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CONJUNCTIONS

Conjunctions are connectors. They connect (join) words or groups of words in a sentence. Conjunctions are divided into three groups: coordinating Coordinating Conjunctions These join words, phrases, or clauses of equal rank. The most common coordinating conjunctions are: and, but, or, for, nor, yet, so They can join nouns to nouns, pronouns to pronouns, verbs to verbs, adjectives to adjectives, or adverbs to adverbs. This kind of pairing is what we mean by "equal rank." The words must be the same part of speech. The only exception is that nouns and pronouns can be joined, since pronouns can replace nouns. We do not connect an adjective with an adverb, for instance, because we do not use the two parts of speech in the same way. Here are some examples of correct usage: fire and water Burns and Allen they nor we (Note: pronouns are in the same case) us and him sadder and wiser strong or weak noisily but fearfully fast and surely watched and listened (verbs are in the same tense) run, leap, and jump Phrases and clauses of equal rank can also be joined by coordinating conjunctions: Winning the game or losing it, he was happy. (participial phrases joined) Chopping the meat and peeling carrots, he cooked dinner. (participial phrases joined) Come with Harvey or without him. (prepositional phrases joined) Turn to Mr. Green or to me for help. (prepositional phrases joined) Sit quietly, or you must leave. (independent clauses joined) Use the red paint, but save the green. (independent clauses joined) correlative subordinating

Exercise A In each sentence, circle the coordinating conjunction and underline the two elements it joins. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. John and Joe were sick. The deer jumped over the fence and into the woods. We laughed and talked until midnight. My little brother sometimes bothers me, but I still love him. The team can win or lose, but the fans will still come to the game. The injured dog could not walk, nor could it stand. Few animals ever walk or wander to the interior of the desert. John prefers vivid colours, yet he paints with dull ones. Wear your raincoat, or carry an umbrella. Harold wont help us with the decorations, but Frank will if he has time. You had better leave early, or you may have trouble with holiday traffic. The damage was serious yet repairable. We didnt stop to see Dr. Hill, for we had to meet Uncle Fred. We were late, so Dad drove us to school.

Correlative Conjunctions This group has the same job as coordinating conjunctions. It joins words to word groups of equal rank, but correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. Correlative conjunctions frequently express choice. Here are some examples: either .. or neither .. nor both .. and whether .. or

not only .. but (also) The italicised/bold words in the following examples are correlative conjunctions: Both Hank and Jose <BReither the left shoe or the right one They not only ate the meat but cleaned up. Kevin neither washed the car nor bought gas We cant decide whether to drive or to fly. Exercise B In each sentence, circle the correlative conjunctions. Underline the elements they join. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. The Yankees will either win the World Series or they will lose. The vegetarian could eat neither fat nor lean. The coach not only answered my questions but also gave sound advice. Neither the bat nor the glove is mine. Either Mother or Father will meet you at the airport. Not only did we go to the zoo, but we also went to the circus. Both wolves and coyotes are found in mountainous areas. Many soldiers were both young and inexperienced. The soldiers often fought not only the enemy but also the weather. Neither the North nor the South expected to lose the war. The holiday will be enjoyable whether you surf or swim.

Conjunctive Adverbs Some adverbs can work as conjunctions between two independent clauses. These adverbs add meaning by providing logical links between the clauses, but they differ from coordinating conjunctions in that they can occupy many positions in the sentence.

The italicised/bold words in the following sentences are Conjunctive Adverbs: Alvin knew he had little chance of winning; nevertheless, he worked as hard as he could. Dr. Jerome was outspoken and brutally frank; therefore, he had few friends. The earrings were prettier than the bracelet; they were, besides, far less expensive. Mr. Horner thought the plan was dangerous; he agreed, however, to join the group of rescue workers. Exercise C Underline the conjunctive adverbs in the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. Ralph was late; James, however, was early. Mr. Castle is very gruff and impatient; nonetheless, I cant help liking him. Its been raining for days; therefore, wear your boots. Jim forgot it was Thursday; he failed, consequently, to keep his dental appointment. The mans fingerprints were found on the buried murder weapon; moreover, the suspects own dog dug it up. During the last five days, Mona has been wonderful to me; I cannot predict, however, what the next week will bring.

