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INDIAN RAILWAYS INSTITUTE OF SIGNAL ENGINEERING & TELECOMMUNICATIONS

SECUNDERABAD - 500 017

T10A POWER PLANT PRACTICE

Issued in October 2008

T10A POWER PLANT PRACTICE


Contents
S.No. Chapter Page No. 1 34 49 86 95 111 125 140 145 164 1. Secondary cells 2. Battery charging 3. Battery chargers 4. Alkaline cells/batteries 5. Converters and inverters 6. Voltage stabilization 7. D.C. voltage regulators 8. Un-interrupted power supply system (ups) 9. Photo voltaic generation of electricity solar cells 10. Safety precautions, power supply arrangements and load calculations

Prepared by Approved By DTP and Drawings Date of Issue Edition No First re-print No. of Pages No.of Sheets

P.L.Narasimha Rao ILP-1 S.K.Biswas, Sr. Professor - Tele K.Srinivas, JE II(D) June-2006 01 October-2008 172 88

IRISET This is the Intellectual property for exclusive use of Indian Railways. No part of this publication may be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or reproduced in any way, including but not limited to photo copy, photograph, magnetic, optical or other record without the prior agreement and written permission of IRISET, Secunderabad, India

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CHAPTER 1 SECONDARY CELLS


1.1. CLASSIFICATION OF CELLS: Cells

Primary cells

Secondary cells

Non conventional Energy sources (Solar cells, Fuel cells) Alkaline type cells Eg. i) Ni-Cd cell ii) Lithium cell iii) Ni-Iron

Acid type cells Eg. Lead Acid cell

1.2.

iv) Lithium Ion Primary cells: The cells which cannot be recharged after discharge are known as

Primary cells. They cannot be kept under cyclic operation.

Examples: Leclanche Dry Cell, Lithium cell, etc.

1.3 Secondary Cells:


Cells which are reversible to a high degree, i.e., those in which the chemical condition as well as the physical states of the electrodes after discharge, are brought back to the original conditions, simply by causing current to flow in the opposite direction, i.e., by charging, are called Secondary Cells. These are also known as Storage Cells or Accumulators.

1.3.1 In all practical forms of storage cell, both the electrode material and the products of the chemical reaction are substantially insoluble in the electrolyte. This is one essential requirement for any successful secondary cell. Electrical energy must first be supplied to the secondary cell before it can give any output. 1.3.2 The secondary cells in widest use are the Lead-Sulphuric acid type and the Nickel-Iron or Nickel-Cadmium (Alkaline) type. Another type, the silver-zinc cell is a recent introduction.

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1.4. VOLTAGE OF A CELL:


The open circuit voltage of any secondary cell depends wholly upon its chemical constituents and not in any way upon the number of plates and their total area. It also depends to some extent upon the strength of the electrolyte and its temperature.

Voltage of a fully charged Lead Acid cell: 2.1.Volts Voltage of a fully charged Nickle Cadmium cell: 1.2 Volts

1.5.

Efficiency: The efficiency of a secondary battery is defined as the ratio of output of a

cell or battery to the input required to restore the initial state of charge under specified conditions of temperature, current rate and final voltage.

Generally, the efficiency is expressed in three ways: Ampere-hour efficiency Volt efficiency Watt-hour efficiency

1.5.1. Ampere-hour efficiency: The ratio of the ampere-hours output to the ampere-hours of the recharge. The ampere hour loss which determines ampere hour efficiency during cycle of charge and discharge is principally that due to gassing, local action. Since gassing is due to charging current in excess than needed for charging the active material,ampere-hour efficiency can be increased by controlling the charging current. Under commercial service conditions, including frequent cycles of charge, and discharge, involving nearly the full capacity of the battery, an ampere-hour efficiency between 85 and 90 may be expected. 1.5.2. Volt efficiency: The ratio of the average voltage during the discharge to the average voltage during the recharge. This will be reduced, if the rates of charge and discharge are comparatively high. It will also be reduced at low temperatures. Under the commercial service conditions, a volt efficiency of about 85 may be expected.

1.5.3. Watt-hour efficiency: The efficiency is the ratio of the watt hours output to the watt hours of the recharge. This is sometimes assumed to be the product of the ampere-hour efficiency and the volt efficiency. In many cases this may be sufficiently accurate. Under commercial service conditions, watt hour efficiency of about 75 may be expected.

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1.6. The capacity of Cell: The ability of a fully charged battery to deliver a specified quantity
of electricity at a given rate (amperes) over a definite period of time. It depends on the following factors, Discharge Rate Size of plates Quantity and density of Electrolyte Temperature Age.

The AH rating is always given with the specified discharge rate, i.e., a 100 AH at 10 Hours rate. This gives the indication that the maximum discharge current should not exceed 10A, and the period of discharge at this rate is 10 Hrs.

1.7.

Construction of Lead Acid Cell: The active material of the lead acid secondary cell is

lead peroxide (Pb02) on the positive plate and spongy lead (Pb) on the negative plate. The plates are immersed in an electrolyte of diluted sulphuric acid(H2SO4). The cell is said to be discharging when it is supplying current to an external circuit. When current is forced through the cell from positive to negative, the process of electrolysis which occurs is called charging. The density of the electrolyte is maximum when the cell is fully charged, the working part of the positive plate is all lead peroxide and the working part of the negative plate is all lead. As the cell discharges, the electrolyte density falls owing to the conversion of some of the sulphuric acid to lead sulphate at the positive and negative plates and production of water. So the density or specific gravity of the electrolyte, serves as a valuable guide to the condition of the cell. During charging, the water and the sulphate of the plates are reconverted into sulphuric acid and the density gradually rises. The chemical reactions which take place on charge and discharge are given below:-

1.8. The parts of a Lead Acid Cell are:- Parts of a Lead Acid cell are shown in the figure
shown below.

1) Plates 2) Electrolyte 3) Container 4) Separators 5) Bottom Blocks 6) Connecting Bars 7) Top Covers
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8) Connecting strips 9) Vent Plugs 10) Float 1.8.1. Plates: The plates are actual electrodes

Spongy Lead (-Ve) Lead Peroxide (+Ve) Basing on the manufacture process of the plates, the lead acid cells are broadly divided

into three categories:

Plante type or formed plates Tubular type Faure type or pasted plates.

Fig. 1.1 Cutaway of the automotive battery

Plante Type: The principal feature of this type is a thick casting of pure lead, used for manufacture of the plate, and the active material is formed from the base material of the plate itself by special electro chemical process. Over its life span of 15 to 20 years as active material

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is lost, fresh active material is formed from the underlying lead, until the lead is thinned down beyond useful life.

The formation is normally layer by layer due to which the manufacturing of this type of plate is time consuming and it needs a high consumption of electrical energy. Yet, the plante positive type cells (IS-1652) are popular for their superior performance, high dependability, superior life, simple maintenance and reliability, under every type of service. Though it is initially costlier, it is cheaper in long run per AH per year of service.

Other advantage of Plante type over other cells are low internal resistance, high AH 90 to 95% and WH 85% efficiencies. It gives a higher current drain upto 144% when compared with other cells. The capacity needed by a Plante Type Cell is lesser than that of the other cells for the same load. Antimony content in plates which causes corrosion is eliminated in this type as plates are made from pure lead. Tubular Plate Type: In this type of cells, active material is held in tube of slotted hard rubber or woven glass fibre, woven terylene or other synthetic fibres.

Normally Tubular Positive Type Cells (IS-1651) are specified for capacities in the range 150 AH to 600 AH, for which, Plante Positive Type are not available. Faure Type: In this type of plates the active materials are mechanically applied instead of being electro-chemically produced out of lead plate itself. The active material is pressed into the interstices of a thin lead grid or lattice work of intersecting ribs, which also serves as conductor of current. The pastes after being pasted, are allowed to dry and harden and then assembled in weak solution of H2SO4 and are formed by passing electric current between them. The advantage of this type is less cost and less time taken, but the Positive Plate is not suitable for rapid and high discharges and is liable to get disintegrated.

Hence, Faure type plates are normally used as Negative Plates and Plante or tubular type are used as Positive Plates. 1.8.2. Electrolyte: The Electrolyte used is diluted H2SO4. The concentrated Sulphuric acid of battery grade confirming to the specification IS:266 having a specific gravity of 1.835 should be procured and added to distilled water confirming to the specification IS: 1069. The Sp.Gr. of electrolyte to be prepared should be as given by Manufacturer in the instruction card. While diluting the conc. H2S04, the following precautions should be observed:

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1) Preparation of electrolyte: Acid should be added to distilled water in very small quantities. Water should never be added to concentrated Sulphuric Acid.

2) The solution should be stirred continuously with a glass rod.

3) The temperature of solution under preparation should never be more than 50 deg. C. If temperature reaches 50 deg. C, the addition of acid should be stopped, the solution should be allowed to cool to room temperature and again the addition of acid should be started.

4) The solution can be prepared in a clean lead lined wooden tank or ebonite or plastic or well glazed earthenware vessel, or vulcanized hand rubber tank.

5) After mixing, the solution is allowed to cool overnight and the specific gravity and temperature are noted.

6) If the specific gravity as required has not been obtained, add acid or distilled water as the case may be till the correct specific gravity is obtained.

Temperature Correction: The Sp. gravity of Electrolyte varies with temperature. Any reading observed on the hydrometer should be corrected to read to 27 deg. C. Normally, if temperature increases, specific gravity decreases and vice versa by 0.0007 for each degree centigrade. Hence, the correction should, be made as follows-

For every 1 deg C above 27 deg C subtract 0.0007 to the Sp. gravity as read on the hydrometer. Similarly, for every 1 deg. C below 27 deg.C, add 0.0007 from the Sp. Gr. as read on the Hydrometer.

Example: Sp. gravity read from hydrometer is : 1.200

The temperature is 28 deg. C.

The corrected Sp.Gr. is 1.200 + .0007 = 1.2007

The denser the electrolyte the more vigorous the chemical action. The specific gravity chosen, is limited to the specified value for the following reasons:

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1. The conductivity of Electrolyte is greater at 1.240. 2. Internal resistance is minimum at 1.240. 3. The best overall results i.e., greater output per unit weight plus longer period of active life is obtained when Sp. Gr. is 1.215 on charge and 1.165 on discharge. 4. Higher Sp. Gr. longer discharge time. 5. A Sp. Gr. more than 1.240 of Electrolyte results in chemical action with the grids and separators.

The Sp.Gr. chosen is a compromise which gives best results under the conditions of voltage, capacity, internal resistance and safety in handling. The minimum voltage 1.8V is the normal limitation to the capacity of the cell. Precautions: When working with acid or electrolyte, use protective goggles, rubber gloves and rubber aprons. In case acid splashes on garment, remove the same immediately, neutralize the spot with 5% to 10% ammonia, or Soda Solution and wash thoroughly in water. In case of acid splash on skin, eyes or other parts of the body, flush with large quantities of water and seek immediate medical aid. Wear clothes of terylene which are resistant to dilute acid.

The electrolyte is prepared to a Sp. gravity as indicated in Manufacturer Instruction Card. 1.8.3 Container: It is made of vulcanized rubber, pitch celluloid or glass. Celluloid or glass containers are normally used for light duty work and celluloid container for portable work.

In the case of glass or celluloid containers, the colour of the plates gives an indication of the charge and discharge conditions. When fully charged, positive plates are rich chocolate brown and negative plates are slightly Grey. The liquid will be sparkling and the plates look alive. When discharged, both the plates turn Grey and the positive plates will be of darker Grey.

1.8.4 Separators: They act as insulating pieces between the different plates. They are made of either specially treated wood, perforated rubber, celluloid or rubber fabric made porous by thick cotton threads or glass wool. 1.8.5 The bottom blocks: are raised ribs either fitted in the bottom of the jar or made in the jar itself so that the plates do not touch the bottom, and the top portion is kept at the correct level. These also form a receptacle to collect the sludge formed during its period of active life.

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1.8.6 Connecting Bars: All the positive plates are welded to one common bar and all the negative plates to another common bar. There is always one more negative plate than the positive to provide equal working area, on all sides of the positive plates. The outside plates are, therefore, always negative plates. The terminals are upward extensions of connecting bars. This forms the terminal and passes through the cover to enable external connections to be made. 1.8.7 Top covers: They are generally of vulcanized rubber or pitch. A hole is provided for

pouring the electrolyte and this can be closed by a screwed cap. The cap is provided with minute holes for gases to escape. This is also known as 'Vent Cap'/'Vent Plug'. 1.8.8 Connecting straps: These are flat bars joining the positive of one cell to the negative of

another cell and is made of lead or any non-corrosive metal. These are in the form of castings and very solid so as to pass heavy currents. 1.8.9 Vent plugs: These are the plugs with thread and are made from plastic. These are provided with vent holes extending from inside to outside the cell to pass the gasses evolved during charging process.

1.8.10 Float: It indicates the level of the electrolyte inside the cell above the plates. It is made from plastic material provided with two markings on its stem.

The level of electrolyte should always be 1/2" above the plates. Electrolyte is normally lost due to:

Excessive Gassing Evaporation and Spilling.

The battery received from manufacturers is normally received in 'dry charged' condition. Electrolyte has to be poured inside the cell and the battery charged for a period, which may range from 60 to 72 Hrs. The instructions of the manufacturers should be strictly adhered to in all cases. Where such data is not available, the following procedure should be adopted. Divide the Amp. Hr. capacity of the cell by 15. Prepare electrolyte of specific gravity 1.220 and commence charging at the rate obtained by above value. Once charging is commenced it is very important that it is kept continuous for at least 12 Hrs. It is always better to keep

continuous charge for the specified period. But in cases where it is impossible, a 12 hour intermission is satisfactory. Continue charging till gassing commences. Then reduce the

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charging rate to 5 of capacity and take readings of specific gravity and temperature at every half an hour The temperature should not exceed 50 deg. C. When SP. gravity readings are constant at same value for 3 consecutive hourly observations, it is deemed that the cell/battery is fully charged.

1.9 Chemical Changes:


Charged PbO2 + Pb + 2H2 SO4 Discharged 2PbSO4 + 2 H2O

Discharge: At the negative plate which acts as the anode, lead ions react with sulphions from the electrolyte to form lead sulphate. At the same time hydrogen ions from the electrolyte are discharged at the positive plate (cathode) and the liberated hydrogen reduces the lead peroxide to lead oxide, which is attacked by the acid to form lead sulphate.

PbO2 + H2SO4 Pb + H2SO4 + O

PbSO4 + H2O + O PbSO4 + H2O (b)

(a)

Thus, both plates are converted into lead sulphate and water is produced, which causes the specific gravity of the acid to fall. It will be noticed that

Both anode & Cathode become PbSO4 Due to formation of water specific gravity of the electrolyte decreases. Voltage of the cell decreases. The cell gives out energy.

Charge: The positive plate acts as the anode and the negative as the cathode. The sulphion moves to the positive plate (anode) and react with the water to produce sulphuric acid and oxygen, and the latter attacks lead sulphate and forms lead peroxide and more sulphuric acid.

PbO2 + H2SO4 Pb + H2SO4 + O

PbSO4 + H2O + O PbSO4 + H2O (b)

(a)

At the same time the Hydrogen ions liberated at the negative plate (Cathode) reduce the Lead Sulphate to metallic lead.

Each of the above reactions produce Sulphuric acid. So the specific gravity of the electrolyte rises during charge.

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It will be noticed that during charging:-

The anode becomes dark chocolate brown in colour (PbO2) and cathode becomes gray metallic lead (Pb). Due to consumption of water, specific gravity of electrolyte is increased. There is rise in voltage. Energy is absorbed by the cell.

If the charging current is continued after the plates have been fully converted, electrolysis of water continues, the hydrogen and oxygen are evolved freely and the cell is said to be gassing. The condition of gassing indicate that the cell is fully charged.

1.10. VALVE REGULATED LEAD ACID BATTERIES


(SPECIFICATION NO.RDSO/SPN/TC/37/00.)

These are also called as VRLA Batteries in the short form because the pressure inside the cell/battery is regulated by a special type of valve which can open and close automatically. This is also called as SMFLA (Sealed Maintenance Free Lead Acid) battery because it is completely sealed and does not require Maintenance during its service life.

1.10.1 Advantages of VRLA batteries in Railway Telecommunications:

1) Improved and reliable service life due to low antimony Lead/lead calcium used for the positive plates grid construction. 2) No separate battery room is required due to compactness and no emission of acid fumes. So they can be installed by the side of any electronic equipment. 3) Topping up with distilled water and measurement of Specific gravity is not necessary. 4) Ideally suited for deep discharges and partial discharges as well. 5) Minimum grid growth for minimizing the possibilities of internal shorts. 6) No effect to electrodes at elevated temperature (Minimum water loss) Design to provide excess electrolyte. 7) Compact and light in weight. 8) Very low self discharge of 0.5 to 1% of capacity per week. 9) Can be installed in horizontal direction without any leakage of electrolyte, as the electrolyte is totally absorbed by the spun glass separator. 10) No spilling of electrolyte. 11) No acid proof flooring is required by virtue of their sealed construction.

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OTHER ADVANTAGES:

i)

Less wear & tear of electrical of electrical components due to higher average discharge voltage of 1.95 volts per cell at C10 discharge rate.

ii)

Uniform discharge currents.

iii) No stratification of electrolyte due to wicking action of highly absorbent separators and horizontal mounting of cells. iv) No post corrosion as there is no acid mist. v) Environment friendly as they do not emit any hazardous gasses.

vi) Cell covers and jars hermetically heat-sealed. vii) Can operate under extreme climatic conditions (-400 C to +550C). viii) Lower recurring costs because no distilled water addition and no periodic equalising charges. 1.10.2. SPECIFICATIONS:

1. Nominal voltage: 2V/Cell 2. End point voltage: 1.75V/Cell 3. Capacities: 20 AH &40 AH 4. Type of separators: Glass mat 5. Mode of charging: i. Float mode-2.25V/Cell( For 16 Hours) ii. Boost mode- 3V/Cell and charging current should be limited to 20 of its AH capacity. 6. Material used for grids: Calcium alloy 7. Under normal operating conditions, equalizing charge is not required. It is required when non-uniformity in voltage has developed between the cells. 8. Cycle life at 25C(77F) 1200 cycles at 80% Depth of Discharge 2000 cycles at 50 Depth of discharge 4000 cycles at 20 Depth of discharge 9. A.C. Ripple should not exceed 3 RMS 10. Float life at 25C(77F)- 20 years design life on full float with recommended charging method.

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11. Operating temperature - -20C to +55C

Fig. 1.2

1.10.3: DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION

The constructional details are shown in the above figure.(FIG.1.1) POSITIVE PLATES: These are flat pasted type with Lead-calcium High Tin alloy grid to resist corrosion & for longer life. NEGATIVE PLATES: These are flat pasted type with lead-calcium alloy grid for maintenance free characteristics.

SEPARATORS: These are of Low resistance, high porosity and highly absorbent type glass mat separator (AGM) ELECTROLYTE: It is high purity Sulphuric acid to maximize shelf life. The Sulphuric Acid and water used for electrolyte preparation and maintaince should conform to IS:266-1977 and IS:1069-1964 respectively. TERMINALS: These are high conductivity lead plated inserts.

SAFETY VALVE: This is of Self resealing, pressure regulated and explosion proof.

CONTAINER COVER SEALING: Heat Sealing Method (Fusion bond) is used for better joint strength.
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CONTAINER: High impact Polypropylene co-polymer, ribbed jar design for better heat dissipation and strength. Flame-retardant polypropylene UL 94 V 0/28 LOI is optional. 1.10.4 PERFORMANCE OF BATTERIES:

MONITORING: The performance of the batteries is to be monitored during operation at monthly intervals in order to detect and correct abnormalities, if any. The battery voltage on float, individual cell voltage on float, torque of the terminals and cleanliness of the battery are to be monitored.

Use only Calibrated Digital Voltmeters with an accuracy + 0.05 volts. Maintain a record of the total battery voltage and the individual cell voltages using the service record formats. 1.10.5 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE: A lead acid battery is an electrochemical device. Heat accelerates chemical activity; low temperature slows it down.
0

Normal battery operating

temperature is 27 C. Lower than normal temperature has the opposite effect and reduces capacity. In general, at proper float voltage, a battery in a cool location will last longer than one in a warm location. No temperature correction is required when operating at 270C. If the operating

Note:

temperature is above 270C, it is recommended that the float voltage should be reduced by 3 mv/0C rise in temperature /cell. 1.10.6. USES IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS:

1. Back up power supply for electronic equipments like Way station DTMF equipments, Micro wave equipments, OFC equipments, etc. 2. Remote area power supply. 3. In UPS equipment. 4. Power supply for Power tools. 5. In IPS.

1.11 Selecting the right battery: The selection of the best battery for a certain duty
requires some information about the use. Discharge currents, backup time, operating voltage window and temperature are the basic information necessary for the correct choice of the battery. Depending upon the duty cycle and the condition under which the battery is operating, suitable correction factors viz., K-factors, temperature correction factor, and ageing factors are

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to be used to determine the best techno-economic choice of the battery for any application. A battery sizing programme Optisize developed by HBL NIFE Power Systems Limited can be used to arrive at correct Techno - economic choice of the battery in no time . K-Factor: This factor is considered to estimate the available battery capacity at different discharge rates and end cell voltages. This is the ratio of rated capacity to the amperes that can be supplied for 't' minutes to a given ECV. Temperature correction factor: This factor is considered to take care of the variations in performance of the battery at different temperatures. As the operating temperature increases above 25 C , the electrochemical reaction is enhanced. Thus the capacity available increases, but the life of the battery comes down. Therefore no de rating factor is to be applied to the performance of the battery for sizing when the battery operates at higher temperature. However electrical capacity at lower temperatures is lesser due to sluggish electro chemical activity. Therefore temperature de rating factor is to be applied for sizing the battery for low temperature applications. Temperature correction factors are given on next page.

Ambient Temperature in C -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25

Correction Factor 2.08 1.72 1.49 1.32 1.27 1.19 1.14 1.09 1.04 1.00

Ageing factor: IEEE Std 485-1975 recommends that a battery be replaced when its actual capacity drops to 80 percent of its rated capacity; therefore, the battery's rated capacity should be at least 1.25 times the load expected at the end of its service life. Hence, a correction factor of 1.25 (=1/0.8) is taken as ageing factor. Design margin: A nominal 10% cushion is taken as a standard over sizing to allow for unforeseen operating conditions of the battery due to improper maintenance, recent discharge, or ambient temperature lower than the anticipated, or both.

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Over load factor: It is a pure reserve capacity that may be installed to take care of any future additional load. Normally 10-15 overload factor is considered. This of course will depend upon the customer's requirement. This also will be considered only when specified by the user. Types of loads

Common duty cycles imposed on the battery can be classified as (a) Continuous load and (b) Non continuous load. Continuous loads are energized throughout the duty cycle where as Non continuous loads are energized only in portions of the duty cycle .

A) Continuous loads ( E.g. Telecommunications, UPS, Emergency lighting, SPV etc.,) 1) Constant current discharge (E.g.Telecom)

Ex.1: Selection of a battery for supplying a load of 10 amps for 5 hours to an end cell voltage of 1.75V when the system voltage is 48V at an ambient temperature of 25 C.

The information required / given for battery sizing is:

1. Load current : 10 amps 2. Backup time : 5 hrs 3. System voltage : 48 volts 4. End cell voltage : 1.75 volts 5. Temperature : 0 25 C

Step 1: Number of cells = System voltage / Nominal voltage = 48 / 2 = 24 cells

Step 2: Capacity required = Load current x Backup time. Since the battery is designed for 10 hour rate, for 5 hour backup, K- factor need to be applied.

Step 3: From the K-factor table, for 1.75 ECV and discharge time of 5 hrs, the K-factor is 5.81.

Step 4: Required battery capacity = 10 x 5.81 = 58.1 Ah

Step 5: Applying Ageing Factor of 1.25, sized battery capacity = 58.1 x 1.25 = 72.63 Ah

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Step 6: From tables the nearest higher available capacity, 80 Ah is chosen. Thus the battery selected is 3 Modules (3 modules x 8 cells ) of type T - 80HP.

2) Constant power discharge ( E.g. UPS System ) :

Ex 2 : Selection of a battery for supplying 40 KVA load for 30 minutes to an ECV of 1.75 with a Power factor of 0.8 and an inverter Efficiency of 85%. The voltage window is 205 - 285V and ambient temperature is - 1 0 C

The information required / given for battery sizing is :

1. KVA/KW rating: 40 KVA (Not required when KW rating is given for UPS ) 2. Minimum Voltage: 205 volt 3. Maximum voltage: 285 volt 4. Power factor: 0.8 ( Not required when KW rating is given for UPS ) 5. Efficiency of the Inverter : 85% 6. End Cell voltage : 1.75 volts 7. Operating temperature : - 0 10 C 8. Back up time : 30 minutes

Step 1: Choice of number of cells

Minimum number of cells = Minimum DC voltage / End cell voltage = 205 / 1.75 = 117.14 Round this to the next higher whole number i.e. 118 number of cells

Maximum number of cells = Maximum DC voltage / Float or Boost voltage = 285/ 2.3 = 123.91 Round this to the next lower whole number i.e. 123 number of cells

Ensure that the rounded minimum no. of cells is less than the rounded maximum no. of cell. The number of cells selected should be in between the maximum and minimum number of cells determined above. Let us say we had chosen 120 nos. of cell .

Batterys Minimum Voltage = Chosen no. of cells x 1.75 Volts

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= 120 x 1.75 = 210 volts

Batterys Maximum Voltage = Chosen no. of cells x 2.30 Volts = 120 x 2.30 = 276 volts

Since both the above min and max voltages are within the UPS voltage window, proceed as below:

Step 2: Power required for UPS in kilowatts ( KVA x PF = KW ) = 40 x 0.8 = 32 KW

Step 3: Power required from the battery ( KW / Inverter efficiency ) = 32 / 0.85 = 37.647 KW = 37647 watts Step 4: Power required from each cell ( watts per cell ) = 37647 / 120 = 313.73 watts per cell

Step 5: Applying Ageing factor of 1.25 = 313.73 x 1.25 = 392.16 watts per cell

Step 6: Applying Temp. correction factor at 0 -10 C (1.49 ) = 392.16 x 1.49 = 584.32 watts per cell

From the performance table, the Ah capacity of the cell capable of giving 584.32 watts to an end cell voltage of 1.75 VPC, as a back up time of 30 minutes is 400 Ah. Battery selected is 30 modules of battery type T - 4 0 0 H P.

3 ) Constant current discharge for long duration rates(Eg.Solar photo voltaic)

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Ex. 3: Selection of a battery for supplying a Load current of 10 Amps for the Autonomy of 5 days.

The system voltage is 48 volts. The information required / given for Battery sizing is :

Load current System Voltage Autonomy (back up time) Average ambient temperature End Cell Voltage

: : : : :

10 Amps 48 Volts 5 days 25 C 1.75 (considered)

Calculations:

1) Total back up time required

= 24 hrs/day X 5 days

= 120 hrs.

2) Battery capacity required

Load current X K factor (for back up time) 0.8 (maximum allowable depth of discharge)

K factor for 120 hrs = 78.43 ( Refer page No 16 )

Battery capacity required

= 10X78.43 0.8 = 980.4 AH

Applying ageing factor of 1.25 = 980.4 x 1.25 = 1225.5 Ah

Therefore the nearest higher Ah capacity 1250 Ah is chosen. Thus the battery selected is 24 cells of T - 1250 HP Electrical protections to the battery for SPV applications:

The main protection equipment for the batteries is the Charge controller unit. The function of the charge controller is to protect the batteries from overcharge and deep discharge. The following are recommended charge controller settings for Triumph HP batteries for optimum performance and life.

