ ...
we add (1 + 1)
n
and (1  1)
n
.
Similarly, the cube roots of unity may be used to evaluate
C
0
+ C
3
+ C
6
+ ... OR C
1
+ C
4
+... OR C
2
+ C
5
+...
put x = 1, x = w, x = w
2
in
(1 + x)
n
= C
0
+ C
1
x +...+ C
n
x
n
and add to get C
0
+ C
3
+ C
6
+...
the other two may be obtained by suitably multiplying (1 + w)
n
and
(1 + w
2
)
n
by w and w
2
respectively.
Problems Related to series of Binomial coefficients in which
each term is a product of an integer and a binomial coefficient i.e.
in the form k
n
C
r
Illustration 14: If (1+x)
n
=
=
n
0 r
r
r
x C then prove that C
1
+2C
2
+3C
3
+. . .+nC
n
=n2
n1
.
Solution: Method (i): By summation
r
th
term of the given series, t
r
= r
n
C
r
t
r
= n
n1
C
r1
Sum of the series =
=
n
1 r
r
t =
1 r
n
1 r
1 n
C n
=
= ( )
1 n
1 n
1
1 n
0
1 n
C ..... C C n
+ + + = n 2
n1
.
Method (ii) By calculus
We have ( 1+ x )
n
= C
0
+ C
1
x + C
2
x
2
+ . . . + C
n
x
n
. . .(1)
Differentiating (1) with respect to x
n(1 +x )
n1
= C
1
+2C
2
x + 3C
3
x
2
+ . . . + n C
n
x
n1
. . . (2)
Putting x = 1 in (2), n 2
n1
= C
1
+ 2C
2
+ . . . + n
n
C
n
Problems related to series of binomial coefficients in which
each term is a binomial coefficient divided by an integer i.e. in
the form of
n
r
C
k
.
Illustration 15: Prove that ....
n
0 2 4
C C C 2
1 3 5 n 1
+ + + =
+
Solution: Consider the expansion
(1 + x)
n
= C
0
+ C
1
x + C
2
x
2
+ C
3
x
3
+ C
4
x
4
+ + C
n
x
n
(i)
Integrating both sides of (i) within limits 1 to 1, we get
1 1
n 2 3 4 n
0 1 2 3 4 n
1 1
(1 x) dx (C C x C x C x C X ...C x )dx
+ = + + + + +
} }
=
1 1
2 4 3
0 2 4 1 3
1 1
(C C x C x ...)dx (C x C x ....)dx
+ + + + +
} }
=
1
2 4
0 2 4
1
2 (C C x C x ...)dx 0
+ + + +
}
(By Prop. Of definite integral)(since
second integral contains odd function)
1
3 5 n 1
1 2 4
1 0
0
C x C X (1 x)
2 C x ...
n 1 3 5
+
+
( (   +
= = + + +
( ( 
+
( ( \ .
n 1
2 4
0
C C 2
2 C ...
n 1 3 5
+
 
= + +

+
\ .
Hence
n
2 4
0
C C 2
C ...
3 5 n 1
+ + =
+
Alternative Method.
L.H.S. = C0 =
2 4
C C
...
3 5
+ +
= 1 +
n(n 1) n(n 1)(n 2)(n 2)
....
1.2.3 1.2.3.4.5
+ +
=
1 (n 1) (n 1)n(n 1) (n 1)n(n 1)(n 2)(n 3)
...
(n 1) 1 1.2.3 1.2.3.4.5
+ + +
+ + +
`
+
)
=
1
(n 1) +
{
n+1
C
1
+
n+1
C
3
+
n+1
C
5
+}
=
1
(n 1) +
{sum of even binomial coefficients of (1 + x)
n+1
}
=
n 1 1
2
(n 1)
+
+
=
n
2
n 1 +
= R. H. S. coefficient divided by an integer i.e. in the form
of
k
C
r
n
.
Problem related to series of binomial coefficients in which each
term is a product of two binomial coefficients.
Solution Process:
(1) If difference of the lower suffixes of binomial coefficients in each term is same.
i.e. C
1
C
3
+ C
2
C
4
+ C
3
C
5
+
Here 3 1 = 4 2 = 5 3 = = 2
Case I: If each term of series is positive then
(1 + x)
n
= C
0
+ C
1
x + C
2
x
2
+ . + C
n
x
n
(i)
Interchanging 1 and x,
(x + 1)
n
= C
0
x
n
+ C
1
x
n1
+ C
2
x
n2
+ + C
n
(ii)
Then multiplying (i) and (ii) and equate the coefficient of suitable power of x on both
sides
Or
Replacing x by
1
x
in (i), then
n
1 2 n
0 2 n
C C C 1
1 C ...
x x x x
 
+ = + + + +

\ .
.(iii)
Then multiplying (i) and (ii) and equate the coefficient of suitable power of x on both
sides.
Case II: If terms of the series alternately positive and negative then
(1x)
n
= C
0
C
1
x + C
2
x
2
 + (1)
n
C
n
x
n
(i)
and (x +1)
n
= C
0
x
n
+C
1
x
n1
+ C
2
x
n2
+ + Cn (ii)
Then multiplying (i) and (ii) and equate the coefficient of suitable power of x on both
sides.
Or
Replacing x by
1
x
in (i), then
n
n
1 2 n
0 2 n
C C ( 1) C 1
1 C ...
x x x x
 