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Subordinating Conjunctions A subordinating conjunction joins a dependent clause to an independent clause. A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. At the same time, the conjunction supplies information about how the two clauses are related. The conjunction may place the actions in time (while, as soon as, before, since). It may relate cause and result (since, why, because). It may state a condition (unless, if, although) or a purpose (so, that). Or it may make a comparison (than). Among the most commonly used subordinating conjunctions are the following: after because since unless

although as as if as long as

before how if in order that

so that that though till

when where while why

In the following examples, the italicised/bold words are subordinating conjunctions: Light the flare if it gets dark. Work only when it is safe to do so. He would not swim in the ocean because he had seen a movie about sharks. The nurse grew queasy whenever she saw blood. Pull off the road so that you dont stop traffic. Some subordinating conjunctions can occur at the beginning of a sentence instead of in the middle. Even in this new position, they are still used to join dependent clauses to independent clauses. Note the examples below: Before you change the tire, you must find a jack. Although you drive well, you are not a good mechanic. After John left, Mary cried. As long as it rains, we cannot play croquet. Exercise D List each conjunction. Label them CO for coordinating conjunctions, COR for correlative conjunctions, and SUB for subordinating conjunctions. 1. 2. 3. Several animals live near the border of the desert where water is available. Among these are the lion, panther, hyena, jackal and fox. The desert is a natural environment for the ostrich, and it becomes a comfortable home for this bird. The python is a desert dweller because it is suited to the climate. The camel adapts easily to this region and lives there peaceably. The camel is called "the ship of the desert" because it is suitable for desert travel. Webbed feet not only make the camels motion smooth, but also cause

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some passengers to feel seasick. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. The camel is a native of Africa where it is found yet today. The creature is a "baggage animal" in the deserts of both Africa and Asia. Depending on their species, camels have either one hump or two. Camels are interesting animals while they are lessons in endurance. Suddenly a rocket flared and a cannon boomed. For several years, the South could not be beaten, nor would it surrender. The Civil War was a sad and unfortunate event in Americas history, but Americans will always remember it.

ANSWER KEY: Exercise A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. John and Joe were sick. The deer jumped over the fence and into the woods. We laughed and talked until midnight. My little brother sometimes bothers me, but I love him. The team can win or lose, but the fans will still come to the game. The injured dog could not walk, nor could it stand. Few animals every walk or wander to the interior of the desert. John prefers vivid colours, yet he paints with dull ones. Wear your raincoat, or carry an umbrella. Harold wont help us with the decorations, but Frank will if he has time. You had better leave early, or you may have trouble with holiday traffic.

12. 13. 14.

The damage was serious yet repairable. We didnt stop to see Dr. Hill, for we had to meet Uncle Fred. We were late, so Dad drove us to school.

Exercise B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. The Yankees will either win the World Series or they will lose. The vegetarian could eat neither fat nor lean. The coach not only answered my questions, but also gave sound advice. Neither the bat nor the glove is mine. Either Mother or Father will meet you at the airport. Not only did we go to the zoo, but we also went to the circus. Both wolves and coyotes are found in mountainous areas. Many soldiers were both young and inexperienced. The soldiers often fought not only the enemy, but also the weather. Neither the North nor the South expected to lose the war. The holiday will be enjoyable whether your surf or swim.

Exercise C 1. 4. however consequently 2. 5. nonetheless moreover 3. 6. therefore however

Exercise D 1. where SUB 8. where SUB

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

and and because and because not only, but also

CO CO SUB CO SUB COR

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

both, and either, or while and nor and, but

COR COR SUB CO CO CO