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1. Over voltage disconnect: When the battery terminal voltages exceeds 2.35+/-0.02 volts per cell, the battery and solar panel should be disconnected thus protecting the battery from getting overcharged. 2. Low voltage disconnect: When the D.C output voltage drops to 1.80 +/- 0.02 volts per cell the battery should be isolated from the load. Thus preventing the batteries from excessive discharge. 3. Reconnection: The solar panel reconnection to the battery when the voltage is 2.08+/- 0.02 volts per cell. b) Non continuous Load( E.g. Switch gear applications ) Basic terminology: Load: The current in amperes for each time period Period: The time during which an applied load is constant and is designated as time M Section: The basic time unit taken for sizing. The section A consists of first A periods. K factor: The ratio of rated capacity at 10hr. rate to the amperes that can be supplied for t minutes for a given ECV and ambient temperature Time t : The duration between the end of that section and the beginning of each period in every section For sizing, the sequence of each load (in amperes) duration in minutes, system voltage and temperature are required. Ex 4 : Selection of a battery for a regime having the following load profile for a voltage of 48 volt and operating temperature of 25 C considering a design margin of 10% Duty Cycle Load name Load A1 Load A2 Load A3 Load A4 Load in Amps 135 120 125 132 Time in Mins 0.167(10Sec) 59 58 2

Note: 1. Any short period of less than 1 minute duration is considered for 1 minute only.
IRISET 19 POWER PLANT PRACTICE

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2. In any section A, if the current for the 'A+1' period is higher than the current of the period A' then the section 'A' may be skipped as the next section 'A+1' will be of higher size. 3. Number of cells = Total system voltage / Nominal voltage = 48 / 2 = 24 cells Otherwise follow the Step 1 in the Example 2, if voltage window is given. Using the worksheet given in next page follow the procedure. Step 1: Fill the load ' A ' and period ' M ' values in columns 2&4 Step 2: Fill the changes in load as the difference between the sign in column 3 Step 3: Fill the duration 'T' for each period from the beginning to the end of each section in column 5. Step 4: Enter the capacity rating factor K, for each duration 'T ' in column 6. Refer K factor table Step 5: The cell size for each period ' M ' is calculated by multiplying column 3 and column 6 and entered in column 7 with sign convention. Step 6: The sum of capacities for all periods in every section is taken as the size of the section. Step 7: The maximum value of all the sections noted as above plus the value in random load section, if any is taken as the uncorrected size. current and previous load with

1.12 BATTERY CARE:


DOS Unload the batteries carefully and place them upright on the floor in single tier. Store the batteries in a cool and dry location. Charge the batteries within six months if they are under storage. Unpack the batteries as per the unpacking instructions. Install the batteries in a cool and dry location. Keep the battery area clean and dry. Monitor the charge and the float voltages of the charger at monthly intervals and adjust if required. Check the tightness of all the electrical connections at monthly intervals. Check compatibility of the charger before commissioning the battery. Maintain monthly service record as per enclosed format. Provide adequate ventilation and illumination. Ensure the cell orientation & connections are as per the General Arrangement Drawing. Contact HBLNIFE for additional help and guidance.

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DONTS

Do not expose the packed batteries to rain. Do not expose the packed batteries to sunlight. Do not exceed the storage period without charging the batteries. Do not install the batteries in rooms with varying temperature pockets due to sunlight or ventilation ducts. Do not short-circuit the battery or cells during assembly. Do not charge the batteries in sealed cubicles. Do not mix batteries of different types or makes. Do not make tap connections. Do not tamper with the cell vents. Do not keep the batteries in discharged condition.

1.13

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS: Only authorized and trained personnel familiar with

standby battery installation, preparation, charging and maintenance should be permitted to access the battery.

The following instructions are to be followed for the safety of the operator and also of the battery system.

DO NOT TOUCH UNINSULATED BATTERY CONNECTORS OR TERMINALS. ISOLATE THE BATTERY FROM THE CHARGER WHILE WORKING ON THE BATTERY. ALL TOOLS USED FOR INSTALLATION SHOULD BE INSULATED TO AVOID ACCIDENTAL SHORTING OF CONNECTIONS. ENSURE THAT CONNECTIONS ARE MADE AS PER GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWING ENCLOSED. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO MOVE THE INSTALLED BATTERY WITHOUT REMOVING THE CONNECTORS. DO NOT EXPOSE THE BATTERY TO OPEN FLAME OR SPARKS. KEEP THE BATTERY CLEAN AND DRY. INCASE OF ACCIDENTAL CONTACT WITH ACID, WASH THE AFFECTED AREA WITH A CONTINUOUS FLOW OF WATER FOR 15 MIN., AND CONSULT A DOCTOR IMMEDIATELY. DO NOT INSTALL BATTERIES IN A SEALED CABINET OR ENCLOSURE SINCE EXPLOSIVE GASES MAY BE RELEASED UNDER ABNORMAL CONDITIONS. USE A SUITABLE LIFTING DEVICE IN HANDLING THE BATTERY TO PREVENT DAMAGE.

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1.14

Standard tests on Lead Acid Secondary batteries:

Capacity test on complete batteries Test for retention of charge

The above two tests conform to IS.1651 and IS.1652. In addition to these, RDSO has also instructed for two more tests on Batteries of S&T installation, namely: Test for resistance to overcharge Life Test. 1.14.1 Capacity Test on complete batteries: After standing on open circuit for not less than 12 hours and not more than 24 hours, from the completion of a full charge, the battery shall be discharged through a suitable variable resistance at a constant current of 0.190 amperes. The discharge shall be stopped when the closed circuit voltage across the battery has fallen to1.85 x n volts, where 'n' is the number of cells in series in the battery or when the voltage across any one cell has fallen to 1.70 V, whichever is earlier. The time in hours, elapsing between the beginning and the end of discharge shall be taken as the period of discharge. The average temperature of the electrolyte taken hourly in one of the cells chosen as pilot cell, shall be taken as temperature 't' deg C of the electrolyte during discharge.

Such capacity test as above, after the first charge of the battery is normally treated as the test discharge for the purpose of acceptance. On the first discharge, the battery shall not give less than 85% of the rated capacity and this shall be reached within 10 discharge cycles subsequent to the initial charge.

When individual cells are ordered, they shall be tested individually as above. 1.14.2 Test for retention of charge: A Cell or Battery, which has successfully passed the capacity test, shall be tested for the loss of capacity on open circuit.

The battery shall be fully recharged at the current specified by Manufacturer and then shall be subjected to consecutive capacity tests, the value of the initial capacity 'C' being calculated as the mean of the two results thus obtained.

After a complete recharge and the clearing of electrolyte from its surface, the battery shall be left on open circuit for a period of 21 days without disturbance, at a temperature of 27 + 2 deg. C. After storage of 21 days, the battery shall be discharged as stated in the capacity test. The value of capacity, measured after storage is noted as C1.

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After discharge, the battery shall be fully charged at the recommended rate given by Manufacturer. Loss of capacity as a percentage is calculated as:S = (C-C1)/C X 100

Loss of capacity as measured shall not exceed 21 of the initial capacity. 1.14.3 Resistance to over charge (RDSO Testing): This test is meant for determining the ability of the battery to withstand overcharging and to be carried out for batteries, which have undergone the capacity test.

The battery shall be continuously charged at a rate of 0.1 x C/10 Amps for 100 hours (i.e.,10 x C/10 A.H. is supplied to the battery) being immersed in a tank of water at a constant temperature of 40 deg + 3 deg C with the water level of the tank being 25 mm lower than the top surface of the battery. After the battery has been charged, it shall be left disconnected in a tank of water at 40 deg + 3 deg C for 68 hours and then to be discharged through resistance at a constant current of 0.1 x C 10 Amps. The discharge shall be stopped when the load-voltage falls to 1.85 x n., (n being the number of cells) or 1.70V across any one cell, whichever is earlier. This cycle of charge and discharge shall be repeated for 3 more times, i.e., 4 times in all. The battery is thus subjected to a total overcharge of 40 times the rated A.H. capacity and to four checking discharges. The period of discharge, i.e., the time in hours between beginning and the end of discharge during the 4th cycle, shall not be lower than 80% of the prescribed duration. 1.14.4 Life Test: The battery, which has already undergone capacity test shall be subjected to the Life Test. The battery shall be discharged and charged continuously as follows-

Discharge for 4 1/2 hours at a Current I = 0.17 x C/10 amps. Charge for 7 1/2 hours at a Current I = 0.12 x C/10 amps.

In order to verify the life test requirement, a test discharge shall be made at the 50th cycle. The temperature of the electrolyte shall be regulated at 27 deg C + 2 deg C before commencement of the life cycle.

The life test shall be recorded as complete, as soon as the capacity obtained when tested as above, falls to 80% of the rated capacity in A.H.

Batteries subjected to life test shall give a minimum life of 50cycles of charge and discharge.

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1.15

The appliances required for maintenance are:

A small voltmeter preferably with two ranges, 5 Volts and 15 Volts. An ammeter preferably with three ranges, 5, 15 and 30 Amps. Syringe type Hydrometer Glass tubes 9" long and 1/4" dia. Thermometer preferably graduated in F0 Glass rod 1/2" dia 15" long Glass or porcelain trough Glass funnel Glass tumbler Jar of distilled water Jar of Sulphuric Acid

1.16

The routine tests to be carried out are:

Measurement of height of electrolyte above plates. Specific Gravity Voltage.

1.17

Precautions: The following are the general precautions to be observed during

installation and subsequent maintenance of secondary lead acid batteries used on the Railways: A. Installation precautions:

1. Batteries should be housed in cool and well-ventilated rooms. Ordinarily natural ventilation is adequate. For large installation, forced ventilation by exhaust fans may be provided. For closed location box compartments, properly designed and located openings will be required. Recommended space between Cells and Walls is 305 mm. minimum 152 mm width of gang ways should be sufficient to allow withdrawal of cells for possible overhaul. The battery will give the best results when the room is maintained at a temperature between 20O C to 35O C.

2. Battery Room should be well white washed on walls and ceiling and should be clean and dry. The floor should be acid resistant Asaphalt flooring is recommended.

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3. Care should be taken that no effluents such as, Chloride, acetic acid are not kept or taken into Battery Room.

4. Batteries should not be exposed to direct sunrays and should be away from any heat radiating equipment.

5. Batteries should be installed on wooden racks of suitable height, protected with two or more coatings of acid resistant paint (type 2 of ISI 58-68) and kept duly aligned.

6. Mount the cells on the insulators on the stand, align and level them properly.

7. Wipe the top of the cover, free of dust. Smear little of Petroleum Jelly on contact surfaces, threads, bolting faces and in the bolt holes before, bolting up.

8. Smoking or use of naked flame in the battery room should be strictly prohibited.

9. As far as possible, metal fixtures should be avoided. If used, they should be painted with anti-acidic paint.

B. Initial Charging precautions:

1. This shall be done as per the instructions of the Manufacturer.

2. For preparing electrolyte, only battery grade concentrated Sulphuric acid (IS 266) and distilled water (IS 1069) should be used.

3. Never add water to the acid, to avoid injurious action. During mixing, the temperature must not be allowed to exceed 50 deg. C.

4. Allow newly mixed electrolyte to cool to room temperature before filling into the cell. C. Maintenance precautions:

1. Keep open flames away from the battery. Smoking is prohibited.

2. Keep batteries and surroundings clean and top of the cells dry.

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3. Electrical connections should be kept tight. Connecting cables should be flexible and long to prevent strain on the battery.

4. Terminals should be smeared with Vaseline (Petroleum Jelly) to prevent corrosion.

5. Vent plugs should be kept in position and tight to avoid spilling of electrolyte.

6. Electrolyte lost due to spillage, should be replaced with that of the other cells of same specific gravity. Under no other circumstances, electrolyte should be added.

7. Establish routine of battery care. Maintain charging and discharging log sheets.

8. Avoid undercharging or overcharging.

9. When idle, keep batteries on trickle charge where rectifier has been provided.

10. Take 'occasional' hydrometer reading with a syringe type of hydrometer.

11. Take frequent voltage reading (the resistance of the voltmeter should be at least 1000 ohms per volt).

12. In case of acid burns, apply Ammonia or Baking Soda. Dress with solution of Boric Acid to prevent infection. Keep these items always handy.

13. Use trays for batteries.

14. Give batteries an equalising charge monthly.

In a battery of cells, the Sp.Gr. of the

individual cell may vary by 2 to 3 points between them. Take the cells out with lowest Sp.Gr. and give them separate charge till they reach the maximum value.

15. Batteries showing irregularities, which cannot be corrected, should be taken out of service and report made to proper authority.

16. Use Protective measures (Apron, rubber gloves & eye shields)

17. Insulated metal tools should be used to prevent short circuit. Care should be taken not to leave metal tools on the top of the cells.

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18. Ensure correct polarity between the cells.

19. Use calibrated meters for measuring current, voltage, specific gravity and temperature.

1.18. The chief troubles to which the battery is subjected to are:


Sulphation Buckling Internal short circuit Internal discharge Loss of capacity Low density of electrolyte High density of electrolyte Reverse Voltage Shedding Sludge Open Circuit Temperature Troubles.

1.18.1. Sulphation:

Indication: Slight white patches will be noted on the plates. When severe, that white growth will be big in size. If White patches cannot be observed on plates as container is not transparent, white patches are observed on terminals, the indication is loss of capacity. Cause: This is due to excessive discharge or due to keeping the cell in a discharged condition for a long period or due to impurities in the water or acid or exposure of plates or due to low level of electrolyte. Treatment: If slight, charge at 1/3rd of the normal rate, till the cell deliver gas freely.

Discharge at the same rate. Repeat the cycle till the voltage of the cell reaches 2.35 on charge and specific gravity is as per manufacturer's rating. If the plates are visible, ensure that there are no white patches. If severe, pour out the electrolyte, fill with fresh electrolyte recharge. Penley's Method: This consists in charging for 60 hours at the normal rate, the electrolyte is the solution of Sodium Sulphate, prepared by mixing 2 lbs. of chemical in 1 gallon of water.

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Pour out the solution. Clean the inside and fill by acid of correct specific gravity. The cell will be ready for use after an initial charge.

1.18.2. Buckling:
Indication: The plates become saucer shape or cup like with twisted or bulged ends tending to touch or touching the sides of the container or adjacent plates. Cause: Excessive discharge or charge, bad sulphation.

Treatment: If not very badly bent, the plates can be removed, straightened in a vice or press. If very badly bent, they should be replaced.

1.18.3. Internal short circuit:


Indication: The cell will be warm even when idle, specific gravity and voltage will be low immediately after charge. There will be no gassing. Cause: Due to fallen pieces of hard sulphate, bending or treeing, high degree of sulphation or sludge.

Treatment: If not very badly bent, the plates can be removed, straightened in a vice or press. If very badly bent they should be replaced. Fallen pieces should be removed. Excess sulphation or sludge, treatment as in sludge.

1.18.4. Internal Discharge:


Indication: The cell discharges faster, warm even in idle condition, less capacity.

Cause: Impurities inside the cell.

Treatment: Electrolyte replaced.

1.18.5 Loss of Capacity:


Indication: Same as for internal discharge but it may not be warm when idle.

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Cause: May be due to slight sulphation or slight buckling or aging or impurities. Treatment: Attend as in case of sulphation and buckling and internal discharge.

1.18.6 Low Density of Electrolyte:


Indication: The readings are lower than the rated value, after charging and do not improve by continuous charging. Cause: May be due to short circuit or loss of electrolyte due to excessive gassing, spillage or sulphation. Treatment: Withdraw the electrolyte and make up with fresh acid to bring the value of the specific gravity to the rated value, half an hour after stopping the charge and continue the cycle till the readings are correct. If after 6 cycles the specific gravity does not come to the correct value, treat as for short circuit.

1.18.7 High Density of electrolyte:


Indication: Maximum and minimum values of specific gravities will be always higher than the specified values. Cause: Due to topping up with acid instead of water. Treatment: Charge at a current equal to 1/10th of the ampere-hour capacity till gassing is observed. Remove some of the electrolyte, and replace with distilled water. Test specific

gravity after half-an-hour and if not correct, charge again till gassing is observed. Remove electrolyte and water and repeat cycle till correct specific gravity is obtained.

1.18.8 Reverse voltage of cells:


Indication: The positive and negative terminals will show opposite polarity. Cause: This is due to defective cell in a battery, which got discharged already when the others are being discharged. As the discharge, continues the run down cell adds nothing to output but gets charged in the wrong direction by the main discharge current passing through it. This results in the positive plate being partially converted into spongy lead and the negative plate into lead peroxide. This causes a reverse voltage and acts in the opposite direction to the main battery emf.

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Treatment: Remove the cause of defect and give slight charge. Remove the discharged cell.

1.18.9 Shedding:
Indication: Slight loss in capacity or short circuit in the case of very severe shedding. Cause: Due to excessive gassing, thereby dislodging peroxide paste from the grids or due to sulphation. Treatment: Replace cell if severe, otherwise give slight charge at low rate. 1.18.10 Sludge: This is the name given to the peroxide or sulphate sediments collected at the bottom of the jar. Indication: Loss of capacity or short circuit, visible in the case of transparent container.

Cause: Bad maintenance, excessive gassing, shock and vibration, excessive sulphation Treatment: Wash the plates and re-charge at low rate with fresh electrolyte in the case of slight formation. In the case of severe formation replace the cell. 1.18.11 Open Circuit: Indication: No emf at the output terminal of the cell. Cause: Loose connections of connecting strap or corroded terminals, or break in terminals. Treatment: Check all connections, examine for loose joints at clamps and connecting bars. Clean terminals with sand paper and smear Vaseline. 1.18.12 Temperature Trouble: Indication: Temperature rises even for very slow rates of charging. Cause: Due to bad location, proximity to any heated element, shedding, buckling or defective separation. Treatment: Examine for the causes given and remove the cause. 1.19.
IRISET

The recent improvements in lead-acid accumulators include:Reduction in the thickness of the plates
POWER PLANT PRACTICE

30

SECONDARY CELLS

Improvements in paste formulation Use of new types of microporous, PVC or rubber separators instead of wood.

These are commonly known by the trade name 'miper', 'miplast', 'porvic', 'fibrac', etc., and have low electrical resistance value. These not only give greater mechanical and chemical stability but also a better volumetric efficiency.

1.20.

TROUBLE SHOOTING:

1.21.

Indenting of lead acid cells or batteries: While indenting the cells or batteries,

applicable IS specification should be quoted. Care in specifying the requirements precisely and
IRISET POWER PLANT PRACTICE

31

SECONDARY CELLS

stressing the vital aspects, would ensure the supply of quality batteries and keep our option open to reject at the inspection stage, sub-standard batteries that do not confirm to the specification. The indent should specify batteries manufactured by one of the reputed and RDSO approved firms in addition, separators made of Microporous PVC or similar materials of adequate design, providing permanent highly porous insulating diaphram. The manufacturer instruction card should be obtained with cell. 1.22. 1.23. INFORMATION TO BE FURNISHED BY THE PURCHASER

Nominal Voltage. Capacity (in Ampere Hours at 10 Hr rate) of the batteries. Mono-block type of stackable single cell type. Number of cells per battery for stackable cells. Number of identical batteries required. The rate of charge and discharge at which the batteries are to work. The proposed method of working that is, charge discharge, float working or standby, with or without trickle charging. Whether stands are required and if so details of layout and space available The proposed location of installation and ultimate consignee. Accessories and spares required, if any. Special conditions, if any. Care and Upkeep of Batteries:

Unpacking:

Unpack each case carefully. The Cells should be removed carefully by holding them from the bottom or in an horizontal position. They should not be removed out of the package by holding the terminals.

In no case should the elements inside the cell be disturbed.

After removing the cells, any dust or straw of the packages lying on the Cell should be carefully removed.

The Cells and accessories should be thoroughly inspected from outside for any possible damage.
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SECONDARY CELLS

1.24

Storage Instructions:

In case the cells are not to be commissioned immediately, they should be kept in a cool, dry place sheltered at all times from Sun, rain and dust. The sealing plug on the vent holes should be intact. The Cells shall be arranged in the Stores on wooden racks so that there is at least about 5 mm spacing between the two adjacent cells. Shall never be stacked on ground.

The cell accessories like throw-away caps, connectors, bolts and nuts should be kept aside properly with an identification label. The throw-away caps already mounted on the cells should be tight. Fix an adhesive tape on these caps for safety.

The storage of Cells should be inside the building and not in any outside temporary sheds exposed to rain and direct sun rays.

The room should be well ventilated so as to keep the atmosphere cool.

The batteries being heavy shall be preferably on the ground floor.

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BATTERY CHARGING

Chapter 2 Battery Charging


2.1 BATTERY CHARGING: It is an electro chemical process of passing an direct current

(D.C) through the battery in a direction opposite that of discharge, the lead sulphate is decomposed and gradually restoring to its original state and ready to deliver electricity again. The battery charger should be able to supply required voltage and control the current during charging. Figure 2.1 illustrates the connections necessary for correct charging.

Fig.2.1 Cells Connected in Series for charging 2.2 METHODS OF CHARGING:

There are two principle methods adopted in charging batteries:

Constant current method Constant potential method

The constant current method consists of passing a constant current through the battery until the full charged condition is reached.

2.2.1
IRISET

There are two methods of constant current charging:-

Series method of charging Parallel method of charging


34 POWER PLANT PRACTICE

BATTERY CHARGING

In the series method, the current must be the same in all parts of the circuit. Batteries of different types and capacities requiring different charging currents cannot be charged by this method.(Fig.2.2)

Series charging consists of putting a variable resistance in series with the battery or group of batteries connected in series. An ammeter in the return main indicates the current taken by the battery on total at a particular instant. This current is varied by changing the resistance. Any number of batteries may thus be charged, so long as the total value/voltages of batteries connected in series does not exceed that of the charger in which case the batteries would discharge, into the mains.

Fig. 2.2 Series Method of Charging

Figure 2.3 illustrates a parallel charging arrangement. It is superior to series method, in that the switching arrangements allow batteries of different capacities to be charged at correct rates.

D.C. Supply Fig. 2.3 Parallel method of charging.

In the constant potential charging,(Fig.2.4) the supply is kept at a constant voltage averaging 2.5 to 2.6V per cell, which is practically the normal value of a fully charged cell. The supply is
IRISET 35 POWER PLANT PRACTICE

BATTERY CHARGING

made available between two copper bus bars carried on insulators and between which the various batteries or groups of batteries are clipped. The supply equipment is designed to supply a constant voltage of 7.5, 15 or 30V, according to the type of battery mostly dealt with. The sets have a current output equal to the sum of all the batteries likely to be put on charge at one time. The constant rated voltage is applied to all batteries immediately they are connected to the bus-bars. If a battery has been discharged until its voltage has reached an average value of 1.8V per cell, the excess voltage of the supply in the case of 6, 12 and 24V batteries respectively will be approximately 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 V above the battery voltage and a large immediate rush of current will flow into the battery. It is the effect of this large initial rush of current which is the disadvantage of this method. As the emf of the cell rises with charge, the predominance of the supply voltage decreases, and as a result the charging current automatically gets less and less as the cell nears full charge conditions. This is a most

desirable state of affairs as the cell reaches full charge value, and is perhaps the most satisfactory feature of the system. It would certainly appear the ill effects of an excessive first rush of charging current, if they do exist, cannot be nearly so detrimental to the life of the battery as those caused by excessive charge currents.

Fig. 2.4 Typical Constant Potential Charging Installation.

Figure illustrates the method of supply and connection of a group of batteries being charged on the constant potential system.

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2.3
2.3.1

SYSTEMS OF CHARGING:
Battery Charger System: A system in which DC voltage is dropped to the required

value and in case of AC it is converted to the required value to charge secondary batteries is called a Battery Charger System. 2.3.2 Battery Eliminator System: A system in which the DC is directly fed from AC mains to

the equipment is called a Battery Eliminator System.

2.4.

BASIC PARTS:

The basic parts which are common to both systems are:

Converter unit, which converts AC to DC or DC higher voltage to the required DC voltage of the equipment. Smoothing Filter.

Fig. 2.5 Elementary Charging method

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Regulating devices to maintain constant voltage under varying loads.

Automatic control devices, where automatic working is desired.

2.4.

CONTROL OF CHARGING CURRENT:

The control of the charging current to a battery can be classified as under:-

Fig. 2.6 Rate of Change of current and voltage in constant current method. 2.4.1

Constant current charging Constant potential charging Taper Charging Pulse Charging Constant current charging system: (Fig.2.6)

The rate of current is maintained constant till the end of charge irrespective of the rise of voltage. This method is employed for initial charging of lead acid cells. A higher charging rate is permissible in the initial stages till the potential rises to 2.3 volts, after which it should be
IRISET 38 POWER PLANT PRACTICE

BATTERY CHARGING

reduced to avoid loss of electrolyte due to excessive gassing and undue rise in temperature of the plates.

The rise in potential with reference to the charging rate is indicated in the figure 2.6. The curves relate to a plante cell having a capacity of 60AH at 10 hour rate.

2.4.2

Constant potential charging: (Fig.2.7) A fixed rate at 2.4 volts per cell is maintained

without any ballast resistance in circuit. The initial charging current is very high especially if the battery is completely discharged. Hence, it is used only for batteries which are not normally discharged to a very low value. The figure illustrates the principle of constant potential charging of a 100 amp. hour lead acid cell at 5 Hr., rate after a full discharge at 5 hr. rate.

Fig. 2.7 Constant Potential Charging 2.4.3 Taper charging:(Fig.2.8) Modified constant potential charging, the charging rate is fixed

at the rate of 2.6 to 2.8V per cell and a ballast resistance is added in the charging circuit. The high initial charge rate is avoided and the curve is also flatter. The curves illustrate the rate of variation in the voltage and charging rate.

2.5

Charging Systems: The following different charging systems are adopted as per the
1. Initial Charging: Constant current method 2. Trickle Charging: Constant potential method 3. Float Charging: Constant potential method.

requirement.

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4. Float Trickle Charging: 5. Equalizing Charging:

-do-do-

6. Boost Charging: Constant Current Method 7. Normal Charging: Constant Potential Method 8. Freshening Charging: -do-

Fig. 2.8 Taper Charging 2.5.1 Initial Charging: While charging a battery initially, it is always preferable to follow the

instructions of manufacturer in reference to specific gravity of electrolyte, charging current, discharging current, total time the cell should be kept on charge etc. Importance of Initial Charge: The results obtained from a battery being affected to an incredible extent by the way in which its initial charge is carried out, it is worthwhile repeating here that this first charge is not to be terminated till the specified ampere hour capacity is put into the battery, notwithstanding constant or higher values of Sp. Gr. and voltages being obtained earlier. Method of Initial Charging: The initial charging shall be carried out in the following steps:

a) Preparation of Electrolyte b) Testing of battery/cell c) Filling of electrolyte in battery/cell d) Supply of electrical energy/Charging and e) Drawing back the Electrical Energy/Discharging. a) Preparation of Electrolyte: Battery grade sulphuric acid (suitable to ISI Specification 266) is mixed with distilled water (suitable to ISI Specification 1069) in a glass jar or vulcanized rubber
IRISET POWER PLANT PRACTICE

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BATTERY CHARGING

jar. The approximate ratio of acid to distilled water is 1:4. The specific gravity of mixed solution should be as per the manufacturer card, applying the temperature correction.

After mixing the solution it should be allowed to cool to room temperature.

Precautions to be observed:

1. The person preparing the electrolyte should wear protective gear apron, Rubber gloves, eye shield.

2. Water should be collected first into jar and concentrated acid should be slowly added to the distilled water. In no case water should be added to concentrated acid.

3. While adding acid to water continuous stirring should be carried out to distribute the heat generated at the point of acid dropping.

4. The temperature should be measured at regular intervals and in no case it should be more than 50 deg. C.

5. The entire operation should be carried out in well ventilated rooms to enable the escape of concentrated acid vapour. b) Testing of Cell/Battery: The cell/battery should be tested for any possible short circuit and external damage. If the cell/battery is found to be defective it should be rejected. c) Filling of Electrolyte: Cool pure diluted sulphuric acid prepared as above should be carefully poured into the cells with the help of a funnel and jug. The level of Electrolyte in each cell should be adjusted as indicated by the top red mark on the float guide (Normally 1/2" more than plate level).

Replace the vent plugs on the cell, do not tighten, leave them loose. Ensure that the vent holes are not blocked by dirt.

After filling in, leave the cells idle for 12 to 16 hours, or until the temperature falls to slightly above room temperature (but not more than 24 hours in any case after filling the electrolyte). The plates will absorb electrolyte causing a drop in the electrolyte level. Restore the electrolyte

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level at the end of this period by adding more electrolyte of the same specific gravity as used initially. Replace the vent plugs on the cells do not tighten.

