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Institute of

Applied Mechanics
Introduction to Tensor Analysis
Erich Bauer
Revised Second Edition
2010
Copyright c 2010 Erich Bauer
Institute of Applied Mechanics, Graz University of Technology,
Technikerstrasse 4, A-8010 Graz, Austria (Europe)
II Introduction to Tensor Analysis Contents
Contents
1 Classication and Notation 1
1.1 Cartesian Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Special Handling with the Indical Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.1 The Summation Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.2 The Kronecker Delta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.3 The Permutation Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.4 Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.5 Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.6 Factoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2 Vector Algebra 6
2.1 Addition of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2 Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3 The Dot Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.4 The Cross Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3 Tensor Algebra 11
3.1 Second-order Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.1.1 Dyad and Dyadic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.1.2 Cartesian Tensor of Order Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.1.3 Dot Product of Two Second-order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.1.4 Transpose of a Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.5 Trace of a Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.6 Double Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.1.7 Norm of a Second-order Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.1.8 Determinant and Inverse of a Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.1.9 Orthogonal Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.1.10 Symmetric and Antisymmetric Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.1.11 Projection Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.1.12 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.1.13 Spherical Part and Deviatoric Part of a Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.2 Higher-order Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.2.1 Tensor of Order Three . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.2.2 Tensor of Order Four . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4 Tensor Functions 22
4.1 First Time Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.2 Gradient of a Scalar-valued Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.3 Gradient of a Tensor-valued Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5 Tensor Fields 24
5.1 Gradient of a Scalar Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
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III Introduction to Tensor Analysis Contents
5.2 Divergence of a Vector Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.3 Curl of a Vector Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.4 Gradient of a Vector Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.5 Divergence of a Second-order Tensor Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.6 Gradient of a Second-order Tensor Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6 Appendix 26
6.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
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1 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Classication and Notation
1 Classication and Notation
This reader summarizes some main rules of tensor analysis frequently used in continuum me-
chanics. For more detail the interested reader is referred to the relevant literature. Textbooks
used for preparing this reader are listed in References.
Throughout the text three types of notation should be distinguished: symbolic notation (or so-
called tensor notation), indical notation and matrix notation. The representation of tensors in the
coordinate-free form is called symbolic notation, and it is a very convenient tool to manipulate
relations in a compact way. In this context it can be noted that all laws of continuum mechanics
must be formulated in terms of quantities that are independent of any coordinate system. In
computational mechanics, however, there is a preference to use the component form. This re-
quires that a coordinate system is specied, e.g. Cartesian coordinates, cylindrical coordinates
or curvilinear coordinates. In this reader only the three-dimensional Euclidean space and the
rectangular Cartesian coordinate system are considered.
In symbolic notation Greek letters (like , , , . . . ) and Italic letters (like a, b, c . . . ) are used to
denote scalars, lowercase bold letters (like a

, b

, c

, . . . ) are used to denote vectors, uppercase


bold letters (like A

, B

, C

, . . . ) are used to denote tensors of second order and uppercase bold


letters (like
n
A

,
n
B

,
n
C

, . . . ) are used to denote tensors of higher order, where n denotes the order
(or rank) of the tensor.
In indical notation , the components of tensors denoted by Italic letters (like a
i
, A
i j
, . . . ) and the
base vectors are explicitly specied as shown for an orthonormal basis {e

i
} in Table 1.
Table 1.1: Classication of tensors, symbolic notation and indical notation
Rank of
the Tensor
Symbolic
Notation
Indical Notation
in a Cartesian basis
Number of
Components
Type
0 1
scalar or
tensor of zero order
1 a

a
i
e

i
3
vector or
tensor of rst order
2 A

A
i j
e

i
e

j
9 tensor of second order
3
3
A

A
i jk
e

i
e

j
e

k
27 tensor of third order
4
4
A

A
i jkl
e

i
e

j
e

k
e

l
81 tensor of fourth order
n
n
A

A
i j...n
e

i
e

j
e

n
3
n
tensor of order n
In matrix notation the components of the tensor are represented in an array with the dimension
depending on the rank of the tensor. For instance the vector a

and the second order tensor B

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2 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Classication and Notation
in matrix representation read:
[a

] =
_

_
a
1
a
2
a
3
_

_ ; [B

] =
_

_
B
11
B
12
B
13
B
21
B
22
B
23
B
31
B
32
B
33
_

_
To illustrate the various notations, the product (A

) with c

is considered:
= c

(A

) . . . symbolic notation
= c
i
A
i j
b
j
. . . indical notation
= [c

]
T
[A

] [b

] . . . matrix notation
1.1 Cartesian Basis
In order to represent the components of vectors higher
order tensors and tensors in a right-handed system of
rectangular Cartesian axis Ox
1
x
2
x
3
a xed set of mutually
orthogonal unit vectors e

1
, e

2
, e

3
, called Cartesian basis
or orthonormal basis , is considered.
In terms of the orthonormal basis {e

i
} a vector v

can be
represented as a linear combination of the rectangular
vector components (or so-called Cartesian components )
v

