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PARTS OF SPEECH

All the words in English are divided into eight kinds of words according to their use and these kinds are called Parts of Speech. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection

NOUN: Definition: A noun is the name of any person, place or thing. Examples: Abdul, boy, child, daughter, electrician, father, guardian, hero. PRONOUN: Definition: A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or noun-phrase to avoid repetition. Pronoun is a word used instead of noun. E.g. I, we, you, which, who, they, he, she, it Personal pronouns: Personal pronouns are those which stand for the person speaking, spoken to or spoken of. 1. I person person speaking. 2. II person person spoken to. 3. II person person spoken of.

Singular

Plural

I person Subject Object I Me, my, mine We Us, our, ours

Personal pronouns II person II person Subject Object Subject You You He Your She yours It You You, They your, yours

Object His, him Her, hers It, its Them, their, theirs

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ADJECTIVE: Definition: A describing words of a noun, pronoun called an adjectives. It tells the qualities, quantities, numbers, colours, etc. E.g. kind, two, blue little VERB: Definition: A verb is a word or a phrase which express doing of an action, being in a state or having something. E.g. he runs slowly, your book is in my box, she has a necklace

ADVERB: Definition: Ad Adverb modifies a verb, an Adjective or another adverb E.g. He speaks fast. ,The room is very clean., He answers very quickly.

PREPOSITION Definition: Preposition is a word or group of words used with the following noun, pronoun, noun-equivalent or a gerund to show the relation ship between it and the other word or the principal word (noun, pronoun, adjective or verb) of the same sentence. Shows the position of the noun. A word which is placed before a noun or pronoun to bring relation with another noun or pronoun is called preposition. E.g. The book is on the table., she is with me. CONJUNCTIONS Definition: A conjunction is a word used to join together two similar words, phrases, clauses or sentences. E.g. Raju and Ramya are friends , Meet me at the park or at the club. INTERJECTIONS Definition: A Interjection is a word or a sound which expresses an emotion ( a strong and sudden feeling) or excitement. E.g. Alas! , Ah!, Oh!, Alack!, Ho!

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VERBS
A Verb is a word or phrase which expresses doing of an action, being in a state or having something Types of verbs Broadly verbs are divided into two types. Verbs

Main Verbs

Five Forms V1-Base/ Dictionary word Vs-V1+s,es ,ies V2-Past tense V3-past participle V4-Present participle

Auxiliary Verbs (Helping Verbs) Primary Auxiliary Be forms: am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being Do forms: Do, Does, Did Have forms: have, has, had

Model Auxiliary Can Could May might W ill would Shall - Should Must Used to Ought to Dare Used to Need

Main Verbs have no further division . All main verbs have fiver forms V1 Apply Buy Cut Lend Kill Die Vs Applies Buys Cuts Lends Kills Dies V2 Applied Bought Cut Lent Killed Died V3 Applied Boughted Cut Lent Killed Died V4 Applying Boughted Cutting Lending Killing Dying

Auxiliary Verbs or Helping verbs.


1. They help to make negatives. 2. They help to ask questions. 3. They help to add question tags. 4. They help to identify the tense of the sentence. Note: Vs form is used with third person singular.
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AUXILIARIES AND MODALS BE FORMS The Auxiliary be is used

o In the formation of the continuous tenses E.g. He is working, I was writing. I n the formation of passive. E.g. The gate was opened Be followed by infinitive is used. o To indicate a plan, arrangement, or agreement E.g. I am to see him tomorrow. o To denote a command. E.g. You are write your name at the top of each sheet of paper. Be is used in the past tense with the perfect infinitive to indicate an arrangement that was made but not carried out. E.g. They were to have been married last month but had to postponed the marriage until June. HAVE FORMS The auxiliary have is used in the information of the perfect tenses. E.g. He has worked. He has been working. Have to is used with the infinitive to indicate obligation E.g. I have to be there by five Oclock. , He has to move the furniture himself. The past form had to is used to express obligation in the past. E.g. I had to be there by five o clock. He had to move the furniture himself. In negatives and questions, have to and had to are used with do, does, did. E.g. They have to go. They dont have to go. Do they have to go? He has to go He doesnt have to go. Does he have to go? He had to go He didnt have to go. Did he have to go? DOFORMS The auxiliary do is used 1. To form the negative and interrogative of the simple present and simple past tenses of ordinary verbs. E.g.He doesnt work. He didnt work . Does he work? , Did he work? 2. To avoid repetition of a previous ordinary verb. E.g. Do you know him? Yes, I do; she sings well. Yes, she does
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1. 2.