The battery is now ready for initial charge.

d) Charging: The polarity of inter cell/row/tier should be checked and connections done in proper polarity sequence.

The positive lead of battery should be connected to the +ve lead of the charger and -ve lead of battery to -ve of charger, keeping the charger in 'OFF' condition.

The voltage control and current controls in the battery charger should be in the minimum position so that when the charger is switched on, minimum or no current flows into the battery. Charger to be switched 'ON' after ensuring the polarity of battery once again.

The voltage supplied should be at the rate of 2.7V per cell. Total voltage to be adjusted is No.of cells connected in series in each path x 2.7V.

The current should be slowly increased till the maximum current as specified by the manufacturer instruction card is reached. The charging schedule should be maintained, the current should be maintained constant throughout the initial charge. If manufacturer instruction card is not available the constant current of AH Capacity/15 may be supplied.

Standard, AMCO and Chloride Cell Manufacturers have indicated a slight change of Initial Charging System. All these firms are approved by RDSO.

The level of Electrolyte may fall slightly during charging, maintain the level throughout by adding distilled water as used for initial filling.

During the early stages of the first charge, the Sp.Gr. may fall but after the charging has been in progress for some time, the Sp.Gr. of the electrolyte will gradually commence rising, reaching a steady value.

The readings of Sp.Gr. and voltage of each cell may be taken at intervals of 8 hours from the commencement of charge. After 50 hours of charge, take hourly readings.

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Towards the end of charge, all the cells start gassing freely. The voltage will reach a final value of 2.50 to 2.55 V per cell, and the specific gravity to 1.210 0.005 for AMCO and for Chloride, 12.00 0.005 at 27 deg. C. Do not terminate the charge even if the specific gravity and voltage readings exceed the above values until the specified ampere hour input is fed into the battery.

At no stage during charging, the temperature be allowed to exceed 50 deg. C.

If the

temperature tends to rise beyond 45 deg C, reduce the current to one third, so that the temperature ceases to rise. However, if at any time, the current is reduced, the time of

charging should be correspondingly increased so that at the end of charging, the specified ampere hour input is put into the cells. The charging may be suspended for some time to allow the cells to cool, provided 50% of the total ampere hour input is fed. Under no circumstances, initial charging be stopped prior to 50% of the total input is given.

Charging at above finishing rate when the cells are gassing and the volts are above 2.3 per cell can cause scouring of the +ve plates. This causes reduction of capacity and deposits of

spongy lead on the tops of -ve plates, hence must be avoided.

At places where high ambient temperature normally prevails and where electrolyte temperature limit of 50 deg. C, would make charging impossible, it is recommended that the cell be filled during night-time and charging undertaken during the night and suspended during the day.

Now disconnect the battery from the charger and connect it to suitable load like series bulbs and discharge it at a current which is less than capacity/10. Continue till any one of the cell voltage reaches 1.75V or total battery voltage equals to 1.85X no, of cells. Now stop discharging. Disconnect the load and connect it to the output of battery charger again and adjust the current to capacity/10 , continue the charging up to free gassing appears. This charge and discharge cycles to be continued for 2 to 3 times to get maximum capacity. 2.5.2 Trickle Charge Working: A system in which battery comes into operation only during

emergencies. At other times the battery is idle and maintained in charged condition by trickle charging at 2.25 to 2.30 volts per cell. The trickle charge current will be approximately 1 mA per A.H. at the rated 10 Hour capacity of the battery. If the current is high, gassing takes place, if it is low, battery gets discharged. Change in temperature, age of the battery, higher capacity and other variables may necessitate adjustments in the rate of trickle charge. If for instance, the Sp.Gr. of the pilot cells is declining, the trickle charge rate needs a rise. On the other hand, if the cells show a continuous form of mild charging and topping up is required frequently, the
IRISET POWER PLANT PRACTICE

43

BATTERY CHARGING

trickle charge rate is high. Battery should be given a normal charge after the emergency duty and then put on trickle charge. Trickle charge is not recommended for thin or medium pasted plates. With correct condition of trickle charge, the life of battery can be prolonged. 2.5.3 Float Charge Working: is a system in which the battery is connected in parallel to the

charger or DC source and load. The correct float charger current is automatically controlled by maintaining the correct float voltage across battery terminals. This is perhaps mostly employed in Railway Signalling and Telecommunications. The voltage of the source is slightly greater than the open circuit voltage of the battery and in polarity.

The source supplies current direct to the load, the battery in parallel is on trickle charge, supplying the fluctuation in load and during the failure of the source, supply the entire load. The life of the battery is prolonged because it is not subjected to any charge/discharge cycle. The voltage of the system is closely regulated to 2.15V to 2.20 volts per cell. There is a chance of fall of Sp.Gr. day by day, hence, the battery requires a freshening charge every fortnight or more frequently. 2.5.4 Float trickle working: The battery is connected in parallel to the load and the source.

The voltage of the system is regulated to 2.15V volts per cell as it was with trickle charging. In case of failure of DC source the battery automatically discharges into the load. The battery should be given a normal charge after the discharge and then put to float trickle. The method eliminates the necessity of more frequent equalising charges and is suitable where equipment itself can withstand higher voltages without any harm.

2.5.5

Equalizing Charge: A periodical charge given to the battery to correct any inequalities

of Sp.Gr. among cells developed during service. This also assures that the maximum capacity is available when needed. The lower the floating voltage, the more is the frequency of

equalising charge. Thus for example, it is necessary to give a fortnightly charge to a battery floated at an average potential of 2.06 volts whereas at 2.18 volts, the frequency of the refreshing charge is once in six months only. An equalising charge is given at a rate of 10 Hr.Cap/50. However, it can also be at the finishing rate or less, done after a regular charge until the Sp.Gr. of all cells stop increasing for a period of 3 or 4 hours.

2.5.6

Boost Charge: Given to a battery when it is neither possible nor practicable to give it a

regular charge. This is usually a charge of higher rate and shorter duration in order to prevent over-discharging of the battery. It is given at rate 2.4V Cell.

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2.5.7

Normal Charge: Done at two rates, the Start (high) rate being maintained till the cells

reach 2.4 volts per cell after which at the finishing (low) rate till the end of charge. The high rate is usually 14% and the finishing rate is 7% of the 10 hour capacity of the battery. The battery is considered fully charged when all cells gas freely and the voltage and Sp.Gr. remain constant for consecutively 3 Hrs. The battery can be charged at rates higher than 14% also, but

charging current should be cut down to 7% when the cells reach 2.4 volts per cell. Freshening Charge: Applicable to a battery at a rate of 4 of the rated 10 hour capacity and the battery is to be fully charged.

2.6

Weak Cells: Cells which do not pick up Sp.Gr. in spite of repeated charging are Weak

Cells and must be given a special charge. The Weak Cells must be removed from the battery and charged separately at normal charging rate until gassing point is reached and then reduced to half the normal rate. When the cells appear to be fully charged, the charging should be stopped for an hour and then be resumed at half normal rate until free gassing again takes place. A further stop of one hour duration should be made and the charge should again be resumed at half the normal charge. This process should be repeated until gassing starts

simultaneously with switching on the charging current.

In spite of this special charge, if the cells do not pick up, the Sp. Gravity, the Manufacturer should be approached.

2.7

Conditioning charge with a curative discharge:

It is recommended to discharge the battery once in a year at 10 Hr. rate to its ultimate capacity, i.e., to an end voltage of 1.80 volts per cell or 1.180 sp.gr. The discharged battery should be immediately charged as detailed under "Normal Charge".

2.8

Life of Batteries: This varies depending on the type of batteries and charging system.

On Float change the life of batteries always increase, it can be expected 10 to 12 years for pasted, 14 to 15 years for tubular stationary batteries. Plante Cells with built-in stoutness of plates, give life ranging over 15 and upto 20 years. About 1500 cycles could be expected from pasted tubular +ve batteries used on the charge-discharge cycling system. In general, a

battery kept in regular use with periodical cycles of full charge and discharge, help in achieving a long life.

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Careful maintenance, observing all precautions, gives more life and trouble-free service. There is no substitute for careful compliance with Manufacturer Instructions.

2.9

CHARGING OF SMF BATTERIES:

TYPES OF CHARGINGS:

2.9.1

FRESHENING CHARGE:

The battery system may require an initial charge if the voltage per cell drops to 2.1 Volts while the battery is in storage prior to installation. In order to give an initial charge to the battery, the following instructions have to be observed.

Set the connected charger in constant potential mode. Set the voltage to 2.3 volts X No. of cells with a current limit of 0.2C Amps max. After attaining the required voltage for three consecutive hours, the system has to be switched to float mode (2.25V per cell) and the load may be connected to it. 2.9.2 EQUALISING CHARGE: This type of charging is to be done for every 6 months or if

the variation in cell voltage on float/charge (min to max) is more than 0.1 V, whichever is earlier. The procedure is as follows.

Discharge all the cells up to 1.75V/cell and bypass the cells that are reached early to 1.75V and continue the discharge till all the cells reaches to 1.75V Charge the cells for 21 hours with a voltage setting of 2.3V per cell in constant potential charging. The current limit should be 0.2C Amps. Repeat the procedure till it reaches its rated capacity. 2.9.3 CONSTANT VOLTAGE CHARGING: Only constant voltage charging shall be followed

for charging the battery system. The following instructions have to be observed while charging the battery. Constant potential chargers that can supply DC current with RMS ripple current less than 3% should be used. 2.9.4
IRISET

PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN WHILE CHARGING:

Use insulation equipment such as gloves, shoes and eye protectors. Tools like wrenches etc., should necessarily be insulated.
46 POWER PLANT PRACTICE

BATTERY CHARGING

Do not put tools or other equipment over the battery. Always work with the battery ungrounded. Be sure the charger is turned off before making electrical connections between the battery and the system. Connect battery positive terminal to charger positive terminal and battery negative terminal to charger negative terminal. Be sure that all connections are as per General Arrangement Drawing and are firm to 10 Nm torque before turning on the charger.

2.10

RECHARGING DETAILS FOR THE DISCHARGED BATTERIES:

Charging must be carried out at constant potential with the current limited to 0.2C amperes. (where C refers to the numerical value of the nominal capacity of the battery) Charge in boost mode at a charge voltage of 2.3 volts per cell for a period 16 hours followed by charge in float mode at a float voltage of 2.25 Volts Per Cell for a period of 72 hours before connecting the load. The duration of charging varies with the depth of discharge.

Example: For a 48V, 400 AH battery having 24 cells, charging must be carried out in boost charge mode at a voltage of 55.2V + 0.1 for a period of 16 hours followed by charge in float mode at 54V + 0.1 V for 72 hours. The maximum current limited to 80 Amperes(400 X 0.2 = 80).

Charging should be done after every discharge and the battery should be maintained in charged condition by keeping it connected to the charger in float mode. The charging duration referred to above relates to an ambient temperature of 270C. Batteries located in areas having very low ambient temperatures (below 150C) will require the charging time recommended above to be doubled in order to fully charge the battery. PRECAUTIONS:

Use only constant potential charging. Voltage to be set exactly to the value specified. Ensure tight connections.

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2.11

PROCEDURE FOR KEEPING THE BATTERIES IN UNUSED CONDITION:

Sometimes the batteries have to be laid up for an indefinite period. If left without attention for more than 2 months, it will deteriorate and a period of 6 months of no attention will definitely ruin it. Periodic freshening charge is to be given for the batteries in such situation. Periodic freshening charge means giving a freshening charge at the rate of 7 amp. for 100 AH battery. 3.5 amps for a 75 AH battery and proportionate rate for other sizes. This should be followed by further charges at regular intervals of 4 to 6 weeks and a final one just before recommissioning. The battery should be kept in a cool dry place.

Wash out and fill in with pure distilled water and commence charging at the freshening rate mentioned above. Observe the specific gravity reading and stop charging when there is no rise in specific gravity for 3 consecutive hours taken during a period of 3 hours. Pour out the electrolyte and repeat operation till there is no change in Sp.Gr. Finally pour distilled water, tighten vent plugs and store away. For re-commissioning, the distilled water is first poured out, cell is filled with electrolyte and recharged.

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Chapter 3 BATTERY CHARGERS


The battery chargers include the following types of Power Supplies:

3.1

CLASSIFICATIOIN OF POWER SUPPLIES: Based on the regulation concept

power supplies are classified as under, Power supplies

Linear (Dissipative)

Switch Mode (Non-dissipative)

Series

Shunt Square wave Sine wave

3.2.

Linear Power supplies: These include a Mains transformer, rectifier, filter and

regulator (series or shunt type). In this the active device that provides regulation is always operated in the active or linear region of its characteristics. Any change in the output voltage due to change in input voltage or load current results in a change in the drop across the regulator transistor( in case of series regulator) or a change in the current through the regulator transistor ( in case of shunt regulator) so as to maintain a constant output voltage across the load.

3.3.

Switch Mode Power supplies: In a Switch mode power supply, the active device

that provides regulation is always operate in a Switched mode, ie. It is operated either in cut-off or in saturation.

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Comparison between Linear & SMPS

S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6

Feature Efficiency Temperature rise Ripple volts Line regulation Load regulation Operating Frequency

Linear type 25-50 50 to 10 C Even 5mV possible Good (0.02-0.05) Good (0.02-0.1) Line frequency-50Hz

switching type 70-90 20 to 40C Higher 25 to 50mV Very good(0.050.1) Very good (0.05-0.1) High switching Frequency 10KHz-100KHz between

7 8

Overall regulation Isolation from mains.

Even 0.1 is is possible

0.3 is common

Not as good, noise passes Quite good. through mains leads.

R F interference

None

Can be probleum unless properly shielded

10 11 12 13

Magnetic material Weight Volume of unit Cost

Uses stalloy or CRGO core 20-30 watts/Kg Bigger Low

Uses ferrite core About 60 watts/Kg Smaller Higher

3.4

BATTERY CHARGERS: A system in which D.C. voltage is dropped to the required

value or AC is converted to the required D.C. value to charge the secondary battery is called a Battery Charger System.

The basic parts which are commonly needed to charge batteries:

a. Converter Unit which converts AC to DC or DC at higher voltage to the required voltage of the equipment. b. Smoothing Filter c. Regulating devices to maintain constant voltage under varying loads. d. Automatic Control devices, where automatic working is desired.

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3.5

Simple Battery charger:

Fig. 3.1 illustrates the arrangement often adopted for battery charging at a controlled rate. The transformer is chosen with an RMS voltage and current capacity equal to the nominal battery voltage, and the maximum desired charging rate respectively. RV is the variable resistance by which the maximum desired charging current can be adjusted.

The charger output voltage can be adjusted by choosing proper tapings of Secondary on transformer TX. RI is the full wave bridge rectifier for converting AC to DC. The output from rectifier consists of voltages with harmonic content beside the fundamental ripple frequency. This produces 'Noise' which depends upon:

Fig. 3.1 Simple Battery Charger

a) Amplitude and frequency of the AC b) Internal impedance of the source c) Impedance of the battery circuit

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d) Impedance of load.

Fig. 3.2 Noise Weighing Curve

The last one is ignored, since it is very much greater than (c). In static metal rectifiers the ripple frequency is 100Hz for single phase full wave and 300 Hz for 3 Phase full wave. The maximum ripple voltage depends upon the frequency of the ripple. The level is taken as 2 mv at 800 Hz and since the response of ear varies for different frequencies, ITU has produced as weighting curve which is shown in the figure 3.2. This curve enables noise voltage at different

frequencies to be stated in terms of standard 800 Hz frequency by weighting factor 2 mv at 800 Hz approx. 4 mv at 600 Hz and approx. 1.02 mv at 1000 Hz.

The smoothing filter is indicated by L1C1, L2C2 in Fig. 3.3. C1 and C2 are electrolytic condensers the capacity of which may vary from 100 mfd to 3000 mfd. Each stage may be considered as a potential divider for the next stage.

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Fig. 3.3 Smoothing Filter

The noise in DC also to some extent depends on the electrical characteristics of smoothing filter.

The charging current is determined by the excess of the DC output of the rectifier over the voltage of the battery. The DC output voltage will change according to the AC mains voltage fluctuations, but since the internal resistance of the battery is low, the "excess voltage" variations will cause charging current to change by large values. A change by 2% of the mains voltage doubles the charging current.

Additional impedance is, therefore, introduced to reduce the change in the charging current, this impedance is known as 'Ballast'. RB is the ballast resistance as shown in Fig. 3.1 Ballast impedance can be either resistive or choke ballast. In the first case the RMS current is reduced to 1.4 times the mean output current. In the second case, the RMS current is 1.3 times the mean value of the output current. It has all other advantages of resistance ballast. An additional advantage is the elimination of loss in the ballast resistance. Figs. 3.4, 3.5, 3.6 indicate the DC output for battery load without ballast, with resistive ballast and with choke ballast respectively.

and (V) are ammeter and voltmeter respectively for measurement of current and voltage.

A provision also shown to choose quick charge or trickle charge with switch and R1 resistance.

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Fig. 3.4 Battery Load without Ballast Resistance Fig. 3.5 Battery Load with Resistive Ballast

Full wave rectifier R2 is also shown connected to the Secondary of transformer Tx for 12V AC output. The output from R2 operates Relay WR, when power fails WR de-energises, cutting of R2 contact and the circuit to battery is disconnected. This is to prevent the reversal of current from battery to main in the event of power failure.

Fig. 3.6 Battery Load with choke Ballast

3.6

Double Circuit battery charger:

(Fig. 3.7) Each circuit is suitable for charging batteries from 6 to 72V at 10 amps. Each circuit is controlled by two switches. A voltage selector switch S1 and S4, a current selector switch marked as S2 and S5. Both the circuits are controlled by mains OFF/L/H switch S3. The
IRISET 54 POWER PLANT PRACTICE

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charger is provided with two ammeters and a mains 'ON' lamp. Two sets of output terminals + and - AND protection fuses are on the reverse. 3.6.1 Working of Charger: Connect lead No: 7 marked Red

to 180 V - for mains voltage upto 190V, to 200 V - for mains voltage 191 to 210 V to 220 V - for mains voltage 211 to 230 V to 240 V - for mains voltage 231 to 250 V.

The output of each circuit is separate and is brought out on independent + and - terminals and can be connected in series (The output is 12 to 144 V at 10 amps) or parallel (The output is 6 to 72 V at 20 amps).

Fig. 3.7 Double Circuit battery charger

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3.6.2

For Single Circuit Operation: Place S3 in 'OFF'. Place S1 or S4 in respective battery

voltage position. Switch 'ON' mains. Put S3 in low and adjust S2 or S5 till desired current is obtained (10 Amp. max). If full charging current is not obtained, place S2 or S5 in position 1, S3 on high and again adjust S2 or S5 for desired current. 3.6.3 For parallel connection: Sequence of operation similar, but switches S1, S4 and S2, S5

to be so adjusted that both the ammeters read the same amount of current. The total current is the sum of the two meter readings. 3.6.4 Precautions:

1) Charging current should not exceed 10 amps for each circuit. 2) Fuses should never be wired with higher gauge of wire. 3) While switching '' always proceed with S3 in lower battery voltage positions i.e., for 24V battery, position should be 12 to 24. 4) After completion of charge the sequence of operation should be as shown. S1 or S4 to position 6 to 12V, S2 or S5 in position S1 and S3 in off. Then only the charging leads must be disconnected.

3.7.

SCR Controlled Battery Charger (Fig.3.8):

This type of Charger uses SCRs to reduce the rate of charge as the battery voltage rises, until the charging current automatically ceases when the battery reaches a pre-determined value. When the battery voltage is low, each half cycle of mains input delivers current from the secondary of the transformer to the battery via the Silicon-controlled rectifier, SCR1 because this SCR is turned 'ON' at its gate via R1 and the Diode D3. As charging proceeds, the battery voltage rises until the potential at the slider of the potentiometer, RV, exceeds the Zener Voltage of ZD, causing it to conduct. The current through ZD into the gate of the other SCR., SCR2, Switches that one 'ON'. SCR2 does not have to carry heavy charging current, it can, therefore, be a small one with a low current rating. As the battery voltage rises under charge, the point at which the half cycle SCR2 conducts comes earlier and earlier, until eventually it takes place before SCR1 has had a chance to turn 'ON'. With SCR2 conducting, the junction of R1-R2 is only just above ground, so that SCR1 is unable to switch 'ON' and charging ceases. The battery voltage at which this charge limiting occurs is set by RV. If the battery voltage falls, charging will re-start. So making the circuit suitable for these uses where a battery is called upon to provide high rate intermittent, short discharges and is left across the charger continuously.
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BATTERY CHARGERS

Fig. 3.8 SCR Controlled battery charger

3.8.

AUTO/MANUAL BATTTERY CHARGER FOR TELECOM EQUIPMENT

SPECIFICATION NO.IRS.S.86/2000
The schematic circuit diagram Fig.3.9 & Fig.3.10 of battery charger consists of the following parts:

Mains transformer. A half controlled full wave rectifier. An L.C. section filter. Control PCB.

Input supply is connected to the mains transformer TR1 through double pole switch SW1, and surge suppressor(MOVR). The mains transformer steps down the input voltage to the required AC output voltage .The secondary of the transformer is connected to half controlled rectifier(SCR1,SCR2.D1&D2) through Relay RLY1. The relay RLY1 is used to improve working power factor to above 0.7. The output of bridge rectifier is filtered by choke and filter capacitor C1. The filtered D.C. is available at two terminals one for battery and other for load.

The control switch SW2 is used to select Auto/Manual mode of operation. In AUTO MODE mains transformer secondary voltage is fed to thyristor bridge. In MANUAL MODE. The transformer set voltage is fed to manual bridge (D3,D4,D5,D6). The switch SW3 is used to select the output voltage in MANUAL MODE.

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The current sense SH1 is used to sense the total charger output current. SH2 is used to sense the battery current. These current signals are fed to control PCB for current limiting and sense the battery status to operate the charger either in FLOAT MODE or BOOST MODE automatically.

The RLY2 is used for on battery reverse connection protection. In case battery is connected in reverse direction, charger output path is automatically opened to safe guard the charger output rectifier and to avoid excessive current flow through the rectifier. This condition is suitably indicated in the front panel for reverse polarity.

The control transformer TR-2 is used to get low voltage AC for generating DC power supplies for functioning to control circuit.

The control transformer TR-3 is used to get low voltage AC used to indicate AC out of range indication and DC under voltage indication. The above indication appear both AUTO & MANUAL MODE of operation.

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POWER PLANT PRACTICE

Filter Circuit Charger

Control Transformer TR2

Fig.3.9 Block Diagram of Battery Charger


Power Factor Improvement Relay RL1 Bridge Rectifier (Auto) Auto Manual Switch

MAIN PCB 1 Control Transformer TR3

POWER PLANT PRACTICE

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR BATTERY CHARGER

Load Current Sensing Shunt

Battery Current Sensing Shunt

IRISET
Auto Manual Switch Bridge Rectifier (Manual) Auto Manual Switch Main Transformer TR1 Charger Reverse Polarity Protection Relay RL2 Relay RL2 Relay RL2

BATTERY CHARGERS

AC Input Supply

Input Supply ON/OFF

59

L1 T2 T1 P3 3 K1 D1 V BR C1 K2 D2 TR-1 A N4 SH-1 A C SH-2 D B C D N2 SW-2 D3 C SHORT CIRCUIT MANUAL D5 D6 R D4 SCR2 N1 N3 CHOKE R G2 N5 LOAD -N 2 1 C SW-3 SW-2 C G1 RLY-2 PT RLY-1 P1 PT F2 D7

FB1

FB2

SW-2 FB3

AA P NO LOW DC DRY CONTACT RELAY RLY-3 NC

BB CELLS CELLS CELLS

RLY-1

IRISET
COM + BATT. -FB1 FB2 TR-2 54 31 27 29 28 30 14 51 32 TR-3 33 34 62 26 26 3 26 2 4 26 5 26 64 35 36 38 55 39 RLY 3 26 60 RLY2 1 57 46 47 50 K1 G1 K2 G2 59 63 26 48 49 42 41 44 43

L1

L3

F1

L5

BATTERY CHARGERS

MOVR

L2

L4

Fig.3.10

60
A/F

L3

L5

SW-2

IRS. S. 86/2000 PCB - 1

61 37

FB3

DC AC OUT OF UNDER RANGE VOLTAGE

POWER PLANT PRACTICE

BATTERY CHARGERS

3.8.1

DESCRIPTION OF CONTROL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

The control circuit diagram is assembled on PCB1. It is having the following sections,

+/-15V Power supplies: The DC power supply required for the entire circuit is generated by it. This is regulated by IC regulators. ICS REG1 & REG2 operates ICs U2 to U7, operates on Auto Mode. ICS REG3 - Provide +15V DC for ICs U1 & U8, Operates at Manual Mode also.

Pulse generation section: IC4 LM324 Quad operational Amplifier is used for pulse generation.

Cell selector section. Float voltage adjustment& voltage Controller: The 3 pole 3 way switch in the PCB1 is used to select number of cell connection. Preset VR7 is used to adjust the float voltage from 2.0V to 2.3 V /Cell.

Current limits & Automatic change over:

ICU2 and ICU3

are used for current limit and

automatic change over from FLOAT to BOOST and vice-versa.

Output short circuit and DC over voltage protection: ICU5 is used for short circuit and over voltage protection.ICU5 pin 7 will get DC Signal when output DC voltage goes beyond the set value. This signal will stop the pulse generation to switch off the charger.

Reverse polarity protection section: ICU6 is used to Drop the relay RLY2 which opens the +ve connection to the battery from the charger during reverse polarity.

Auto fail indication & Alarm: ICU 6 is used to sense the Auto mode failure. ICU7 is used to get flashing indication and Audio alarm.

AC out of range and DC under voltage indication: ICU1 is used to get AC out of range indication and also Low DC voltage indication and Audio alarm.

Power factor improvement: ICU6 Pin 7 is used for giving Command signal to Relay RLY1 whenever the working PF comes down below the set level.

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3.8.2 CONTROLS:

VR7 - FLOAT VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT VR12 CURRENT CONTROL AT BOOST MODE

TRIPOT ADJUSTMENTS:

VR1 VR2 VR3 VR4 VR5 VR8 VR9

AUTO CHANGE OVER FROM FLOAT TO BOOST BATTERY CURRENT LIMIT ADJUSTMENT AUTO CHANGE OVER FROM BOOST TO FLOAT TOTAL CURRENT LIMIT ADJUSTMENT OVER LOAD INDICATION ADJUSTMENT BOOST VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT FOR N+2 CELLS CELL BOOST VOLTAGE ADJUSTMMENT FOR N+1 CELLS CELL BOOST VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT FOR NCELLS OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION ADJUSTMENT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT ADJUSTMENT

VR10 VR11 VR13 -

3.8.3 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

INPUT SUPPLY:

1. Nominal Voltage 2. Input supply range 3. Input supply frequency 4. Phase OUTPUT PARAMETERS:

: : : :

230V 160 to270V 50Hz +/- 2Hz Single Phase

1. Nominal float voltage 2. Adjustment range 3. Output Voltage Regulation 4. Output ripple 5. Boost mode output voltage 6. Rated current 7. Current Limit adjustment 10to 100

: : : : : : :

2.15 V/Cell 2.0V to 2.3V/Cell +/-2.5%(0.05V/Cell) Less than 5% of the output voltage 2.4V/Cel X Amps Continuously adjustable from

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CHARGER PERFORMANCE: 1. No load current 2. Efficiency at rated input 3. Operating Input Power Factor : : : Less than 10 Not less than 65 Better than 0.7 Less than 50 mA

4. Battery reverse leakage current when Input fails : PROTECTION: 1. Thyristors are protected against accidental over voltage. 2. Charger input provided with MOVR. 3. Protection against accidental failure of regulation. 4. DC Over voltage protection. 5. Output short circuit protection. 6. Battery reverse polarity protection. 7. Soft start feature. CONTROLS: Input double pole ON/OFF rotary switch(SW1) Auto/Manual Selector Switch(SW2) Manual Mode Output voltage selector switch(SW3) Total current/Battery current selector switch(SW4) Alarm reset Switch(SW5)

INDICATIONS: Mains ON Auto Float Mode Auto Boost Mode Manual Mode N Cells N+1 Cells N+2 Cells Over Load Short circuit AC Out of range DC Under voltage Reverse polarity

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METERS:

DC Output Volt meter DC Output Ammeter

FUSES:

AC Input HRC fuse DC Output HRC fuse

SPECIAL FEATURE:

Charger fail condition is indicated with flasher LED and AUDIO ALARM. Automatic change over from float to boost mode and vice versa by sensing battery current. OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS:

Apply 230V Auto the AC Input terminal Switch ON the input ON-OFF switch Illumination of green LED indicates the mains voltage presence

Keep the Auto/Manual selector switch in Auto Mode by opening cover in the front panel The cell selection switch which is mounted in the PCB is to adjust depending upon the NO.of cells connected to the battery Adjust the preset VR7 in the PCB for required DC output voltage in the float mode Connect the battery to the battery terminals Depending upon the condition of the battery, battery charger to select auto float mode or auto boost mode At Auto boost mode adjust the VR12 preset in the PCB to set the battery current to the required value

If the chargers Auto Mode fails, battery charger shows AUTO fail indication with audiable alarm, then change the spare PCB which is mounted inside the charger. Still there is no output in the Battery charger, change mode selector switch SW2 to manual mode and select the output voltage by adjusting manual selector switch SW3.