1
= v
1
e

1
, v

2
= v
2
e

2
and v

3
= v
3
e

3
, i.e.
v

= v

1
+v

2
+v

3
= v
1
e

1
+v
2
e

2
+v
3
e

3
=
3

i=1
v
i
e

i
Matrix representation:
[v

] = v
1
_

_
1
0
0
_

_
+v
2
_

_
0
1
0
_

_
+v
3
_

_
0
0
1
_

_
=
_

_
v
1
v
2
v
3
_

_
x
1
x
2
x
3
e

1
e

2
e

3
O
Figure 1.1: Cartesian basis {e

i
}
x
1
x
2
x
3
O
v

1
v

2
v

3
v

Figure 1.2: Representation of the


Cartesian components v

1
, v

1
and
v

3
of the vector v

A second order tensor A

can be represented as a linear combination of nine Cartesian compo-


nents:
A

= A
11
e

1
e

1
+A
12
e

1
e

2
+A
13
e

1
e

3
+
+A
21
e

2
e

1
+A
22
e

2
e

2
+A
23
e

2
e

3
+
+A
31
e

3
e

1
+A
32
e

3
e

2
+A
33
e

3
e

3
.
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3 Introduction to Tensor Analysis The Summation Convention
Herein the set of dyads {e

1
e

1
, e

2
e

2
, . . . , e

3
e

3
} of the three Cartesian base vectors
{e

1
, e

2
, e

3
} is a basis for a 2nd order tensor.
1.2 Special Handling with the Indical Notation
1.2.1 The Summation Convention
Consider the sum
c = a
1
b
1
+a
2
b
2
+a
3
b
3
. (1.2-1)
Eq. (1.2-1) can be written in an abbreviated form by using the summation symbol :
c =
3

i=1
a
i
b
i
(1.2-2)
or
c =
3

n=1
a
n
b
n
. (1.2-3)
Index i in Eq. (1.2-2) or index n in Eq. (1.2-3) is a dummy (or summation) index , i.e. the letter
used for the index may be replaced by any other symbol without effecting the value of the sum.
By adopting the summation convention invented by Einstein , the representation of Eq. (1.2-1)
can further simplied. The summation convention says that wherever an index is repeated in
the same term, then a summation over the range (1,2,3) is implied. Thus Eq. (1.2-1) can be
written as:
c = a
i
b
i
. (1.2-4)
The summation convention can also be used to represent a double sum, a triple sum, etc.
For example, the triple sum
3

i=1
3

j=1
3

k=1
a
i jk
b
i
c
j
d
k
(1.2-5)
can simply be written as:
a
i jk
b
i
c
j
d
k
. (1.2-6)
The expression (1.2-6) represents the sum of 27 terms.
1.2.2 The Kronecker Delta
The Kronecker delta ,
i j
, is dened as

i j
=
_
_
_
1 if i = j
0 if i = j
(1.2-7)
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4 Introduction to Tensor Analysis The Permutation Symbol
Properties:

ii
=
11
+
22
+
33
= 3 (1.2-8)

i j
a
j
= a
i
(1.2-9)
e.g. for i = 1 :
1 j
a
j
=
11
a
1
= a
1

i j
T
jl
= T
il
(1.2-10)

il

l j
=
i j
(1.2-11)

il

lm

mj
=
i j
(1.2-12)
1.2.3 The Permutation Symbol
The permutation (or so called alternating or Levi-Civita ) symbol ,
i jk
, is dened as

i jk
=
_

_
1 for even permutation of (i, j,k), i.e. 123, 231, 312
1 for odd permutation of (i, j,k), i.e. 132, 213, 321
0 if there is a repeated index, i.e.112, 322, . . .
(1.2-13)

i jk
can be expressed as the determinant of the following matrix:

i jk
= det
_

i1

i2

i3

j1

j2

j3

k1

k2

k3
_

_ (1.2-14)
The product of permutation symbols
i jk

pqr
is related to the Kronecker delta by the relation:

i jk

pqr
= det
_

ip

iq

ir

j p

jq

jr

kp

kq

kr
_

_ (1.2-15)
Properties:

i jk
=
jki
=
ki j
=
jik
=
ik j
=
k ji
(1.2-16)

i jk

pqk
=
ip

j p

iq

j p
(1.2-17)

i jk

p jk
= 2
pi
(1.2-18)

i jk

i jk
= 6 (1.2-19)
1.2.4 Substitution
Consider the relation
a
i
= B
ik
c
k
(1.2-20)
and
c
i
= D
ik
d
k
(1.2-21)
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5 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Multiplication
In order to substitute c
i
of (1.2-21) into (1.2-20) the free index in relation (1.2-21) must be
changed from i to k and the dummy index k to some other letter, say l so that
c
k
= D
kl
d
l
. (1.2-22)
Substituting (1.2-22) into (1.2-20) leads:
a
i
= B
ik
D
kl
d
l
. (1.2-23)
Relation (1.2-23) represents three equations each having the sum of nine terms on its right-
hand side.
1.2.5 Multiplication
The multiplication of
p = a
i
b
i
(1.2-24)
with
q = c
i
d
i
(1.2-25)
leads:
p q = a
i
b
i
c
k
d
k
. (1.2-26)
Note: p q = a
i
b
i
c
i
d
i
.
1.2.6 Factoring
In order to factor out n
i
in the relation
T
i j
n
j
n
i
= 0 , (1.2-27)
the second term on the left-hand side of (1.2-27) can be expanded using the Kronecker delta,
i.e. with
n
i
=
i j
n
j
(1.2-28)
relation (1.2-27) can be written as:
T
i j
n
j

