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San Jose State University Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

ME 120 Experimental Methods

Vibration Measurement

BJ Furman

22NOV05

BJ Furman

SJSU MAE

Vibration

Potential Kinetic energy interchange in bodies with finite stiffness and mass that arises from time dependent energy input

Unbalance in rotating machines Acoustic energy input Fluid flow Electromagnetic

Y(t)
Y(t)
Vibration Potential Kinetic energy interchange in bodies with finite stiffness and mass that arises from time
Vibration Potential Kinetic energy interchange in bodies with finite stiffness and mass that arises from time

F(t)

BJ Furman

SJSU MAE

Quantifying Vibration Amplitude

Peak level

Peak-to-peak

Average (rectified)

RMS

Takes into account the time history of vibration

Quantifying Vibration Amplitude Peak level Peak-to-peak Average (rectified) RMS Takes into account the time history of

http://www.bksv.com/pdf/Measuring%20Vibration.pdf

BJ Furman

SJSU MAE

Vibration Measurement Transducers

Displacement

LVDT Eddy current Capacitive Hall

BJ Furman

SJSU MAE

Vibration Measurement Transducers cont.

Velocity

Geophone

( )

V t

= π

BDN

dy

dt

• Very sensitive, 20 V/g • Low frequencies • Low cost

Vibration Measurement Transducers cont. Velocity Geophone ( ) V t = π BDN dy dt •

http://micromachine.stanford.edu/smssl/projects/Geophones/

fixed

Ref. beam vibration laser Meas. beam
Ref. beam
vibration
laser
Meas. beam
Vibration Measurement Transducers cont. Velocity Geophone ( ) V t = π BDN dy dt •

detector

Laser doppler vibrometer

• Rate of change of phase between reference beam and measurement beam proportional to velocity of target

BJ Furman

SJSU MAE

Laser Doppler Vibrometer, cont.

Polytec PI

OFV-2200

http://www.polytec.de/polytec-com/index.html

Laser Doppler Vibrometer, cont. Polytec PI OFV-2200 http://www.polytec.de/polytec-com/index.html Velocity ranges (3): 5, 25 and 125 mm/s/V

Velocity ranges (3):

5, 25 and 125 mm/s/V

Full scale output velocity:

±10 Volts analog

Max. signal frequency:

250 kHz

Displacement ranges (5):

0,5 2, 8, 20 & 80 µm/V

version OFV-2200-H

[Resolution: 2nm to 320nm (*)]

Displacement ranges (5):

20, 80, 320, 1280 & 5120µm/V

version OFV-2200-L

[Resolution: 80nm to 20µm (*)]

Full scale output displacement :

±8 Volts analog

Maximum velocity for the displacement decoders:

1.6 m/s

Remote focus control:

Standard with OFV-303

Interfaces:

None

Dimensions:

450mm x 360mm x 145mm

W x H x D

17.7in. x 14.2in. x 5.7in.

Approximate Weight:

10.8kg (23.8lbs)

Compatible with sensor heads:

OFV-303, OFV-353, OFV-511, OFV-512

BJ Furman

SJSU MAE

Vibration Measurement Transducers cont.

Acceleration

Accelerometer

• Piezoelectric Compression Shear Bending

Vibration Measurement Transducers cont. Acceleration Accelerometer • Piezoelectric Compression Shear Bending http://www.mmf.de/PDF/AN3E-Accelerometer_Designs.pdf Piezoresistive http://www.endevco.com/PDFs/technical-data-sheets/TD530.pdf BJ Furman
Vibration Measurement Transducers cont. Acceleration Accelerometer • Piezoelectric Compression Shear Bending http://www.mmf.de/PDF/AN3E-Accelerometer_Designs.pdf Piezoresistive http://www.endevco.com/PDFs/technical-data-sheets/TD530.pdf BJ Furman
Vibration Measurement Transducers cont. Acceleration Accelerometer • Piezoelectric Compression Shear Bending http://www.mmf.de/PDF/AN3E-Accelerometer_Designs.pdf Piezoresistive http://www.endevco.com/PDFs/technical-data-sheets/TD530.pdf BJ Furman

http://www.mmf.de/PDF/AN3E-Accelerometer_Designs.pdf

Vibration Measurement Transducers cont. Acceleration Accelerometer • Piezoelectric Compression Shear Bending http://www.mmf.de/PDF/AN3E-Accelerometer_Designs.pdf Piezoresistive http://www.endevco.com/PDFs/technical-data-sheets/TD530.pdf BJ Furman
Vibration Measurement Transducers cont. Acceleration Accelerometer • Piezoelectric Compression Shear Bending http://www.mmf.de/PDF/AN3E-Accelerometer_Designs.pdf Piezoresistive http://www.endevco.com/PDFs/technical-data-sheets/TD530.pdf BJ Furman