= + + + +

\ .
(iii)
Then multiplying (i) and (iii) and equate the coefficient of suitable power of x on both
sides.
Illustration 16: If I is integral part of (2 + 3 )
n
and f is fraction part of (2 + 3 )
n
,
then prove that (I +f) (1 f) =1. Also prove that I is an odd Integer.
Solution: (2 + \3)
n
= I + f where I is an integer and 0 s f < 1
Here note that (2  \3)
n
(2 +\3)
n
= (4  3)
n
= 1
Since (2 + \3)
n
(2 \3)
n
= 1 it is thus required to prove that
(2  \3)
n
= 1  f
but, (2  \3)
n
+ (2 +\3)
n
= [2
n
 C
1
.2
n  1
.\3 + C
2
2
n  2.
.(\3)
2
 ...]
+ [2
n
+ C
1
.2
n  1
.\3 + C
2
2
n 2.
.(\3)
2
 ...]
= 2[2
n
+ C
2
.2
n  2
.3+C
4
2
n  4
.3
2
+ ...] = even integer
Now 0 < (2  \3) < 1
0 < (2  \3)
n
< 1
if (2  \3)
n
= f ', then I + f + f ' = Even
Now O sf < 1 and 0 < f ' < 1 (1)
Also I + f + f ' = Even integer
f + f ' = integer (2)
(1) and (2) imply that f + f ' = 1 ( since 0 < f + f ' < 2)
I is odd and f ' = 1  f (I + f) (1  f) = 1.
BINOMIAL THEOREM FOR ANY INDEX
(1+x)
n
= 1+ nx +
2
x
! 2
) 1 n ( n
+ . . . +
r
n(n 1) (n r 1)
x terms upto
r!
+
+
Observations:
 Expansion is valid only when 1 <x <1
 General term of the series (1+x)
n
= T
r+1
= (1)
r
r!
1) r (n 2) 1)(n n(n + + +
x
r
 General term of the series (1x)
n
= T
r+1
=
r!
1) r (n 2) 1)(n n(n + + +
x
r
 If first term is not 1, then make first term unity in the following way:
(a+ x)
n
= a
n
(1+x/a)
n
if
a
x
< 1
IMPORTANT EXPANSIONS
 (1+ x)
1
= 1 x +x
2
x
3
+ . . . + (1)
r
x
r
+. . .
 (1  x)
1
= 1+ x +x
2
+x
3
+ . . .+ x
r
+ . . .
 (1+ x)
2
= 1 2x +3x
2
4x
3
+ . . .+ (1)
r
(r+1)x
r
+. . .
 (1  x)
2
= 1+ 2x +3x
2
+4x
3
+ . . .+ (r+1)x
r
+. . .
 (1+x)
3
= 1 3x +6x
2
10x
3
+. . .+ (1)
r
! r
) 2 r )( 1 r ( + +
x
r
+. . .
 (1x)
3
= 1+ 3x +6x
2
+10x
3
+ . . .+
! r
) 2 r )( 1 r ( + +
x
r
+. . .
 In general coefficient of x
r
in (1 x)
n
is
n + r 1
C
r
.
 (1 x)
p/q
= 1 +
( )
2
q
x
! 2
q p p
q
x
! 1
p


.

\
 +
+


.

\

+ .
 (1 + x)
p/q
= 1
( )
2
q
x
! 2
q p p
q
x
! 1
p


.

\
 +
+


.

\

.
 (1 + x)
p/q
= 1 +
( )
2
q
x
! 2
q p p
q
x
! 1
p


.

\

+


.

\

+ .
 (1 x)
p/q
= 1
( )
2
q
x
! 2
q p p
q
x
! 1
p


.

\

+


.

\

.
Illustration 17: If 1 <x <1, show that (1 x)
2
=1 +2x +3x
2
+4x
3
+ ..to .
Solution: We know that if n is a negative integer or fraction
(1+x)
n
= 1 +
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )( )
+
+
+ to ...... x
! 4
3 n 2 n 1 n n
x
! 3
2 n 1 n n
x
! 2
1 n n
x
! 1
n
4 3 2
Provided 1 < x < 1
Putting n = 2 and x in place of x, we get
(1+x)
2
= 1 +
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )( )
( )
+
+
to ...... x
! 3
2 2 1 2 2
x
! 2
1 2 2
x
! 1
2
3 2
= 1 + 2x + 3x
2
+ 4x
3
+ to .
Illustration 18: Find the square root of (99)
1/2
correct to 4 places of decimal.
Solution: ( )2
1
99 = ( )
2 / 1
2
1
100
1
1 100 1 100
(

.

\

=
=
2 / 1
100
1
1 100
(

.

\

= ( )   ( )2
1
2
1
2
1
01 . 1 10 01 . 1 100 =
= ( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
+

.

\

+ + to ........ 01 .
! 2
1
2
1
2
1
01 .
! 1
2
1
1 10
2
= 10[1 0.005 0.0000125 + to ] = 10 (.9949875) = 9.94987
= 9.9499
MULTINOMIAL EXPANSION
In the expansion of (x
1
+x
2
+ . . . + x
n
)
m
where m, n e N and x
1
, x
2
, . . ., x
n
are independent
variables, we have
 Total number of term in the expansion =
m+n1
C
n1
 Coefficient of
n 3 2 1
r
n
r
3
r
2
r
1
x x x x (where r
1
+ r
2
++ r
n
= m, r
i
eN {0} is
! r ! r ! r
! m
n 2 1
.
 Sum of all the coefficient is obtained by putting all the variables x
i
equal to 1 and it is
equal to n
m
.
Illustration 19: If x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+x
4
+x
5
=20 and x
1
+x
2
=5 , (x
1
,x
2
, x
3
,x
4
, x
5
> 0)
then find the number of non negative integral solutions of above
equation.
Solution: x
1
+ x
2
+ x
3
+ x
4
+ x
5
= 20 , x
1
+ x
2
= 5 (1)
x
3
+ x
4
+ x
5
= 15 (2)
Number of solutions
Coefficient of x
5
in (1) coefficient of x
15
in (2)
Coefficient of x
5
2
6
x 1
x 1


.

\

Coefficient of x
15
3
16
x 1
x 1


.

