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SRI KRISHNA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY KOVAI PUDUR COIMBATORE-641042

"Application of Wavelet Transform for the Detection and Minimization of Harmonics using Shunt Active Filter"
Priyadharshini.A1 ,Hans John Dcruz2 , Naresh.B3 , Ragul.J4 , Swathy.S5

Abstract:
Power quality is of prime importance in Industries. Harmonics has been a major factor for the reduction in power quality. Hence reduction of harmonics is an essential task for Electrical Engineers. In this paper we use Shunt Active Power Filters for the minimization of harmonics and for the detection purpose Wavelet Transformation is applied. The two types of filter circuits generally used are active filters and passive filters. Active filters can be used to reduce the effect of more than one order, where as passive filter is cheaper and can be used for larger loads in power system. Shunt active filter generates compensating currents to eliminated harmonic currents. As for the detection part, the conventionally used methodology is Fourier Transform. Wavelet Transformation is a fast growing technique , used due to its advantages over Fourier Transform. There is appreciable degradation in the signal in conventional transformation which is avoided in Wavelet Transformation. Fourier Transform can analyse only stationary waves, for nonstationary waves Wavelet Transform becomes the ideal choice. Fourier Transform shows only time domain representation where as Wavelet Transform shows localized time and frequency domain representation simultaneously. Furthermore a lot of shortcomings in existing transformation are eliminated by using Wavelet transform to mention a few, trends , breakdown points, discontinuities in higher derivation and self similarities. Thus by applying the above process the reduction of Harmonics has been done successfully using Matlab Simulation Process. 1.Mrs Priyadharshini.A is working as the Assistant Professor , Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering in Sri Krishna College of Technology,Kovaipudur, Coimbatore-641008.

2 - Hans John Dcruz, 3- Naresh.B, 4Ragul.J and 5- Swathy.S are Final year students of Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering in Sri Krishna College of Technology, Kovaipudur,Coimbatore-641008 Guided by Mrs Priyadharshini.A.
Contact Person: Hans John D'cruz Mobile Number:9943980500 Email-Id:hansdcruz@gmail.com

Project Methodology: The first step in our project was to design non-linear load. The simplest of non-linear loads, Rectifier was chosen. Analysis of the Harmonics was done and the THD values were noted. Passive filter for compensating 5th Harmonic was introduced and the corresponding THD values were noted. An inverter circuit was designed and tested for effective operation. This inverter is used as a Shunt Active Filter in place of Passive filter and its THD values are noted. Now the circuit is made closed loop by triggering the IGBT based on load current and thus the closed loop circuit is completed. This is done using Synchronous Reference Frame Theory. Wavelet analysis is included and the Final outcome of the THD values are noted. The results from the values steps are noted and tabulated.

Non-Linear Loads: Unlike in Linear Loads Ohm's Law is not applicable to Non-Linear Loads. Power Factor is not cos. Load current contains all ODD Harmonics. The loads can't be categorized as leading or lagging loads. The primary devices used will be Diode and Capacitor. Applies to those ac loads where the current is not proportional to the voltage. Foremost among loads meeting their definition are gas discharge lighting having saturated ballast coils and Thyristor (SCR) controlled loads. The nature of non-linear loads is to generate harmonics in the current waveform. This distortion of the current waveform leads to distortion of the voltage waveform. Under these conditions, the voltage waveform is no longer proportional to the current. FFT Analysis of Non Linear load (without any filter):

Block Diagram:

It shows a THD of 17.59%. Harmonics: Harmonic distortion refers to the distortion factor of a current or voltage waveform with respect to the pure sine wave. Distortion factor is the ratio of the root-mean square of the content to the root-mean square value of the fundamental quantity, expressed as the percent of fundamental. Total Harmonic Distortion is

the sum of all the harmonic distortion. It is commonly used to define current or voltage distortion factor. The Total Harmonic Distortion for voltage at the connection point shall not exceed 5% with no individual harmonic higher than 3%. The Total Harmonic Distortion for current drawn from the transmission system at the connection point shall not exceed 5%.

Since capacitor is connected directly to the point of common coupling, resonance occurs in the circuit. The size and cost of the equipment will be large if more number of passive filters are added to the circuit.

FFT Analysis of Non Linear load (With Passive Filter): IEEE Standards for Voltage Distribution:

Bus Voltage at PCC 69 kV and below 69.001kV through 161kV 161.001kV and above

Individual Voltage Distortion (%) 3.0

Total Voltage Distortion THD (%) 5.0 It shows a THD of 4.99%.