3.

4.

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3. Do is also used to emphasize the affirmative nature of a statement. E.g. You do look pale. , I told him not to go, but he did go . 4. In the imperative, do makes a request or invitation more persuasive . E.g. Do be quit., Oh, do come ! Its going to be such fun. CAN-COULD, MAY-MIGHT 1. Can usually express ability or capacity. E.g. I can swim across the river. 2. Can and May are used to express permission. May is rather formal. E.g. you can/may go now; Can /May I borrow your umbrella? 3. May is used to express possibility in affirmative sentences. Can is used corresponding interrogative and negative sentences. E.g. It may rain tomorrow ; He may be at home; can this be true? 4. In very formal English, may is used to express a which. E.g. May you live happily and long! ; May success attend you ! 5. Could and might are used as the past equivalents of can and may. E.g. I could swim across the river when I was young. (Ability). He said I might/could go 6. In present time contexts could and might are used less positive versions of can and may. E.g. I could attend the party l; Might/Could I borrow your bicycle? 7. Might also used to express a degree of dissatisfaction or reproach E.g. You might play a little more attention to your appearance SHALL SHOULD, WILL-WOULD 1. Shall is used in the first person and will in all persons to express pure future. E.g. I shall be twenty five next birthday. She will need the money on 15th. 2. Shall is sometimes used in the second and third persons to express command, a promise, or threat. E.g. He shall not enter my house again 3. Questions with shall I/we used to ask me will the person addressed. E.g. Shall I open the door? ; which shall I buy? 4. Will is used to express volition, characteristic habit, Assumption, probability. E.g. I will (am wiling to ) carry your book. He will talk about nothing but films. 5. Should and would are used as the past equivalents of shall and will. E.g. I expected that I should get a first class. He said he would be twenty five next birth day. 6. Should is used in all persons to express duty or obligation . E.g. You should keep your promise. 7. In clauses of condition, should is used a supposition that not be. E.g. If it should rain, they will not come.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

MUST OUGHT TO Must is used to express necessity or obligation. E.g. you must get up early, You must improve your spelling Must is often used when the obligation comes from the speaker. E.g. I must be a diet. Must can also express logical certainty. E.g. She must leave left already. Ought(to) expresses moral obligation or desirability. E.g. we ought to love our neighbors. We ought to help him Ought(to) can also used to express probability. E.g. Prince ought to come down soon. The book ought to be very useful USED(TO) ,NEED DARE. 1. The auxiliary used(to) expresses a discontinued habit. E.g. There used to be a house there. I used to live here when I was a boy 2. The auxiliary need , denoting necessity or obligation ,can be conjugated with or with out do . a. When conjugated without do, it has no s and ed forms and is used with an infinitive with out to only in negative and interrogative sentences and in sentences that contain seminegative words like scarcely and hardly. E.g. He need not go (=It is not necessary for him to go ) b. When conjugated with do , need has the usual forms needs, needed and is used with a to-infinitive. It is commonly used in negatives and questions. It sometimes occurs in the affirmative also. E.g. Do your need to go now? I dont need to meet him. 3. The auxiliary dare (=be brave enough to ), as distinct from the ordinary verb dare (=challenge), does nt take-s in the third person singular present tense. It is generally used in negative and interrogative sentensces. When conjugated without do. It is followed b an infinitive with out to . when conjugated with do it takes an infinitve with or without to after it. E.g He d are not take such a step? He dare you contradict me? He dared not do it. He doesnt dare speak to me