\

Coefficient of x
5
in (1 x)
2
Coefficient of x
15
3
) x 1 (
2 + 5 1
C
1
3+151
C
31
=
6
C
1
17
C
2
= 816 17 48
2
16 17 6
= =
3. OBJECTIVE ASSIGNMENTS
1: If roots of the equation
( )
m m m 2
0 1 m
C C ....... C x + 
( )
n n n
0 2 4
C C C ....... x + + +
( )
n n n
1 3 5
C C C ....... + + =0 are real , find minimum value of n m.
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 1
Solution: (C) Roots are real if
( ) 0 2 ) 2 ( 4 2
1 n m
2
1 n
>
0 2 2
1 n m 2 n 2
>
+ +
2n 2 > m+ n +1
n m > 3
minimum value of n m = 3
2: A number is said to be a nice number if it has exactly 4 factors.
(Including one and number itself). Let n =2
3
3
2
5
3
7 11
2
, then
number of factors, which are nice numbers is
(A) 36 (B) 12 (C) 10 (D) 147
Solution: (B) Any number having exactly 4 factors is of the form m = p
3
(p prime) or
m = p.q (where p & q are distinct primes)
So we have
5
C
2
+ 2 = 12 such factors.
3: ( )
n n
r 1 r
r 1
C
1
r 1
+
=
+
is equal to
(A)
1
n 1 +
(B)
1
n
(C)
1
n 1 +
(D)
n
n 1 +
Solution: (D) Given
n n
r 1 r
r 1
C
( 1)
r 1
+
=
+
=
n
r 1 n 1
r 1
r 1
1
( 1) C
n 1
+ +
+
=
+
=
1
(0 1 (n 1))
n 1
+ +
+
=
n
n 1 +
4: ( )
300
r 2 3 100
r
r 0
a x 1 x x x
=
= + + +
. If a =
300
r
r 0
a
=
then
300
r
r 0
r a
=
is equal to
(A) 300 a (B) 100 a
(C) 150 a (D) 75 a
Solution: (C)
300
r 2 3 100
r
r 0
a x (1 x x x )
=
= + + +
Clearly, a
r
is the coefficient of x
r
in the expansion of (1 + x + x
2
+ x
3
)
100
.
Replacing x
1
x
in the given equation, we get
r
300
3 2 100
r 300
r 0
1 1
a (x x x 1)
x x
=
 
= + + +

\ .
300
300 r 2 3 100
r
r 0
a x (1 x x x )
=
= + + +
Here a
r
represents of coefficient. of x
300r
in (1 + x + x
2
+ x
3
)
100
Thus, a
r
= a
300r
Let, I =
300
r
r 0
r a
=
=
300
300 r
r 0
(300 r)a
=
=
300
r
r 0
(300 r)a
=
=
300 300
r r
r 0 r 0
a r a
= =
2I = 300 a
I = 150 a
5: The number of terms in the expansion of
(1 +x)(1 +x
3
)( 1+x
6
)( 1+x
12
) (1+x
24
) . . . . (1 +
n
2 3
x
) is
(A) 2
n+3
(B) 2
n+4
(C) 2
n+5
(D) none of these
Solution: (D) After expansion, no two terms will have the same powers of x or the
terms are non over lapping. Therefore, the total number of terms = 2 2 2
. . . (n +2) times = 2
n+2
as a particular power of x can be chosen from each
bracket in 2 ways.
6: Number of terms in (1 +x)
101
(1 +x
2
x)
100
is
(A) 302 (B) 301
(C) 202 (D) 101
Solution: (C)
(1 +x)
101
(1 + x
2
x)
100
= (1 +x) (1 + x
3
)
100
= (1 + x) [C
0
+ C
1
x
3
+ C
2
x
6
+ ..+ C
100
x
300
]
= C
0
+ C
0
x + C
1
x
3
+ C
1
x
4
+ C
2
x
6
+ C
2
x
7
+ + C
100
x
300
+ C
100
x
301
Total number of terms = 101 + 101
= 202
7: If coefficient of x
2
y
3
z
4
in (x +y +z)
n
is A, then coefficient of x
4
y
4
z is
(A) 2A (B)
nA
2
(C)
A
2
(D) none of these
Solution: (C)
Since x
2
y
3
z
4
is occurring in the expansion of (x +y +z)
n
, so n should be 9 only.
Now A =
! 4 ! 3 ! 2
! 9
= 1260
Coefficient of x
4
y
4
z is
! 4 ! 4
! 9
= 630 = A/2.
8: Let n be an odd natural number and A =
n 1
2
n
r 1
r
1
C
. Then value of
n
n
r 1
r
r
C
=
is equal to
(A) n( A1) (B) n( A+1)
(C)
nA
2
(D) nA
Solution: (B)
Let n= 2m +1
A =
1 m 1 m 2 m 2 m 2 1
C
1
...
C
1
C
1
C
1
...
C
1
C
1
+
+ + + = + + + 2A +2 =
=
n
0 r r
C
1
Let S =
=
n
1 r r
C
r
=
=
n
0 r r
C
r
=
n
0 r r n
C
r n
=
n
0 r r
C
r n
.
2S = n
=
n
0 r r
C
1
S = n(A+1).
9: Let r
th
term of a series be given by t
r
=
2 4
r
1 3r r +
. Then
n
r
n
r 1
lim t
is
(A) 3/2 (B) 1/2
(C) 1/2 (D) 3/2
Solution: (C)
T
r
can be written as
T
r
=
( )
2
2
2
r 1 r
r
= 
.

\

+
r 1 r
1
r 1 r
1
2
1
2 2
=
=

.

\

+
=
1 r
2 2
1 r
r
r 1 r
1
r 1 r
1
2
1
T
= ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 .... .... 11 5 5 1 1 1
2
1
+ + + + 
.

