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Gabe Unser History 12 1-5

November 17, 2011 Plans, Power Struggles, and Purges

The USSR In 1924 A) Communism: the system in which all the industries are run and owned by the
state on behalf of the people Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: a country (old Russia), which had 6 Republics in the Union, each with its own government to organize such things as health, education, and justice Soviets: local councils elected by USSR voters in every village, town, and city. Sovnarkom: the congress elects a central committee, which in turn chooses a small council of peoples commissars, which is known as the Sovnarkom. War Communism: a system that Lenin created which ceased food from peasants without payment to give to soldiers and town workers. NEP: stopped the government from seizing food from the peasants. This was a type of policy.

B) 1. - Hammer and Sickle: a symbol for rebuilding a better economy for Russia. - Sheaf of Corn: a symbol for Russias number one trading resource agriculture Cogwheel: symbolizes the need for Russia to mesh and work together Red Flag: symbolizes the Russian Revolution and the bloodshed that occurred. Book: symbolizes the need for education in the majority of Russias population.

2. The poster on page three puts across a similar to that of the painting because
in the picture it shows workers with a smiling face, uniting the hammer and the sickle. Thus, exemplifying a better Russia.

3. The image of the USSR that the artists portrayed is a helpful government that
is looking the peoples best interest.

4. The poster and the painting are misleading interpretations of the USSR
because they make the USSR seem helpful and for the people, when in reality the USSR placed many unfair rules and killed thousands of people to get what they wanted.

5. Historians can make use of the painting and poster because it shows how the
USSR used images and propaganda to brainwash the people of Russia into believing that they were a party for the people.

The Power Struggle 1: Right versus Left A) Politburo: the ruling body of the Communist party which decided its policies
Rightists: a party the believed that the government must continue with Lenins NEP for at least the next 20 years. Left Opposition: a party that strongly disagreed with the idea of continuing with NEP. They believed that the USSR must be turned into an industrial country ASAP. Lenins Testament: the letter he wrote before he died, stating that the main danger facing them all was a split in the Party. He thought Stalin and Trotsky were chiefly to blame for this. He also wrote about there personalities as well.
1)

B)

It seems to me that Lenin saw Stalin as an unfit leader, rude, and incapable. Therefore, he places a caution of Stalin to the people and warns them not to place him in places of high authority.
2)

Lenin seemed to favour Trotsky, because even though he pointed out that he has, excessive self-assurance and shown excessive preoccupation with work. Where as, he says that Trotsky is distinguishedby his outstanding ability[and] is personallythe most capable man in the present CC. C) Lenin was the Secretary General, a member of the Politburo, the Partys Orgburo and lastly, Control Commission. The Secretary General gave Stalin the power to give power to his supporters posts at every level of the Party. Being a member of the Politburo gave him the ability to have an input on the policies of the Communist ruling. Being the Orgburo let Stalin run all the partys organisational matters and finally, Stalin as Control Commission let him decide who had membership to the Party and who didnt.

Collectives and Kulaks A) Peasant: the working class, which was really poor and usually gained their
money in agriculture. They farmed by hand, using sickles or scythes. Kolkhoz: a collective farm where the peasants were forced to work when the ruling of collectivization came in. Collectivization: the end of the small, individual, old-fashioned farms owned by peasants and onto massive group farms which the peasants had to pool all their fields, horses and tools and work together. Kulak: the rich peasants that refused to work in group farms. B) 1) These peasants are about to go farming in a collective group. 2) These farming methods are quite old fashioned because theyre still using a sickle to reap the ground and they are without technological advances such as tractors and fertilizer. 3) A criticism perhaps been made by a supporter of collective farms is that this doesnt portray the joy and the easiness of collective farming. C) 1) The number of farm animals dropped between 1928 and 1932 because many peasants were killing their livestock out of hate towards the government. 2) The time that the animals dropped the most was in 1930 3) The fall in grain meant a famine and wasnt done deliberately, while the fall in livestock was out of hatred and on purpose. D) The man whom Malcolm Muggeridge questioned was nervous perhaps because speaking out against the government is a very risky thing to do. Many people died during the famine and the government didnt even care. In fact, Stalin still made sure that he had his right amount of food quota. So speaking out about the government was a very serious crime and could result in death. You can probably understand why this peasant would be frightened to have his statement published in an article.