Equipment ground to be properly earthed.

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3.8.4

Tests and Requirements:

Condition of Tests: Unless otherwise specified, all tests shall be carried out at ambient atmospheric conditions.

Type Tests: The following shall comprise type tests and shall be carried out in the given sequence. a) Visual Inspection b) Insulation Resistance Test c) Applied High Voltage Test d) Induced High Voltage Test e) Temperature Rise Test f) Performance Test g) Test for protective devices h) Climatic Tests.

Only one charger on each type and output rating shall be tested for this purpose. If the charger fails in any of the type tests, the purchaser or his nominee at his discretion, may call for another charger of the same type and output rating and subject it to all tests or to the tests in which failure (s) occurred. No failure shall be permitted in the repeat test(s). 3.8.5 Acceptance Tests: The following shall comprise Acceptance Tests:-

a) Visual Inspection b) Insulation Resistance Test c) Applied High Voltage Test d) Induced High Voltage Test e) Temperature Rise Test f) Performance Test g) Test for protective devices

Visual Inspection, Insulation Resistance Test and Performance Tests shall be carried out on all chargers. The following sampling plan shall be adopted for the remaining tests.

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Table 2

Sl. No 1 2 3

Components

Max.Permissible

Temperature rise

above ambient temp. Transformer Choke Silicon Diodes, Zener diodes Electric junctions (terminals,switches, etc.) 50C 50 or 20C 15 deg. C

Resistors.

50 deg. C

3.8.6

Routine Tests: Following shall constitute routine tests to be and shall be conducted by

Manufacturer on every battery charger and test results will be submitted during the inspection.

a) Visual Inspection b) Insulation Resistance of main transformer c) Insulation resistance of complete charger d) Performance Test.

The performance test may be carried out only at normal input voltage during the routine tests.

a) Visual Inspection: The chargers shall be visually inspected to ensure compliance with the relevant requirements.

b) Insulation Resistance Test: This test shall be carried out. Before the high voltage test After the high voltage test After induced high voltage test (for main transformer only) After the temperature rise test when the charger has attained ambient temperature, and after the climatic tests have been completed.

The measurement shall be made at a potential of not less than 500volts DC. The insulation shall be measured between:-

a) AC line terminals and earth b) DC terminals and earth c) AC terminals and DC terminals.

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Value of the insulation resistance shall not be less than 100 Megohms for the complete battery charger and shall not be less than 1000 Megohms for the main transformer. There shall not be any appreciable change in the measured value of insulation resistance before and after Applied High Voltage Test and after induced High Voltage Test. The insulation resistance will not be less than the limits mentioned above. When measured after the battery charger has attained ambient temperature after completion of Temperature Rise Test. When the test is repeated after the climatic tests, these values shall not be less than 5 Megohms and 500 Megohms respectively.

c) Applied High Voltage Test: The chargers shall withstand for one minute without puncture and arcing. A test voltage of 2000 volts rms applied between:-

a) AC line terminals and earth b) DC line -do-

c) Primary and secondary windings of charger transformer.

The test voltage shall be alternating, of approximately sinusoidal waveform and of any frequency between 50 and 150 Hz. Printed circuit cards shall be removed and all four terminals of rectifier bridge shall be connected together during this test.

d) Induced High Voltage Test: The main transformer of the charger with no load shall be connected to a voltage equal to two times nominal supply voltage, the frequency being equal to two times the rated frequency. The voltage shall be raised from 1/3rd of the maximum value to full value as is consistent with accurate reading of the instrument. Full test voltage shall be maintained for one minute and shall then be rapidly reduced to 1/3rd of the value before being switched off. At the end of the test the transformer shall be tested for the following:a) Insulation Resistance b) No lead current.

The values shall not differ from the specified.

e) Temperature Rise Test - The cold resistance of transformer and choke winding shall be measured after conditioning the charger until three consecutive temperature readings taken at 30 mts interval are constant and the constant temperature shall be taken as reference Temp. T1 The charger shall be connected to the AC supply mains setting the input voltage at 230 + 10%. Set the selector switch to the boost charging position. A resistive load shall be connected such
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that the rated AC current flows through the load and output terminal voltage remains at 2.4 V per cell. The charger shall continue to draw the rated output current till such time the

temperature equilibrium is reached i.e., the temperature variation between 3 successive readings taken at the interval of 30 mts. is less than 10%. Throughout the test, the rated load current shall be maintained. Once the temperature equilibrium has been reached the temperature of the rectifying diodes, resistors, thyristor, zener diodes, electric junction (carrying more than 5 amps current) shall be measured by means of thermometer without disconnecting the load. Then the charger shall be switched off and hot resistance of the windings of main transformer/chokes shall be measured within one minute of switching off. The temperature rise of the winding shall be computed by the following formulae:T

= R1 - R2 (234.8 + T1) - (T2 - T1) R1

T is the temperature rise. R1 is the resistance at the beginning of the test. R2 is the resistance at the end of the test. T1 is the room temperature at the beginning of the test, T2 is the room temperature at the end of the test, During the test, the charger shall be protected from draughts and radiations from warmer objects.

f) Performance Test(Fig.3.11) - The charger shall be tested for its output performance (Watt efficiency, regulation, no-load current, power factor and ripple content by connecting a variable resistive load across the output terminals. The test shall be carried out at AC input voltages of 200 and 230 V at the appropriate tappings. Test connections for watt efficiency, no load

current, regulation and power factor are shown in Figure. For ripple measurement, connections shown as dotted should be used.

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Fig. 3.11 performance Test on Float charger

Note: For chargers of output current higher than 20 amps. use of water load is recommended. The capacity of the water load should be sufficient so that its temperature does not rise more than 350 C above ambient during the test.

i) Float Working - Set the charger to float mode of working by means of the selector switch. Check the working of voltage control switch to ascertain whether variations from 2.0 V/Cell to 2.3V/Cell is possible at rated output current. Then adjust the output voltage at 2.15V/Cell at rated output current and to the nominal input voltage. Vary the resistive load and record readings, without disturbing the voltage control switch setting. Readings shall be taken at:

(a) Nominal input voltage (b) Nominal input voltage plus 10%, (c) Nominal input voltage minus 10% where nominal voltage is 200 or 230V depending upon tapping used.

ii) Boost Working - Set the charger to boost mode of working by means of the selector switch. Vary the resistive load and record the readings, at any random current setting. The output voltage shall be adjusted at:

(a) 2.2 V per cell (b) 2.4 per cell, (c) 1.7 V per cell. (d) The open circuit output voltage shall also be measured.

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iii) Initial Charging mode of working - Set the charger to initial charging mode of working by means of the selector switch. Vary the resistive load and record readings. Readings shall be taken at any random current setting. The output voltage shall be adjusted at :

(a) 2.2 V per cell (b) 2.7 V per cell (c) 1.7 V per cell

The open circuit output voltage shall also be measured.

iv) Automatic mode of working:

Switch on the charger and set the selector switch to 'Automatic' mode of working. Verify that it is in float mode of working using test method. Now connect a load across the 'output' terminals such that it draws 90% of the current selected by current control switch.

Further, connect another load across the 'battery' terminals and increase the current drawn by it gradually. When the current reaches 9 to 11% of the value (selected by current control switch), the charger should change over to boost mode of working. This should also be indicated by the luminous indication on the panel. Check whether charger switches back to float mode when terminal voltage reaches to 2.4 V per cell.

v) The charger may also be tested by actually connecting it to a set of batteries.

g) Test for protective devices:

i) Overload/short circuit - During this all fuses of the charger shall be short circuited. Charger shall be connected to AC input voltage of 230 + 10%, Output terminals shall be short circuited through a suitable arrangement. Steady short circuit current shall be measured. It should not exceed rated current +10%. There shall not be any damage to charger. Working of

overload/short circuit indications/alarms will also be checked.

ii) Reverse battery connection: A fully charged battery shall be connected in reverse polarity to output terminals of charger. There shall be no emission of smoke or undue temperature rise of any component of the charger. checked. Working of corresponding indication/alarm will also be

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h) Climatic Tests:

The climatic tests shall consists of: (i) Dry Heat Test at 500 C as per IS:9000 (Pt.III) (ii) Damp Heat (Cyclic) Test for Variant I for 7 cycles as per IS:9000 (Pt.V)/Sec.2..

The climatic tests shall be carried out by setting the chargers in boost charge mode of operation by means of the selector switch. During the period of exposure in each test the chargers shall be connected to supply mains of nominal input voltage and shall deliver the rated output current at output voltage of 2.4V/Cell to a resistive load.

Immediately after the damp heat test, the insulation resistance of the main transformer shall not go below 100 Megohms and for the complete charger not below 5 Megohms which shall improve to 500 Megohms and 8 Megohms respectively after complete recovery. During the last half an hour of exposure under Dry Heat test, insulation resistance of complete battery charger shall not go below 5 Megohms.

At the end of each test and after recovery, the charger shall not show any sign of apparent deterioration. The no load current shall not vary more than 5% of the initial value before test.

3.9 MODULAR POWER SYSTEM:


3.9.1. ADVANTAGES:

It is having more advantages over linear power supply, as given under under:

1. Efficiency over 90%. 2. Modular construction, so the time to rectify the failure is very much reduced. 3. Due to standby modular arrangement, active load sharing will be there. 4. Smaller in size when compared to linear power supply. 5. Occupies less space and it can be accommodated in the equipment rack itself. 6. Noise is less. 7. Stand alone rack with combined distribution/switching/alarm arrangement for small power requirements. 8. Temperature compensated battery charging. 9. Low voltage battery disconnect.
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10. Additional protection with MCBs on AC as well as DC side for rectifier module. 11. Either Conventional type or VRLA type can be used.

Due to the above advantages we are widely using the SMPS power systems for Telecommunication equipments.

An SMPS power system consists of the following units:

1. Lighting protection unit. 2. AC distribution panel& surge protection module. 3. Monitoring & control module(MCM) with battery reverse protection. 4. Switch Mode Rectifier Modules(SMRs) 5. Wired rack.

3.9.2. NECESSITY OF MODULAR POWER SYSTEM: As we discussed at the beginning of this chapter, we got 2 types of power systems, ie.,

1. Conventional type 2. Modular type

Let us know about them separately,

Conventional power system is a fixed capacity, which can supply current equal to its maximum rating. It cannot carry more than that current. So different loads having different rating requires a separate power system. No conversion is possible. For example 50 Amps rating system can be used to 50Amps load. A 100 Amps load requires a separate system of 100 Amps.

In conventional type power system, say battery charger, there will be a big transformer which step down the line voltage to the required value, a rectifier unit which converts the AC voltage to D.C voltage, and a filter unit which filters the A.C ripple to get a pure D.C. For this Chock & Capacitors are used as filter components. It also contains other components like switches, fuses relays etc. Due to the above components, the size of the unit becomes very big and so it occupies more space. The power wastage also more. If such a system fails, the entire unit to be replaced with similar one, till the faulty one is attended. It requires a stand by one for every type of charger unit. So it consumes more money to have a spare sample for every type of unit. To overcome this problem the modular power system is invented. Let us discuss the same, shown in Fig 3.12 below.
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MODULAR POWER SYSTEM:

Power system controller

User

option

DC Load
Mains

DCDB

AC load
AC Distribution 1.n Rectifiers 1n batteries DC/AC

Invertors

Fig. 3.12 Modular Power System

In modular type, the main part is a number of switch mode rectifiers unit(SMRs)of fixed rating indicated in Amps at nominal DC voltage, connected in a omnibus arrangement to function as a single plant of ultimate capacity depending on the capacity of each SMRs and then total numbers.

These units are available from 12.5 Amps, 25 Amps, 50 Amps with 48V D.C. ratings. The total current of the system is shared equally by all the modules. Generally one extra module will be there as a stand by one to take the load when any of the working modules fails. For example if 100 Amps load current we can have total 5 modules of each 25 Amps are required out of which 1 will be the spare one. In normal condition all the modules shares the total current. When any of them fails the remaining four shares the load current of 100 Amps equally. In a division while indenting the systems for different locations, we can choose the rating of the modules such that it is common for all. So with less number of spare modules we can run all the power systems.

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We can plan with 50 Amps modules also. Since it a modular type the cost of each module is less.

As shown in the diagram, in addition to SMRs, Power system controller, battery sets, DC distribution board , Ac Distribution Board & DC/AC invertors.

AC input to each SMR module is distributed through the distribution panel, having protection devices like fuses and circuit breakers as shown in the block diagram.

As long as input A.C. mains present the SMRs powers the load at the same time keep the batteries in fully charged condition. In the event of A.C mains failure the batteries supply the load current without any break. When A.C. input is restored the rectifiers foes to charge mode, and batteries are charged in boost mode, as well as supply power to the load. After the batteries are fully charged the rectifiers revert back to float mode. All these are done automatically by Power System Controller(PSC).

The power system controller limits the charging current to safe level when VRLA batteries are used. So the batteries are prevented from over heating and subsequent damage.

Reverse polarity protection also given to batteries by micro controller provided in PSC. All alarms and status are indicated by LEDs monitoring & controlling is also done by micro controller in the PSC.

USES: It provides un interrupted D.C to Telecom installations like Telephone Exchanges, Microwave stations, OFC Huts, etc. 3.9.3. INTRODUCTION:

The SMPS 48V 25A is a single-phase, unity power factor power supply with a very wide input voltage range of 150 VAC to 275 VAC and with a useful output power of 1400W at 25A delivered to the load.

Primary application of the rectifiers SMPS 48V 25A are in the supply of Telecom Equipment. The convection cooled unit may be operated up to 60 degree C ambient air temperature.

The rectifier operates from a nominal 230 VAC rms source. The mains frequency may vary from 45Hz to 65 Hz. Total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input current wave form is below 5%.
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The output of the rectifier conforms to the generic requirements of telecommunication power supplies in terms of noise, voltage programmability, as well as over voltage overload and shortcircuit protection. The rectifier SMPS 48V 1400W can be set in the 3 modes auto float, auto charge and manual boost by the power system controller.

3.9.3. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF OPERATION :

The SMPS 48V 25A rectifier is a state-of the art switch-mode power supply. The unit consists of two cascaded power converters performing power factor correction and dc/dc conversion. The power stages are synchronized and working with constant switching frequency of 100 kHz.

The rectified AC mains voltage is processed first in the power factor corrector circuit which is based on a boost topology. The boost converter has the inherent advantage of continuous input current wave form which relaxes the input filter requirements. The performance of the basic boost cell is improved by a proprietary snubber circuit which reduces the switching losses of the power semiconductors due to non-zero switching times. Furthermore the snubber circuit also decreases the electromagnetic interference generated primarily during the turn-off process of the boost diode. The output of the boost converter is a stabilized 400 VDC voltage.

Further conversion of the stabilized high voltage output of the power factor corrector circuit is necessary to generate the isolated low voltage output and to provide the required protection functions for telecommunication application. This tasks are achieved in the dc/dc converter circuit which is based on a full-bridge topology. The full-bridge circuit is operated by phase-shift pulse-width modulation with current-mode control. This control method provides zero voltage switching conditions for all primary side power semiconductors effectively reducing switching losses and electromagnetic interference. An advanced solution reduces the stresses on the output rectifier diodes.

Proper operation of the power converters is managed by individual control circuits and supervised by the housekeeping electronics.

Remote commanding and monitoring of the modules are possible through a power system controller. 3.9.4. BLOCK DIAGRAM:
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This chapter gives more detailed information about the technical merit of the rectifier SMPS 48V 25A based on the functional blocks shown in fig.3.13 below.
AC in DC OUT

10

HOUSE KEEPING PFC CONTROL DC/DC CONTROL SECONDARY CONTROLLER INTERFACE

PE

11

13

14

15

16

Fig.3.13 Block diagram of Rectifier-SMPS Charger INPUT SECTION:

The SMPS 48V 25A rectifier is connected to the mains through its IEC 320 standard mains inlet. The unit shall be supplied from a 230 V AC rms nominal utility grid and it will tolerate voltage and frequency fluctuations allowed by the relevant Indian Standards.

Block 1 of the drawing presented above is the input EMI filter of the rectifier. The fixed frequency, synchronized operation of the different circuits allowed to optimize the filters performance. Instead of the usual multi-stage low-pass filter the rectifier SMPS 48V-25A has only one differential and one common mode filter stage.

Block 2 represents the lunch Current Limited circuit which consists of series combination of surge rated power resistors and fuse. The circuit limits the input current of the rectifier during the initial charging of the energy storage capacitors connected to the output of the boost power factor corrector circuit. In normal operation the current limiting components are by-passed through relay which is controlled by the house keeping electronics.

A general purpose full-wave Bridge Rectifier circuit forms Block3. It is directly mounted on the main heat sink of the unit. POWER FACTOR CORRECTOR:

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The power stage of the Power Factor Corrector in the SMPS 48V 25A unit is a boost converter represented by Block 4. The circuit operates with 100kHz constant frequency in continuous inductor current mode. Because of the relatively high switching frequency a lossless snubber has been added to the basic boost converter to reduce switching losses and semiconductor stresses.

When the boost transistor conducts the energy being stored in the boost inductor increases. During the off-state of the transistor energy is transferred from the inductor to the output capacitor through the boost diode. The inductor current is measured with a sense resistor and it is forced to follow the input voltage wave form. The technical literature refers to this technique as the resistor emulation mode which is the most preferred load by the utility companies.

The output Capacitor of the boost converter is marked by number 5 in the block diagram. This capacitor is used for low-frequency energy storage as well. Due to the nature of AC sources the energy absorbed at the input of the unit varies according to the mains cycle. In order to deliver constant power at the output energy must be stored inside the unit. Therefore high voltage 450V electrolytic capacitors are used at the output of the boost converter to provide cost and volume effective energy storage.

Block 12 is the controller of the Power Factor Corrector. The SMPS 48V 25A uses UC3854B integrated circuit which had been developed to control boost converters in power factor corrector applications. This integrated solution takes care about all sensing, controlling and protection functions which are necessary to achieve proper input current wave form and to stabilize the output voltage of the power factor corrector circuit. The control principle implemented in the UC3854B is average current mode control. DC/DC CONVERTER:

The heart of the SMPS 48V 1400W rectifier is the DC/DC converter shown in Blocks 6-9. Block 6 shows the primary arrangement of the full-bridge power converter employing a safety isolated high-frequency transformer. Because of its important role in providing safety isolation between the input and the output of the module the transformer coupling is emphasized in Block 7. The secondary side of the DC/DC stage provides rectification (Block8) and filtering (Block9) functions which are realized using current-doubler topology. Particularity of the implemented solution is integration of two inductors on a common ferrite core.

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The full-bridge converter takes energy from its input when two diagonally located switches are tuned on at the same time. This energy is transferred to the output through the transformer immediately. The energy will be stored in the output filter inductor showed in Block 9 and transferred to the output capacitor of the DC/DC converter during the passive interval when energy is not absorbed from the source. This sequence can be achieved by different ways depending on the implemented control strategy.

The dc/dc Controller, shown in Block 13, is using the phase-shift pulse width modulation technique which provides loss-less, zero voltage turn-on condition for the primary side semiconductors. Further benefit is the greatly reduced electro magnetic interference generated by the converter. The control principle is peak current mode control.

Like the power stage, the controller circuit of the dc/dc converter is also divided between the primary and the secondary side of the rectifier. Communication between the separated parts are realized using optical isolators marked by number 14.

Major part of the dc/dc controller is referred to as Secondary Controller in Block15. The secondary side controller is responsible for output voltage and current regulation functions. Monitoring and protecting capabilities are established in the secondary side controller as well.

The Interface to the user is provided by Block 16. The rectifier status is displayed with 6 LEDs. Flexible adjustments are made with four potentiometers. Two measurement jacks enable the measurement of the actual output parameters. The system bus is the standardized daisy chain interface between a group of rectifiers SMPS 48V 25A and the power system controller PSC. OUTPUT SECTION:

Block 10 is the physical Output Section of the SMPS 48V 25A unit. It is a shielded, common mode, low-pass filter stage to reduce conducted electromagnetic interferences to the required level.

HOUSEKEEPING:
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The name Housekeeping refers to the auxiliary power supply and to all internal primary side supervisory functions necessary for the operation of the unit. Besides the auxiliary power converter (current-mode controlled fly-back converter), Block 11 also includes the master clock, under-and-over-voltage lock-out and start up sequence generator.

The power system controller can set the rectifier into the 3 mode3s of operation i.e, auto float, auto charge and manual boost. 3.9.5. BATTERIES FOR SMPS:

The following types of batteries can be used : VRLA (Vlave Regulated Lead Acid ) BATTERIES Conventional Lead Acid batteries

Mode

Per cell requirement Conventional VRLA 2.25V 2.30V NA

24 cell requirement Conventional 52.8V 55.2V 64.8V VRLA 54.0V 55.2 NA

Float Charge Boost

2.20V 2.30V 2.70v

Battery Capacity =Discharge current(A) X discharge duration time(Hours)

The discharge duration time varies depending upon the discharge current. The battery capacity also greatly depends upon the discharge current.

Normally batteries are rated at 10 hours rate. It means if any battery capacity is 100 AH, then we can draw 100 Amps current for 10 hours from the battery. But if we draw more current, the battery behaves as if its AH capacity has been reduced and if we draw less current, the battery behaves as if its AH capacity has been increased. However, the relationship is not linear.

3.9.6. DRAFT TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR SMPS POWER PLANT FOR INDIAN RAILWAYS TELECOM EQUIPMENTS: SPECIFICATION NO:RDSO/SPN/TL/23/99.
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GENERAL TECHNICAL REQUIRMENTS:

SMPS is intended to be used in Auto Float-cum-Charger mode as a regulated DC power source.

Power System Configuration:

The configuration of FR/FC modules shall be as under:

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5

Load (Equipment- Battery Bank) 12.5A to 25A 25A to 50A 50A to 100A 100A to 150A 150A to 200A

(n-1)FR/FC Modules (2-1) X12.5A (2-1) X 25A (2-1) X 50A (3-1) X 50 A (4-1) X 50A

Number of FR/FC modules as required for meeting a particular load shall be housed in (n-1) parallel configuration in a single rack where n is the actual required number of FR/FC modules.

3. Rack Configuration:-

Rack is composed of following units accommodated in 19 Sub-racks.

a) Float Rectifier-Cum-Charger (FR/FC) modules. b) Distribution / Switching /Alarm unit .

The number and rating of FR/FC modules shall be provided as per purchasers requirement.

4. Operational Requirements:

A) Efficiency: At nominal input, Out put & full rated load: better than 80% &85% for 1 & 3 B) Power factor: At nominal input, output : 0.95 lag & 0.98 lead C) Operating temperature range (ambient) : 0-55C. D) The Insulation resistance of a fully wired FR/FC when tested with a 500VDC megger shall be as given below:
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i) AC input & earth ii) DC Output & earth iii) AC Input & DC output

Greater than 2 Meg. Ohms Greater than 1 Meg Ohm Greater than 5Meg Ohms.

E) Lightning protection:

The system shall be equipped with class B &C type arrestors having thermal disconnection inside

To avoid fire hazard as per specification No: VDE 0675/IEC 1643. The arrestors should be in the modular form so that they can be replaced easily in the field. The rated voltage of arrestors should be 280V.

5) Electro Magnetic Interference Suppression:

The module shall be designed to minimize the level of electromagnetic interference(EMI). The radiated and conducted noise shall be within the limits as specified in TEC GR No. G/EMI01/01 APR 90. EMI/RFI test shall be conducted on one FR/FC-BC module.

6) Components:

i) The components approved by recognized National/ International Institutions like LCSO are permitted.

ii) Fuses or circuit breakers shall be provided wherever appropriate to protect against failure of control/sensing circuit.

iii) Fuses shall conform to IS specification No.IS:2208.

7) Wiring: The wiring shall be neatly secured in position and adequately supported. All insulated conductors / cables used shall conform to IS 1554.

8) Bus Bars: Bus Bars or High conductivity electrolytic copper strips with purity of 99.90% shall be able to withstand maximum load current. It shall be able to carry current density of 2 Amps/mm square.

9) Earthing: All non current carrying metal parts shall be bonded together and Earthed.
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An earth terminal suitable for taking minimum 4mm dia wire and with suitable marking shall be provided.

10) Name plate: The name plate shall be fixed on each rack/module and contain following information: Specification Number. Type of unit. Manufacturers name and identification. Model No. Unit Serial No. Input voltage and phase. Output voltage and current. Year of manufacture. Suitable for battery capacity.

11) Module Replacement Time & MTBF:

i) Module replacement time: The mean time to replace a faulty rectifier module shall be less than 20 minutes. ii) The MTBF of the system shall not be less than 70,000 hours. iii) The fans provided shall have MTBF better than 70,000 hours at 40C. iv) In case of fan failure, the module shall have automatic protection to switch off with extension of suitable alarm. It shall not cause any fire hazard.

12) Electrical requirements:

i) AC input supply: The power plant using FR/FC modules of 12.5 &25 Amps shall operate from single phase AC input and 50A capacity may operate from 3 phase. a) Single Phase (Nominal 230V):165V to 260V b) Three Phase/4 wire(Nominal 400V): 400+10% /-15%

FLOAT RECTIFIER-CUM-CHARGER MODULES.

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1) The FR/FC modules used shall be such that can be accommodated in a rack in the standardized capacities of 12.5A,25A& 50Amps. 2) The FR/FC modules shall be cooled by natural convection for smaller capacities i.e.12.5A and 25A and natural/forced cooling for 50 Amps. 3) The float voltage of each rectifier module shall be continuously adjustable & pre-settable at any value in the range of 48V to 56V. The prescribed float voltage setting are 52.8V for conventional battery and 54V for VRLA battery respectively. 4) Auto charge voltage: In Auto charge mode FR/FC shall supply battery & equipment current till terminal voltage reaches set value, which is normally 2.3V/cell(55.2V) & shall charge over a constant voltage mode. It shall remain in this mode till a change over to float mode signal is received. 5) The Psophometric Noise (e.m.f weighted at 800Hz): With a battery of approximate capacity connected across the output should be within 2mV. 6) FR/FC modules shall be suitable for operating in parallel with one or more modules of similar type, make and rating, other output conditions remaining within specified limits. 7) Each rectifier module shall be fitted with an internal over-voltage protection circuit. It operates in case D.C voltage exceeds 57V. Restoration of the module shall b e through a reset switch/push button. 8) Visual indications/display such as LEDs, LCDs or a combination of both shall be provided on each FR/FC module to indicate. A) Mains available B) FR/FC on Auto Float C) FR/FC On Auto Charge.