\

=
+
0
r 1 r
1
lim as
2
r
=
2
1
.
10: The coefficient of a
4
b
5
in the expansion of (a +b)
9
is
(A)
! 5 ! 4
! 9
(B)
! 3 ! 6
! 9
(C)
! 9
! 5 ! 4
(D) none of these
Solution: Coefficient of a
4
b
5
will be
! 5 ! 4
! 9
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
11: The coefficient in the third term of the expansion of
n
2
4
1
x 
.

\

+ when
expanded in decreasing powers of x is 31, then n is equal to
(A) 16 (B) 20
(C) 30 (D) 32
Solution: The third term will be
n
C
2
2
4
1

.

\

= 31
( )
16 2
1 n n
= 31
n(n 1) = 32 . 31 n = 32.
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
12: The sum of coefficients in the expansion of (1 +x 3y
2
)
2163
is
(A) 1 (B) 1
(C) 2
2163
(D) none of these
Solution: For sum of coefficient put x = 1 and y = 1.
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
13: The sum of the rational terms in the expansion of ( )
10
5 / 1
3 2 + is
(A) 20 (B) 21
(C) 40 (D) 41
Solution: There will be only two rational term the first term and the second term
2
5
+ 3
2
= 41.
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
14: If n is even then the coefficient of x in the expansion of (1 +x)
n
n
x
1
1 
.

\

is
(A)
n
C
2
(B)
2n
C
n
(C) 0 (D) 1
Solution: (1 + x)
n
n
x
1
1 
.

\

= x
n
(1 x
2
)
n
Since n is even only even power of x will occur in the expansion. Hence coefficient of
x is equal to zero.
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
15: The sum of
21
C
10
+
21
C
9
+ ..+
21
C
0
is equal to
(A) 2
20
(B) 2
21
(C) 2
19
(D) none of these
Solution: (1 + x)
21
=
21
C
0
+
21
C
1
x +
21
C
2
x
2
+ .+
21
C
10
x
10
+ .+
21
C
21
x
21
Put x = 1 (
21
C
0
+
21
C
1
+
21
C
2
+ .+
21
C
10
) + (
21
C
11
+ .+
21
C
21
) = 2
21
2(
21
C
0
+
21
C
1
+ ..+
21
C
10
) = 2
21
21
C
0
+
21
C
1
+ ..+
21
C
10
= 2
20
.
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
16: In the expansion of
15
2
3
x
1
x 
.

\

, the constant term is
(A)
15
C
6
(B)
15
C
6
(C)
15
C
4
(D)
15
C
4
Solution: t
r + 1
= (1)
r
15
C
r
(x
3
)
15 r
r
2
x
1

.

\

= (1)
r
15
C
r
x
45 3r 2r
For term independent of x 45 5r = 0 r = 9
term independent of x will be =
15
C
9
=
15
C
6
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
17: 3
51
when divided by 8 leaves the remainder
(A) 1 (B) 6
(C) 5 (D) 3
Solution: 3
51
= 3.3
50
= 3(8 + 1)
25
= 3(
25
C
0
8
25
+ ..+
25
C
21
8) + 3
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
18: The greatest positive integer which divides n (n +1)(n +2)(n +3) for all n
e N, is
(A) 2 (B) 6
(C) 24 (D) 120
Solution: Since product of r consecutive integer is divisible by r!
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
19: If
3
2
T
T
in the expansion of (a +b)
n
and
4
3
T
T
in the expansion of (a b)
n +3
are
equal, then n is equal to
(A) 3 (B) 4
(C) 5 (D) 6
Solution:
3 n
3
3 n
2 1 n
2
3 n
2 2 n
2
n
1 n
1
n
b a C
b a C
b a C
b a C
+
+ +
=
6
) 1 n )( 2 n )( 3 n (
2
) 2 n )( 3 n (
2
) 1 n ( n
n
+ + +
+ +
=
1 n
3
1 n
2
+
=
2n + 2 = 3n 3 n = 5
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
20: The coefficient of x
n
in the expansion of (1 x)
2
is
(A) (1)
n
(n +1) (B) (n +1)
(C) (1)
n
n (D) none of these
Solution: Since (1 x)
2
= 1 + 2x + 3x
2
+ + (n + 1)x
n
+
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
21: If n is a positive integer which of the following will always be integers?
I. ( 2 +1)
2n
+( 2 1)
2n
II. ( 2 +1)
2n
( 2 1)
2n
III. ( 2 +1)
2n +1
+( 2 1)
2n +1
IV. ( 2 +1)
2n +1
( 2 1)
2n +1
(A) only I and III (B) only I and II
(C) only I and IV (D) only II and III
Solution: In I and IV only even powers of 2 occurs whereas in II and III only odd powers of
2 occurs.
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
22: Coefficient of x
5
in the expansion of (1 +x
2
)
5
(1 +x)
4
is
(A) 61 (B) 59
(C) 0 (D) 60
Solution: (1 + x
2
)
5
(1 + x)
4
= (1 + 5x
2
+ 10x
4
+ ..)(1 + x)
4
Coefficient of x
5
= 5
4
C
3
+ 10
4
C
1
= 20 + 40 = 60.
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
23: The sixth term in the expansion of
8
10
2
3 / 8
x log x
x
1

.

\

+ is 5600 when x is
equal to
(A) 10 (B) log
e
10
(C) 1 (D) none of these
Solution: T
6
=
8
C
5
( )
5
10
2
3
3 / 8
x log x
x
1

.

\

56x
2
(log
10
x)
5
= 5600
x
2
(log
10
x)
5
= 100, obviously x = 10 satisfies the above equation.
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
24: The term independent of x in
10
2
x 2
3
3
x
(
(

.

\

+ is
(A) 1 (B) 5/12
(C)
10
C
1
(D) None of these
Solution: General term in the expansion is
2
r 10
2
2
r
r
10
x 2
3
3
x
C

.