i j
n
j
= 0 . (1.2-29)
Thus, the quantity n
j
can be factored out:
(T
i j

i j
) n
j
= 0 (1.2-30)
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6 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Vector Algebra
2 Vector Algebra
2.1 Addition of Vectors
The addition of two vectors a

and b

yields a new vector


c

, based on the parallelogram rule :


c

= a

+b

. (2.1-1)
Matrix representation:
[c

] =
_

_
c
1
c
2
c
3
_

_ =
_

_
a
1
a
2
a
3
_

_+
_

_
b
1
b
2
b
3
_

_ =
_

_
a
1
+b
1
a
2
+b
2
a
3
+b
3
_

_ (2.1-2)
Properties:
a

+(a

) = 0

, (2.1-3)
a

+0

= a

. (2.1-4)
Note: 0

denotes the zero vector with unspecied direction


and zero length.
a

b
c

Figure 2.1: Parallelogramm rule


2.2 Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
Multiplication of a vector a

by a scalar results in a new


vector b

with the same direction as a

if > 0 or with the


opposite direction to a

if < 0.
Properties:
( ) a

= ( a

) , (2.2-1)
(+) a

= a

+ a

, (2.2-2)
(a

+b

) = a

+ b

. (2.2-3)
> 0 :
a

= a

< 0 :
a

= a

Figure 2.2: Scaling of a vector


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7 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Vector Algebra
2.3 The Dot Product
The dot product (or scalar product or inner product ) of
two vectors a

and b

is dened as:
c = a

=|a

| |b

| cos , 0 (2.3-1)
a

Figure 2.3: Angle between the


vectors a

and b

Properties:
a

= b

, (2.3-2)
a

= 0 , (2.3-3)
(a

) = a

( b

) = ( a

) b

, (2.3-4)
a

(b

+c

) = a

+a

, (2.3-5)
a

( b

+ c

) = (a

) + (a

) , (2.3-6)
a

> 0 if a

= 0

, (2.3-7)
a

= 0 if a

= 0

. (2.3-8)
The enclosed angle between a

and b

reads:
= arccos
_
a

|a

| |b

|
_
. (2.3-9)
With respect to a Cartesian basis { e

i
}, the basis vectors e

1
, e

2
and e

3
are mutually orthogonal
so that the angle between two basis vectors e

i
and e

j
is = /2. As the length of the basis
vectors e

i
is |e

i
| = 1, the basis vectors are unit vectors . Thus the orthonormal basis has the
following properties:
e

1
e

1
= 1 , e

1
e

2
= 0 ,
e

2
e

2
= 1 , e

1
e

3
= 0 , (2.3-10)
e

3
e

3
= 1 , e

2
e

3
= 0 .
e

1
e

2
e

3
Figure 2.4: Orthonormal basis
These properties can be expressed by the Kronecker Delta
i j
:
e

i
e

j
=
i j
=
_
_
_
1 if i = j
0 if i = j
(2.3-11)
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8 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Vector Algebra
Thus for the dot product one obtains:
c = a

= (a
i
e

i
) (b
j
e

j
) = a
i
b
j
(e

i
e

j
) =
= a
i
b
j

i j
= a
1
b
1
+a
2
b
2
+a
3
b
3
= a
i
b
i
. (2.3-12)
For the special case: a

= b

one obtains:
a

=|a

| |a

| cos(0) =|a

|
2
= a
2
. (2.3-13)
The quantity |a

| is called the length ( or norm or magnitude ) of vector a

:
a =|a

| =
_
a

=
_
a
2
1
+a
2
2
+a
2
3
. (2.3-14)
If a

is not a unit vector, i.e. if |a

| =1, then the unit direction


vector u

of vector a

can be obtained as:


u

=
a

|a

|
. (2.3-15)
Note: u =|u

| =
|a

|
|a

|
= 1, thus u

is a unit vector .
With u

and a =|a

|, vector a

can be represented as:


