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Post Graduate School Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi

Examination f o r Admission to Ph.D. Programme 2011-2012


: Agricultural Statistics

R o l l NO]

Discipline Code : 06
Please Note:



, (i) This question paper contains 12 pages. Please check whether a l l the pages are printed in this set. Report discre~ancy,if any, immediately to the invigilator.


(ii)There shall be NEGATIVE marking for WRONG anskers in the Multiple Choice type questions (No. I to 95) which carry one mark euch. F o r every wrong nns~ver 0.25 mark will be deducted.

PART I (General Agriculture) Multiple choice questions (No. 1 to 30). Choose the correct answer (a, 6,c or d) and enter your choice In the circle (by shading with a pencil) on the OMR

answer sheet as per the instructions given on t h e answer sheet.

1 a) b) c) d) Which of the following crops have been approved for commercial cultivation in india? Bt cotton and Bt brinjal Bt cotton and Golden Rice Bt maize and Bt cotton Bt cotton only

5. To address the problems of sustainable and holistic development of rainfed areas, including appropriate farming and livelihood system approaches, the Government of ind~a has set up the a) National Rainfed Area Authority b) National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas c) National Mission on Rainfed Areas d) Command Area Development and Water Management Authority 6. Which of the following sub-schemes are not covered under the Rashtriya Krishi Viitas Yojana? a) Extending the Green Revolution to eastern lndia b) Development of 60,000 pulses and oilseeds villages in identified watersheds c) N'ational Mission on Saffron d) National Mission on Bamboo

2. This year (2010-11) the expected food grain production in india 1 s a) 212 mtllion tonnes b) 220 million tonnes c) 235 million tonnes d) 250 million tonnes



a) b). c) d)

The genome of which of the following crops is still not completely sequenced? Rice Soybean Sorghum W*at Five Year Plan, the basic objective of the 12Ihplan is inclusive growth Sustainable growth Faster, more inclusive and sustainable growth Inclusive and sustainable growth

7. The minimum support price for the common variety of paddy announced by the Government of lndia for the year 2010..11 was a) 7 1030 b) t 1000 c) T 980 d) 7 950
8. According to the Human Development Report 2010 of the United Nations, India's rank in terms of the human development s index 1 a) 119 , / b) 134 c) 169 d) 182 \

4. According to the Approach Paper to the 12Ih

a) b) c) d)

* ,

Subject :'PIID

- Agricultural Statistics - 2011

18. Inbred iines that have same genetic constitution but differ only at one locus are called a) Multi lines b) Monohybrid C) isogenic lines d) Pure iines

9. Which of the foiiowing does not apply to SRI

a) b) c) d)

method of paddy cultivation? Reduced water application Reduced plant densijy Increased app(rcatlonof chemical fertilizers Reduced age of seedlings

10. Which organic acid, often used as a preservative, occurs naturally in cranberries, prunes, cinnamon and cloves? a) Citric acid b) Benzoic acid c) Tartaric acid d) Lactic acid 11. Cotton belongs to the family a) Cruciferae b) Anacardiaceae C) Maivaceae d) Soianaceae 12. Photoperiodism is a) Bending of shoot towards source of light b) Effect of ilghffdark durations on physiological processes C) Movement of chloroplast in cell in response to light d) Effect of light on chlorophyll synthesis 13. Ergot disease is caused by which pathogen on which host? a) Claviceps purpurea on rye b) Puccinia recondita on wheat c) Drechlera sorokinians on wheat d) Aibugo candida on mustard 14. Rocks are the chief sources of parent materials over which soils are developed. Granite, an important rock, is ciassified as a) Igneous rock b) Metamorphic rock c) Sedimentary rock d) Hybrid rock 15. Which one of the foiiowing is a Kliarif crop? a) Pearl millet b) Lentil c) Mustard d) Wheat 1 6 . ~ h e coefficient of variation calculated by the formula a) (Mean1S.D.) x 100 b) (S.D./Mean) x 100 c) S D./Mean d) MeanlS.0. (C.V.) is

19. For applying 100 kg of nitrogen, how much urea would one use? a) 45 kg b) I l l k g c) 222 kg d) 333 kg
20. The devastating impact of plant disease on human suffering and survival was first realized by epidemic of a) Brown spot of rice in Bengal b) Late blight of potato in USA c) Late blight of potato in Europe d) Rust of wheat in India
21. The species of rice (Oryza) other than 0

a) b) c) d)

sativa that is cultivated is 0. ruripugon 0. longisteminata 0. glabenima 0. nivara