Piezoresistive

http://www.endevco.com/PDFs/technical-data-sheets/TD530.pdf

BJ Furman

SJSU MAE

Acceleration Levels

http://www2.usfirst.org/2005comp/Manuals/Acceler1.pdf BJ Furman SJSU MAE
http://www2.usfirst.org/2005comp/Manuals/Acceler1.pdf
BJ Furman
SJSU MAE

Accelerometer Specifications

http://www.endevco.com/data-sheets/0-99/22.pdf Endevco model 22 1 – 10,000 Hz 0.14 gm BJ Furman SJSU MAE
http://www.endevco.com/data-sheets/0-99/22.pdf
Endevco model 22
1 – 10,000 Hz
0.14 gm
BJ Furman
SJSU MAE

Accelerometers, cont.

MEMS accelerometers

ADXL150

Accelerometers, cont. MEMS accelerometers ADXL150 http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0201/20/index.htm 0.1 μgm 1.6 micron separation of mass to substrate 1.3

http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0201/20/index.htm

0.1 μgm
0.1 μgm
  • 1.6 micron separation

of mass to substrate

  • 1.3 micron separation

of cap plates

0.2 Angstrom beam deflection resolution

10 kHz – 20 kHz resonant frequency

http://www.analog.com/library/techArticles/mems/Sensor971/index.html

BJ Furman

SJSU MAE

MEMS Accelerometers, cont.

ADXL105 single-axis accelerometer

±5g range 250 mV/g output (2 mg resolution achievable) DC sensitivity Tilt and acceleration effects are confounded

Drive, sense, amplification, and signal conditioning on a single chip

Applications:

Airbag crash sensor Tilt sensor Machine condition monitoring

MEMS Accelerometers, cont. ADXL105 single-axis accelerometer ± 5g range 250 mV/g output (2 m g resolution

http://www.analog.com/productSelection/pdf/ADXL105_a.pdf

• Unbalance • Bearing or bushing failure • Tool failure

BJ Furman

SJSU MAE

MEMS Accelerometers, cont.

ADIS16201 - Programmable Dual-Axis Inclinometer/Accelerometer

     

Features

Dual-axis inclinometer/accelerometer

measurements 12/14-bit digital inclination/acceleration sensor

outputs +1.7 g accelerometer measurement range

+90o inclinometer measurement range

12-bit digital temperature sensor output

 

Digitally controlled sensitivity and bias calibration

 
 

Digitally controlled sample rate

 

Digitally controlled frequency response

Dual alarm settings with rate/threshold limits

Auxiliary digital I/O

Digitally activated self-test

Digitally activated low power mode

SPI® compatible serial interface

Auxiliary 12 bit ADC input and DAC output

Single-supply operation – 3.0 to 3.6V

3500 g powered shock survivability

 

BJ Furman

SJSU MAE

Thermal Accelerometers

Thermal Accelerometers http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0601/98/index.htm http://www.memsic.com/memsic/products/technology.html BJ Furman SJSU MAE
Thermal Accelerometers http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0601/98/index.htm http://www.memsic.com/memsic/products/technology.html BJ Furman SJSU MAE
Thermal Accelerometers http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0601/98/index.htm http://www.memsic.com/memsic/products/technology.html BJ Furman SJSU MAE
Thermal Accelerometers http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0601/98/index.htm http://www.memsic.com/memsic/products/technology.html BJ Furman SJSU MAE
Thermal Accelerometers http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0601/98/index.htm http://www.memsic.com/memsic/products/technology.html BJ Furman SJSU MAE
Thermal Accelerometers http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0601/98/index.htm http://www.memsic.com/memsic/products/technology.html BJ Furman SJSU MAE

http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0601/98/index.htm

Thermal Accelerometers http://archives.sensorsmag.com/articles/0601/98/index.htm http://www.memsic.com/memsic/products/technology.html BJ Furman SJSU MAE

http://www.memsic.com/memsic/products/technology.html

BJ Furman

SJSU MAE

References

Analog Devices, Inc., “Accelerometer Design and Applications,

http://www.analog.com/library/techArticles/mems/sensor971.pdf,

November 2002.

Analog Devices, Inc., “Analog Devices Introduces Highly Integrated Motion Sensor For Industrial Applications,”

http://www.analog.com/en/content/0,2886,764%255F800%255F8

6889,00.html

Bruel & Kjaer, “Measuring Vibration,” September, 1982.

http://www.bksv.com/pdf/Measuring%20Vibration.pdf

Endevco Corporation, “Vibration Application and Theory,” Application Note 530, October 1979,

http://www.endevco.com/PDFs/technical-data-sheets/TD530.pdf

Figliola, R. S., Beasley, D. E., Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements, 3 rd ed., J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000.

Accelerometers and How They Work,

http://www2.usfirst.org/2005comp/Manuals/Acceler1.pdf

BJ Furman

SJSU MAE