a

= a u

. (2.3-16)
u

a
Figure 2.5: direction vector u

of
vector a

With respect to the denition (2.3-1) of the vector product the projection a

of vector a

along
the direction of any unit vector v

can be calculated. As a

= |a

| |v

| cos = |a

| cos = a

the
norm a

of the vector a

reads:
a

=|a

| cos = a

= (a
i
e

i
) (v
j
e

j
) =
= a
i
v
j

i j
= a
i
v
i
(2.3-17)
Thus the component a

of the vector a

along the direction


v

reads:
a

= a

= a
i
v
i
v

(2.3-18)
If the unit vector is a base vector, e

j
, one obtains the
component a

j
of vector a

along the direction e

j
:
a

j
= (a
i
e

i
) e

j
= a
i

i j
= a
j
and therefore
a

j
= a
j
e

j
= (a

j
) e

j
(2.3-19)
a

Figure 2.6: Projection of a

along a
unit vector v

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9 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Vector Algebra
2.4 The Cross Product
The cross product (or vector product ) of vectors a

and b

results in a new vector c

perpendicular
to a

and b

:
c

= a

. (2.4-1)
Properties:
a

=(b

) (2.4-2)
a

= 0

if a

and b

are linear dependent,


i.e. if b

= a

(2.4-3)
a

= 0

(2.4-4)
a

(b

+w

) = (a

) +(a

) (2.4-5)
a

(b

) = b

(w

) =w

(a

) (2.4-6)
(a

) w

= (a

) b

(b

) a

(2.4-7)
a

(b

) = (a

) b

(a

) w

(2.4-8)
c

= a

= a

Figure 2.7: Cross product of


vectors a

and b

The magnitude of the cross product represents the area


of a parallelogram spanned by the vectors a

and b

, i.e.
c =|a

| =|a

| =|a

| |b

| sin = a b sin ;
0 . (2.4-9)
b

b sin
a

Figure 2.8: Parallelogram


spanned by a

and b

For a right-handed and orthonormal basis {e

i
} and with respect to the permutation symbol
i jk
,
the cross product of basis vectors can be expressed as:
e

i
e

j
=
i jk
e

k
. (2.4-10)
With respect to relation (2.4-10) the cross product a

can be written as:


c

= a

= (a
i
e

i
) (b
j
e

j
) = a
i
b
j
(e

i
e

j
) =
i jk
a
i
b
j
e

k
= c
k
e

k
(2.4-11)
or
a

= det
_

_
e

1
e

2
e

3
a
1
a
2
a
3
b
1
b
2
b
3
_

_
= (a
2
b
3
a
3
b
2
)e

1
(a
1
b
3
a
3
b
1
)e

2
+(a
1
b
2
a
2
b
1
)e

3
(2.4-12)
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10 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Vector Algebra
The scalar triple product represents the volume
vol(a

,b

,w

) of a parallelepiped formed with a

, b

, and w

as three edges:
vol(a

,b

,w

) = (a

) w

(2.4-13)
Using index notation one obtains:
(a

) w

= det
_

_
a
1
b
1
w
1
a
2
b
2
w
2
a
3
b
3
w
3
_

_ =
i jk
a
i
b
j
w
k
(2.4-14)
a

Figure 2.9: Triple scalar product


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11 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Tensor Algebra
3 Tensor Algebra
3.1 Second-order Tensor
A second-order tensor T

is a linear operator that transforms a vector a

into a vector b

=T

(3.1-1)
Properties:
( T

) u

= (T

) , (3.1-2)
T

( u

+v

) = T

+T

, (3.1-3)
(T

+P

) u

=T

+P

. (3.1-4)
3.1.1 Dyad and Dyadic
The dyad of vectors u

and v

, i.e.
u

, (3.1-5)
is a second-order tensor which linearly transforms a vector w

into a vector with the direction


of u

according to:
(u

) w

= u

(v

) = (v

) u

. (3.1-6)
Properties:
(u

)( a

+b

) = (u

) a

+(u

)b

, (3.1-7)
( u

+ v

) a

= (u

) + (v

) , (3.1-8)
u

(v

) = (u

) a

= a

(u

) , (3.1-9)
(u

)(a

) = (v

) u

= u

(v

) , (3.1-10)
A

(u

) = (A

) v

. (3.1-11)
Note:
u

= v

, (3.1-12)
(a

)(u

) = (u

)(a

) . (3.1-13)
A dyadic is a linear combination of dyads with coefcients like:
(a

) + (c

) + (3.1-14)
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12 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Cartesian Tensor of Order Two
3.1.2 Cartesian Tensor of Order Two
With respect to the Cartesian basis {e

i
} a second-order tensor may be expressed as a
dyadic:
T

= T
i j
e

i
e

j
. (3.1-15)
Tensor T

is called Cartesian tensor of order two and T


i j
are the components of T

. The projection
of T

onto the Cartesian basis {e

i
} yields the components T
i j
according to the rule:
T
i j
= e

i
(T

j
) . (3.1-16)
Matrix representation of T

:
[T

] =
_

_
T
11
T
12
T
13
T
21
T
22
T
23
T
31
T
32
T
33
_

_ (3.1-17)
For the orthonormal basis {e

i
} the dyad u

can be written as:


(u

) = u
i
e

i
v
j
e

j
= u
i
v
j
(e

i
e

j
) . (3.1-18)
The matrix representation reads:
[u

] =
_

_
u
1
u
2
u
3
_

_
_
v
1
v
2
v
3
_
=
_

_
u
1
v
1
u
1
v
2
u
1
v
3
u
2
v
1
u
2
v
2
u
2
v
3
u
3
v
1
u
3
v
2
u
3
v
3
_

_ (3.1-19)
The components of the linear transformation b

=T

that maps a

to b

may be written as:


b
i
= T
i j
a
j
. (3.1-20)
The Unit tensor I

can be represented as:


I

=
i j
e

i
e

j
= e

j
e

j
= e

1
e

1
+e

2
e

2
+e

3
e

3
. (3.1-21)
Matrix representation of I

[ I

] =
_

_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_

_ (3.1-22)
3.1.3 Dot Product of Two Second-order Tensors
The dot product of two second-order tensors A

and B

denoted by A

(or A

), results in a
second-order tensor C

:
C

=A

(3.1-23)
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13 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Transpose of a Tensor
Properties:
(A

) u

=A

(B

) , (3.1-24)
A

+B

=B

+A

, (3.1-25)
A

+0

=A

, (3.1-26)
A

+(A

) = 0

, (3.1-27)
A

+(B

+C

) = (A

+B

) +C

, (3.1-28)
( A

) = (A

) = A

, (3.1-29)
(A

) C

=A

(B

) =A

, (3.1-30)
A

2
=A

, (3.1-31)
(A

+B

) C

=A

+B

. (3.1-32)
The components of A

along a Cartesian basis {e

i
} read:
C
i j
= (A

)
i j
= A
ik
B
k j
. (3.1-33)
3.1.4 Transpose of a Tensor
The transpose of a second-order tensor A

denoted by A

T
is dened by the indentity
v

(A

T
u

) = u

(A

) = (A

) u

. (3.1-34)
Properties:
(A

T
)
T
=A

, (3.1-35)
(A

T
)
i j
= A
ji
, (3.1-36)
(A

)
T
=B

T
A

T
, (3.1-37)
(u

)
T
= v

. (3.1-38)
With respect to the Cartesian basis {e

i
} one obtains the index relation:
(A

T
)
i j
= A
ji
. (3.1-39)
3.1.5 Trace of a Tensor
The trace of a tensor A

denoted by trA

is a scalar. For instance the trace of the dyad u

reads:
tr(u

) = u

. (3.1-40)
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14 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Double Contraction
With respect to the Cartesian basis {e

i
} the trace of the dyad u

is given by:
tr(u

) = u

= u
i
v
i
, (3.1-41)
and the trace of the tensor A

is given by:
trA

= tr(A
i j
e

i
e

j
) = A
i j
tr(e

i
e

j
) =
= A
i j
(e

i
e

j
) = A
i j

ji
= A
ii
= A
11
+A
22
+A
33
. (3.1-42)
Properties:
trA

T
= trA

, (3.1-43)
tr(A

) = tr(B

) , (3.1-44)
tr(A

+B

) = trA

+trB

, (3.1-45)
tr( A

) = trA

. (3.1-46)
3.1.6 Double Contraction
The double contraction of two tensors A

and B

yields a scalar
A

: B

= tr(A

T
B

) = tr(B

T
A

) =B

: A

. (3.1-47)
With respect to the Cartesian basis {e

i
} the components are:
A
i j
B
i j
= B
i j
A
i j
. (3.1-48)
Properties:
I

: A

= tr(A

) =A

: I

, (3.1-49)
A

: (B

) = (B

T
A

) : C

= (A

T
) : B

, (3.1-50)
A

: (u

) = u

= (u

) : A

, (3.1-51)
(u

) : (a

) = (u

) : (v

) , (3.1-52)
(e

i
e

j
) : (e

k
e

l
) = (e

i
e

k
) : (e

j
e

l
) =
ik

jl
. (3.1-53)
3.1.7 Norm of a Second-order Tensor
The norm of a second-order tensor A

denoted by |A

| is a scalar
|A

| =
_
A

: A

=
_
A
i j
A
i j
0 . (3.1-54)
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15 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Determinant and Inverse of a Tensor
3.1.8 Determinant and Inverse of a Tensor
The determinant of a tensor A

is dened by the determinant of the matrix [A

] of the components
of the tensor, i.e.
det A

= det[A

] = det
_

_
A

11
A

12
A

13
A

21
A

22
A

23
A

31
A

32
A

33
_

_
(3.1-55)
A tensor A

is said to be singular if det A

= 0. If A

is a nonsingular tensor, then there exist a


unique inverse of the tensor A

denoted by A

1
satisfying the relation:
A

1
= I

=A

1
A

(3.1-56)
Properties:
(A

)
1
=B

1
A

1
, (3.1-57)
(A

1
)
1
=A

, (3.1-58)
(A

1
)
T
= (A

T
)
1
=A

T
, (3.1-59)
A

2
=A

1
A

1
, (3.1-60)
det(A

1
) = (det A

)
1
, (3.1-61)
det(A

) = det(A

) det(B

) , (3.1-62)
det(A

T
) = det(A

) . (3.1-63)
3.1.9 Orthogonal Tensor
An orthogonal tensor Q

is a linear transformation satisfying the condition:


Q

= u

(3.1-64)
|u

|
u

|v

|
v

|u

|
Q

|v

|
Q

Figure 3.1: Linear transformation with an orthogonal tensor


As u

is invariant during the transformation it follows that |u

| , |v

| and the angle are pre-


served.
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16 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Symmetric and Antisymmetric Tensor
Properties of the orthogonal tensor Q

:
Q

T
Q

=Q

T
= I

, (3.1-65)
Q

1
=Q

T
, (3.1-66)
if det Q

= +1 . . . Q

is proper orthogonal corresponding to a rotation,


if det Q

=1 . . . Q

is improper orthogonal corresponding to a reection.