\


.

\

=
2
r 10
r 5
10
2
r 3
r
10
2
3
x C
For constant term, 10
2
r 3
=
3
20
r =
which is not an integer. Therefore, there will be no constant term.
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
25. If (1+ x + x
2
)
n
= a
0
+ a
1
x+ a
2
x
2
+ +a
2n
x
2n
, then the value of a
0
+ a
3
+ a
6
+ . . . . is
(A) a
1
+ a
4
+a
7
+ . . . (B) a
1
+ a
2
+a
3
+ . . .
(C) 2
n +1
(D) none of these.
Solution: (1 + x + x
2
)
n
= a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ a
3
x
3
+
put x = w, w
2
we get
0 = (a
0
+ a
3
+ a
6
+ ) + w (a
1
+ a
4
+ a
7
+ ) + w
2
(a
2
+ a
5
+ a
8
+ ) (1)
0 = (a
0
+ a
3
+ a
6
+ ) + w
2
(a
1
+ a
4
+ a
7
+ ) + w (a
2
+ a
5
+ a
8
+ ) (2)
from (1) and (2) we get,
a
0
+ a
3
+ a
6
= a
1
+ a
4
+ a
7
+
26. The value of
2n
C
n

n
C
1
.
2n2
C
n
+
n
C
2
.
2n4
C
n
. . . . is equal to
(A) 3
n
(B) 4
n
(C) 5
n
(D) none of these
Solution:
2n
C
n
n
C
1
2n 2
C
n
+
n
C
2
2n 4
C
n
= coefficient of x
n
in [
n
C
0
(1 + x)
2n
n
C
1
(1 + x)
2n2
+
n
C
2
(1 + x)
2n4
. ]
= coefficient of x
n
in [1 (1 + x)
2
]
n
= 2
n
27. If  x  < 1, then the coefficient of x
n
in the expansion of (1 + x + x
2
+ x
3
+..)
2
is
(A) n (B) n 1
(C) n + 2 (D) n + 1
Solution: (1 + x + x
2
+ x
3
+ )
2
=
2
x 1
1

.

\

= (1 x)
2
= 1 + 2 x + 3 x
2
+ 4 x
3
+
coefficient of x
n
= (n + 1)
28. If (1+ax)
n
= 1+8x +24x
2
+. then
(A) a= 3 (B) n= 5
(C) a= 2 (D) none of these
Solution: (1 + a x)
n
= 1 + n a x +
2
) 1 n ( n
a
2
x
2
+ = 1 + 8 x + 24 x
2
+ n a = 8
n (n 1) a
2
= 48 n = 4, a = 2
29. The two successive terms in the expansion of (1+ x)
24
whose coefficients are in the ratio 4 :1
are
(A) 3
rd
and 4
th
(B) 4
th
and 5
th
(C) 5
th
and 6
th
(D) 6
th
and 7
th
Solution: Let the coefficient of successive terms be
24
C
r
and
24
C
r+1
, then
1 r
24
r
24
C
C
+
= 4
) r 24 (
1 r
+
= 4 r = 19
24
C
19
,
24
C
20
24
C
5
,
24
C
4
6
th
and 5
th
terms
30. The coefficient of x
k
(0 s k s n) in the expansion of E = 1+(1+x) +(1+x)
2
+ . . .(1+x)
n
is
(A)
n+1
C
k+1
(B)
n
C
k
(C)
n+1
C
nk 1
(D) none of these
Solution: E =
1 ) x 1 (
1 ) x 1 (
1 n
+
+
+
=
x
1 ... x C x C C
2
2
1 n
1
1 n
0
1 n
+ + +
+ + +
=
n+1
C
1
+
n+1
C
2
x +
n+1
C
3
x
2
+
Coefficient of x
4
=
n+1
C
k+1
31. The coefficient of y in the expansion of (y
2
+c/y)
5
is
(A) 10 c
3
(B) 20 c
2
(C) 10 c (D) 20 c
Solution: (r + 1)
th
terms =
5
C
r
y
102r
. C
r
. y
r
power of y = 1
10 3 r = 1 r = 3
Required coefficient =
5
C
2
. x
3
= 10 x
3
32. If the coefficients of x
2
and x
3
in the expansion of (3 + kx)
9
are equal, then the
value of k is
(A)
9
7
 (B)
9
7
(C)
7
9
(D) None of these.
Solution:
r 1
T
+
in
9 9 9 r r
r
(3 kx) C 3 (kx)

+ =
9 9 r r r
r
C 3 k x

=
Coefficient of
r 9 9 r r
r
x C 3 k

= .
Now coefficient of x
2
= coefficient of x
3
9 9 2 2 9 9 3 3
2 3
C 3 k C 3 k
 
\ =
=
7 2 6 3
36 3 k 84 3 k
= =
9
36 28k k
7
.
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
33. The coefficient of x
n
in
( )
2
n n 3 2
! n
x 1
....
! 3
x
! 2
x
x 1


.

\

+ + + is
(A)
( )
! n
n
n
(B)
( )
! n
2
n
(C)
( )
2
! n
1
(D)
( )
2
! n
1
Solution: Coefficient of x
n
in
2
n n 3 2
! n
x ) 1 (
...
! 3
x
! 2
x
x 1


.

\

+ + +
Coefficient of x
n
in
2
3 2
...
! 3
x
! 2
x
x 1


.

\

+ +
Coefficient of x
n
in (e
x
)
2
Coefficient of x
n
in e
2x
=
! n
) 2 (
n
34. If C
0
, C
1
, C
2
, . . . . C
n
are binomial coefficients then
( )
(
(

.

\

+ + 
.

\

+ 
.