Alarm indications:

A) Rectifier module over voltage, under voltage or output fail B) FR/FC Over Load (Voltage Droop) C) Fan fail (due to any reason) Different Alarms in Alarm unit:

a) Load voltage High(above57V) Low (below 44.4V) b) FR/FC fail. c) Mains out of range. d) System over Load. e) Mains ON/Battery Discharge
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f) Fan fail(in case fan provided at rack level) g) Temp. Compensation fail h) Battery Fail/ isolated. 3.9.7. INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER:

1. The type of battery to be used- VRLA or conventional type Lead -Acid battery. 2. Battery capacity. 3. Total load requirement fore equipment and battery 4. Number of FR/FC modules and current rating of each module. 5. Ultimate capacity of the system. 6.Power plant will work on single phase or three phase. 7. Provision for network monitoring arrangement. 8. Power plant to work as float rectifier-cum-charger(FR/FC) mode or float rectifier-cumcharger-boost charger(FR/FC-BC) mode. 3.9.8. GENERAL TECHNICAL DATA: (SMPS POWER MODULE 12.5A/48V)

Mains input: Voltage Current Frequency Power factor : : : : 320V(150V-275V),1-Phase. 3.4A Sinusoidal at nominal voltage 230V. 48-52 Hz. >Efficiency:>90.

Rectifier output: Switching frequency Charging characteristic Float mode Charge mode : : : : 76KHz. IU IN ACCORDANCE WITH din 41773

54V(adjustable from 46V to 59V). 55.2V(adjustable from 46 to 59V) .

Nominal current in Float & charge mode Battery Over voltage cut-out Load variation Voltage change Setting time Regulation
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12.5A.

24 Pb-cells, rated voltage:48V : Float: 57V, Charge: 57V.

: : : :

90% to 10% & 10% to 90% load Di / dt< 200 micro sec. 5 <5ms. Float/charge : 1.
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Battery Temperature : Environmental: Cooling Operating Temperature Specification Mechanical: Height Width Depth Weight : : : :

3mV/C/Cell.

: : :

Natural cooling. 55C. Meets QM333,B2.

262mm. 106mm(1/4 of19). 252mm. 5.5 Kg.

Chapter 4 Alkaline Cells/Batteries


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4.1

ALKALINE CELLS:

The electrolyte in Alkaline Cells is basically an Alkali namely Potassium Hydroxide which acts as a passage for ions, but has nothing to do with the chemical reactions throughout the charging and discharging. As a consequence, the electrolyte specific gravity remains constant and it cannot be an indication for the state of the charge. The electrolyte resistance remains almost same during discharging. Thus the cell is assured to render a service with the voltage characteristics maintained almost unchanged during its discharging.

The discharged condition of the cell can only be known by Voltage. The end point voltage of an Alkaline Cell is normally 1.0V/Cell. There are mainly two types of Alkaline Cells:-

Jugner - Nickle Cadmium (Ni-Cd) Cells Edison - Nickle Iron (Ni-Fe) Cells (These cells are not as popular as Ni-Cd Cells).

4.2

Nickle-Cadmium Cells:
Nickle Hydroxide " Cadmium " Ni(OH)2 Cd(OH)2 KOH

Positive Material Negative Electrolyte

Potassium Hydroxide Sp.Gr. 1.17 on charge.

Chemical reactions:

2Ni(OH)2 + Cd (OH)2

2 NiO OH + Cd + 2H20

It can be observed from the above equation that electrolyte is not figuring in chemical reactions.

Separator Material - Non-woven synthetic fibre or plastic material or cloth

Container - Steel or stainless steel as the electrolyte used is non-corrosive.

4.2.1 Types of Ni Cd Cells:

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There are basically two types of NiCd Batteries/Cells distinguished by the construction of the electrodes. 4.2.2 Sintered Plate type Pocket Plate type There are two types of Sintered Plate Type of batteries distinguished by shape. Rectangular Vented Type Sealed Cylindrical Type

Sintered Plate Nickel Cadmium Cells (Rectangular Vented):

In case of Sintered plate battery the basic electrode plates are made by sintering process. Plates thus formed would have porosity of almost 80%. Into these pores the active materials are impregnated using different techniques. Plates impregnated with Nickel Hydroxide would become positive plates and those impregnated with Cadmium Hydroxide would become negative plates.

The separator used in the battery is non-woven synthetic material with special proportions. The size of the plate and the number determine the Ah capacity of the cell. To make cell of higher Ah rating the plates have to be bigger which would need bigger sintering furnace.

4.2.3 Pocket Plate Nickel Cadmium Cells (Rectangular Vented):

In the case of Pocket Plate Ni-Cd Cells, the basic active materials, namely chemicals of Nickel and Cadmium are made externally. These powders are then packed into pockets of Nickel plated steel perforated strips. These strips are cut to the required size depending on the width of the plate and the horizontal strips are held together by means of side clips to form the plates of required length. These plates are welded or bonded together as in the case of sintered plate cell to the electrodes. The separator used in this case could be a cloth or plastic material.

Please refer fig.4.1 showing Pocket Plate Ni-Cd Cells

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FIG.4.1. Pocket Plate Ni-Cd Cells 4.2.4 Sealed cylindrical cells:

The sealed cylindrical cells are also sintered plate type cells.

Fig.4.2 Cross sectional view of the sintered plate type Ni-Cd cell

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Electrodes used in these cells are also made in the same way as the electrodes in the rectangular cells except that the electrode is made much thinner to enable a set of positive and negative plates separated by a separator cloth to be wound tightly to go into the nickel plated sealed cylindrical container. The positive electrode is welded to the top lid and negative to the body of the cell with an insulation between them. Finally the cell is crimped at the top to avoid leakage of the electrolyte. 4.2.5 Applications

In all the applications where the cells/batteries could be located outside, the rectangular vented cells could be used with the only constraint that the cells should be mounted only in vertical orientation as otherwise the electrolyte might spill out. On account of the low internal

resistance and also due to the low thickness of the plates of the sintered plate cells compared to pocket plate cells, in all applications which call for high rate of discharge, sintered plate type of batteries are used. Otherwise for general applications any one type could be used.

However, in all cases where the cells are to be mounted horizontally or inside any instrument or gadget into a pre-determined space, the sealed cylindrical cells are used. 4 Ah and 1 Ah NiCd Cells are now being used in place of 6 I Cells in S & T Installations. 4.2.6 Advantages & Disadvantages:

On account of the fact that there is a large pool of electrolyte available and also the plates are not kept very tight, the rectangular cells could withstand much more abuse like accidental shorting, high rate charging or high rate discharging. Further, since the electrolyte could be replaced on evaporation, these cells last longer than Sealed Cells provided they are maintained properly. On account of the fact that the active materials are impregnated into the pores of the plates there is no shedding of the active materials in the case of Sintered plate battery compared to the pocket plate battery. The only disadvantage is that these cells cannot be placed in horizontal orientation.

On the other hand, Sealed Cells are very convenient to use as they do not need maintenance and they could be mounted in any orientation. But on account of a few drops of electrolyte contained in the cell, any evaporation of these few drops due to environmental temperature or short circuiting or over charging makes the cell go dead. For the same reason Sealed Cells are not supposed to be charged at rates higher than C/10, whereas the rectangular cells could be charged at any rate. The most impending factor in the case of Sealed Cells is the high cost,
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more than double that of the Rectangular Cells. It is, therefore, advisable to go for the Rectangular Cells wherever the application does not restrict the orientation and the cells are kept outside the equipment, can be kept vertical, and there is a possibility that exists to arrange for periodical maintenance (once in 3 months).

4.2.7

Use of sealed cylindrical nickel cadmium rechargeable cells in place of 1.5V Dry

Cells in S&T Installations:

Due to the disadvantages the 6-I type dry cells, they are replaced with 4 Ah Ni-Cd sealed cylindrical cells which can be recharged 500 times before they reach their life end or 1 Ah, Ni Cd cells which can be recharged 100 times.

The initial cost of the sealed cylindrical Ni-Cd Cell is very high when compared with a 6-I type dry cell, an additional charger is also needed for recharging of cell which is at an extra cost, the number of Ni-Cd Cells needed are more for the same output when compared to 6-I cells (voltage of Ni-Cd is 1.2V and 6-I is 1.5 V). Yet, the cost of the Ni-Cd Cell works out to be economical in long run, as a result of repeated recharging number of cycles. In addition to this, the discarded Ni-Cd Cell has also return value.

No maintenance is needed by Ni-Cd Cell and could be kept into any instrument/gadget in any orientation. Hence, at locations where maintenance is not possible and applications where the cells are to be kept in orientation other than vertical inside a compartment in a pre-determined space, use of sealed cylindrical cells is recommended.

4.2.8 Rechargeable Sealed Cylindrical Nickel Cadmium Cells:

It features are : 1. The cell has a leak proof casing with no trouble of replenishing electrolyte, i.e., maintenance free. 2. The internal resistance of the Cell being very low, it is fit for high rate of discharging. 3. The cell is hermetically sealed and can be freely mounted in any direction. 4. The cell is mechanically rigid as the container is made of steel. 5. The cell offers a stable performance as a DC Power Source, as voltage fluctuations during most part of its discharge is nominal. 6. The cell withstands repeated cycles of charging and discharging as many times as 500 to 2000. Hence, it is highly economical. 7. The cell comes in a Compact, Light Weight design.
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8. The cell operates over a wide range of temperatures i.e., -20o C to + 55oC. 9. Quick charging facility available. 4.2.9 Critical Characteristics:

Charge:

Nickel Cadmium Sealed, Cylindrical Cells should be charged with constant current (DC). Charging with constant potential is not recommended.

Standard charging for these cells is carried out at 0.1 C ma for15 hours. (where 'C' is the Capacity of the cell in mAh).

Quick charging cells capable of being charged within 7 hours also can be supplied against specific request. Discharge:

The Normal Voltage of Nickel Cadmium Cell is 1.2 V. The main differences existing among these cells are the discharge voltage variable with internal resistance and the discharge holding time. Indicates the typical discharge curves for sealed cylindrical Nickel Cadmium Cells and Dry Cells.

Fig. 4.3 Discharge Characteristics of Dry Cells

Fig. 4.4. Circuit Diagram Ni- Cd and Constant Current Charging.

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The internal resistance makes possible the Sealed Nickel Cadmium Cells to hold the discharge voltage almost unchanged during the cycle of high-rate discharging. The cell voltage slightly goes down immediately after the start of discharging, gets stabilized and declines sharply at the final stage.

4.2.10 Expected Service Life:

The termination of service life for sealed nickel cadmium cells refers to the state at which the discharge capacity of the cell declines to 60% of the rated capacity in due course of service and which cannot be recovered. The service life varies depending on ambient temperature,

charge-discharge pattern and frequency of use. Longer service life can be achieved by careful handling of the cell such as, avoiding overcharging with currents higher than normal and avoiding repeated charging and discharging at an extra low or high temperature.

4.3

Charging Methods:

Generally these cells are to be charged with constant current (DC). A typical circuit diagram of constant current charging is indicated.

Trickle charging is recommended when a fully charged cell is kept idle for long periods in order to keep the cell in full state of charge. This is necessary to make up the losses due to self discharge during storage. This is done by a continuous charge at a very low current.

4.4

Dos & Donts:


1. It is recommended that the battery room be provided separately from the circuits of the equipment. 2. Contact terminals of the battery holder must be made of nickel plated steel or nickel clad copper. 3. The battery room should be located away from heat generating part of equipment. 4. Do not disassemble the cells. The electrolyte will hurt the skin and damage cloths. 5. Handle the cells carefully to avoid short circuiting which may cause burns or fire. 6. Do not throw the cell into a fire. It may sometimes explode. 7. Do not connect different types of cells together and also avoid connecting old and new cells together.

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4.5

Special Information:

Batteries of multiple voltages are available.

Single cells and batteries in rectangular type upto 65 Ah are also available.

4.6

Precautions while Handling:

Charging:

Be careful not to effect reverse charging by accident. Positive output terminal from the DC power supply should be connected to positive terminal of the cell/battery and negative output to the negative terminal.

Avoid parallel connection of cells. Avoid using constant voltage charging of the cells. Do not charge the cell using charge current more than specified. Be sure to conduct charging within a temperature range of 0o to 45o C.

Discharging: Be sure to conduct discharging within -20o C to +55o C. Normal cut off voltage per cell is 1.0V. Avoid discharging below this limit. Repetition of over discharging will result in service life reduction and cause the leakage of electrolyte. Do not discharge the cell with currents more than 3 CmA continuously and more than 5 c ma instantaneously. Storage:

The cells have to be kept in non-corrosive, gas free, dry place preferably within ambient temperature of -20oC to + 55oC It is recommended to discharge the cell before storing for long periods.

RDSO has specified sealed cylindrical Ni-Cd Cells under fixed serial No.IRS:TC 53-1991. Some salient points are as under.

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4.7

General Requirements:

The battery shall consist of sealed cylindrical rechargeable nickel cadmium cells connected in series for use in Rly. Telecom Circuits. These cells do not release gas under the normal charging and temperature conditions specified by the Manufacturer. The cells do not require addition to the electrolyte in use and are designed to operate during their life in their original sealed condition. Rated Capacity: The rated capacity (C/5) in ampere hours is the capacity at the five hour rate of discharge to a final voltage of 1.0V per cell at an ambient temperature of 27O C + 3O C. The A.H. rating of all the single cells to form a battery shall be same and this will determine the AH capacity of the battery.

The individual cell shall have a safety vent to release dangerously high internal pressure. The manufacturer shall provide guarantee that sufficient safety device has been incorporated for venting out the built up pressure of gas in case of reversal of the cell or due to any malfunctioning to avoid danger to the operating personnel.

The battery shall be properly housed in a fibre glass box with terminals brought out. The terminals for external wiring shall be provided with insulating nut.

The batteries shall normally be supplied as a single unit without float charger. If the purchaser specifically requires battery with built-in float charger, it shall be ensured that the battery is housed in the same casing and it shall be detachable to facilitate replacement of the same when required. The battery shall be capable of being stored at any temperature between +70O C to 10O C without any damage and also capable of operating between the temperature range of +55O C to 10O C.

The battery is intended for use for the communication installation by the side of the railway track, and also in the super fast train and, therefore, it shall be capable of withstanding rough use and vibration.

The battery shall be capable of quick-charging also apart from trickle charge and shall be able of being charged from any state of discharge.

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Chapter 5 Converters and Inverters


5.1 NESSICITY OF CONVERS & INVERTERS:

It may not be always possible to obtain from power sources the correct voltages in the required form, for operating communication equipments. In such circumstances, converting equipments become necessary for converting the supply voltage into a form suitable for being fed to the equipment.

As long as the supply source is 'AC' the necessary AC voltages can be obtained by the use of step down or step up transformers. DC voltages can be conveniently obtained by means of a transformer and a rectifier. But where only a low voltage DC supply is available and higher AC voltages needed DC to AC inverters are to be used. When a higher DC voltage is needed, "DC - DC converters" must be used.

5.2

PRINCIPLE OF CONVERTERS:

The principle of DC to DC converters (Fig.5.1.) is fairly simple. It is a device, which normally steps up a low DC input to a high DC output. It is only an inverter with a rectifier and filter. Figure shows how it works. It takes the output from the low voltage DC supply A and switches it ON and OFF continuously at an audio frequency in a switching circuit 'B' to give an ac voltage fed into the step up transformer 'C'. The high voltage output from 'C' is fed into a rectifier and smoothing circuit 'D' from, which emerges a final high voltage DC. The wave shapes of the ac voltages are illustrated as square waves, which is the commonest waveform and ac sinusoidal waveform can be derived from it. Although the illustration shows a step-up from a low to a high voltage, a step-down transformer can also be used to give an output lower than the input.

Fig. 5.1 DC to DC Conversion Principle

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Solid State Converters are built with transistors or SCRs. For low power upto 100W DC, transistors are normally used. Above 100W, SCRs take over from transistors. The chopping frequency at which DC is converted to AC is usually between 50 Hz to 20 KHz. In practice converters are used most commonly to step up from standard 6,12 & 24V lead acid storage batteries. Sometimes DC-DC converters are used even where a mains supply is available. A DC-DC converter powered from a low voltage, mains driven DC supply usually works in such a way that if the high voltage DC output is overloaded the converter ceases to change the "input DC into AC". This is because of safety reasons it is desirable to have the in-built safety feature of a supply that cannot accidentally supply high current at high voltage. Most converters give an unregulated output which requires stabilization. Let us now examine the different types of practical converter circuits having regard to the problems of starting oscillations, suppressing high voltage transients and regulating the output voltages.

5.3

Two Transistors, one Transformer DC-DC Converter:

This is the commonest circuit used in most of the commercial DC-DC converters. This selfoscillating, push-pull circuit uses two power transistors in a symmetrical square wave oscillator. The operation of the circuit depends mainly on the square loop pattern of the BH curve of the transformer and switching properties of the transistors. The transistors TX1 & TX2 play the part of the switches and are constrained by transformer-coupled feedback to be alternately ON and OFF, so as to connect the unidirectional input voltages alternately to the separate halves of the primary windings of the output transformer T. This produces an alternating square wave output across the secondary of the transformer. The circuit is shown in Fig.5.2

Fig.5.2. Two Transistor, One transformer DC-DC Convertor

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Initially, when the input DC supply is switched 'ON', one of the transistors in the converter circuit conducts more rapidly than the other, because no two transistors can be perfectly matched, suppose that TX1 is switched ON first with the collector current of TX1being slightly greater than that of TX2. The magnetized state of the core at this instant is also shown in the Fig. The flux now changes towards positive saturation point, inducing voltages in windings a-b and f-g with points 'a' and 'f' being positive. This will cause TX2 to 'turn off' quickly. In windings c-d, d-e, points 'c' of c-d and 'd' of d-e will be positive. The flux will now saturate at point 2, current will increase further saturating the core deeply. The induced voltages in windings a-b and f-g will drop. The core saturation reduces to the rampant value and an induced voltage of opposite polarity is induced due to the decreasing flux. TX2, which was off, now turns 'ON' and TX1 turns OFF. The current flowing in alternate directions in windings c-d and d-e produces an ac voltage across the secondary. The output is a square wave, which is rectified by a conventional rectifier and capacitor to provide the required output DC.

5.4

Two Transistors, two Transformers DC-DC Converter:

With only one transformer to carry out both feedback and power output for efficient operation the transformers must use square loop core material (Nickel-iron or ferrite) instead of the normal silicon-iron laminations as widely used in mains transformers.

For low power converters, the single transformer design is widely used, but for higher power above 100W, the cost of a large square loop core transformer can become prohibitive in relation to the rest of the components. Thus in high power converters two transformers are being used. One, with the square loop core (relatively expensive) which can be small and has to handle only the feed back switching drive while the other is to transfer power to the rectifying smoothing circuits and the load, and must be large compared to the power to be handled. The latter can be made up with low-cost silicon iron laminations with an oscillation frequency ranging from 50 to 500 Hz. For higher frequencies such as, between 500-5000 Hz transformer losses become significant and special low loss silicon-iron materials may have to be used. For still higher audio frequencies (500 Hz to20 KHz) one has to go in for more expensive ferrites because of high losses in low-cost silicon-iron laminations. 5.4.1 The Principle Of Operation (Fig.5.3):

Initially when the input supply is switched on, one of the transistors in the converter circuit conducts more rapidly than the other. Suppose Q2 conducts earlier than Q1 - It tends towards saturation and takes the lower end of the primary of 'T2' down to zero volts. The top dot
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indicated end of the 'T2' primary goes positive by an equal amount above the positive power voltage (to which the center tap is connected). This carries the bottom dot, indicated end of the primary of T1 also positive and switches Q2 ON and Q1 OFF.

Fig. 5.3. Two Transistors, Two Transformers DC DC Converter

The magnetizing current of T1 builds up linearly until the core saturates. When T1 reaches its saturation, flux density, the magnetizing current increases very rapidly and the secondary voltage collapses and cannot hold Q2 saturated. The collector voltage of Q2 rises and

regenerative action causes Q1 and Q2 to reverse states. As these processes repeat during each half cycles, oscillations are sustained. The frequency of oscillation depends on the following:

No. of turns of the primary windings of T1 Core Cross Section and Core material characteristics in T1 Value of RF (Resistor Feed Back) and RB (Resistor bias)

5.5

SCR DC-DC Converters:

Fig.5.4. SCR DC-DC Converter

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This type of converters are mostly used at high power and high input voltages. The Fig.5.4. illustrates the basic operation. This converter consists of two basic units, the power switching section and a low power oscillator necessary for periodic triggering of the switching section. It is assumed that a separate oscillator is available to apply current pulses alternately through the gates G1 and G2 of SCR to turn them on. When turned on, they effectively present short circuit between anode (A1 or A2) and cathode (K1 or K2). The switching of SCRs takes place as follows. Let SCR1 be switched on. The voltage across it falls to a low value and a current accompanied by a corresponding magnetic flux will rise in the upper half of the transformer primary. Since this flux is common to both halves of the winding, a voltage of the same value as that of the supply will be induced in the lower half. Hence, the total voltage across the "commutating capacitance C" will be approximately 2 Vin, with the left hand terminal negative. On the next half cycle, when SCR2 is triggered on, the capacitor applies a voltage of -2 Vin to the anode A1 of SCR1. Provided this reverse voltage is applied for sufficiently long, it will revert to the Off (blocking) condition and with SCR2 now conducting, a voltage of 2 Vin will again appear across the transformer and commutating capacitor but with polarities reversed. At the next trigger pulse SCR1 will be turned on and SCR2 off. Thus, if trigger pulses are periodically and alternately applied to the gates of the SCRs an approximately rectangular AC voltage will appear at the transformer secondary.

The function of the choke L is to limit the current flow during the commutation process i.e., while both SCRs may be conducting. It also tends to limit the rate at which C discharges and so hold the SCR reverse-biased until it recovers to the blocking state. If SCR2 has just been triggered ON, the discharge path for C is through it, the DC supply, the choke L and the upper half of the transformer winding. As the secondary loading is increased, the effective impedance of the transformer primary decreases and this allows 'C' to discharge more rapidly. Hence, if the DC output current is progressively increased, a condition will be reached at which C will discharge too rapidly to allow SCR1 to recover the blocking state. together, leading to a short circuit on the supply. Thus both SCRs will remain on

Unless special protective circuits are

incorporated the SCRs may be destroyed. In this type of converter, as the output current taken from it decreases, the output voltage tends to rise rapidly. This does not matter where a fairly constant load is taken, but, on light or no load operation, the D1-R1 and D2-R2 networks must be fitted to hold down the output voltage on low current loads. For rapid switching and a good square wave output shape, 'C' should be small, whereas it must be large enough to produce regular switching at the heaviest load current.

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A formula for minimum value of C is given as: C =1.44n2 Toff

Where R

T off = Turn off time of the SCRs n = Ns/Np R = Load resistance seen by the output of the transformer.

5.6

Some Special Features Of DC-DC Converter Circuits:

(a) The process of starting oscillations:

Most converter circuits are intrinsically self-starting for light loading, but with higher output current, starting becomes difficult. The starting is generally achieved by one of the following arrangements:

Placing a large initial forward bias on the transistor. Applying an initial heavy asymmetrical pulse to the circuit. Reducing the initial load by a series choke or by a feedback circuit.

The various starting circuits have been illustrated in the Figures 5.5. The use of the large initial forward bias will be found in figure a,c,d,e,g and h. The use of heavy asymmetrical pulse can be seen in Fig. (b). Whereas Fig. (i) illustrates the use of a saturable core choke in series with the transformer output load to present a high impedance load to the converter circuit until the output current builds up. Finally Fig. (f) shows the use of feedback from the DC output rail to ensure forward-bias on the converter switching transistor until the appearance of DC on the output rail switches of the feedback transistor Q1 and provides AC short circuit to the base series resistor R10.

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Fig. 5.5. DC-DC Convertor Starting Circuit.

(b) Transient spike suppression circuit:

High voltage transient spikes are very prone to appear at various points in the converter circuits. Quite apart from the spikes coming on the input supply, the rapid switching ON and OFF of the transistor or SCRs with large inductances in the circuits can lead to very high voltage spikes, which can be a major cause of semi-conductor device failure. Ringing choke
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circuits appear more prone to spikes than push-pull circuits. The major sources of voltage spikes is leakage inductance in the transformer, particularly in self-oscillating square loop cores. Careful transformer design with the use of bi-filter winding techniques and low interwinding capacitance design is called for, and the following de-spiking circuits may be used to protect the semiconductor devices.

Clipping diodes from collector to emitter Capacitors from collector to emitter Series capacitor-resistors across total feedback winding Collector to Collector capacitor and Series capacitor-resistors across transformer secondary.

Fig. 5.6. Transient Spike Suppression Circuits

(c)

Regulating the output voltage of the DC-DC converters:-

In the converters the output voltage is directly proportional to the input voltage so that the line regulation is poor. In addition, ringing choke converters etc., works on constant output power basis so that output voltage for these will vary with change in load currents also. Very often, therefore, some form of stabilizing circuitry is needed to keep the output voltage constant. The

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circuits used in DC-DC converters to regulate the output voltage fall into three types as illustrated in fig.5.7.o to q.

In Fig (o) output from the converter is sampled and the sample is used to control a DC regulator on the input supply to bring it to the appropriate voltage level to keep the final output constant. In Fig.(p) the output is again sampled, but the sample voltage is used to control directly the operation of the converter to give the desired output voltage.

Finally, in Fig (q) a conventional voltage regulator is used in the output rail after the converter to regulate the output voltage.

Fig. 5.7. Circuits for Regulating the output voltage of converters

RDSO has specified various performance requirements and Type Tests of DC-DC Converters as per RDSO Specification No.123/1991.

Some salient points are reproduced here.

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5.7

Performance Requirements:

The converter shall operate from nominal input voltages of 120V, 50V, 48V, 24V and with output voltages of 5V, 10V, 12V, 18V and 24V or any other voltage as specified by the purchaser with output current capacities, varying from 1 amp. to 15 amps.

Voltage regulation shall not be worse than + 1% for all output ranges, for input supply variation from -10% to +20% of nominal input voltage indicated in para 1 above.

The output shall be free from over-shoot on account of turn 'ON/turn OFF' or power failure or when the battery charger is switched ON/OFF. It shall work in the temperature range of 00 C to 700 C and relative humidity upto 95%.

The unit shall be provided with over-load protection, output over-voltage protection and output short circuit protection with feed back characteristics. The overload protection shall be effective at 120% of the nominal output rating.

The overall efficiency of the converter shall not be less than 50%.

The switching frequency used shall not be less than 20 KHz. The converter shall employ PWM technique for regulation of DC output.

All components used such as, transistors, diodes, FETS, Integrated circuits etc., shall meet the relevant IS: Specification or JSS specification.

All indications and fuses shall be provided on the front panel.

The noise spikes on the input side shall be attenuated by atleast at 60 db when measured at the output side. For test purposes the noise spikes will be of 10V amplitude, 50 milli seconds pulse width with a repetition rate of 20 Hz.

The equipment shall withstand vibration tests from 10 Hz to 55 Hz, 0.75 mm peak to peak displacement in all three tests for two hours each or at resonant frequency for two hours.

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Additional requirements of DC/DC converters are to be provided for Axle Counter installations, solid state interlocking, Data logger and other similar equipment involving TTL IC's, Linear IC's, Microprocessors, CMOS devices, etc.

It shall be capable of operating from nominal input of 12 V battery on float/boost charger.

Outputs of +10 V & +5 V shall be with common ground and 10V with separate ground.

Voltage regulation shall be 0.1% or less for the common ground outputs and +0.7 V for the independent ground output.

Crowbar protection with independent comparison and firing circuits for 5 V supply to act within 20 micro seconds at 6.3 V + 0.2 V.

Ripple and noise in the output shall be less than 40 mV peak to peak with normal ground connection.

The outputs, where current required is of the order of 1 Amp. or less shall make use of convertor IC chips. In order to increase the reliability of convertor, series-parallel combination of such IC's shall be used.

5.8

Type Tests - The following shall constitute type tests and shall be carried

out in the given sequence: Visual inspection Applied high voltage test Insulation resistance test Test for continuous operation Performance Test Test for protective devices Overload and in rush current test Climatic Tests

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5.9

DC to AC Inverter:

Fig. 5.8. DC to AC Inverter

Inverter is a device by means of which high AC can be obtained from very low DC voltage. The circuit shown in Figure 5.8. is an unusual inverter circuit which can produce 120V AC from 2V DC input, provided the 2V DC source has a current capacity of 25 to 50 amps.