3.1.10 Symmetric and Antisymmetric Tensor
Any tensor A

can be decomposed into a symmetric tensor S

, i.e.
S

= symA

=
1
2
(A

+A

T
) , (3.1-67)
and an antisymmetric (or skew ) tensor W

, i.e.
W

= skewA

=
1
2
(A

T
) . (3.1-68)
Properties:
A

= S

+W

, (3.1-69)
S

= S

T
S
i j
= S
ji
, (3.1-70)
W

=W

T
W
i j
=W
ji
, (3.1-71)
S

: W

= 0 . (3.1-72)
A skew tensor has zero diagonal elements and only three independent scalar quantites, i.e.
W
21
=W
12
; W
31
=W
13
; W
32
=W
23
[W

] =
_

_
0 W
12
W
13
W
12
0 W
23
W
13
W
23
0
_

_ (3.1-73)
Hence, every skew tensor W

can be represented as:


W

(3.1-74)
where u

is any vector and

characterizes the axial (or dual ) vector of W

with the property:


|

| =
1

2
|W

| (3.1-75)
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17 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Projection Tensor
With respect to te permutation symbol
i jk
the components of the skew tensor W

read:
W
i j
= e

i
W

j
= e

i
(
k

k jl
e

l
) =
i jk

k
(3.1-76)
or in more detail:
W
12
=
12k

k
=
3
, (3.1-77)
W
13
=
13k

k
=
2
, (3.1-78)
W
23
=
23k

k
=
1
. (3.1-79)
The axial (or dual ) vector

reads:

=
1
2

i jk
W
i j
e

k
=(W
23
e

1
+W
31
e

2
+W
12
e

3
) . (3.1-80)
The components of

are:

k
=
1
2

i jk
W
i j
. (3.1-81)
3.1.11 Projection Tensor
Consider the decomposition of any vector u

into the sum


u

= u

||
+u

, where u

||
denotes the projection of u

onto
the line spanned by the unit vector p

, and u

denotes the
projection of u

normal to p

.
(i) Vector u

||
:
u

||
= (u

) p

= (p

) u

(3.1-82)
with the projection tensor P

||
p
= p

reads:
u

||
=P

||
p
u

. (3.1-83)
(ii) Vector u

:
u

= u

||
= u

(p

) u

= (I

) u

(3.1-84)
with the projection tensor P

p
= I

reads:
u

=P

p
u

. (3.1-85)
u

||
u

Figure 3.2: Projection of a vector u

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18 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
Properties of the projection tensors P

||
p
and P

p
:
P

p
+P

||
p
= I

, (3.1-86)
P

||
p
P

p
= 0

. (3.1-87)
3.1.12 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
For the linear transformation
A

= n

(3.1-88)
n

is called eigenvector (or principal direction of tensor A

, and the scalar is called eigenvalue


(or principal value ) of A

. With respect to n

= I

Eq. (3.1-88) can be rewritten as:


(A

) n

= 0

(3.1-89)
or in expanded form:
(A
11
) n
1
+A
12
n
2
+A
13
n
3
= 0 , (3.1-90)
A
21
n
1
+(A
22
) n
2
+A
23
n
3
= 0 , (3.1-91)
A
31
n
1
+A
32
n
2
+(A
33
) n
3
= 0 . (3.1-92)
This system of homogeneous equations has non-trivial solutions ( n

= 0

) only if the determinant


of its coefcients vanisches. That is:
det(A

) =
3
+I
A

2
II
A
+III
A
= 0 . (3.1-93)
Herein the scalar quantities I
A
, II
A
and III
A
denote the rst, second and third invariant, respec-
tively of the tensor A