\

0
n
n
2 n
2
1 n n
n
C
3
2
1 ...... C
3
2
C
3
2
C lin is
(A) 0 (B) 1
(C) 1 (D) 2
Solution: Take x =
3
2
] x C ) 1 ( ... x C x C C [ lim
n
0
2
2 n 1 n n
n
+ + +
= ] x C ) 1 ( ... x C x C C [ lim
n
n
n 2
2 1 0
n
+ + +
=
n
n
] x 1 [ lim
=
n
n
3
2
1 lim 
.

\

=
n
n
3
1
lim
= 0
35. Let n be an odd natural number and A =
=
2
1 n
1 r r
n
C
1
. Then value of
=
n
1 r r
n
C
r
is equal to
(A) n(A 1) (B) n( A + 1)
(C)
2
nA
(D) nA
Solution:
=
n
1 r r
n
C
r
=
1 n
0 r r
n
C
) r n (
=
=
=
1 n
0 r r
n
1 n
0 r r
n
C
r
C
n
2
= =
=
1 n
0 r r
n
n
1 r r
n
C
1
n
C
r
+ n + n = n 2 A + 2 n
=
=
n
1 r r
n
C
r
= n (A + 1)
36. The sum of coefficients of even powers of x in the expansion of
11
x
1
x 
.

\

+ is
(A) 11
11
C
5
(B)
2
11
11
C
6
(C) 11( )
6
11
5
11
C C + (D) 0
Solution: (r + 1)
th
term =
11
C
r
(x)
11r
. x
r
=
11
C
r
. x
112r
Even power of x exists only if 11 2 r = an even number not possible
Sum of coefficient = 0
37. The coefficient of x
n
in the expansion of
( )( ) x 3 x 1
1
is
(A)
1 n
1 n
3 . 2
1 3
+
+
(B)
1 n
1 n
3
1 3
+
+
(C)


.

\

+
+
1 n
1 n
3
1 3
2 (D) none of these.
Solution:
(
=
x 3
1
x 1
1
2
1
) x 3 ( ) x 1 (
1
=
2
1
[(1 x)
1
(3 x)
1
]
=
2
1
(
(

.

\

1
1 1
3
x
1 3 ) x 1 (
=
(
(


.

\

+ 
.

\

+ + + + + + ...
3
x
3
x
1
3
1
... x x x 1
2
1
2
3 2
coefficient of x
n
=
(
n
3
1
3
1
1
2
1
=
1 n
1 n
3 2
1 3
+
+
38. If in the expansion of 
.

\

+
x
x
4
1
2 , T
3
/T
2
= 7 and the sum of the coefficient of 2
nd
and 3
rd
term is 36, then the value of x is
(A) 1/3 (B) 1/2
(C) 1/3 (D)
Solution: Given that
n
C
1
+
n
C
2
= 36
n = 8, n = 9
also
1
1 n x
1
n
2
2 n x
2
n
x 4
1
) 2 ( C
x 4
1
) 2 ( C


.

\



.

\

= 7
1
7 x
2
6 x
x 4
1
) 2 ( 8
x 4
1
) 2 ( 28


.

\



.

\

= 7 8
x
=
2
1
x =
3
1
39. The coefficient of middle term in the expansion of (1+x)
2n
is
(A) 2
n
C
n
(B)
n
2
! n
) 1 n 2 ( 5 . 3 . 1
(C) 2. 6. (4n2) (D) None of these
Solution: Coefficient of the middle term =
2n
C
n
=
! n ! n
) n 2 ... 4 3 2 1 (
=
! n
) 1 n 2 ... 5 3 1 ( 2
n
40. If
13
C
r
is denoted by C
r
, then the value of C
1
+C
5
+C
7
+C
9
+C
11
is equal to
(A) 2
12
287 (B) 2
12
165
(C) 2
12
C
2
C
13
(D) none of these
Solution: (1 + x)
13
= C
0
+ C
1
x + C
2
x
2
+ + C
13
x
13
(1 x)
13
= C
0
C
1
x + C
2
x
2
C
13
x
13
put x = 1
2
13
= C
0
+ C
1
+ C
2
+ C
13
0 = (C
0
+ C
2
+ C
4
+ C
6
+ ) (C
1
+ C
3
+ )
2
13
= 2 (C
0
+ C
2
+ C
4
+ C
12
)
2
12
= C
0
+ C
2
+ C
4
+ C
12
L.H.S. = C
1
+ C
5
+ C
7
+C
9
+ C
11
= C
1
+ C
2
+ C
4
+C
6
+ C
8
= 2
12
1
13
C
10
= 2
12
287
41. If P(n) is a statement such that truth of P(n) the truth of P(n + 1) for n e N,
then P(n) is true
(A) for all n
(B) for all n > 1
(C) for all n > m, m is some fixed positive integer
(D) nothing can be said.
Solution: Nothing can be said about the truth of P(n), for all n eN because truth of P(1)
is not given.
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
42. If x > 1, then the statement P(n) : (1 + x)
n
> 1 + nx is true for
(A) all n e N (B) all n > 1
(C) all n > a and x = 0 (D) None of these.
Solution: P(1) is not true.
For n = 2, P(2) : (1 + x)
2
> 1 + 2x is true if x = 0
Let P(k) : (1 + x)
k
> 1 + kx be true
(1 + x)
k+1
= (1 + x) (1 + x)
k
> (1 + x) (1 + kx)
= 1 + (k + 1)x + kx
2
> 1 + (k + 1)x ( kx
2
> 0)
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
43. The greatest positive integer, which divides (n + 16) (n + 17) (n + 18) (n + 19),
for all n eN, is
(A) 2 (B) 4
(C) 24 (D) 120
Solution: Since product of any r consecutive integers is divisible by r ! and not by (r+1)!
The given product is divisible by 4 ! = 24.
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
44. A student was asked to prove a statement by induction. He proved (i) P(5) is
true and (ii) truth of P(n) truth of P(n + 1), n eN. On the basis of this, he
could conclude that P(n) is true
(A) for no n (B) for all n > 5
(C) for all n (D) None of these.
Solution: Obviously (B) is the answer.
45. The inequality n ! > 2
n1
is true
(A) for all n > 1 (B) for all n > 2
(C) for all n eN (D) for no n eN
Solution: It is not true for n = 1, 2
For n > 2, n ! > 1 . 2 . 3 ......... (n 1)n
> 2
n1
( 2 > 2, 3 > 2, 4 > 2, ......., n > 2)
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
46. The smallest positive integer for which the statement 3
n+1
< 4
n
holds is
(A) 1 (B) 2
(C) 3 (D) 4
Solution: The given statement is true for n > 4.
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
47. 2
3n
7n 1 is divisible by
(A) 64 (B) 36
(C) 49 (D) 25
Solution: For n = 1, 2
3n
7n 1 has value 2
3
7 1 = 0
For n = 2, 2
3n
7n 1 has value 26 14 1 = 49.
which is divisible by 49 and not by 36 or 64.
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
48. For each n eN, 2
3n
1 is divisible by
(A) 8 (B) 16
(C) 32 (D) None of these.
Solution: For n > 1, 2
3n
1 = (2
3
)
n
1 = 8
n
1
= (8 1) [8
n1
+ 8
n2
+ ....... + 1]
= 7 positive integer
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
49. If the ratio of the 7th term from the beginning to the 7th term from the end in
the expansion of
 