22. The enzyme responsible for the fixation of Cop in mesophyli ceiis of C-4 plants is a) Malic enzyme b) Phosphoenoi pyruvate carboxyiase c) Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase d) RuBP carboxylase 23. Which one of the foiiowing 1 a 'Veltisoi'? s a) Black cotton soil b) Red sandy loam soil c) Sandy loam sodic soil d) Submontane (Tarai) soil 24.What is the most visible physical characteristic of cells in metaphase? a) Elongated chromosomes b) Nucleus visible but chromosomes not c) Fragile double stranded loose chromosomes d) Condensed paired chromosomes on the cell plate 25. Ail weather phenomena like rain, fog and mist occur in a) Troposphere b) Mesosphere c) Ionosphere d) Ozonosphere

17. Which of the following is commonly referred to as muriate of potash? a) Potassium nitrate b) Potassium chloride c) Potassium sulphate d) Potassium silicate

Subject :PIID - Agricultural Statistics 2011 26. Which of the following elements is common to all proteins and nucleic acids? a) Sulphur b) Magnesium C) Nitrogen d) Phosphorous 27. a) b) c) d) Silt has intermediate characteristics between Sand and loam Clay and loam Loam and gravel Sand and clay 34. If AcB, the probability P(A 10) is equal to a) 0

35. If X and Yare two random variables, then

28. Certified seed is produced from a) Nucleus seed b) Breeder seed c) Foundation seed d) ..Truthful seed
29. a) b) c) d)

Seedless banana is an Autotriploid Autotetraploid Allotriploid Ailotetraploid

36. A random vatiable X takes only three values -1, 0 and 1 such that P(X=O) is ?A. Then E(x2) is \ a) % I b) 1/3 c) % 37. An approximate relation between mean deviation about mean and standard deviat~on of a normal distribution is a) 5 M.D. = 4 S.D. \ b) 4 M.D. = 5 S.D. c) 3 M.D. = 3 S.D. ) 3 M.D. = 2 S.D. 38. If X-B (n,p) then Y=n-x is a) B(2n3P) b) B(n,l-p) C ) B(n, P) d) BPn, I-P) 39. If XI, X2, ,.., Xzo_bea rTndom sample from N5 ( p , ~then 20 (X-p)' C (X-p) will be ) a) x: b)

30. Which one of the following is used to test the goodness-of-fit of a distribution? a) Normal test b) t-test c j ~hi-square test d) F-test

PART- I1 (Subject Paper) Multiple choice questions (No. 31 to 95). Choose the correct answer (a, b, c or d) and enter your choice in the circle (by shading with a pencil) on the OMR answer sheet as per the instructions given on the answer sheet.


31. If A and B are two independent events, then P ( k B ) is equal to a) P(A) P(B) b) 1-P(Au6) c) [I-P(A)I [l-p(B)l d) All the above 32. If the letters of the word 'UNIVERSITY' are randomly arranged, the probabiiity that the two 1's do not come together is a) 115 b) 215

d) xg0(8), 6 = P' E-'P

40. If X-N(p, 02), maximum probabiiity at the the point of inflexion of normal distribution is

33. The probability of intersection of two mutually exclusive events is always al Zero b j lnfinitv c) One ' d) Depends on individual probabiiity of the events

d) ze.'/q2


.o Subject : PhD Agricultural Statistics 2011

41,Maximum height of the student's t-distribution curve at the point t=O is

47. Discriminant function a) Maximizes the difference between populations b) Minimizes the difference between populations c) is always a linear function of the components of the random vector under study f d) None o the above 48. In simple random sampling without replacement, the probability that a specified unit is selected at the second draw from a population of Size N is

42. The relation between statistics t and xZ is

43. if the moment generating function of a distribution is (q+pet)", the variance of the distribution is a) 2n b) pq c) nPq d) pqln 44. The moment generating function of a random variable X is,
2 4 M,(t) = 2 + 1 e , + - e3' 5 3 15 The expected value of X is a) 915

- -

49. Weighted mean gives higher value than the arithmetic mean value if a) Larger weights are given to smaller 0 b ~ e ~ a t i 0 nand smaller weights are given S to larger units b) Equal weights are assigned to each observation c) Smaller weights are given to smaller values and larger weights to larger values d) Given statement is incorrect 50. a\ bj c) d) Maximum likelihood estimators are Unbiased and consistent Biased and consistent Consistent but not necessarily unbiased Biased and inconsistent


45. if X is a standard normal variate, then '/ix2is a gamma variate with paratneters a) 1, % b) % , I C) % , % d) ! , I 46. ~trabfied sampling is a) Always more efficient than simple random sampling b) At least equally efficient as simple random sampling c) Less efflcient than simple random sampling d) Can be less, equally or more efficient than simple random sampling