1.5

2.5

Shunt Active Filter: To overcome these short coming we switch over to Active filters. Active Filters are larger than Passive Filters. Active Filters are easier to tune compared to Passive Filters. There are two types of Active Filters(i.e) Series Active and Shunt Active. Depending of the requirements the active filter can be connected in series or parallel. Here active filter is connected in parallel with non-linear loads. Shunt active filter act as a harmonics current source to cancel the load harmonics current. The basic principle behind generation of compensating current is that it generates a current equal and opposite in polarity to harmonic current drawn by load and injects it to the point of common coupling thereby forcing compensation to be sinusoidal.

1.0

1.5

Passive Filter: Passive Filter was initially used for the reduction of Harmonic currents before Active Filter came into existence. Passive Filter acts as a harmonic current reducer. We have to first know the order of harmonics and design a passive filter to reduce that order of harmonic. The Disadvantages of Passive Filter are: The number of filters used will increase with the order of harmonics present.

FFT Analysis of Non Linear load (With Shunt Active Filter(Open Loop,=90)):

FFT Analysis of Non Linear load (With Shunt Active Filter triggered using SRF Theory):

It shows a THD of 4.68%. Synchronous Reference Theory (SRF): In the SRF, the load current signals are transformed into the conventional rotating frame d-q. If theta is the transformation angle, the transformation is defined by:

It shows a THD of 4.60%. Wavelet Transform: Nowadays, wavelet transformation is one of the most popular candidates of the time-frequencytransformations. The wavelet transform is often compared with the Fourier transform. Fourier transform is a powerful tool for analyzing the components of a stationary signal (a stationary signal is a signal where there is no change in the properties of signal). For example, the Fourier transform is a powerful tool for processing signals that are composed of some combination of sine and cosine signals (sinusoids). The Fourier transform is less useful in analyzing non-stationary signal (a nonstationary signal is a signal where there is change in the properties of signal). Wavelet transforms allow the components of a non-stationary signal to be analyzed. Wavelets also allow filters to be constructed for stationary and nonstationary signals. Initial wavelet applications involved signal processing and filtering. However, wavelets have been applied in many other areas including non-linear regression and compression. An offshoot of wavelet compression allows

It is again converted back to a b c values which acts as reference voltage and current. These 6 values of reference voltages and current are converted triggering pulses for the Shunt active filter using PWM pulse generation.

Simulation Model of SRF Theory

the amount of determinism in a time series to be estimated. The main difference is that wavelets are well localized in both time and frequency domain whereas the standard Fourier transform is only localized in frequency domain. The Shorttime Fourier transform (STFT) is also time and frequency localized but there are issues with the frequency time resolution and wavelets often give a better signal representation using Multiresolution analysis(MRA). Fourier transform is based on a single function (t) and that this function is scaled. But for the wavelet transform we can also shift the function, thus generating a two-parameter family of functions. Some Advantages of Wavelet Theory: a) One of the main advantages of wavelets is that they offer a simultaneous localization in time and frequency domain.

b) The second main advantage of wavelets is that, using fast wavelet transform, it is computationally very fast. c) Wavelets have the great advantage of being able to separate the fine details in a signal. Very small wavelets can be used to isolate very fine details in a signal, while very large wavelets can identify coarse details. d) A wavelet transform can be used to decompose a signal into component wavelets. e) In wavelet theory, it is often possible to obtain a good approximation of the given function f by using only a few coefficients which is the great achievement in compare to Fourier transform. f) Wavelet theory is capable of revealing aspects of data that other signal analysis techniques miss the aspects like trends, breakdown points, and discontinuities in higher derivatives and self-similarity. g) It can often compress or de-noise a signal without appreciable degradation.

Simulation of Shunt Active Filter Triggered using SRF Theory:

Tabulation of THD values: Shunt Active % Without Passive Filter THD Filter Filter (Open Loop) VLA 1.49 1.48 2.51 VLB 1.41 1.35 2.63 VLC 1.34 1.50 2.76 ILA 54.5 5.46 4.77 ILB 17.59 4.29 4.98 ILC 37.41 4.99 4.68 Reference: Shunt Active Filter (Closed Loop) 1.32 1.38 1.42 4.77 4.60 4.68

Parameters Used: Lline = 12mH Rload = 6 Cload = 1F Lload = 0.4mH. Lppf = 20.17mH Cppf = 625F Lsapf = 4.05mH Csapf = 100F Cdc = 6800F

Load

Passive Filter

Shunt Active Filter

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