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TENSES Tense is the form of verb which shows the time and the state of an action or event. There are three main tenses . 1. Present Tense : It indicates an action taking place in the present at the time of speaking 2. Past tense: It shows an action that has taken place already in the past 3. Future Tense: It indicates an action likely to take place in future. Under each main tense. There are four sub-tenses. 1. Simple (indefinite) tense. 2. Continuous(progressive) tense 3. Perfect tense. 4. Perfect continuous tense 1. Simple tense: It indicates the action which can not be pin-pointed a particular time. Some times it represent a regular and habitual action. E.g. They play cricket 2. Continuous tense : It indicates the action that is going on at the time of speaking the sentence. It does not indicate the beginning of that action. E.g. It is raining. 3. Perfect Tense: It indicates the action which is finished now at the time of speaking. It has started some time ago and finished now. It indicates Just completed. Action. E.g. He has completed his homework. 4. Perfect continuous Tense: It indicates the action which started some time ago and which is still continuing at the time of speaking the sentence. That indicates action is yet complete, still is going on. The Starting time mai be indicated with the help of since or for a. since: indicates the point of time. b. for: indicates the period of time E.g. It has been raining for two hours. She has being singing since 6.a.m. STRUCTRES OF TENSES. Structures of Tenses. Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continous Present V1,Vs Am,is,are+V4 Has,have+v3 Has been+v4 Past V2 Was,were+v4 Had+v3 Had been+v4 Future Shall/will+v1w Shall/wil+be+v4 Shall/will have Shall/will had +v3 been +v4

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THE USES OF TENSES Present tense


Simple Present Tense (1) To express a habitual action; as, He drinks tea every morning. I get up every day at five o'clock. My watch keeps good time. (2) To express general truths; as, The sun rises in the east. Honey is sweet. Fortune favours the brave. (3) In exclamatory sentences beginning with here and there to express what is actually taking place in the present; as, Here comes the bus ! There she goes ! (4) In vivid narrative, as substitute for the Simple Past; as, Soharab now rushes forward and deals a heavy blow to Rustam. Immediately the Sultan hurries to his capital. (5) To express a future event that is part of a fixed timetable or fixed programme The next flight is at 7,00 tomorrow morning. The match starts at 9 o'clock. The train leaves at 5.20. When does the coffee house reopen? Note also the other uses of the Simple Present Tense. (1) It is used to introduce quotations; as, Keats says, A thing of beauty is a joy for ever. (2) It is used, instead of the Simple Future Tense, in clauses of time and of condition; as, I shall wait till yon finish your lunch. If it rains we shall get wet. (3) As in broadcast commentaries on sporting events, the Simple Present is used, instead of the Present Continuous, to describe activities in progress where there is stress on the succession of happenings rather than on the duration. (4) The Simple Present is used, instead of the Present Continuous, with the some type of verbs (1) Verbs of perception, e.g., see, hear, smell, notice, recognize. (2) Verbs of appearing . e.g., appear, look, seem. (3) Verbs of emotion, e.g., want, wish, desire, feel, like, love, hate, hope, refuse, prefer. (4) Verbs of thinking, e.g., think, suppose, believe, agree, consider, trust, remember, Forget, know, understand, imagine, mean, mind. (5) have (= possess), own, possess, belong to, contain, consist of, be (except when used in the passive),

Present Continuous Tense


. (1) For an action going on at the time of speaking ; as, She is singing (now). The boys are playing hockey.
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(2) For a temporary action which may not be actually happening at the time of speaking; as, I am reading Davit! Copperfield (but I am not reading at this moment). (3) For an action that has already been arranged to take place in the near future; as, I am going to the cinema tonight. My uncle is arriving tomorrow.

(4) It has been pointed out before that the Simple Present is used for a habitual action. However, when the reference is to a particularly obstinate habit-something which persists, for example, in spite of advice or warning- we use the Present Continuous with an adverb like always, continually, constantly. My dog is very silly: he is always running out into the road.

Present Perfect Tense


(1) To indicate completed activities in the immediate past (with just): as He has just gone out. It has just struck ten. (2) To express past actions whose time is not given and not definite; as, Have you read "Gulliver's Travels'? I have never known him to be angry. Mr. Hari has been to Japan. (3) To describe past events when we think more of their effect in the present than of the action itself; as, Gopi has eaten all the biscuits (i.e., there aren't any left for you). I have cut my finger (and it is bleeding now). I have finished my work (= now I am free). (4) To denote an action beginning at some time in the continuing up to the present moment (often with since- and/or-phrases); as, I Have known him for a long time. He has been ill since last week. We have lived here for ten years. We haven't seen Padina for several months. (5) The following adverbs or adverb phrases can also be used with the Present Perfect (apart from those mentioned above): never, ever (in questions only), so far, till now, yet (in negatives and questions), already, today, this week, this month, etc. Note that the Present Perfect is never used with adverbs of past time. We should not say, for example, 'He has gone to Kolkata yesterday'. In such cases the Simple Past should be used ('He went to Kolkata yesterday').