51. Let {X,, n>O} be a Markov chain with one step translion probability p r ) =P (x,+.=J/x,=~], i,j ES, then

d) None of the above

Subject : PhD - Agricultural Statlstics- 2011

52,Which of the following is a simple hypothesis? a) A random variable follows a normal distribution wlth mean p=O b) A random variable follows a normal distribution with mean p = p ~ c) A random variable follows a normal distribution with mean p=po and standard ' deviation o=oo d) None of the above 53. in case of two stage sampiing with unequal first stage units a) No unbiased estlmator of population mean exists b) Unbiased estlmator may not be better than biased estimator c)'Sample mean is unbiased estimator of population mean d) None of the above 54. a) b) c) d) Stratifled sampling is a valuable tool for Cases of small differences in strata means Gett~ng small sample from the population a Higher accuracy Highly skewed population

58. A population is divided into clusters and it has been found that all Items within a cluster are alike: Which of the following sampling procedure wduld you adopt? a) Simple random sampling b) Cluster sampiing c) Systematic sampling d) Stratified sambling 59. Circular systematic sampling was first used by a) W.G. Cochran b) M.H. Hansen c) D.B. Lahiri d) P.C. Mahalanobis

60. If T andT2are two most efficie2t estimators , with the same variance . S and the correlation between them Is p, the variance of (Tl+T2)/2 is equal to a) s2 \ b) ps2 C (l+p)s2/4 ) d) ( l + p ) ~ ~ / 2 61. In estimating the parameters of a linear function, most commonly used method of estimation is a) Maximum.iikelihood method b) Least square method c) Method of minimum chi-square d) Method of moments 62. For the distribution,

55: Given Independent random samples X;S and Y s ( i2 n) from two normal populations having means pl=u+P and pz=a-P and common variance 02=1, then MLE of a and P are a) b) c)

x+y -2n ' 2n


x+y 2-7 -' 2n 2n

-'2 2

x+y 2-7

a sufficient estimator for 0, based on a sample XI, X2, ..., Xn is a)

c:,x, n

56. if T is unbiased and consistent estimator of 0, then for estimation offi,fl is a) Bi$sed and consistent estimator b) Unbiased and consistent estimator c) Biased and not consistent estimator d j Unbiased and not consistent estimator

63. A test procedure is said to be biased if

57. a) b) c)

Log transform is used when Mean is proportional to variance Mean is proportional to standard deviation Square'of mean Is proportional to standard deviation d) Mean and standard deviations are Inversely related

a) The power of the test for any vaiue of the alternative is not smaller than the level of significance b) The power is zero everywhere c) The power is less than the level of significance for some vaiue of the alternative d) The power is one everywhere
64. a) b) c) d)

Size of critical region is known as Power of the test Size of type I1 error Critical vaiue of the test statistics Size of the test

Subject : PhD - Agricultural Statistics - 2011 65. a) b) C) d) Neyman-Pearson lemma provides An unbiased test A most powerful test An admissible test Minimax test signed rank test, the statistic T+ is distributed with variance n(n-1) (2n-1)/24 n(n+l) (2n+1)/24 n(2n+1)112 n(n-I) (2n+1)112 72. Covariance between full sibs is a) % V A + % V D b) %VA+%/ID C) % V A + % V D d) %VA+%V, 73. Progeny testing Is used for a) Judging the breeding vaiue of dams and sires b) Judging the breeding vaiue of sires and valuation of sire's merit c) Evaluation of sire's and dam's merit d) Judging the breeding vaiue of sires and evaluation of dam's merit
74 if for a binomial distribution b(n,p), mean::4,

66. ' If the sample size is large in Wilcoxon's a) b) c) d)

67. in a 2') experiment with 3 replications, the interaction ABC is confounded. The error degrees of freedom in the analysis of Variance will be a) 16 \ b) 14 c) 12 d) 10 68. The interaction confounded in the following two blocks of a single replication of a factorial experiment is Block 1 (abc) (c) (ab) (1) Block 2 (ac) (bc) (a) (b) I a) AB b) AC C BC ) d) ABC 69. Use of randomization in Design Experiment was first introduced at a) I.A.S.R.I., New Deihi b) I.S.1, Barrackpore c) United States Department of Agriculture d) Rothamsted Experimental Station of


var1ance=4f3,the probab~iity P(X25)




75. If the ties occur in the Kruskal-Wallis test with usual notations, the correction C for ties

76. Under proportional allocation, the size of the sample from each stratum depends on a) Population size b) Total sample size c) Size of the stratum d) All of the above 77. a) b) c) d) Response to selection R = h2s R=hS R=S R=2hS direct