Operation: Assume that Q1 begins to conduct, which increases the voltage drop across the primary of the transformer. This increasing voltage is coupled to the feed back winding, and a ve voltage is applied to the base of Q2 causing it to increase its conduction. Q1 causes the transformer to go into saturation, and the voltage across the primary collapses, causing a change in polarity which is coupled to the feedback winding. This applies a reverse bias to Q1 and a forward bias to Q2, so that there is a reverse operation, with increasing conduction through Q2. Bias current is applied across R1. This circuit operates best with a DC input of 3V or less.

5.10. 500-Watt MOSFET based PWM Inverter:


This circuit (Fig.5.9.) is a 500 Watts domestic type which produces 500 Watts output at 50Hz pulse width modulated square wave with EMI filter at the output. The main features are summarized below can well under stood by referring the line cum block diagram as shown below.

Automatic changeover occurs from mains to inverter operation on mains failure.

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A single transformer is used to cater for inverter output and battery charger. The charger portion of the secondary winding is disconnected from the charger in case of mains failure and also when the battery tends to reach the over-charged condition.

Pulse width modulation (PWM), using a popular low priced IC SG3526A, is employed. The error voltage is developed from the AC output when inverter is in operation.

Automatic shut-off of the inverter occurs when any(one or more) conditions are present:

Mains supply is available. Battery voltage is below minimum level. Temperature exceeds specified limit, An overload occurs. Manual shout-off switch is operated.

Apart from the built-in electronic safe guards additional safe guards by way of MCCBs (modulated case circuit breakers) have been provided in AC output, battery charger input and battery output to avoid any unto ward damage due to shortages.

LED indications are included to indicate the following:

Whether mains is available or inverter is ON. Overload condition. Over temperature condition. Battery voltage level including low and over charged condition. Battery charging in normal and trickle charged modes.

In addition to LED indications an audio warning is included for low battery, overload and over temperature conditions. An audio defeat switch is provided to switch off the audio w2orning, if required.

The 24V battery comprises two 12Volts batteries connected in series. The +24V and +12V supplies required for the operation of electronic circuitry (other than the output stage) are tapped from the batteries via.IN4007 diodes. Other voltages used in the circuit are delivered from +24V and +12V supplies. The +24V supply from battery to the output amplifier circuit is routed via a 32 ampere circuit breaker.

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TO AMP CB2 (50 Hz) G1 INVERTER OUTPUT AMPLIFIER 220 V RMS FILTER N CB 1; 6 AMP CHARGER ON N/C 34 V FULLY CHARGED CT X2 N TO LOAD EMI/RFI (MOSFET) BASED) (50 Hz) 4 Mfd 440 V AC AC OUTPUT L X L G2 RECTIFIER/ AUTO CHARGER N/O N/C + 24V N/O OVER LOAD CB 3 32 AMP RL 1 (b) + 12V N/O N/C + 24V RL 1 24 V, 200 Ohm (2 C/O) + 24V MAINS ON/OFF SWITCH RL 1 (a) L L TEMP. SENSOR X3
OVER CHARGE

FET

DC VOLTAGE REGULATORS

DRIVER

SG 3525A VOLTAGE-MODE PWM CONTROLLER

PWM COMP. CURRENT SAMPLING CIRCUIT + 24V

OSCILLATOR (100 Hz)

ERR AMP

SHUT OFF

INPUT

INVERTER SHUT OFF (MANUAL)

Fig.5.9. Line and block diagram of 500Watts inverter

108
RL2 24 V, 200 Ohm
BATTERY SAMPLING CIRCUIT
LOW BATTERY CHARGER

TO OTHER CIRCUITS

+ 5V

N N INVERTER SAMPLING CIRCUIT


INVERTER ON

TEMPERATURE SAMPLING CIRCUIT


OVER TEMP.

MAINS SAMPLING CIRCUIT

FROM 3 PIN PLUG-SWITCH COMBINATION (ON WALL)

OVER LOAD BATT. LOW OVER TEMP. OVER TEMP. ERROR MAINS ON
MAIN ON

BATT. LOW

OVER TEMP.

MAINS ON

BUZZER CIRCUIT 10 K 10 K

10 K

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+ 5V AUDIO DEFEAT SWITCH

DC VOLTAGE REGULATORS

Brief description of the circuits within each block in FIG. is as follows: 1. Inverter control and amplifier circuit: It includes an PWM Controller IC3525A with an operating range from 8V to 35V. It is having a built in Oscillator operating at 100Hz output of which is connected to the FET driver amplifier through PWM comparator. The IC produces Two 50HZ outputs which can drive the MOSFET power amplifier gates.

The error amplifier output is controlled by the error voltage from the inverter sampling circuit to obtain approximately 48% pulse width when the output is around the nominal voltage230V RMS at nominal load of 500 Watts. The reference input level could be selected any where near 2.5 Volts. 2. Power amplifier section: The power amplifier section has two sets of three power MOSFTs (IRF540) connected in parallel for push pull operation. IRF 540 is rated for Vds =150 volts and drain current of 28 Amps. The output of the power amplifier is connected to the input of the primary of Output and charging transformer. On the output of the transformer a capacitor of 4uF 440 Volts AC is connected smoothen out the sharp edges of the square wave output to an extent. 3. Other sections:

a) Mains Sampling circuit: The mains supply is the input to the circuit by which Relay RL1 is operated and the mains supply is connected to the output load as well as the secondary side of transformer X1. The battery charger circuit is operated by which the battery is gets charged.

When mains supply is OFF, the relay is energized state. The voltage across the Zener diode D3 also drops to zero, inverter will be switched On, DUE TO ABSENCE OF SHUT OFF SIGNAL.

Error sampling circuit: It supplies the error voltage to the error amplifier, when the inverter is ON, due to mains supply is absent or low.

b) Current sampling circuit: It produces a 5V AC output when overload occurs. The output of A1 goes high, 5V is applied to N1 and causes shut down of the inverter and sounding of the buzzer until the overload condition ends.

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Temperature monitor circuit: The temperature in the vicinity of the inverter power amplifier stage is sensed by the sensing device, and applies corresponding voltage to the non- inverting terminal of comparator A3. Reference voltage generated is applied to the inverting terminal. Thus when the temperature exceeds a pre determined value the output of comparator goes high. As a result the LED 4 will glow and the inverter is shut off and gives buzzer until overtemperature condition is eliminated. Battery monitor circuit: Here bar/dot display IC LM3914 (IC4) is used in dot mode to display the battery voltage and also to operate the circuit for low and overcharged condition of battery voltage.

Inverter shut off and buzzer circuits: Whenever the logic 1 is applied to the either of gate N1 input pins, the output goes low and thus the inverter is shut OFF, and lights up the corresponding LED to glow for indication.

When switch S1 is depressed applies logic1 input to pin 2 of gate N1 via diode D3 to switch OFF the inverter manually.

Battery charger circuit: When mains supply is available and battery is not over charged, relay RL1 is in energized state. Under these conditions the LED15 indicates the charger ON condition. Once the battery reaches the fully charged state it is kept under trickle charge mode automatically and the LED16 will be go on blinking and LED 15 is on as long as charger transformer is connected to the charger.

5.10.1 PRECAUTIONS AND HINTS:

Take normal precautions for handling CMOS devices in respect of MOSFETs.

Use heavy duty terminals and high current carrying capacity leads for battery.

Do not connect the PWM controller output to MOSFET gates without ensuring the frequency to be 50Hz and duty cycle not exceeding 50%.

Mount alls ICs on IC sockets for their easy replacement.

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CHAPTER 6 VOLTAGE STABILIZATION


6.1 NECESSICITY OF VOLTAGE STABILIZATION:

In most of the S & T installations, the power supply will have to be maintained reasonably constant. No additional equipment for stabilization of voltage will be necessary, provided

supply voltage remains practically constant in the face of varying loads. Unfortunately this is not always the case and becomes necessary to incorporate voltage stabilization devices as an integral part of the power plant, supplying the necessary voltages to the S&T Installations.

6.2

REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINS VOLAGE STABILIZER:

There are four main requirements for a mains voltage stabilizer. The first of these is the accuracy of stabilizing action. The requirement for this can be within + 0.05% + 2%, but stabilization to better than + 0.5% can be considered as very good. As an illustration of the meaning of this requirement, if the required mains voltage is 200V to within +1%, the stabilized voltage can be allowed to drift between 198V and 202V without any action being performed by the stabilizer. As soon as the voltage drops down to say 197.5V, the stabilizer will act to raise the voltage until the level is closed to 200V.

The second requirement for a stabilizing system is the speed of response, which is defined as the accuracy of the system divided by the time taken to reset the voltage for a change to bring back the accuracy (the regulating time), i.e., in the last example the time taken to reset upwards from 198V or downwards from 202V. For instance, if this resetting time is 1 sec, the speed of response would be 1% per sec. The majority of a.c. voltage stabilizers do not act fast enough to deal with sudden mains voltage changes such as those produced by switching electrical apparatus.

It is important to realize that both these factors (speed of response and accuracy) are in practice interdependent. If, for instance, the voltage limits are set closer, say to within + 1V, with the same speed of response, the regulating time would be only 0.5 sec. Increasing the

accuracy in stabilizing systems generally necessitates a slower response speed. Otherwise, overshooting and hunting effects will be unavoidable. Response speeds can be up to 5 per sec. in motor driven systems (1/5 sec. for 1% change), but magnetic reactor stabilizer offer much higher figures (1/200 sec. for 1% change).

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The third requirement associated with stabilizing systems is the output waveform. In certain applications it is important to have the power supply free from distortions of the original sinusoidal waveform. Unfortunately stabilizing circuits using non-linear elements, as for

example saturated inductances, introduce such distortions. They can be removed by using low pass filters, but this is rather a cumbersome remedy as the mains frequency is comparatively low so that filter elements (condensers, inductances) have to be large and consequently expensive.

The stabilized power needed is the fourth requirement. When these powers are large (say over 0.5 KW), motor driven variable voltage transformers are preferred, as the cost of such regulating equipment rises very slowly with the controlled power, which is not the case for stabilizers with non moving elements.

6.3
6.3.1

Simple Stabilizing Circuits:


BARRETER STABILIZER:

In the case where, a stabilized source is supplying a constant load, a quite simple stabilizing device can be designed as shown in figure 6.1.

The battery B is inserted in series with the primary of the step up Transformer T, and this stabilizes the current drawn from the mains.

With a constant load, the primary and secondary voltages will then be stabilized and any voltage variations will occur across the battery.

Fig. 6.1 Barreter Stabilizer (Constant Load)

This method works quite successfully, provided that the power required is not too large and, as previously stated, that the loading conditions are constant. The primary winding should be
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calculated for the actual battery current, otherwise, it is necessary to shunt the primary by a resistor R to secure a sufficiently high current through the battery. In certain applications such a resistor R can be made variable (possibly in steps) to allow for varying loading conditions. It is obvious that, if the load is taken off, the shunting current in R must be made larger to maintain a constant voltage across the primary, so R has to be set to a higher value.

6.3.2

THERMISTER VOLTAGE STABILIZER:

Voltage stabilization can also be achieved by the use of thermistor which are semiconductor resistors having a negative temperature resistance co-efficient. Figure 6.2(a) shows the use of a thermistor as a non-linear device for stabilizing a low ac voltage. An impedance Z connected across the load, consists of an ordinary resistor R and a thermistor S connected in series.

Fig. 6.2(a) Thermister Stabilizer

In Figure 6.2(b) the voltage/current characteristic of thermistor type stabilizer is shown. The straight line on this graph represents the voltage/current characteristic of the resistor R. The third curve (dotted line) gives the resulting characteristic of the compound impedance Z. It can be seen from the curve that by choosing a suitable value for R, the "dynamic resistance" at a point such as, X on the impedance Z curve can be made very small.

The stabilizing action of the circuit in figure (a) then follows, assuming that for an average mains voltage of say 220V the stabilized output voltage corresponds to the point X on the impedance Z curve. Any tendency of the output voltage to vary is nullified by large current changes in Z due to its low "Dynamic resistance" acting through the resistance in series with the load.The thermistor CZ1 combined with a resistor R of 69 ohms will deliver only 25V stabilized AC. If a normal stabilized A.C. mains supply is required (say 225V), thermistor CZ1 and a 620 Ohms resistor could be connected in series. Stabilizing action of this sort gives good results when only low powers are needed.

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Fig.6.2 (b) Voltage Relationships Thermister Table Stabilizer

6.4.

SATURATED CORE MAINS TRANSFORMER:

Another simple stabilizing system is the saturated core mains transformer. Even with only a small load on the secondary, the magnetic flux reaches saturation when the AC current approaches its maximum and the output waveform is flattened. With increased loads, the waveform approaches to a square wave shape and consequently the output is rich in odd harmonics; though its R.M.S. value remains practically constant. As stated previously, if a better waveform is required, a filter can be provided. Even then, this system has the

disadvantage of the heat development in the saturated transformer, which results in a rather low efficiency, an important factor if large powers are required.

6.5.

COMPLEX STABILIZING SYSTEMS:

It involve those with moving parts are known as static voltage systems of which the constant voltage transformer is an example. A general representation of such a system is given in the block diagram shown in figure 6.3. The output voltage is altered using a variable impedance (inserted in series with the primary of the step up transformer) which is controlled by the error detector output purely by electrical means. The reference level device (voltage or current) is usually fed from the a.c. input. However, this is not essential and in certain cases a dry battery might be employed. Therefore, the connections between the AC input and reference level block are shown by dotted lines.

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As varying an inductance through its degree of saturation is the most efficient way of changing a series impedance, such systems are usually the best. Many circuits of this type have been developed, some of them similar to the previously mentioned simple saturated transformer.

Fig.6.3 General Block diagram of complex stabilizer

6.6.

Basic operation of Constant Voltage Transformer:

A basic static magnetic regulator circuit making use of constant voltage transformer principle.(Fig.6.4a) A compensating winding is placed directly over the primary winding. When E rises, the change in Es can be opposed with a small increment of primary voltage Ec in opposing polarity, derived from compensating winding. Since the primary core leg operates linearly, Ec will change at the same rate as Ep and its magnitude will be determined by the turns ratio. The output voltage will no longer be Es, but will be the difference between Es and Ec . The output voltage will be designated as E out.

Fig. 6.4(a) Basic Static Magnetic Regulator Circuit

The action of compensating winding in improving regulation against line changes is relatively simple. Assume a winding correctly designed for some nominal value of Ep. If Ep increases,
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Es and Ec also increase, Ec, however, increase more rapidly than Es , but is smaller in magnitude. For some range of Ep the increase in Es will be off set by the increase in Ec since these are connected in opposing polarity. For reduction in Ep exactly the opposite takes place and the total change of Eout is minimised. Actually Eout will still not be exactly constant, since Es changes at a rate determined by the slope of the magnetization curve, while Ec changes linearly. This factor limits the range of primary variation which can be compared to hold Eout within specified limits.

Fig. 6.4(b) Secondary Flux Stabilization

6.7. Effects of Load: So far the discussion has shown only that a magnetic device
incorporating a shunt and capacitor could be designed to have a "constant" output voltage. To have practical application, device must also have a load. For convenience only purely resistive lead is considered.

Fig.6.5(a)Effect of Compensating Change of Input Voltage Regulation


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Fig.6.5(b) Output Vector for 30 % change in voltage on full load


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This action is illustrated in Fig. 6.5 (a). In the initial position Es is shown at no load where it is 180 deg. out of phase with Ec, therefore, arithmetically subtracting from it to yield Eout. If Es was not "compensated" by Ec and was to remain constant, it would have to follow the radius labelled "load increasing". It does not, for reasons previously given, but declines as indicated. Since we assumed Ep constant, Ec is also constant. In addition, its phase remains the same as at no load, as with a conventional transformer. As a result, when Es changes its phase with load, Ec no longer subtracts its full value because of the increasing phase angle between Ec & Es. If the relative magnitudes of Ec and Es are correctly chosen, their vector subtraction can maintain Eout essentially constant over some load range. It should be noted that vector

diagram in fig(a) is not to scale, values have been deliberately exaggerated to illustrate the principle involved.

Assume now, that the load is fixed at some value within the compensated range and the line voltage varied. The compensating voltage will again offset the increase or decrease of Es, but the latter change will produce some phase shift.

Fig 6.5 (b) shows the vector relationships for a 30% change in line voltage at full load. This illustration is approximately to scale. (in actual practice Ec and Es are adjusted at full load, and the compensating action of Ec against line change suffers somewhat at very slight loads). The phase shift shown is a result of the charging proportion of primary flux linking the secondary winding. As Ep increases within the desired operating range, the magnetising current and primary flux increase. This increases the primary component of the secondary core leg. Since saturation of this core leg keeps the total flux relatively constant, an increase in the primary component will decrease the secondary component. If primary flux as above is present, Es would be 180 deg out of phase with Ep as in a conventional transformer. Therefore, for a fixed load, an increase in Ep will cause Es (and Eout) to shift counter-clockwise as shown.

Referring to figure the ideal voltage stabilizing action of a static-magnetic regulator or constant voltage transformer can be summarized as follows :-

As the primary voltage increases form Ep1 to Ep2, secondary voltage Es moves from position ES1 to ES2 and increases the magnitude slightly. The increase is off set by the increase in Ec , which maintains a constant phase position. The resultant voltage, Eout remains constant in magnitude.

The above types of stabilizers have the following advantages over electronic type stabilizers or stabilizers which depend solely upon saturation of core materials for their regulating action.

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Ultra - fast regulating action. Response time is usually 1.5 seconds or less.

Absence of moving or renewable parts or manual adjustments eliminates the need for routine maintenance and spare parts.

No manual adjustments are required.

Self protecting against short circuits on output or load circuit.

Current limiting characteristic protects load equipment from fault currents.

Availability of transformer ratio for step-up, step-down. Plate and/or filament supply permits substitution in place of conventional, non-regulating transformers.

Relatively compact compared to other equipment for comparable regulation.

High degree of isolation between input and output circuits.

Negligible external field.

6.8.

Electro Magnetic Type Stabilizer:

Another popular form of automatic voltage stabilizer is of the electromagnetic type utilizing the phase shift produced by a capacitor for keeping the output voltage constant for a specified variation of input voltage. The principle of this type of stabilizer is shown in fig. 6.6 (a). The stabilizer uses three main components, one of which is a condenser; the other two are transformer like units or reactors (coils wound on laminated iron cores). The two reactors are in series, one of which being bypassed by the condenser which in this case does not resonate. Stabilization is produced by interaction between the non-linear characteristics of reactor R2 and the linear characteristic of the condenser C as shown in Fig. 6.6(b), and consequent changing phases in the circuit. Considering the voltage current curves, it can be seen that, if the mains voltage drops form Vp2 to Vp1 and causes a voltage drop across R2 and C from V2 to V1, the current delivered to R2 and C becomes more leading as it flows more through the condenser C. As a result, the voltage on the primary of R1 actually increases from Vp2 to Vp1. See vector diagram of Fig.(c). With suitable choice of components the output voltage E2 or E1 which is the sum of V2 or V1 and the corresponding secondary voltage Vs2 or Vs1 on transformer R1 will
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remain constant, as shown in the vector diagram. The reactor across the condenser works at a higher saturation at no load than at full load.

With increasing load the input voltage range decreases. With load increasing further the output voltage rapidly drops and as will be seen from figure (d), it approaches very low value at 100% overload. This is a safety feature but precludes those loads, which take heavy starting currents such as induction motors. The power factor of the load also effects the output voltages while those with leading power factors have opposite effect. The lagging power factor being of most common occurrence, the remedy is to correct the power factor, with the output voltage raised to desired value by means of capacitance across the load. But this is seldom necessary since for most of the designs the stability and range are ample for most conditions where the power factor is not lower than 0.8 though the output voltage obtained may be somewhat lower.

Figure (e) shows the range of input voltage for constant output voltage at different loads. It is seen that the input voltage range over which the output voltage is constant is greater at smaller loads. In any particular case, since the output voltage is constant, the full load current is the VA rating divided by output voltage. These voltage stabilizers are not suitable for continuous running at loads below 50% load, because of the heating of the reactor across the condenser. If the normal load is not sufficient it is advisable to put some dummy load to make up at least 3/4 full load.

These stabilizers have certain limitations as mentioned below:

The output voltage is not a pure sine wave and contains upto 25% third harmonic, 5th and smaller percentage of higher odd harmonics 8%. This is of little consequence in most uses because the R.M.S. value is stable. But certain devices, which require a pure sine waveform, cannot be supplied with power from these stabilizers. One important point to remember is that since the form factor is higher than for pure sine wave, those voltmeters which read average value (but have dials printing to show R.M.S. value) read 5% to 8% higher. Rectifier type voltmeters, therefore, will show a higher value. Moving iron, Dynamometer or any voltmeter which reads R.M.S. value should be used for measuring the output voltage.

Small overload capacity: This prevents the use of this type of stabilizer for motor loads and loads of transient nature such as, spot welding, solenoid switching etc.

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With these stabilizers, the output voltage is affected by variation in line frequency. If frequency goes up 1% the output voltage goes up 1.7% and vice versa. Generally these stabilizers are not recommended for systems when line frequency may vary more than 1 cycle.

Fig. 6.6 Stabilization by Vector Interaction between Non-Line and Condenser

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6.9.

FERRO RESONANT TYPE AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR

In this the primary side of the transformer operates below the saturation and secondary side operates in the saturated region of magnetic curve.(Fig.6.7)

Fig .6.7 Primary Vs. Secondary Voltage of Ferro-resonant Regulator

Description:

Core material used: Primary side--- MILD STEEL (Unsaturated Iron), Secondary side---SILICON STEEL ( Saturated Iron)

The capacitor of the proper value is connected across the secondary winding to form a parallel resonance circuit. If the voltage is applied on primary winding and it is gradually increased from zero to a particular voltage, called as KNEE VOLTAGE or point of discontinuity, at which secondary is tuned to parallel resonance.

Due to the resonance effect the capacitors increases the secondary voltage abruptly. This results, in the secondary core magnetic flux is induced due to capacitance current flowing in the secondary winding. This magnetic flux is added to the magnetic flux flowing through secondary core due to the primary voltage. Hence flux addition is taking place in the secondary core causes secondary gets saturated.

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Fig.6.8. Illustration of Ferro-resonant regulator

The resonant voltage across the capacitor bank (Vc) is not more than480 V at all input voltage & frequency conditions at no load.

Normally Vc =440 V no load.

Capacitors are rated for 6000V AC metal-can capacitors.

A magnetic shunt is provided between the two windings.

When the secondary magnetic circuit is saturated, much of the secondary flux is de-coupled from the primary winding and passes through magnetic shunt.

At primary knee voltage secondary core is saturated and after knee voltage the increased amount of magnetic flux passes through the magnetic shunt and does not increase the flux at secondary. Hence secondary voltage remains more or less constant.

Part of the primary & secondary magnetic flux flowing through magnetic shunt increases magnetic isolation between the two windings.

Purpose of compensating winding: It improves the regulation of output voltage. It is kept in series with the primary winding and added to the primary side of the transformer.

This compensating winding carries the load current and opposes the primary flux.

With compensating winding the input voltage operating range also increased to give constant output voltage.
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With compensating winding short circuit protection is also achieved. If the output is short circuited then the current passing through the compensating winding is also very high. This causes very high reduction in primary flux and thee by reducing the induced secondary voltage. Performance:

This type of voltage regulators are generally used with minimum load of 25% of its rated capacity. However, the design of voltage regulator shall cater for any load from no load to full load of its rated capacity.

The harmonic distortion in output voltage is maximum at no load. 6.9.1. Features:

Features of ferro-resonant regulator are : 1. Robust in construction. 2. No moving parts. 3. It's out-put voltage= 2301 for input voltage range of 160V to 270 V at 50Hz, when it is connected to rated load. 4. Lower rang may be extended from 160 V to 150 V, if required by the purchaser. In this case output voltage not less than 230 V 4% for all loads from 25% to full load. 5. Operating frequency= 50Hz 2.5Hz. 6. Power handling capacity - 0.5 KVA to 10 KVA 7. Fast regulation. Response time is < 60 m.sec. For sudden changes of 50 V in-put voltage or load variation from 25% to 75% of rated load. 8. No load current is not more than 30% of the rated in-put current. 9. No load power is not more than50% of the rated out-put power at in-put voltage of 230 V, 50 Hz. 10. Watt efficiency not less than 80 in case of 0.5 KVA & not less than 85 IN case of 1 KVA to 10 KVA at full load. 11. Complete automatic and continuous regulation. 12. Immune to input spikes and surges, because of high isolation between I/P & O/P. 13. Immune to short circuit at O/P. 14. Self protection against over load.

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6.9.2. DRAWBACKS:

The harmonic distortion in the O/P voltage is maximum at no load. Minimum 25 load of rated load must be provided.

Out-put voltage is frequency dependent. Out-put voltage variation is 1.55 for 1 change in the frequency.

At 50 Hz frequency O/P voltage =230 V At 47.5 Hz frequency O/P voltage =213 V At 52.5 Hz O/P voltage = 247 V

i.e. For Hz------- 3 O/P voltage variation.

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Chapter 7

D.C. Voltage Regulators


7.1 NECESSITY OF REGULATOR:

Most Electronic devices and circuits require a direct voltage DC to operate. Since the most convenient and economical source of power is the AC voltage. It is advantageous to convert AC voltage to DC voltage. This conversion is accomplished by a rectifier or for smaller supplies this can be met with a battery or simple mains driven power pack.

This output DC terminal voltage always does not remain constant. It varies significantly by the loading network and also due to variation in the supply voltage.

For example, a multi-stage amplifier with no input signal applied may draw a steady current of 50 ma from DC power supply whose terminal voltage is 50V. If an input signal is applied to the amplifier, average current drawn from the DC supply could increase to 500ma. The increased current flowing would reduce the terminal voltage. To avoid such variations in output voltage, some kind of voltage regulation becomes necessary. A regulated power supply is capable of delivering the necessary current to an amplifier or any other load without a significant reduction in terminal voltage.

7.2

CLASSIFICATION OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS:

The voltage regulators can be classified in 3 ways:

1. Series and Shunt DC voltage regulators 2. Linear and Switched DC voltage regulators 3. Open and closed loop DC voltage regulators.

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7.2.1 Series and Shunt Regulators: This is the basic way of classi

Fig 7.1 (a) Series Regulator

Fig 7.1 (b) Shunt Regulator

The principle of working of series regulator and shunt regulator is illustrated in figs.(a) and (b). The voltage regulation system inside the equipment is shown as adjustable resistor RA as the regulation is achieved by adjusting voltage drop in series regulator and current drop in shunt regulator. RL is the load resistance. RS in shunt regulator is to give lower DC voltage across the load resistor R. 7.2.2 Linear and Switched Regulators:

In the linear regulators, the adjustable resistor arrangement (either in series or shunt) continuously dissipate some power. This is alright for low volt-amp requirements. But when it comes to high volt-amp requirements, it becomes difficult to provide adequate heat sink for the heat dissipation and also it is high power loss. For such requirements, switching regulator is more suitable, which functions using controlled ON/OFF switching of the power supplied to the load to keep the output voltage constant.

Series Switching Regulator illustrated in fig 7.2 (a): An ON/OFF switching control element, inserted in the series between the supply input and output is switched ON and OFF by a controlled ON/OFF duty cycle switch circuit. The result is, the current from input is released in pulses, which provide a controlled DC voltage output level. The switching duty cycle circuit adjusts itself so that the mean output voltage remains constant irrespective of input voltage or load current variations.

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Fig 7.2 (a) Series Switching

Fig 7.2 (b) Shunt Regulator

Switching Regulator: The same principle is also used in shunt form of switching regulator illustrated in fir 7.2 (b). Here the ON and OFF switching control element bleeds OFF current from the supply away from the load. 7.2.3 Open Loop and Closed Loop Regulators:

This terminology comes from Servo-mechanism practice. It means that some regulators hold the output at a fixed voltage by clamping it, in effect to a fixed voltage source, such a system works without any separate line of feed back from the output and is called OPEN LOOP. If the output voltage is sensed, and an error signal is fed back round a separate loop to govern the voltage controlling system, the system is a CLOSED LOOP systems.