. In particular:
I
A
= tr(A

) = A
ii
=
1
+
2
+
3
, (3.1-94)
II
A
=
1
2
{[tr(A

)]
2
tr(A

2
)} =
1
2
(A
ii
A
j j
A
ji
A
i j
) =
1

2
+
1

3
+
2

3
, (3.1-95)
III
A
= det(A

) =
i jk
A
1i
A
2 j
A
3k
=
1

2

3
. (3.1-96)
For a symmetric tensor A

, i.e. A

T
= A

, the roots, i.e. the eingenvalues,


1
,
2
and
3
, of Eq.
(3.1-93) are real. With each of these eigenvalues
i
(i = 1,2,3) the corresponding eigenvectors
n

i
(i =1,2,3 no summation!) can be calculated by solving Eq. (3.1-89) together with the normal-
izing condition n

i
n

i
= I

(no summation over i). If the eigenvalues are distinct, the directions
of the corresponding eigenvectors are mutually perpendicular. If
1
=
2
=
3
, every direction
is principal direction. Tensor A

may also by represented by its eigenvalues and eigenvectors


as:
A

=
1
n

1
n

1
+
2
n

2
n

2
+
3
n

3
n

3
. (3.1-97)
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19 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Spherical Part and Deviatoric Part of a Tensor
3.1.13 Spherical Part and Deviatoric Part of a Tensor
The decomposition of tensor A

into its spherical (or isotropic ) part , sphA

, and its deviatoric


part , devA

, can be represented as:


A

= sphA

+devA

(3.1-98)
with
sphA

=
1
3
(I

: A

) I

=
1
3
tr(A

) I

=
1
3
A
ii
I

(3.1-99)
and
devA

=A

sphA

=A

1
3
(I

: A

) I

. (3.1-100)
Note: tr(devA

) = 0
3.2 Higher-order Tensor
Any tensors of order n may by expressed in the form
n
A

= A
i j...n
e

i
e

j
e

n
. (3.2-1)
The norm of
n
A

is dened as:
|
n
A

| =
_
n
A

:
n
A

. (3.2-2)
3.2.1 Tensor of Order Three
With respect to a Cartesian basis {e

i
} a tensor of order three may be expressed as
3
A

= A
i jk
e

i
e

j
e

k
. (3.2-3)
The components of a tensor of order three can be obtained from the relation:
A
i jk
= (e

i
e

j
) :
3
A

k
. (3.2-4)
With respect to the permutation symbol
i jk
= (e

i
e

j
) e

k
the third-order permutation tensor
3

can be expressed as:


3

=
i jk
e

i
e

j
e

k
. (3.2-5)
The double contraction of tensor
3
A

and B

is a vector:
3
A

: B

= A
i jk
B
jk
e

i
. (3.2-6)
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20 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Tensor of Order Four
An example of a third order tensor is the so-called triadic product of three vectors a

, b

and c

denoted by a

with the properties:


(a

) c

= a

, (3.2-7)
(a

) d

= (c

) a

, (3.2-8)
(a

) : (d

) = (b

)(c

) a

, (3.2-9)
(a

) : I

= (b

) a

. (3.2-10)
3.2.2 Tensor of Order Four
With respect to a Cartesian basis {e

i
} a tensor of order four may be expressed as:
4
A

= A
i jkl
e

i
e

j
e

k
e

l
. (3.2-11)
The components of a tensor of order four can be obtained from the relation:
A
i jkl
= (e

i
e

j
) :
4
A

: (e

k
e

l
) . (3.2-12)
An example of a fourth order tensor is the product of four vectors a

,b

,c

and d

denoted by
a

with the properties:


(a

) (c

) = a

, (3.2-13)
(a

) : (r

) = (c

)(d

)(a

) . (3.2-14)
The double contraction of two tensors
4
A

and B

is a second-order tensor:
4
A

: B

= A
i jkl
B
kl
e

i
e

j
. (3.2-15)
Properties:
(
4
A

T
)
T
=
4
A

, (3.2-16)
(A

)
T
=B

, (3.2-17)
(A

) : C

=A

(B

: C

) = (B

: C

) A

, (3.2-18)
A

: (B

) = (A

: B

) C

= C

(A

: B

) , (3.2-19)
(A

) : (C

) = (B

: C

)(A

) = (A

)(B

: C

) , (3.2-20)
A

(B

) D

= (A

) (C

) . (3.2-21)
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21 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Tensor of Order Four
There are two fourth-order unit tensors
4
I

and
4
I

with the properties:


B

=
4
I

: B

and B

T
=
4
I

: B

, (3.2-22)
where the fourth-order unit tensors
4
I

and
4
I

are dened as:


4
I

=
ik

jl
e

i
e

j
e

k
e

l
= e

i
e

j
e

i
e

j
, (3.2-23)
4
I

=
il

jk
e

i
e

j
e

k
e

l
= e

i
e

j
e

j
e

i
. (3.2-24)
The Cartesian components of
4
I

and
4
I

are:
(
4
I

)
i jkl
=
ik

jl
, (3.2-25)
(
4
I

)
i jkl
=
il

jk
. (3.2-26)
Note: The deviatic part of a second-order tensor A

may be described by means of a fourth-order


tensor:
devA

=A

1
3
(I

: A

) I

= (
4
I

1
3
I

) : A

. (3.2-27)
The components of devA

are:
devA
i j
= (
ik

jl

1
3

i j

kl
)A
kl
. (3.2-28)
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22 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Tensor Functions
4 Tensor Functions
Examples for tensor functions are:
(t , a