70. Transformation to stabilize variance is done to ensure that a) The distribution is known b) The computation is easy C The variance could be estimated ) d) The variance is independent of population parameters , 71. ~ h a i will be the gene frequency of the recessive gene at equilibrium if the fitness of homozygote relative to heterozygotes is as follows AA Aa aa 0.733 1.00 0.60 a) 0.40 1 b) 0.50 C 0.60 ) d) 0.80

78. indirect selection is better than selection when a) r~ hy > hx I b) TA hy < hx C) hy h x d) hx> h y


79. A test cross is a) Always a backcross b) A backcross only when the parent is homozygous dominant c) A cross between heterozygous d) A cross between two individuals which are homozygous recessive

Subject : PLD - Agricultural Statistics 2011

86. The density function of the continuous random variable X is f(x)=1/2, -1<Xc1 and zero, otherwise. The variance of 1x1 is equal to a\ 112 b j 113 c) 114 d) 1112 87. Given f(x,y) = Kxy, O<x<l, Ocy<l is a p.d.f., the covariance between X and Y is a) 419 b) 213 c) 1/18 t.' d) 0 , il * 88. Let ta12 be the:a% value of t (for two tailed test) with n d.f. and F the upper a% value of , F, Then we have ,. a) t i =Fd

80. In the case of tight linkage, which of the foliowing is least efficient? a) Method of maximum likelihood b) Emerson's method c) Product formula d) Method of the linear function 81. The total number of Latin squares that can be obtained of order 3 are a) 16 b) 12 c) 9 d) 3 82. Which of the following is false regarding the information matrix ((;) of a block des~gn? a) its row sum is always zero b) It'is a non-singular matrix C One of its eigen values is zero ) d) Its column sum is always zero 83. Let v, b, r, k, h be the parameters of a BIB design and TI, i=l, ..., v be the effect of the i-th treatment. Let the three contrasts of treatment effects be defined as follows with varlances V1. V:! and V3, respectively: TI-Tz Tl+Tz-2T3 TI+T~+T~-~T~ .pi "42 Which of the following is true?



89. In a tri-variate distribution, if all the total correlation coefficients are equal, say 'r'. then rlz3 is equal to

There are two bags. One bag contains 4 red and 5 black balls and the other contains 5 red and 4 black bails. One ball is to be drawn from either of the two bags. The prgbability of drawing a black ball is

90. Let S W, (K, Z), be a p-variate Wishart distribution. For p=l, Wl(K, rs2)follows a)



b) rszX; distribution c) Snedecor's F-distribution with 1, p degrees of freedom d) Non-central x i distribution

85. An urn A contains 5 white and 3 black balls and B contains 4 white and 4 black bails. An urn is selected and a ball is drawn from it, the plobability that the ball is white is a) 918 b) 9116 c) 5/32 d) 5116

91. Let L and P denote the convergence in law and in probability, respectively. Which of the following statements is not correct for the sequence of random variables {X,}?

b) X ,

I) K a XX,3 K, where K is a constant

d) X ,

5 K 6 X, 5K, where K is a constant

Subject :PhD -Agriculturn1 Statlsties -2011

92. The treatment x block incidence matrix of a block design is

Which of the following statements is not correct? a) The design is proper b) The design is non-orthogonal C) The design has varying replications d) The design is orthogonal 93. The mode of the geometric distribution (X)' .for X=1,2.. is a) 1 b) 0 c) % d) Does not exist

Matching type questlons (No. 131 to 140); all questions c a r r y equal marks. Choose the correct a n s w e r (a, b, c, d or e) f o r ii i, i , each sub-questlon ( , ii i v a n d v) a n d enter your cholce in the circle (by shading with a pencil) on the OMFl answer sheet a s p e r the Instructions given on t h e a n s w e r sheet.

,1 1 3.