Present Perfect Continuous Tense


(1) The Present Perfect Continuous is used for an action which began at some time in the past and is still continuing; as, He has been sleeping for five hours (and is still sleeping). They have been building the bridge for several months. They have been playing since four o'clock. (2) This tense is also sometimes used for an action already finished. In such cases the continuity of the activity is emphasized as an explanation of something. 'Why are your clothes so wet?' - 'I have been watering the garden'.
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Past Tense
Simple Past Tense
(1) The Simple Past is used to indicate an action completed in the past. It often occurs with adverbs or adverb phrases of past time. The steamer sailed yesterday. I received his letter a week ago. She left school last year. (2). Sometimes this tense is used without an adverb of time. In such cases the time may be either implied or indicated by the context I learnt Hindi in Nagpur. I didn't sleep well (i.e, last night). Babar defeated Rana Sanga at Kanwaha. (3). The Simple Past is also used for past habits; as, He studied many hours every day. She always carried an umbrella.

Past Continuous Tense


(1) The Past Continuous is used to denote an action going on at some time in the past. The time of the action may or may not be indicated. We were watching TV all evening. It was getting darker. The light went out while I was reading. When I saw him, he was playing chess. As in the last two examples above, the Past Continuous and Simple Past are used together when a new action happened in the middle of a longer action. The Simple Past is used for the new action. (2) This tense is also used with always, continually, etc. for persistent habits in the past. He was always grumbling.

Past Perfect Tense


(1) The Past Perfect describes an action completed before a certain moment in the past; as, I met him in New Delhi in 1996. I-had seen him last five years before. (2) If two actions happened in the past, it may be necessary to show which action happened earlier than the other. The Past Perfect is mainly used in such situations. The Simple Past is used in one clause and the Past Perfect in the other; as, When I reached the station the train had started (so I couldn't get into the train). I had done my exercise when Han came to see me. I had written the letter before he arrived.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense


(1) The Past Perfect Continuous is used for an action that began before a certain point in the past and continued up to that time; as, At 'hat time he had been writing a novel for two months. When Mr. Mukerji came to the school in 1995, Mr. Anand had already been teaching there for five years.

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Future Tense Simple future tense


(1) The Simple Future Tense is used to talk about things which we cannot control. It expresses the future as fact. I shall be twenty next Saturday. It will be Diwali in a week. We will know our exam results in May. (2) We use this tense to talk about what we think or believe will happen in the future. I think Pakistan will win the match. I'm sure Helen will get a first class. As in the above sentences, we often use this tense with I think, and I'm sure. We also say I expect ---, I believe ---, Probably ---, etc. (3) We can use this tense when we decide to do something at the lime of speaking It is raining. I will take an umbrella. Mr. Sinha is very busy at the moment. All right. I'll wait.

Going to
1. We use the going to form (be going to + base of the verb) when we have decided to do something before talking about it. Have you decided what to do? Yes. / am going to resign the job. Why do you want to sell your motorbike? I'm going to buy a car. Remember that if the action is already decided upon and preparations have been made, we should use the going to form, not the Simple Future Tense. The Simple Future Tense is used for an instant decision. 2. We also use the going to form to talk about what seems likely or certain, when there is something in the present which tells us about the future. It is going to rain; look at those clouds. The boat is full of water. It is going to sink. She is going to have a baby. 3. . The going to form may also express an action which is on the point of happening. Let's get into the train. It's going to leave. Look! The cracker is going to explode.

Be about to
1. Be about to + base form can also be used for the immediate future. Let's get into the train. It's about to leave. Don't go out now. We are about to have lunch.