, B

, . . . ) . . . scalar-valued tensor function


u

(t , a

, B

, . . . ) . . . vector-valued tensor function


A

(t , a

, B

, . . . ) . . . tensor-valued tensor function


4.1 First Time Derivative
With respect to xed base vectors {e

i
}, the derivative of e

i
with respect to the time t is zero, i.e.
de

i
/dt = 0.
The rst time derivative of (t) , u

(t) and A

(t) is:

=
d
dt
, (4.1-1)
u

=
du

dt
= u
i
(t) e

i
, (4.1-2)

=
dA

dt
=

A
i j
(t) e

i
e

j
, (4.1-3)
( u

)=

u

+ u

, (4.1-4)
(u

)= u

+u

, (4.1-5)
(A

+B

)=

A

+

B

, (4.1-6)
(A

T
)=

A

T
, (4.1-7)
(A

1
)=A

1

A

1
. (4.1-8)
4.2 Gradient of a Scalar-valued Function
For a scalar-valued tensor function (A

) of a tensor variable A

the total differential d(A

) is:
d =
(A

)
A

: dA

. (4.2-1)
The gradient of d(A

) is a second-order tensor:
grad
A

=
(A

)
A

(4.2-2)
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23 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Tensor Functions
4.3 Gradient of a Tensor-valued Function
For a tesnor-valued tensor function A

(B

) of a second-order tensor variable B

the gradient of
A

(B

) is a fourth-order tensor:
grad
B

=
A

(B

)
B

. (4.3-1)
Note: The gradient A

/A

results in the fourth-order unit tensor


4
I

.
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24 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Tensor Fields
5 Tensor Fields
Over a dened nite region of space a tensor eld as-
signs a tensor at every instant time t to each material
point with the location denoted by the vector x

. Tensor
elds may be of any order. Examples for tensor elds
are:
(x

, t) . . . scalar eld
u

(x

, t) . . . vector eld
A

(x

, t) . . . tensor eld
e

1
e

2
e

3
x

= x

(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
)
Figure 5.1: Location vector x

of a
material point
The so-called Nabla operator

is dened as:

= e

x
i
= e

x
1
+e

x
2
+e

x
3
. (5.0-1)
5.1 Gradient of a Scalar Field
The gradient of a scalar eld (x

) is:

= grad
x

=

x

, (5.1-1)
or in index notation:

x
i
=
i
= ,
i
. (5.1-2)
5.2 Divergence of a Vector Field
The divergence of a vector eld u

(x

) is:
divu

=
u
j
x
i
e

j
e

i
=
u
j
x
i

ji
=
u
i
x
i
=
u
1
x
1
+
u
2
x
2
+
u
3
x
3
. (5.2-1)
5.3 Curl of a Vector Field
The curl of a vector eld u

(x

) is:
curl u

=
u
j
x
i
e

i
e

j
=
i jk
u
j
x
i
e

k
=
=
_
u
3
x
2

u
2
x
3
_
e

1
+
_
u
1
x
3

u
3
x
1
_
e

2
+
_
u
2
x
1

u
1
x
2
_
e

3
. (5.3-1)
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25 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Tensor Fields
Note:
curl(grad) = 0

(5.3-2)
div(curl u

) = 0. (5.3-3)
5.4 Gradient of a Vector Field
The gradient of a vector eld u

(x

) is:
gradu

=
u
i
x
j
e

i
e

j
. (5.4-1)
Matrix representation:
[gradu

] =
_

_
u
1
x
1
u
1
x
2
u
1
x
3
u
2
x
1
u
2
x
2
u
2
x
3
u
3
x
1
u
3
x
2
u
3
x
3
_

_
. (5.4-2)
Note:
(gradu

) : I

= tr(gradu

) = divu

, (5.4-3)
grad
T
u

= u

= e

x
i
=
u
j
x
i
e

i
e

j
. (5.4-4)
5.5 Divergence of a Second-order Tensor Field
The divergence of a second-order tensor eld A

(x

) is:
divA

=
A
ik
x
j
(e

i
e

k
) e

j
=
A
ik
x
j

k j
e

i
=
A
i j
x
j
e

i
. (5.5-1)
5.6 Gradient of a Second-order Tensor Field
The gradient of a second-order tensor eld A

(x

) is:
gradA

=
A

=
A
i j
x
k
e

i
e

j
e

k
. (5.6-1)
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26 Introduction to Tensor Analysis Appendix
6 Appendix
6.1 References
[1] Malvern L. E.: Introduction to the Mechanics of a Continuous Medium, Prentice-Hall Inc.,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1969.
[2] Mase G. T., Mase G. E.: Continuum Mechanics for Engineers, 2nd ed, CRC Press LLC,
Boca Raton, 1999.
[3] Ogden R. W.: Non-Linear Elsastic Deformations, Dover Publications Inc., Mineola, New
York, 1997
[4] Holzapfel G. A.: Nonlinear Solid Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, 2000.
[5] Lai, W.M., Rubin D., Krempl E.: Continuum Mechanics, 3rd ed, Butterworth-Heinemann,
Woburn, 1999.
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