7.3

Open Loop Linear Series Voltage Regulators:

Fig 7.3 Principle of Operation of Open loop Linear Series voltage Regulator

Figure shows how an open loop linear series voltage regulator works. The circuit provides a fixed reference voltage, which may be equal to, greater than, or less than the desired constant output voltage, depending upon the circuit design. This fixed reference voltage, fed into the series controlled voltage follower linear amplifier, which controls it in such a way that it holds
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the output voltage always at a fixed voltage differential away from the reference voltage, however, the input voltage and the output current vary.

In one very common open loop regulator, the transistor emitter follower type, the circuit holds the output at about 1V below the reference voltage, the nominal 1V difference being the base emitter voltage drop of the transistor.

Emitter follower is one very common type of open loop regulator, other terms used to describe open loop regulators being "Clamp"' and non-feed back.

7.4 Emitter-follower Regulator: A typical Emitter-follower regulator circuit is shown in the


figure 7.4. In this circuit Zener (Z) acts as a voltage reference and the transistor does the regulation. Here the Zener must always be reverse biased and operate along its breakdown characteristics, taking care that it shall not burn out.

Fig 7.4 Emitter Follower Regulator

Fig 7.5 Zener Characteristics operating along Breakdown characteristics

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A typical Zener breakdown characteristic curve is shown in figure 7.5.From this characteristic curve of Zener, we get the key point on how the Zener functions as regulator or fixed voltage reference. If Zener Current must always range between IZ min and IZ max., then voltage across the Zener can only change by an amount VZ. Since IZ min is usually small with respect to IZ max, the maximum change that can take place in Zener Current is only IZ max (approx.) V0

Therefore,

= VZ

= Iz (max) (Rz) = Iz Rz

V0 being the change in output voltage. Consider the two DC load extremes of no load and full load. When full load current is drawn, the Zener must draw atleast Iz min to stay in the breakdown region and maintain regulation. RA is designed to ensure that the Zener is not starved for current. When no load condition develops, the complete max. load current is absorbed by Zener, which acts as a current switch to absorb all current not demanded by the load. RA carries the same current (IL max. approx.) This is evident as Iz min is small with respect to IL max. This means that current drawn from the unregulated supply is constant and the advantage is E1 stabilized. Zeners can be obtained readily in breakdown voltage range varying from 3.3 V to 75 V and with power ratings 250 mw to 50 w. If higher reference voltage is needed, then, any number of

Zeners can be stacked in series as illustrated in Fig.7.6.

Fig 7.6 Zeners stacked in Series

Fig 7.7 Cascade Zeners

Sometimes the variation of input voltage is so large that the Zener Current varies and gives an output voltage variation, too wide for the circuit needs. In such cases, two Zeners can be connected in cascade connection as shown in fig 7.7.

In the circuit shown ZD1 takes up the variation of input supply voltage and leaves ZD2 to cope up with the variations in load current separately.

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The transistor Q is in series with load and unregulated supply. arrangement is classified as series regulator (Open Loop).

Hence, this regulator

Resistor RA conducts current to turn the Zener ON. E1 is always large than VZ. Base to ground voltage of Q is clamped at VZ by the Zener. Q's base-emitter junction is forward biased, so its emitter voltage is always lower than (or follow) its base voltage by VBE. Since Q's emitter is the regulator output terminal

V0

= VZ - VBE.

Load Current IL is set by RL and VO. At the normal output voltage the regulator has nothing to do. The Zener carries IZmin, load carries ICmax and base current is maximum. VBE will be at its max. value 0.8 to 1.0V. At very small or no load current, VBE is small at 0.4 to 0.5V and the Zener absorbs I L max current, keeping the output constant.

7.5

ZENER AIDED OPEN LOOP SERIES REGULATORS:

A few more Zener aided open loop series regulators are illustrated below:

Fig 7.8 Zener Aided Open loop series regulators

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Fig (a): This is for a +ve voltage rail. The output voltage is clamped at VBE below Vz, i.e., V0 = VBE Vz Fig (b): This is also for a +ve voltage rail making use of p-n-p transistor, with inverted polarity.

Fig (c): This is used when an output lower than the Zener Voltage is needed. A resistive potentiometer (R1 & R2) is used across the Zener. Fig (d): Composite connection of two n-p-n transistors for high current gain uses

Fig (e): Composite connection of one p-n-p to n-p-n for high current gain uses.

Fig (f): For higher current carrying or power dissipation capability, a common arrangement is the transistor paralleling. In large supply many transistors may be paralleled.

7.6 Open Loop Linear Shunt Regulator:

Fig 7.9 & 7.10 Open Loop Linear Shunt Regulator

Figure 7.9 (Block Diagram) shows the principle of operation of Open Loop Shunt Linear Voltage Regulator.

A current I flowing from an input voltage Vin through a series dropping resistor RA, gives a voltage (Vin - IRA). This voltage is controlled by the current sink amplifier in reference to the fixed reference, by varying the current, in such a way that the output voltage V out remains at a fixed voltage difference from the reference voltage.

The system can be seen to be open loop because there is no feed back by a separate loop from the output to the control system.

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Although open loop linear shunt regulators are simple to design compared to any type of switched regulator, they are less popular than series regulators because of higher internal power dissipation.

7.7

MAINS DRIVEN OPEN LOOP SHUNT REGULATOR:

A practical mains driven open loop, shunt Regulator is illustrated in figure 7.10.

The secondary of the mains transformer is full wave rectified by D1 & D2 which gives unregulated DC across reservoir capacitor C1. This is dropped through the resistor RA, to feed to the Zener ZD. The regulator works such that the emitter current of the Q1 adjusts itself to become the feed current minus the load current, i.e., it absorbs the excess current from the feed which is not absorbed by load. This function keeps the output voltage constant. The capacitor C2 across the output rail is for added ripple removal.

7.8

ZENER AIDED OPEN LOOP SHUNT REGULATORS:

A few more Zener aided Open Loop Shunt Regulators are illustrated below:

Fig 7.11 Zener Aided Open Loop Shunt Regulators

Fig (a): The output voltage is fixed at the sum of the Zener Voltage and the transistor baseemitter forward voltage. The base emitter voltage drop is small and changes little with current, so that the output voltage is roughly the Zener Voltage plus 1V (for Silicon Transistors, which are mostly used nowadays). The transistor self adjusts its collector current and this in turn, adjusts the voltage drop across the series resistor in the supply line R1. Fig (b): The working is as above, but as p-n-p is used in place of n-p-n.

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Fig (c): A resistive potentiometer across the Zener can be used to give an output voltage below the available Zener Voltage.

Fig (d): To get higher than the available Zener Voltage, Zeners can be series-shunt as explained earlier. Another method that can be adopted is to include a low power Zener in the base circuit of the transistor as illustrated.

7.9

Closed Loop Linear Voltage Regulators:

The open loop linear system of voltage regulation, whether series or shunt, gives a fairly good regulation, but when precise voltage regulation is called for, designers turn to closed loop system.

Fig. 7.12(a) Principle of Operation of Closed Loop Series Linear Voltage Regulator

Fig 7.12 (b) Principle of Operation of Closed-Loop Shunt Linear Regulator

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The principle of working of closed loop linear voltage regulators is illustrated in figures a) for series and b) for shunt.

In Series Regulator, the basic control of the output voltage is achieved by a series controlled linear 'Voltage Drop' amplifier, which effectively changes resistance whereas in Shunt Regulator, the Shunt Controlled current drain amplifier adjusts the current it draws from the output rail, which changes the voltage drop across RS. The other components and their functions are same both in Series and Shunt Regulators.

The output voltage sensing circuit produces a voltage, which is a fixed fraction of the output voltage and feeds back to comparator.

Fixed reference voltage source feeds the reference voltage to the comparator. The feed back fraction of the output voltage and the fixed reference voltage are compared by the comparator. Any difference between the two voltages activates the series controlled voltage drop amplifier or shunt controlled current drain amplifier to give a regulated voltage at output terminals.

7.10

Basic Closed Loop (Feedback) Linear Voltage Regulator:

Fig 7.13 Closed Loop Linear Voltage Regulator

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Figure 7.13. shows the circuit, which consists of three main elements. A series controlled linear 'Voltage Drop' amplifier in the form of transistor Q, a Zener established fixed voltage reference source, and a differential amplifier (comparator) OP-Amp.

Resistor RA furnishes a few ma to hold Zener in its breakdown region. amplifier's positive input draws negligible current (A ) and is clamped at V.

The differential

The differential amplifier has a positive input terminal in pin 5 and negative input terminal in pin 4. Due to feedback action, the negative input will be held within a few micro-volts of reference voltage VZ. Pin 4 is wired to the junction of R1 and R2 and fixes current through RL at VZ/Rz. Q is the Series Amplifier. The emitter is clamped at V0, its collector emitter voltage will absorb variations in V in put. Vi must always exceed V0 by 2 or 3 volts to insure that Q1 does not saturate.

7.11

Switched Regulators:

The principle of switched type of regulators is illustrated in figures a) Open loop series, b) Closed loop series, c) Open loop shunt, d) Closed loop shunt.

In open loop type regulators, the fixed reference voltage source feeds a fixed voltage to oscillator, controlling switch duty cycle equipment. This controls the frequency or the markspace ratio of the oscillator, which in turn, controls the ON/OFF duty cycle of the ON/OFF switching circuit. The switch effectively either short or open circuit, so that changes in output current make no difference to the output voltage.

The switched shunt voltage regulators are less commonly used than Series Type.

The principle of working of fixed reference voltage source, output voltage sensing circuit and comparator is same as that already discussed in linear regulators.

The comparator compares feedback and fixed reference voltages. Depending on the difference between them, causes the Oscillator to vary the duty cycle of the ON/OFF power circuit until the V out reaches its designed level at a fixed voltage away from the reference voltage, that is regulated output voltage.

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V - IN UNREG. D.C

SERIES POWER ON-OFF SWITCH CCT.

V - IN UNREG. D.C V - OUT REG. D.C

SERIES POWER ON-OFF SWITCH CCT.

V - OUT REG. D.C

FIXED REFERENCE VOLTAGE SOURCE

OSCILLATOR CONTROLLING SERIES SW DUTY CYCLE

OSCILLATOR CONTROLLING SERIES SW DUTY CYCLE

(a)

FIXED REFERENCE VOLTAGE SOURCE

COMPARATOR CONTROLLING SWITCH OSC

OUT PUT VOLTAGE SENSING CIRCUIT

(b)
Rs V - IN UNREG. D.C Rs V - OUT REG. D.C V - IN UNREG. D.C

SMOOTHING CIRCUIT

SMOOTHING CIRCUIT

V - OUT REG. D.C

SHUNT ON - OFF POWER SWITCH CIRCUIT

SHUNT ON - OFF POWER SWITCH CIRCUIT

OSCILLATOR CONTROLLING SHUNT SWITCH DUTY CYCLE

OSCILLATOR CONTROLLING SHUNT SWITCH DUTY CYCLE

COMPARATOR CONTROLLING SHUNT SWITCH DUTY CYCLE

FIXED REFERENCE VOLTAGE SOURCE

FIXED REFERENCE VOLTAGE SOURCE

OUTPUT VOLTAGE SENSING CIRCUIT

(c)

(d)

Fig 7.14 Switched Regulators

7.12

Overload protection circuits in D.C. voltage regulators:

D.C. voltage regulators are more sophisticated equipments and may be more easily damaged due to overload hazards. Protection circuits play a major role in the design of DC regulators. A typical block diagram, indicating various points of overload protection as shown in figure

THERMAL CUT-OUT

V - IN UNREG. D.C

INPUT FUSE

INPUT CURRENT LIMITER

EXCESS CURRENT TRIP

BASIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR

OUT PUT CURRENT SENSOR

OUT PUT CURRENT LIMITER

OUT PUT FUSE OR CIRCUIT BREAKER

OVER OR REVERSE VOLTAGE PROJECTOR

V - OUT REG. D.C

Fig 7.15 Various Points At Which Over Load Protection Circuits May Be Found In Regulated DC Supplies

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Fuse or circuit breaker both at input and output points for the protection against overload and fault conditions.

Current limiter, which is normally in a simple form of wire wound power resistor, is provided both at input and output points.

Output current sensor activates the excess current trip circuit to trip when the load current exceeds a pre-determined safe limit.

Thermal cut out cuts of the supply when excess heat appears inside the equipment case.

Over or reverse voltage protector prevents voltages of wrong polarity or voltages exceeding a pre-determined value.

7.13 Basic Overload Protection Circuits:

Fig 7.16 Basic DC supply Over Load Protection Circuits

You will find many circuits designed to protect DC supplies against current overloads and output short-circuits. This, of course, is apart from series resistors in the supply line to limit current and fuses or electromechanical interrupters to shut off the supply overload. In this connection you might be surprised how many experiments use an AVO multi meter in series with their supply to ensure (against the express advice of the manufacturers) that the cut out operates when they accidentally overload the supply. Semiconductor protection circuits fall into three main categories.

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Fig.(a): One approach, is to build your supply with internal limiting so that it cannot supply excess current.

Fig.(b): A second approach, where you already have an unprotected supply and require external protection, is to sense the load current, and use the resulting voltage drop to control a limiting circuit in series with the supply to keep the current below a preset level.

Fig.(c): A third approach is to use a current sensor to switch the supply input off under overload.

There are other approaches, such as using a thermal sensor to operate a cut-out, but the three outlined above are the most common.

7.14

Overload Protection by external series current limits:

Fig 7.17 Over Load Protection by External Series Current Limits

In the case of protection by circuit external to the DC supply, the first method indicated by figure 6.16 (b) series current limiting circuit is illustrated in the typical circuit arrangement, in figure 7.17..

Here the sensing resistor R, in series with the load, turns transistor Q2 ON when the current exceeds a level dependent on the forward voltage drop of D1 and the base emitter voltage of Q2. As Q2 comes into conduction, the base drive current to Q1 through R1, which normally holds that transistor saturated (or 'bottomed'), with a voltage drop across it typically of less than 1V, is diverted into Q2. Q1 then operates like a variable resistor, its resistance rising with the load current above the desired limit.

There are many variants of this type of circuit. It has one main drawback that the control transistor, Q1, has to withstand increasing internal power dissipation as the overload increases,
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and therefore, requires heat-sinking of the same order as the main series-pass device in the main supply.

7.15

Overload Protection by External Switch-off:

Fig 7.18 Over load Protection by External Switch Off

To prevent the need to provide large heat dissipation capability in overload control elements, designers frequently use some form of accelerated fusing that is fast enough to protect the semiconductor devices. This approach is illustrated in figure 7.18. Here the load current is sensed by R4. When it rises above a preset limit, the transistor Q is turned on, the voltage at the right-hand end of R4 being negative with respect to the left-hand end, thus with respect to the emitter of the p-n-p transistor Q. When Q turns on with the current overload, the junction of R2 and R3 (with the gate of the SCR connected to it) goes positive and triggers the SCR ON. This effectively short-circuits the input rail (R1 being only small-value resistor to limit the maximum current through the SCR.) and blows the fuse very rapidly.

Circuits have also been derived in which a SCR. in series with the input rail is normally ON (and equivalent to a series short circuit). On overload, it is triggered off under control of seriessensing resistor. This gets round the need to replace a blown fuse, but the circuitry is much more complex.

*****

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Chapter-8

UN-INTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM (UPS)


8.1. NECESSITY OF UPS: UPS is used if there is,

Line voltage fluctuations. Low line voltage. Supply lost for more than few milliseconds. Supply failure for more time.

UPS produces sign wave or quasi sign wave output by taking the D.C.input. The regulation of the output voltage is done by Pulse Width Modulation principle.

8.2.

TYPES OF UPS:

The UPS can be divided into Three types depending on the construction and change over time, They are,

On-Line UPS: Which is always in ON condition irrespective of AC power supply on condition. Off Line UPS: Which is switched on automatically d\as soon as the AC power is put off. Line interactive UPS: Which works like Off line UPS, but it is always interacts with the AC line voltage.

Now we will study each in detail with the help of block diagram. 8.2.1. On-Line UPS: The inverter is always in On condition. The battery capacity decides the backup time of UPS. The shape of the output wave form is pure Sine Wave. During normal or power off condition, the DC voltage from the battery is converted to AC voltage using the inverter circuit and stepped up to the required output voltage level.

ADVANTAGE: There is no Changeover time from mains to battery mode in the case of power failure.

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USE: This type of system is mostly used in the Power supply for Medical and Surgical equipments, and big computer systems where the data is most impotent like Banks and industries etc.

Fig.8.1 Block diagram of on-line UPS 8.2.2 Off-Line UPS: The AC power is directly supplied to the load through an AC switch.

Under fault conditions, the line connected to AC switch opens and the inverter AC switch will close allowing the battery to provide back-up power through the inverter stage. ADVANTAGES:

It is very much compact due to less number of components compared to ON-Line UPS. Inverter is On only when the AC is off/Input power is out of range. It is economical.(FIG.2)

Fig. 8.2 Off-line UPS

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8.2.3

LINE INTERACTIVE UPS:

During normal condition, the AC power directly supplied to the load through the AC switch which is normally ON. Under the emergency conditions, the AC switch opens the line and the battery is used to provide the backup power through the inverter stage.

ADVANTAGES:

It is provided with only one transformer which acts for both input and output. It is for only low power applications below 1KVA.(FIG.3)
Normal Power Flow AC Output AC Switch AC Input Normal Triple Charge to Load

BT1 Battery

Rectifier & Inverter

T1

Emergency Power Flow

Fig. 8.3 Block diagram of Line-interactive UPS 8.3. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE THREE TYPES OF UPS: Off Line Inverter is ON only during Ac power failure. Switching time is zero Switching time<5Ms Generally sine wave Inverters Sine wave/squire wave are used. inverters with CVT are used. Cost is high. Cost is low. High quality sealed Sealed maintenance free maintenance- free batteries or others are used. are used. Used for main frame Used with PCs or Other computers or work station applications computers or in applications Where interruption upto 5 where an un-interrupted power mS is permitted. supply is required. Float performance of a charger Battery charging is has a wide influence on battery controlled automatically. life. Line Interactive Inverter is ON only during Ac power failure. Switching time<5Ms Generally square wave inverters without CVT are used. Cost is low. Sealed maintenance free or others are used. Used with PCs or Other applications Where interruption up to 5 mS is permitted. Battery charging is controlled automatically.

S.No. On-Line 1 Inverter is ON all time. 2 3

4 5

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8.4.

SPECIFICATIONS OF UPS:
: : : : : Given in VA Ex. 500 to 10 KVA 170V to 270 Volts. 50 Hz 3% 2x 12V/6.5 AH 230V 5 230V 3 Sine wave 50Hz 3 Quasi/Square 50Hz 0.5 5 ms (Typical) 4 Hours 92 85 Mains present

1. Capacity 2. Input mains voltage 3. Input Battery voltage 4. Out put voltage(Mains mode) Out put voltage(Back-up mode)

5. Out put Frequency(Mains mode) : Out put frequency(Back up mode) 6. Change over time 7. Battery recharge time 8. Efficiency(Mains mode) Efficiency( Back up mode) 9. LED indications& Audio alarm Mains Failure Battery discharging Battery low High voltage 10. Protection Mains over voltage Battery low 11. Backup time 12. Spike/ Surge suppression 13. EMI/RFI Filters 14. Operating temperature 15. Humidity : : : : : : : : : : : :

Out put overload

20minutes (typical) yes yes 0 50 C 35 to 95

The above specifications depend on the following factors:

1)

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS: The performance of the semiconductors used in

UPS depends on the environmental conditions, viz. Min & Max temperature, relative humidity, dust, altitude etc.

It is suggested that the UPS should be kept in AC room with SMF battery(25c). The dust & moisture weakens the system insulation

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2)

ELECTRICAL CONDITIONS: These are the supply voltage and frequency etc.

The battery used must be able to charge with low current also when the input voltage is low. RFI/EMI filter protection should be there at input side. It protects the UPS & ensures proper functioning.

The acoustic noise should be less than 55- 60 dB. The noise depends on the switching frequency of devices used in the inverter section. Higher the frequency lesser the noise. The components like BJF Or IGBT reduces the noise.

The UPS with lower rating up to 2 KVA ,MOSFET used as the switching device , the audible noise will be 45 dB.

Input supply voltage ranges for 1- 190V to 270V & 3- 360V to 400V. Good efficient inverter reduces the heat loss & maintenance.

BATTERY: Sealed maintenance free batteries are preferred. For more backup time the capacity should be high.

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PHOTO VOLTAIC GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY SOLAR CELLS

Chapter 9

Photo Voltaic Generation of Electricity Solar Cells


9.1 Introduction

In recent years, Photo Voltaic Power Generation has been receiving considerable attention as one of the more promising energy alternatives. The reasons for this rising interest lie in PV's direct conversion of Sunlight to electricity, the non-polluting nature of PV conversion process and PV's non-dependence on fossile and nuclear fuels, which are non-renewable, and are of polluting nature. Sunlight is a renewable source of energy.

To date, the widespread use of PV generation has been hampered by economic factors. At the present time, PV generation can be justified only for special situations, mostly for remote sites where T & D lines or other conventional means of furnishing energy may be prohibitively expensive. It can only be considered as stand alone system. But strictly speaking the cost, of Solar Power Systems and conventional electricity cannot be compared simply basing on the initial cost as, in case of conventional power, so many indirect costs and hidden subsidies are not reflected in the tariff. Damage to environment, pollution, foreign exchange out go are some of the other factors to be considered. Fuel and Maintenance are the recurring expenditure, whereas such expenditure does not occur in case of PV system, which gives very long life with very little maintenance. 9.1.1 A large quantity of energy is radiated from Sun. The total rate of energy output from the

Sun is 3.8 x 1023 Kw at a mean distance of 1.496 x 108 Km from the Sun, the earth intercepts about 1 part in 2 billion of this energy. 1 SERPY, that is, Solar Energy received per year by earth is 1.5 X 105 Mwh. This is the amount of Solar Radiation reaching the outer atmosphere of the earth in one year. 1 SERPY is 28,000 times the energy used worldwide in a year. Sun's radiation at the top of the earth's atmosphere is about 1.4 Kw / mr. 9.1.2 The general behavior of Solar Radiation characteristics is applicable to PV System also.

As the PV output is directly proportional to the incident insolation, the power generated during the day will rise and fall with the Sun. Seasonally, the duration of power generation will increase and decrease with the lengthening and shortening of day light hours between Summer and Winter.

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9.1.3

Most of the developing countries are situated in the earth's tropical zone where they

benefit from a particularly favorable insolation, exceeding 3000 hours in year in many areas. In most of the developing nations, Electricity is not yet available outside the larger cities and towns. In such areas Solar Power can be utilized for the needs of rural development as stand alone arrangement.

9.1.4

India with abundant sunshine throughout the year over large stretch of lands, made an

earnest beginning in this direction. A modest beginning was also made by Indian Railways in 1985 by providing reliable and cost effective source of power for S&T installations at remote and otherwise isolated locations.

9.2

Photo Voltaic Effect

Electricity can be generated directly from Sunlight, by a process called as Photo Voltaic effect, which is defined as the generation of an electromotive force as a result of the absorption of ionizing radiation. Devices that use the PV effect to generate a voltage when Sunlight is used as the source of the ionizing radiation are called Solar Cells.

The PV effect can be observed almost in any junction of materials that have different electrical characteristics, but the best performance to date has been from Cells using semi-conductor materials.

To obtain an useful power output from Photo instrumentation in a semi-conductor three processes are required.

The Photon has to be absorbed in the active part of the material and result in electrons being excited to a higher energy potential. The charge carriers created by the absorption must be physically separated and moved to the edge of the cell. The charge carriers must be removed from the cell and delivered to an useful load before they loose their extra potential.

PV effect can occur when a potential barrier exists in the non illuminated semi-conductor. Such a barrier is found, for example, at the interface between two areas of different doping, i.e., where two different types of impurities have been introduced in concentrations of less than 1%. If this material is illuminated, the electric charges created by light through the Photo Conductive effect will be separated by the barrier into positive charges on one side and negative charges on the other. But it should be stressed that this kind of conversion process does not depend on heat. The efficiency of the Solar Cell device drops with its temperature.
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PV effect can be achieved in all semi-conductors. The semiconductors, which are best suited to the conversion of sun light are the most sensitive ones, in other words, those which give the highest current voltage product for visible light. In fact, the largest package of energy

transmitted by the Sun's rays is within the visible light parts of the spectrum.

9.3

Solar Cell

The heart of any PV Power System is the Solar Cell. It is a transducer that converts the Sun's radiant energy directly into electricity and is basically a semi-conductor diode capable of developing voltage.

Fig 9.1 Samples of Silicon Solar Cells

At present Silicon is the most important semi-conductor material for Photo Voltaic Solar energy conversion.

Figure shows the typical silicon solar cells for terrestrial use.

Future cells may use such

materials as the semi-conductor GaAs and Cds. Solar Cell works on the principle of p-n semiconductor junction.

9.4.

P N Junctions

At the junction of P-type and N-type material, the energy level must be constant across the junction in thermodynamic equilibrium. If the base material is identical for both the P and N material, then the bands must bend at the junction.

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This junction thus provides an inherent electron field, which will accelerate any electrons that drift into the junction into the N-type material and any holes that drift to the junction into the Ptype material, one thus gets a charge potential between the N-type and P-type materials.

This principle is used in Solar Cells. The holes in P-material and the electrons in N-material are called as majority carriers because they are in excess and the majority of the current is carried by them. Conversely the electrons in P-type material and the holes in N-type material are called as minority carriers. The narrow region is called as space charged region or depletion region.

9.5

Silicon Solar Cell

Silicon is not a good conductor, which has a chemical valence of four electrons. Each electron is strongly held in position by the electromagnetic force between it and the two other atoms it helps to bind together. In a crystal of silicon a substantial amount of energy is needed to break the bond between the electron and the two atoms, such that the electron can become available for conducting electricity.

One way to make the process easy to break the bond is to introduce conduction electrons or holes into a Silicon Crystal such that the crystal contains more or less number of electrons than the four that are required for the ideal structure. This can be achieved by doping the silicon crystal with impurities. Normally 0.01 of doping is done. For example, Phosphorous is an element that has a valence of five, that is, five of its electrons can interact with other atoms. A silicon crystal in which a small proportion of the atomic sites are occupied, by Phosphorous atoms, still has the basic structure of silicon. A Phosphorous doped silicon crystal is called Ntype semi-conductor because it has an excess of negatively charged electrons. Conversely, a silicon crystal can be doped with Boron, which has a valence of three. This is called as a Ptype semi-conductor. Doping a crystal not only increases its electrical conductivity, but also makes the crystal preferentially receptive to electrons or to holes.Fig.9.2.

Light falling on the crystal is a source of energy that can move electrons into conduction state. A photon of light striking any material if absorbed, its energy is transferred to an electron. If the energy is sufficient and the electron is near the surface of metal, the electron may be emitted from the surface. If the photon penetrates within a semi-conductor and if its energy is equal to or greater than the amount of energy needed to move the electrons into the conduction band, it gives rise to a conduction electron and a hole. Thus if light of sufficient energy impinges on a perfect crystal of silicon, electrons and holes are produced and are free to move within the crystal.
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In order to employ the electrons and holes as a source of electricity, it is necessary to arrange condition such that an electron cannot recombine with a hole until it has travelled through the external circuit, supplying electricity. This is achieved by taking advantage of the construction properties of p-n junction. There is a flow of electrons from P to N and holes in the opposite direction.

Fig 9.2 Silicon Solar Cell

In a Silicon Solar Cell the layer of a typical silicon cell is of a thickness such that light falling on the surface penetrates far into the crystal to create electron-hole pairs in the vicinity of the junction with the P-type silicon. The thickness is typically half a micron. Therefore, when light falls on the cell electrons will collect in the N-type layer and holes will collect in the P-type layer until there is a voltage built up within the crystal sufficient to push any other electron back into the P-type layer. In a silicon Solar Cell that voltage is about 0.65 V.A current can be drawn from the cell through a circuit that makes electrical contact with both the front surface of the cell and the back one. If the resistance of external circuit is low, the current that flows through it is a measure of the rate at which the electrons are separated from holes. That rate depends on the intensity of the light falling on the surface of the cell and on the rate at which electrons and holes are lost through their recombination.