Simple Present Tense


1. The Simple Present Tense is used for official programmes and timetables. The college opens on 23rd June. The film starts at 6.30 and finishes at 9.00. When does the next train leave for Chennai? 2. The Simple Present is often used for future time in clauses with if, unless, when, while, as (= while) before, after, until, by the time and as soon as. The Simple Future Tense is not used in such cases. I won't go out if it rains, (not: will rain) Can I have some milk before I go to bed? Let's wait till he finishes his work. Please ring me up as soon as he comes.

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Present Continuous Tense


1. We use the Present Continuous Tense when we talk about something that we have planned to do in the future. I am going to Shimla tomorrow. We are eating out tonight. Mr. Abdul Rehman is arriving this evening. You are advised to use the Present Continuous (not the Simple Present) for personal arrangements.

Future Continuous Tense


1. We use the Future Continuous Tense to talk about actions which will be in progress at a time in the future. I suppose it will he raining when we start. This time tomorrow I will be sitting on the beach in Singapore. Can I see you at 5 o'clock? Please don t come then I will be watching the tennis match on TV. 2. We also use this tense to talk about actions in the future which are already planned or which are expected to happen in the normal course of things. I will be staying here till Sunday. He will be meeting us next week. The postman will be coming soon

Be to
1. We use be to + .base form to talk about official plans and arrangements. The Prime Minister is to visit America next month. The conference is to discuss Nuclear Tests. Be to is used in a formal style, often in news reports Be is usually left out in headlines, e.g. Prime Minister to visit America.

Future Perfect Tense


1. The Future Perfect Tense is used to talk about actions that will be completed by a certain future time. I shall have written my exercise by then. He will have left before you go to see him. By the end of this month I will have worked here for five years.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense


1. The Future Perfect Continuous tense is used for actions which will be in progress over a period of time that will end in the future. By next March we shall have been living here for four years. Ill have been teaching for twenty years next July. This tense is not very common.

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SENTENCES A Sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense or thought. Types of Sentences 1. Assertive or Declaratory Sentences 2. Interrogative Sentences 3. Imperative Sentences 4. Exclamatory Sentences Assertive Sentence A sentence is that which expresses a statement or assertion or declaration. Examples. 1. You are a lucky girl. 2. He will come tomorrow 3. Someone threatened me over the phone. 4. The phone is ringing inside the house. 5. I have come to invite you to my birthday party. Interrogative Sentence Interrogative sentence is that which asks a question. Examples: 1. Where are you taking me? 2. Are you willing to come with me? 3. How many cars do you have? 4. What has he been doing here? 5. What area they saying? Imperative Sentences A sentence that expresses a command or a request or a wish is called an imperative sentence. Examples: 1. Put all your slates here . 2. Get out of the house. 3. May you live long! 4. May God bless you! 5. Have mercy on us Exclamatory sentences A sentence that expresses a strong feeling like sorrow or joy is called an Exclamatory sentence. Examples 1. How cruel your are! 2. How slowly you walk1 3. What a beautiful house you have! 4. What a good heart you have! 5. What a nice saree it is !

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Sentences for speaking 1. Affirmative Sentences : They always give a positive meaning . They dont have a negative not in them e.g. He is very talkative His words are inspiring. 2. Negatives Sentences. : They contain not and give a negative meaning. e.g. He doesnt work hard. He words are not inspiring 3. Imperative sentences : They express a command , request or a which . E.g. Call the doctor Leave me alone Dont touch the hot stove. May God help you.

Sentence Conversion Conversion of Affirmative to Negative 1. Add not to Helping Verb

Affirmative: He is a good boy Negative : He is not a good boy 2. If helping verb absent in sentence, use dont or doesnt in simple present tense and did in simple past tense. A: She comes after an hour N: She does not come after an hour A : They want to come N: They dont want to come Samples 1. They have gone 2. I am a teacher 3. Krishna came yesterday 4. Rani had done will 5. Vamshee told me as story -

They have not come I am not a teacher Krishna didnt come yesterday Rani had not done well Vamshee didnt tell me a story

Conversion of Affirmative to Questions 1. Put helping verb before subject Example : He is her son - is He her son? 2. If helping verb absent in sentence, use dont or doesnt in simple present tense and did in simple past tense. Example Vijaya eats - Does Vijaya eat?
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