If the exponential distribution is given as f(x) = e.%,0 ~ x 5 ~ i) Mean of the distribution a) 4 ~i) Variance of the distribution b) 2 iii) Third moment of the distribution C 1 ) iv) Pearson'$ constant p d) 1 V) Standard deviation of the distribut~on e) 1 132. The characteristic function of i) Chi-square distribution a) (I-it)."

ii) Gamma distribution (a=l)

iii) Standard normal distribution iv) Cauchy distribution (a=!, p=l)

b) e-%~z
C) ( l - ~ i t ) . ~ ~ d) e ~ t - i ~ l

94. a) b) c) d)

Repeatability sets an upper limit of Heritability Genetic correlation Linkage Phenotypic correlation

v) Poisson distribution (parameter, h - I ) e) e''IL1~ 133. i) Cluster sampling ii) Systematic sampling iii) Horvitz-Thompson estimator iv) Non-response

95. Which of the foiiowing statements about ' confidence intervals is incorrect? a) If we keep the sample size fixed, the confidence interval gets wider as we increase the confidence coefficient b) A confidence interval for a mean always includes in it the sample mean c) if the populatlon standard deviation increases, the confidence interval decreases in width d) If we keep the confidence coefficient fixed. the confidence interval gets narrower as we Increase the sample size

a) Unbiased estimates b) Biased estimates C) Easy to apply

d) Frame of sampl~ng units is not available e) Negative estimator v) Hansen-Hurwitz of variance technique in mail survey a) J. Neyman b) Karl Pearson c) R.A. Fisher d) A. Wald e) c'.F. Gauss

Note: In this paper, there are no questions from Q. No. 96 to 130; leave OMR a n s w e r sheet blank against Q. No. 96 to 130.

134. i) Method of moment ii) Least square theory iii) Sequential probability ratio test iv) Testing of hypothesis v) Testing of independence of attributes

Subject : PhD - AgrieulturaI Statistics -2011

i) intraclass correlation for a population is

a) Simple random sampling should be prefbrrei over two phase sampling b) Stratified sampling i) T~-statistic ii) D'-statistic ' iii) Discriminant function iv) Cluster analysis v) Factor analysis a) b) c) d) e) Mahalanobis Fisher Centroid method Hoteiling Grouping

ii) lntraciass correlation for a population is

iii) In two stage sampling c) Ciustarpampiing , every first stage unit should be preferred is selected over sihple random sampling iv) Per unit cost of d) Ratio estimator will be collecting informati~n more efficient than on auxiliary variable simple mean for is more thanper unit . estimating population cost of collecting . mean from Sample information on study selected through variable simple random sampling without replacement v) Correlation coefficient e) Simple rantlorn between study sampling should be variable and auxiliary preferred over cluster sampling variable is 0.6, coefficient of varialion (C.V.) of study variable is 4.2,C.V. of auxiliary variable is

i ) Testing equailty of two means a)


from normal populations with unknown variance and small sample size ii) Testing equality of several means iii) Testing equality of two variance% iv) Testing eqdalityof several variances v) Testing independence of attributes

b) F-test c) Analysis of variance (1) t-test e) ~ a d e ttest t

i) Run test ii) KolmogorovSmirnov test (one sample) iii) Mood's test iv) Kruskal-Wallis test
a) Goodness of fit b) Analysis of one way classification

4.1 136. In statistical genetics i) Correlation between father and son a) 112
~ F S

c) Central,tendency d) Randomness of 0bse~ations e) Equality of measures of v) W.ilcoxon signed * 'dispersion rank test

ii) Correlation between daughter and daughter roo iii) Correlation between son and daughter rso iv) Correlation between son and son

b) 0 c) 314

e) 118

v) Correlation between first cousin

137. Design of Experiments

i) The linear combination -3T1-T2+T3+3T4 four of treatments is a ii) Coqpletely randomized design yieidb maximum degrees of freedom for iii) Among K treatments, the number of orthogonal contrasts can at most be iv) IfA is a fixed effect having p f levels, then 1i a ,is equal to . v) The experimental designs not involving any randomization process are called a) (K-1) b) Contrast c) Error

d) Systematic designs
e) Zero

Subject : PhD - Agricultur~fStatistics 201 1


Short questions (No. 141 to 146); each question carries FIVE marks. Write answers, including computation I mathematical calculations if any, in the space provideti for each question on the question paper itself.
141. Let X, and X2 have the joint p.d.f. f(xr, x2) = 2. o<x,<x9<1 = 0, othelw~se ) Show that the conditional variance of X, aiven X9=x, is x 2/17

142. Let X1,X2, . ., X, denote a random sample from a distribution with p d.f f(x,e) = OX^-', O<XCI, e>o = 0,otherwise Obtain a sufficient statistics for 8. , I

Subject : PhD - Ag~~icultaral Stntistics -2011

144. in a large random mating population, show that both gene frequencies and the genotypic frequencies remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of migration, mutiation and s~l.3&--


Subject : PhD - Agl.icultural Statistics 2011


145. Construct a BlBD with v=Q, b=12, r=4, k=3 and h = l using MOLS and give its complementary design h ! along w its parameters. n *

145. For a data, following results were obtained r12= %



r13= -1/2

Interpret the result.