+

\ .
x
3
3
1
2
3
is
1
6
, then x is
(A) 9 (B) 6
(C) 12 (D) None of these.
Solution:
7
T in
   
+ =
 
\ . \ .
x 6
x 1/ 3 x 6 3
6 1/ 3
3
1 1
2 C (2 )
3
3
7th term from the end in
 
+

\ .
x
3
3
1
2
3
= T
7
in
   
+ =
 
\ . \ .
x x 6
x 1/ 3 6 3
6 1/ 3
3
1 1
2 C (2 )
3
3
 

\ .
=
 

\ .
6
x 1/ 2 x 6
6 1/ 3
x 6
x 1/ 3 6
6 1/ 3
1
C (2 )
1 3
6
1
C (2 )
3
= =
 

\ .
x 12 x 12 1/ 3 x 12
3 3
x 12
1/ 3
(2 ) 1 1
2 3
6 6
1
3
= = =
x 12
1
3
x 12
6 6 1 x 9
3
.
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
50. If
n 2 n
0 1 2 n
(1 x) C C x C x ...... C x + = + + + + , then
1 2 n
0
C C C
C ......
2 3 n 1
+ + + +
+
is equal to
(A)
n 1
2
+
(B)
n 1
2 1
n 1
+

+
(C)
n 1
2
n 1
+
+
(D)
n 1
2 1
+

Solution:
1 2 n
0
C C C
C ......
2 3 n 1
+ + + +
+
n n(n 1)
1
1 1.2
1 .....
2 3 n 1

= + + + +
+
n n(n 1) 1
1 ......
2! 3! n 1

= + + + +
+
+ + (
= + + + + +
(
+
1 (n 1)n (n 1) n(n 1)
(n 1) ... 1
n 1 2! 3!
+ + + +
+
( = + + + +
+
n 1 n 1 n 1 n 1
1 2 3 n 1
1
C C C ... C
n 1
+
+ +
( = =
+ +
n 1
n 1 n 1
0
1 2 1
2 C
n 1 n 1
.
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
51. The term independent of x in the expansion of
 
+

\ .
6
1
2x
3x
is
(A)
160
9
(B)
80
9
(C)
160
27
(D)
80
3
Solution:
+
 
= =

\ .
r
6 r
6 6 r 6 6 2r
r 1 r r r
1 2
T C (2x) C x
3x 3
Let
r 1
T
+
be independent of x.
6 2r = 0 or r = 3
6 3
6 6 2(3)
r 1 3 1 3 3
2
T T C x
3


+ +
\ = =
20 8 160
27 27
= =
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
52. The middle term in the expansion of
2n
(1 x) + is
(A)
2n
n
C (B)
2n n 1
n 1
C x
+
+
(C)
2n n 1
n 1
C x


(D)
n n
1.3.5... (2n 1)
2 x
n!

Solution: 2n is even.
Middle term
2n 2n n n 2n n
2n 2 n 1 n n
2
T T C 1 x C x

+ +
= = = =
n n
2n! 1.2.3.4.5.6......2n
x x
n! n! n! n!
= =
n
n
1.3.5.......(2n 1) 2 .n!
x
n! n!

=
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
53. If the binomial expansion of
2
(a bx)

+ is
1
3x ......
4
 + , where a > 0, then (a, b)
is
(A) (2, 12) (B) (2, 8)
(C) (2, 12) (D) None of these.
Solution:
 
+ = +

\ .
2
2 2
b
(a bx) a 1 x
a
(  
= + + = +
 (
\ .
2 2 3
1 b 1 2b
1 ( 2) x ...... x .....
a a a a
Also,
2
1
(a bx) 3x .....
4

+ =  +
2
1 1
a 4
\ = . . . (1) and
3
2b
3
a
 =  . . . (2)
(1) = =
2
a 4 a 2 and from (2) b = 12
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
54.
2 1/ 2
(4 5x )

 can be expanded as a power series of x if
(A)  x  5 / 2 < (B)  x  2/ 5 <
(C) 1 < x < 1 (D) None of these.
Solution:
 