9.6.

Solar cell schematic

A typical Solar Cell is shown schematically in fig.9.3. The P-N Junction is obtained by putting a P-type base material into a diffusion furnace containing a gaseous N-type dopant and allowing

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the dopant to diffuse into the surface about 0.2 m. The junction is thus formed slightly below the planer surface of the cell and the light impinges perpendicularly on the junction. The positive and negative charges created by absorption of photons are thus encouraged to drift to the front and back of the Solar Cell. The back is completely covered by a metallic contact to remove the charges to the electrical load.

Fig 9.3 Schematic of a Typical Solar Cell showing the Physical Arrangement of the Major Components

The collection of charges from the front of the cell is aided by a fine grid of narrow metallic fingers. The energy required to promote an electron from its bound state in crystal into the conduction band is known as band gap.

9.6.1

Basic Cell Characteristics

The general behavior of solar radiation characteristics applicable to PV system design, and the power generation characteristics for a single Solar Cell or a series parallel matrix of Solar Cells are shown in figure 9.4.

A typical clear easy insulation.

A typical variation of voltage with current for a Solar Cell under constant illumination at a constant temperature. The curve is developed by varying the load impedance across the cell and measuring the corresponding voltage and current as shown in Fig.(C).

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The maximum power point (Pmax) represents the conditions for which the voltage-current product is maximum. Voc is open circuit voltage, VMP is max. power voltage, ISC is short circuit current, and IMP is max. power current.

Fig 9.4 Basic Solar Cell Characteristics

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The fill factor for a Solar Cell is defined as under.

Imp x Vmp Fill Factor = Isc x Voc =

Pmax Isc x Voc

Solar Cell designers strive to increase fill factor values, to minimize internal losses. Typical fill factors fall in the range of 0.70 to 0.78, within the insolation and temperature ranges of interest. Curves d and e illustrate the following important relationships. ISC is directly proportional to insolation, with slight deviation IMP is also proportional to insolation, both ISC and Imp are relitively insensitive to temperature. VOC and VMP are inversely proportional to temperature. Both are insensitive to insolation level. Some typical numbers illustrate these characteristics. For a single crystal Silicon Cell of 12% efficiency, the DC max. output power at peak insolation of 100 MW/cm2 and at 28 deg.C temp. would be 12 MW/cm2 of Cell Area. An open circuit cell voltage of 0.60 V DC would drop to 0.46V DC at the max. power point and ISC of 27.2 ma/cm2 would be 26.1 ma/cm2 at the max. power point. The efficiency would fall by 0.05% per 1 deg. C cell temperature rise; that is, 11% efficiency at a cell temp. of 48 deg.C. standing air cooled flatplate assembly of such cells with a passive thermal design would experience a temperature rise of about 30 deg C above ambient in still air. Wind velocity of 5 m/sec would limit the rise to about 10 deg.c above ambient. 9.6.2 Simple equivalent circuit of a Solar Cell:

The simple equivalent circuit of a Photo Voltaic Cell, where

Rsh is imperfections in the diode lending to current leakage. Rs is the resistance due to the transparent conducting layer, and to the lead connections, RL is external load IL is load current VL is voltage across load IP is Photo generated current or light generated current ID is diode dark current. Vj is voltage drop across junction region of the diode due together Optical or electrical biasing. C is the inherent capacitance.

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Rsh is a variable, its value depending on the area of the PV Cell and on its illumination. The larger the area, the higher is the illumination, the lower is the value of Rsh, under these conditions, a lower RL would be required for max. power transfer. The value of C increases with increasing area and decreases the response to rapidly flickering light. It is important that Rs should be small. The typical desired value for silicon cells Rs is 0.05 ohms . As the diode is operating in photo conductance, the current components forming the normal diode dark current ID and the light generated current IP cannot be adjudged to operate independently. A practical equation is as below:

IP - ID - VL/RL IL =
------------------------

(I + Rs/Rsh)

Fig 9.5 Simple Equivalent circuit of a Solar Cell

9.7

I.V. Characteristics of a Solar Cell:

In the Solar Cells, the barrier layer has diode characteristics in the dark. Inside the barrier layer there exists an electric field and pd which are entirely due to the difference in doping between the two sides of the crystal. In the dark this internal field opposes the passage of an electric current. If external voltage applied in the reverse direction, the inherent electric field becomes even greater and the barrier strengthens to the electron flow, so that the current is unable to increase with voltages. The only current that will eventually flow across the Junction will be that due to the electrons that are thermally excited in the P-type material. If the applied voltage is in the opposite direction called the "forward bias condition", the inherent junction barrier will be reduced and electrons from 'N' material will see a smaller and smaller barrier to enter the 'P'
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material. The number of electrons available to cross the barrier increases exponentially as the barrier becomes smaller.

When the diode is illuminated, electrons are liberated and are acted on by the internal field which drives them in its direction and a photo current is generated, which flows in the opposite direction to the forward 'dark current'. The photo current is not influenced by the applied

voltage. The open circuit voltage condition is achieved where the photo current is balanced by the forward dark current.

Even if no external voltage is applied, this photo current continues to flow and is measured as the short circuit current. This depends linearly on light intensity because when more light is absorbed, additional electrons are exposed to the internal field force. The typical I-V

characteristics under dark condition and under sun light as shown in figure. Under light the I-V curve keeps the same shape as dark curve, but is off set along the negative current axis, as a result, an open circuit voltage appears on the positive voltage axis and a short circuit current on the negative current axis.

The Solar Cell may be fixed at its max. power point either by applying an external voltage Vm or by connecting the cell to a load R = Vm/Im. Two rectangles are marked around the I-V characteristics. The ratio of the smaller to the larger rectangle is the Fill Factor. The energy

conversion efficiency of a Solar Cell can be described as:--

Efficiency

= Im x Vm Pi x a

or F.F x ISC X VOC Pi x a

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Fig 9.6 Characteristics of a Typical Silicon Solar Cell

Pi is the incident solar power density and 'a' is the receiving area of the Solar Cell.

The efficiency is defined as the ratio between electric power which can be extracted at the maximum receiver point of the I-V curve and the incident light. However, the efficiencies obtainable are lower as the spectrum of sunlight extends from ultra-violet through the visible range to the far infra-red, whereas Silicon Solar Cells are insensitive to light outside the visible and the very near infra-red part of the Spectrum. The max. theoretical conversion efficiency of silicon Solar Cells under max. illumination with Solar Light on ground may be about 22 to 23%. Reflection and Absorption: While considering the theoretical efficiency of a PV device, a close observation is needed at the process by which a Photon is absorbed by an electron in the Solar Cell. The light incident on a Solar Cell may either be reflected or absorbed in the cell or transmitted through the cell. Since silicon has been the most common material used for Solar Cells and polished Silicon has a reflectivity of 30%, anti-reflective coatings have always been used in Solar Cells. During the first 20 years Silicon Oxide coating was used to reduce

reflection. The Oxides of titanium and tantalum have subsequently replaced Silicon Oxide as coating material of Solar Cell as a result of their greater transmittance capabilities at low wave lengths.

The energy required to promote an electron from its bound state in a crystal into the conduction band varies from one semi-conductor to another. It can be expressed as electron volts or as
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the wavelength of the light. Silicon has a band gap of 1.12electron volts or light wave length of 1.1 microns. Radiation with wavelength longer than 1.1 microns does not have enough energy to move electrons into conduction band, hence, transmitted through the cell and result into heat. For wavelengths shorter than 1.1 microns, the energy is absorbed by electron, but it cannot retain more than 1.12 electron volts of the Photon's energy. The excess energy is converted into heat. High Cost of Solar Cell: The reason for high cost of Solar Cell is the chemical purity and crystallographic perfection that are needed to enable the Solar Cell to perform at its highest efficiency. The present Silicon type Solar Cells require a Silicon of "semi-conductor grade", which is a very expensive material. Perfect crystals of silicon are grown by the clochralstic method. In this process silicon rods of 3" or 4" dia are drawn from molten Silicon in monocrystalline form and latter cut into wrappers by sawing quite slowly. The typical wrapper is 1/4th mm thick and doped with a type impurity. The high cost is partly due to the fact that a large proportion of Silicon is wasted as saw dust.

The efficiency of these Cells can be improved depending on the fact that the output of Solar Cell of a given size is proportional to the intensity of the radiation falling on that. This is achieved by concentrating sunlight onto a relatively small area of Solar Cell, by focussing the light with a parabolic mirror or trough shaped reflector known as Wingston Collector.

Parabolic Mirror has two disadvantages:

It would focus the radiation such that it would strike the cells at various angles, whereas the cells perform best if the radiation strikes them at right angles to their front surface.

It would be necessary to rotate the reflector to keep it pointing to the Sun throughout the day, which requires a fairly precise automatic tracking device.

9.8

Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells:

9.8.1 Homojunction cells

Homojunction Ga As single crystal cells have efficiency 4 to 5% more than Silicon Solar Cells. The Cells are made by diffusing Zn or Cd acceptors into N-type Ga As wafers. The basic structure of a high efficiency Ga As based Solar Cell as shown in figure. The P on N rather than N on P arrangement is favoured because of the availability of suitable dopants for forming
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shallow homojunction, because Ga As is a direct gap semi-conductor, as a result of which, Solar Photons are absorbed within about 5 m of the surface of incidence. The junction in the early Ga As Cells was 1 m or more below the surface. An appreciable fraction of Solar Photons were, therefore, absorbed in the diffused skin.

Doping with Zn, Ge and Be can be achieved by out-diffusion from the doped gallium aluminium arsenide, which is usually deposited by liquid phase epitaxial technique. Sequential liquid

phase epitaxial formation of P-type GaAs and Ga (1-x) Alx as using Ge as a dopant is another possible method.

The Ga As used in crystals was cut from ingots grown by the Czochralski or boat-growing methods and doped. Anti reflection coatings that have been used with success are Ti02 and Si3N4. The latter film also shows some promise of being adequate as a protective coating for the Solar Cell, particularly if the device can be shielded from direct rain incidence.

0.3 5 m 0.5 1 m

Fig 9.7 Schematic Cross selection of GaAs High Efficiency Solar Cell

In Ga As Cell, owing to its high absorption, co-efficient for visible light, all light is absorbed in a surface layer not more than about 1 m thick. At higher temperatures at about 100 deg. C, the performance of GaAs Solar Cells is better than that of Silicon Cells. The power of GaAs Cells decreases by 0.2 to 0.3% per C, whereas the corresponding power decrease in Solar type is 0.35 to 0.45%. The open circuit voltage of GaAs Cell at room temperature is only slightly less than I-V, which is appreciably higher than that of Silicon Cells. Consequently, the voltage decreases as a percentage of the original voltage is comparatively low for Ga As Cells.

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Though the efficiency of Ga As Cells is about 27% higher than that of Solar type which is about 22%, the high cost of Ga As Cells is the disadvantage, due to which Ga As seems unsuitable for low cost Solar Cells.

9.9

Other varieties of solar cells

9.9.1 Poly-Crystalline Cells: Silicon Cells can be produced as Poly-Crystalline Cells also.
This type of Cell does not have an equal efficiency of mono-crystalline type, the efficiency is less by 1 to 2%, but the cost is less than that of mono-crystalline cells by 20%. This technology also is well proven. The Polycrystalline thin film cells are still at Lab. level.

9.9.2 Cadmium Sulphide Solar Cell: Next to Silicon, material that has attracted most of
the international research effort is Cadmium Sulphide (Cds), which exhibits good conversion efficiencies. It consists of a substrate on which a 20 um thick Cds layer is evaporated with a thin Cu2S film on top of is shown in figure. The whole is hermitically sealed in a glass

encapsulation. A Cds Cell Normal Window glass is employed as a substrate. By means of chemical spraying, a transparent conductive tin oxide layer, a Cds layer and finally, a Cu2S layer are laid down on successive steps. The thickness of all three together does not exceed 3 m. The cell is intended for illumination from back, that is, the light must first cross the glass substrate and the back of the semi-conductor layer before reaching the barrier layer or junction. This kind of structure is called a back-wall cell.

Cds Solar Cell is a very low cost Solar Cell. As the layer is very thin, it implies very low material consumption. It is made of Polycrystalline material which presents a basic cost advantage. The VOC is 400 to 500 mV, ISC is comparable to Silicon Cells. Cds Cell development has been plagged by poor long life stability. Cds Cells are inappropriate for operation under highly concentrated light which involves high operating temperature.

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GLASS NEGATIVE ELECTRODE INCONEL

Fig 9.8 Schematic Cross Sections through a low cost Cadmium Sulphide Solar Cell

9.9.3 Amorphon Silicon Cells: These Cells do not have a regular crystal structure and it is
like glass. The band gap energy is higher than that of crystalline silicon (1.8 ev as compared to 1.12 ev), thus only a smaller part of the solar energy spectrum can be converted to electricity. The typical conversion efficiencies range from 7 to 8%. This Cell offers lower cost and

reliability. This Cell suffers from the disadvantage that its output power gradually reduces with continued exposure to light.

9.9.4 Tandum Solar Cells: This type overcomes the high band gap energy of amorphon
Silicon Cells. This consists of 3 simple cells stacked in layers with each layer being optimised to absorb and convert a portion of the spectrum. The overall efficiency of tandum cells is always less than that of individual layers put together because of attenuation of light in upper layers and at cell interface. This technology is still under evolution and long term degradation effects are not known.

9.10 Solar Array Configuration

Solar Cell arrays usually consist of Series-Parallel inter-connected Solar Cells bonded to supporting substrate and encapsulated with transparent materials to provide environmental protection and non-corrosion. Most of the silicon Solar Cells employed for terrestrial

applications are round wafers of 5 cm dia. and a thickness of 0.3 to 0.5 mm. A 5 cm dia. cell with surface area of about 20 cm2 delivers in "Full Sun", a power about 0.3 W at less than 0.5 V, at room temperature.

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For higher power and higher voltage, a number of cells must be assembled into Panel. If more voltage is required, the cells should be connected in series and for more current in parallel. By connecting a number of cells in series and parallel, it is possible to provide any power at any voltage.

Careful attention must be given to matching the electrical characteristics of the cells which are to be assembled. As a general rule, all cells to be connected in parallel should have the same Voc and even more important, the same max power point voltage. Cells to be operated in series have the same ISC and the same max. power point current. The mismatching of Solar Cell characteristics leads to 'bad' panels, because the cells of higher photo current and photo voltage dissipate their excess power in the cells of lower electrical performance.

The general practice is not to build a Solar Generator from one panel. But to divide the array into a number of modules of equal voltage and power. For various applications standard

Modules can be designed satisfying specific constraints. The present standard values are 1.5 V, 6V, 12 V, 24 V, 48V, which are multiples of each other. Any specific power demand can be met by connecting a suitable number of Modules in series and in parallel.

The terminology of array, sub-array, panel, module and Solar Cell are indicated in figure.

The solar arrays must be protected on both sides. This is achieved by sandwiching them between a substrate at bottom and a protection layer which is normally called as encapsulation. The thermal co-efficient of encapsulating material should be compatible with that of the Silicon Cells and the glue. Glass and plastics are the most widely used materials at present. Glass has the advantage for the Solar Cells of unchanging Optical, mechanical and electrical properties during long periods of in-field operation. Plastic on the other hand, do not preclude the penetration of moisture into the Junction and metalization. Consequently, they are suitable only if the underlying Silicon and other metals are corrosion resistant. Some types of plastics may lose their transitivity to light and their tensile strength, after long exposure to atmosphere and sunlight. Experience in this field is well-advanced, for Silicon panels encapsulated with plastic with long life expectancy.

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Fig 9.9 Solar Cells Array

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9.11

Effect of dust, snow, etc., on Solar Panels:

Accumulation of dust, dirt and snow on Solar arrays effects adversely its efficiency of conversion. An experiment was conducted by Centre for Arid Zone Research Institute, The

Jodhpur, for qualification of effect of dust and wind on Solar Power conversion. conclusions are as under:-

Effect of dust is more in winter months of December and January in comparison to April and May when dust storms are there. In Monsoon months, effect of dust is less due to natural cooling and cleaning. The low reduction in PV power output in Summer compared to Winter months is because of high wind speed and South West direction of wind that sweeps away the dust.

It is advisable to keep the PV arrays clean by periodical cleaning.

9.12

P-V array

A typical PV cell array is shown in figure 9.10

Fig 9.10 A Typical P-V Conversion Array

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Total 16 Nos. of Solar Cell Modules are connected in series Parallel to give a peak output of 64 V and 5.8 amps. Each Solar module is assembled with 34 Solar Cells in series to give a peak output of 1.45 amps and 16V.

9.13

Power System with Photo Voltaic Conversion

Typical Arrangement of Power Supply for Large Loads is shown in fig. 9.11

Fig. 9.11 Typical Arrangement of Power Supply for Large Loads

A typical arrangement is shown in figure. As the Solar Power is not available while it is dark, a normal storage arrangement is needed in the form of battery.

In Small Scale Units, a Solar Conversion System and Storage is sufficient to meet day and night power demand.

Whereas in large Scale Units another charger is also provided to charge batteries during periods of darkness and also during periods while the peak power is not obtained by P.V. conversion.

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Chapter 10

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS, POWER SUPPLY ARRRANGEMENTS AND LOAD CALCULATIONS


10.1 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS:

The fuses provided for power supply systems like Battery chargers, Stabilizers, etc must be of correct value. Rating of fuses shall be equal to 1.5 times the current flowing through it.

Take all safety precautions while maintaining the battery.

Do not bring naked flames into Battery room.

Dangerous growth of vegetation near the equipments or feeder lines or masts must not be allowed.

Smoking should be prohibited inside the petrol storage rooms and battery room.

Oils, paints should not be stored near the equipments.

All power supply systems must be properly earthed.

All electrical installations shall be provided with gas type extinguishers. Water should not be used for extinguish electrical fires.

Fuses shall be removed or replaced only after the circuit has been completely de-energized.

Suitable protective guards and wire nets shall be provided to prevent staff from making accidental contact at the dangerous voltages and radio frequency high power radiation.

Where cables pass through metallic parts, insulating bushes shall be provided.

Tools which are used in S&T circuits and on any current carrying parts of S&T equipment are required to be insulated to protect the staff from AC induced voltages.

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10.2

POWER SUPPLY LOAD CALCULATIONS

All Telecommunication equipments works on DC power supply. They will take different amounts of currents. The battery used as a standby power-storing device also takes current during charging depending on its Capacity and type of charging.

In this chapter we will calculate the capacity of charger required in different types of power supply systems. 10.2.1 LOAD CALCULATION IN MICROWAVE STATION:

In a Microwave stations different types of equipments takes load currents as follows:

Analog Radio Equipment FAS 7000 48 Volts DC working each takes 6 Amps current. If 2 Nos of such equipments takes 6X2=12 Amps current.

7GHz Digital MW Radio equipment LSS 767(BEL) 48Volts DC working each takes 4 Amps current. If 1 No of such equipment is there it takes 4 Amps current.

Digital Multiplexing equipment 34 MB 48 Volts working each takes 1 Amps current. If 2 Nos of equipments are there, the total current will be 1X2 = 2 Amps.

Total Load current of the above three equipments =12+4+2 =18Amps.

Capacity of the battery required = 18 Amps X10 Hours = 180 AH.

As per RDSO instructions the battery should be discharged up to 50% of its capacity to make it recharge quickly.

Therefore Actual capacity of the battery required= 180 X 2 = 360 AH.

The charge/discharge system is used in Microwave stations.

Rating of the charger required to put the battery under normal charging = C/10 x 1.5

= 360/10 x 1.5 = 36 x 1.5 = 54 Amps.

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Total Load = Voltage X Load Current Power Factor X Efficiency =Voltage X (Normal charging current of the battery) Power factor X Efficiency of charger. = 48 V X (18 A) 0.8 X 0.7 = 1516 VA. 10.2.2 LOAD CALCULATION IN TELEPHONE EXCHANGE:

The IRISET Telephone Exchange consists of

C-Dot Electronic Exchange, which takes a load current of 5 Amps, at 48V D.C.

OKI Electronic Exchange, which takes a load current of 20 Amps at 48V D.C.

ISDN Type electronic exchange, which takes a load current of 1.5 Amps ,at 48V D.C.

Total Load current of Telephone Exchange =5 + 20 + 1.5 =26.5 Amps

Capacity of the battery required = 26.5 Amps X10 Hours =265 AH.

As per RDSO instructions the battery should be discharged up to 50% of its capacity to make it recharge quickly,

Therefore Actual capacity of the battery required= 265 X 2 = 530 AH. Float charging system with Auto/Manual battery charger is used in Telephone exchange. Rating of the charger required to put the battery under Float charging = C/10 x 2.5 = 530/10 x 2.5 = 53 x 2.5 = 132.5 Amps. = 133 Amps.(Minimum) Total Load = Voltage X Load Current Power Factor X Efficiency

48 X ( 26.5 + 53 ) =--------------------.8 X .7
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= 6814 VA.

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10.3. POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS:


Power supply arrangements are required at different offices for different types of Telecommunication equipments for better working without interruption. 10.3.1. POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTSAT MICROWAVE STATIONS: -

At Micro wave stations AC mains power failure is frequent, because they are located at remote places in jungles. The ac power hum due to ripple current in the output of a battery charger is to be avoided. This can be achieved by running the equipment only on battery without charger connected to the equipment directly.

This can be done by providing charge- discharge working.

In this TWO battery banks are used. If one battery bank is under charging and the other is connected to the equipment. Connection and disconnection of the equipment and batteries are done by the DPDT/DPST switches as shown in the wiring diagram. TWO generators are provided to supply AC during the AC mains power fails. A suitable type of battery charger is to be provided to charge the battery banks.

While changing over the batteries precaution to be taken not to switch off the equipments. For that put both the DPDT switches to UP side and then put the required switch to DOWN for charging battery.

The arrangement is shown in the block diagram shown in Fig.10.1

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MW EQPT

SWITCHES A & B ARE MAKE BEFORE BREAK TYPE

+ BATT SET 1

++-

-+ BATT SET 2 -+ BATT Batt. SET Charger 2 2 12 NOs OF LA CELLS

+ 12 NOs OF LA CELLS

BATT Batt. SET Charger 1 1

SW3

SW4

AC STABILISER SW2 SW1 GEN SET 1 A C SWITCH GEN SET 2

A C INPUT, 230 V

Fig.10.1 POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT AT MW STATION 10.3.2 POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS IN CONTROL OFFICE: -

DC power is to be provided for each HQ control equipment at control office. The arrangement is shown in the Fig.10.2.

The AC mains voltage is given to the power pack. It contains PSU and Rectifier and regulator circuits. The out put of the power pack given to the DTMF Head quarter equipment.

It gives 12V DC output. Inside of it a 4AH 12V maintance free battery is kept as a stand by power source. It is charged with the charger and kept always in fully charged condition. During

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the failure of AC MAINS voltage immediately the battery supplies the required power to the load. After the restoration of a AC mains voltage the battery is gets charged.

230 V, 50Hz A C MAINS

PSU

Rectifier & Regulator

DTMF HQ EQPt

Power Pack

12 V Battery 4 AH SMF

Fig.10.2 POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT AT RE CONTROL STATION 10.3.3 POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT AT WAY STATION FOR DTMF EQUIPMENT

At way station, DTMF equipment requires 12 V DC for its working. It is provided with the power pack as shown for the HQ equipment. At some places it can also be provided by a conventional type of Lead Acid Battery of 12V. It requires periodical maintaince which can be carried out by the repeater staff. 10.3.4 POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT FOR RE REPEATER The power supply arrangement for Repeater is shown in the Fig.10.3.

COMMERCIAL A C MAINS 230 V, 50Hz

BATTERY CHARGER

+ -

24 V 120 AH LAB

RE Amplifier Bay

SWITCH AC AT SUPPLY SUPPLY

Each Shelf Takes < 100 mA

TRACTION 25 KV

POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT RE REPEATOR


Fig.10.3. Power Supply Arrangement at RE Repeater

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PHOTO VOLTAIC GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY SOLAR CELLS

RE repeater requires 24V DC for its working. It can be provided by 12 numbers of Conventional type Lead Acid cells connected in series to make a 24V battery OF 120AH capacity.

The mains AC supply is given to the suitable type of battery charger like Auto/Manual type of charger with efficient filter circuit.

The battery is connected in float fashion, so whenever the AC mains supply goes OFF immediately the battery takes care and equipment will not be interrupted.

If the AC mains voltage is not restored shortly the battery charger can be provided with the AT (traction) supply which will be available all the time. 10.3.5. POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT AT ELECTRONIC EXCHANGE

The power supply arrangement at Electronic exchange is shown in Fig10.4.

The electronic exchange requires 48V4V DC. This can be provided with a battery of 48V DC with 24 cells connected in series. The capacity of the battery can be calculated taking the current drawn by the equipment.

A 80 AH battery is shown in the figure.

A battery charger of suitable type with required current rating which can charge the battery and supply current to the load should be used.

EXAMPLE:

Current drawn by the 128 port electronic exchange- 3 Amps.

Capacity of the battery required is 3A X 10 H = 30 AH.

But as for the RDSO the battery should not be discharged to 50% of its Capacity to get maximum life from it.

So the Capacity of the battery required is double to that of the caliqulated value. becomes 2 X30 = 60 AH.

Which

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So we can go for a 80 AH battery.

Calculation of charger current:

The charger current can be calculated from the battery capacity.

If the battery capacity is 80 AH then the current capacity = 8010 X 2.5 =20 Amps.

This can supply 3 Amps load current and also 8 Amps for charging battery if fully discharged.

POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT AT ELECTRONIC EXCHANGE C - DOT


+ AC 170-270 V, 50Hz 128 Port Exchnage : 5 Amps. Normal Battery Current : 8 Amps. 13 Amps. Total Current : Stabiliser Stabiliser 230 V Battery Charger FCBC 48 V 20 Amps _ + 48 V 80 AH _ C-DOT Exchange 128 Points

OKI/512 PORT

+
AC 160-270 V, 50Hz Ferroresistant Voltage Stabiliser 230 V A C Automatic Battery Charger 48 V, 100 A

+
48 V 400 AH OKI Electronic Exchange

_
Switch

~
AT SUPPLY

Exchnage Current : 30 Amps. Battery Current : 40 Amps. Total Current : 70 Amps. so 100 Amps. is taken

Fig.10.4. Power Supply Arrangement for Electronic Exchange

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PHOTO VOLTAIC GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY SOLAR CELLS

10.3.6. POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT AT OFC HUT:

+ AC 170-270 V, 50Hz AC Stabiliser Battery Charger SMPS 48 V D C 25 Amps VRLA/Low maintenance OFC Equipment _

MOVR

Battery:

Type:

Voltage: 48 V +/- 2 V D C Capacity: 120 AH 10 Hrs Number: 24 Nos. Each Cell Voltage: 2 V D C Float Voltage: 53.52 V (2.23 V/Cell) Boast Voltage: 55.2 V (2.3 V/Cell) Charge Type: SMPS Current rating of 12.5 Amps. Each SMR Module

Fig.10.5. Power Supply Arrangement at OFC hut

The power supply arrangement at OFC hut is shown in the above block diagram. Single battery is floated across the out put of a float charger of required current rating.

AC 230V 50Hz is given to the input of a AC stabilizer so the out put is a stable AC. This is given to the input of a SMPS type battery charger. It works on switch mode techque and its out put is a stabilized DC supply of 48V 2V. Its current rating is 25 Amps to get this 2 numbers of SMR modules each 12.5A are working in parallel operation and the third one is in stand by mode. The out put of this is given to a battery of 48V comprising 24 numbers of low maintaince/SMF type Lead Acid cells each 2V 120 AH capacity, connected in series to get 48 V 120 AH.

Since the battery is connected in float fashion it is kept in fully charged condition. The load current is taken from the charger. When ever the Ac mains supply fails, automatically the battery takes up the load. After resume of AC supply, the charger gives current for the charging the battery and working of load.

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