=

\ .
1/ 2
2 1/ 2 1/ 2 2
5
(4 5x ) 4 1 x
4
   
= +
 
\ . \ .
1/ 2
2
1 5
1 x
2 4
.
2
5
x 1
4
\  < or
2 2
5
x  x  1
4
 < or
2
5
x 1
4
<
or
2
4
x
5
< or
2
 x 
5
< .
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
55. In the binomial expansion of (a b)
n
, n > 5, the sum of the 5th and 6th terms
is zero. The a/b is equal to
(A)
n 5
6

(B)
n 4
5

(C)
5
n 4 
(D)
6
n 5 
Solution:
+ = + =
n n 4 4 n n 5 5
5 6 4 5
T T 0 C a ( b) C a ( b) 0
=
n n 4 4 n n 5 5
4 5
C a b C a b
= = =
n
5
n
4
C a n! 4!(n 4)! n 4
b C 5!(n 5)! n! 5
.
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
56. If the coefficient of mth, (m + 1)th and (m + 2)th terms in the expansion
n
(1 x) + are in A.P., then
(A)
2 2
n 4(4m 1) 4m 2 0 + + +  =
(B)
2 2
n n(4m 1) 4m 2 0 + + + + =
(C)
2
(n 2m) n 2  = +
(D)
2
(n 2m) n 2 + = +
Solution: We have
n n n
m 1 m m 1
C , C , C
 +
in A.P.
+
= +
n n n
m m 1 m 1
2 C C C
= +
+ + +
2(n!) n! n!
m!(n m)! (m 1)! (n m 1)! (m 1)! (n m 1)!
= +
+ +
2 1 1
m(n m) (n m 1) (n m) m(m 1)
+ + = + + + 2(m 1) (n m 1) m(m 1) (n m 1)(n m)
On simplification, we get
+ = = +
2 2 2
n 4mn 4m n 2 0 (n 2m) n 2.
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
57. If
2 n 2 2n
0 1 2 2n
(1 x x ) a a x a x ...... a x  + = + + + + , then
0 1 2 2n
a a a ...... a + + + + is equal to
(A)
n
3 1
2
+
(B)
n
3 1
2

(C)
n
1
3
2
 (D)
n
1
3
2
+
Solution: We have
2 n 2 2n
0 1 2 2n
(1 x x ) a a x a x ....... a x  + = + + + +
Putting x = 1 and 1, we get
0 1 2 3 2n
1 a a a a ...... a = + + + + +
and
n
0 1 2 3 2n
3 a a a a ...... a =  +  + +
Adding, we get
n
0 2 4 2n
1 3 2(a a a ...... a ) + = + + + +
n
0 2 4 2n
3 1
a a a ...... a
2
+
\ + + + + = .
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
58. The positive value of a so that the coefficients of x
5
and x
15
are equal in the
expansion of
 
+

\ .
10
2
3
a
x
x
(A)
1
2 3
(B)
1
3
(C) 1 (D) 2 3
Solution:
+
 
= =

\ .
r
10 2 10 r 10 r 20 5r
r 1 r r 3
a
T C (x ) Ca x
x
= = 20 5r 5 r 3
10 3 20 5(3) 3 5
r 1 3 1 3
T T C a x 120a x

+ +
\ = = =
Coefficient of x
5
= 120 a
3
Also, = = 20 5r 15 r 1
10 1 20 5(1) 15
r 1 1 1 1
T T C a x 10ax

+ +
\ = = =
Coefficient of x
15
= 10a
3
120a 10a \ = or
1
a
2 3
= .
Hence (A) is the correct answer.
59. The term independent of x in the expansion of
n n
(1 x) (1 1/ x) + + is
(A)
2 2 2 2
0 1 2 n
C 2C 3C ...... (n 1)C + + + + +
(B)
2
0 1 n
(C C ...... C ) + + +
(C)
2 2 2
0 1 n
C C ...... C + + +
(D) None of these.
Solution: We have
   
+ + = + + + + + + + +
 
\ . \ .
n
n 2 n 1 2 n
0 1 2 n 0 2 n
C C C 1
(1 x) 1 (C C x C x ...... C x ) C ......
x x x x
Term independent of x on the R.H.S.
2 2 2 2
0 1 2 n
C C C ...... C = + + + + .
Hence (C) is the correct answer.
60. The coefficient of x
3
in
 
+

\ .
6
5
3
3
x
x
is
(A) 0 (B) 120
(C) 420 (D) 540
Solution:
+
 
=

\ .
r
6 5/ 2 6 r
r 1 r 3/ 2
3
T C (x )
x
5r 3r
15
6 r 6 r 15 4r
2 2
r r
C 3 x C 3 x
 

= =
Let
r 1
T
+
contains x
3
.
15 4r 3 \  = or r = 3
6 3 15 4(3)
r 1 3 1 3
T T C (3) x

+ +
\ = =
3 3
20 27 x 540x = =
Coefficient of x
3
= 540.
Hence (D) is the correct answer.
61. In the expansion of
50
(1 x) + , let S be the sum of coefficients of odd power of
x, then S is
(A) 0 (B) 2
49
(C) 2
50
(D) 2
51
Solution:
50 50 50 2 50 3 50 49 50 50
1 2 3 49 50
(1 x) 1 C x C x C x ...... C x C x + = + + + + + +
Sum of coefficients of odd powers of x
50 50 50 50 1 49
1 3 49
C C ...... C 2 2

+ + + = = .
Hence (B) is the correct answer.
62. The coefficient of x
53
in
100
100 100 r r
r
r
C (x 3) 2


is
(A)
100
51
C (B)
100
52
C
(C)
100
53
C  (D)
100
54
C
Solution:
100
100 100 r r
r
r 0
C (x 3) 2

=

100 100 100
((x 3) 2) (x 1) (1 x) =  + =  = 
100 100
100 r r r 100 r
r r
r 0 r 0
C ( x) ( 1) ( 1) C x
= =
 =  
Coefficient of
53 53 100 100
53 53
x ( 1) C C =  =  .
Hence (C) is the correct answer.