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Serieg

COMPENDIOUS

French

Grammar

IN

TWO

INDEPENDENT
AND

PARTS
ADVANCED)

(INTBODUCTORT

BY

A.
Pbofsbsob
or

HJALMAR
Modbrn
Author

EDGREN,
V

Ph.D.
in

Lanouagbb
or

akd and

Sanskbit Sanskbit

thb

Uniyxbsity
xto.

of

Nbbbabka;

Enolish

Gbammabs,

"""Co"^

BOSTON,
D. C.
HEATH
"

U.S.
CO.,

A.

PUBLISHERS

1894

-'^"(o
y

Hwvtfd UfAwnHyi
""fibtf EiucidlM
TRANSFERRED

Ubrary

TO LIBRARY

HARVARD

COLLEGE

-tui^

)'6 1921

CopyrigMt

1889,

Bt

a.

HJALMAR

BDGRSN.

Ttpographt

by

J.

8.

Gushing

"

Co.,

Boston.

PREFACE.

This
of

grammar
our

is

prepared
schools all time by

with and
to

special
colleges.

reference Its
"

to
"

the

eeds

American
disavows

limit

for

t purposely by
; and

claims
devoted

completeness
to

is

determined

the

average

French
as

in such critical and

tions institu-

its methody
a

practical

as

well
an

aims.

To

meet
to

twofold

need,

first, of
of
a

easy

rapid
of
two

ductio introboth parts,

reading, and syntax, by

secondly,
the

critical is divided

exposition into

rammar

book
an

ach

forming

itself
is intended
at

independent
to

whole. the learner


moment,
an

The

Eirst
with three

Part
profit
to

enable

to
"

begin
or

eading

the

earliest It

practicable
merely

in

rom

six

weeks.
of

contains

elementary

utline

of

the

essentials

French

pronunciation

and

accidence
as

(some

indispensable

syntactical
exercises.

directions rules
are

included),
purposely

well

accompanying simple
as

The

few, of

and
ment. state-

has

seemed

compatible
are

with

accuracy
to

Details each of

and
the

exceptions

left

the
as

Second well
as

Part,
others,

here

subjects
independent
elementary, material
where only

contained
treatment.

here,

eceives
Though

fuUer

and

entirely
sufficient is needed
or

this

First

Part
It

is

thought
even

to

ontain that

for
a

its purpose. minimum


are

may
can

be given

ll

of
young

time
to

be

grammar,
earnest

where study
of

scholars

too

undertake

ore

details.
for
a more

The

Second
after

Part

is intended
has

critical
a

study

of

the

anguage

reading

begun.

Here

methodical

presen-

PREFACE.

ation

of

its

gram

mar

and

syntax,

each

by
at
a

itself, the

has
end of

been
the
nor

dopted,

exercises
where

being
will In

arranged
not

separately such

ook,

they

obstruct
framing

presentation,
I

mpede
to

reference.

the

of

rules

have

purposely
conciseness,
Too and much

ried

reconcile
one

in each

comparative
too

fulness
to

with

referring

rule, unless

unwieldy, the

several. grasp

isintegration
a

is apt

to

slacken

student's

vent pre-

clear

comprehension
features

of principles. such
are

On
topics outlined
be

the
as

same

ground

he

leading
and

of

difficult briefly
student

the by

Irregular
themselves
the
mazes

erbs

the

Subjunctive
are

efore
the

details
latter.

given,

lest
I

the
have
has

lost
to

in

Moreover, in
type
to

attempted seemed
to

distinguish
more or

by

difference
to
a

what

me

less

ecessary

commit
course

memory. in

Everything

that

may of

be
this

left
"

ut

in

first

is printed

small

type,

part

especially

the

lists of
the with

indeclinables

(164, etc.),of

words

or

hrases
the

requiring infinitive
even

subjunctive (324-30), of verbs de or or ct (344, 347, without


for
reference

requiring

351)

"

eing

intended accompanied
to

only.

The

syntactical
the

ules

are

by learn this

copious
one

examples,

which

student
French

recommended acquired

and
than

all,

more

genuine early

eing

in

way

by

too

attempts

at

composition.

few

explanatory
of this

remarks
grammar
are

about may first be


not

some

of

the
out

more

direct

innovations
The

here

be

of place.

Irregular

Verbs
they

classified studied in

in the

brief order in
and

survey

(155-60), where
Then list immediate without
The
to

should

they
an

are

described.

follow
serve
as

full
an

conjugation
aid
in

tables

alphabetical

that the

study,
student of the

for

rapid

and

reference

when

later

wishes rules

to find

form

refreshing contains

his recollection all the


I have

for making

it.

index

irregular

verbs.
an

For

the

Subjunctive
That
the
use

attempted mode,

entirely

new

ficatio classia

of

this

yet

involving

in

large

PBEFACB.

easure

psychological
clause,

distinction

due

to

the

nature

of

the

ubjunctive
to

should
and

be

classified

primarily
with

with

ence refer-

that

distinction,

only

secondarily
causing
not at

reference attitude

certain

preceding
by
the

expressions

the all,
nature

mental
or

xpressed
with

subjunctive, but
to

only of
the

tally, incidenclause

reference
occurs

the

syntactical

here

it

(as being
I

subjective,objective,etc.),seems
attempted
use

to

evident.
The

have

consequently of
and the

such

tion. classifica-

brief

synopsis

of
on

the
the

subjunctive, page
following
to

88

(farther illustrated
all, I
to

explained

pages)

ontains

think,
a

the

student
of

need
the

commit of

memory

in

rder

have That

good
the

grasp

nature

the

French
for

subjun

siiaple and
than
so

method

there

adopted

ing explain-

mode

so

subtile
more

affected

by

conventionalism and

in it

se

should

be

measurably that
for
safest
to

complete
it will
nature

satisfactory
to

s not

expected;

but
that
must

it is hoped
feeling be of

be

adapted

foster

n the

learner which

the

of the

French

subjun

his

guide

in using
a

it himself.
as

For

the

purpose

giving

the

student

useful
the

well

as

nteresting
as

glimpse
also
to

of the

historical him
for

growth

of

French

guag lan-

prepare in older

those
a

syntactical brief
of

peculiarities of
forms the main

will

meet

with
the

authors, development

sketch

eatures

of

historical been

actual

and

construc

has

included
however,

in Part
encumber

II. the

That

this

extraneous

atter

may

not,

learner's
merest

progress, only, it may tion introduc-

ach the

historical
head
of
over,

topic

is presented,
chapters

in

the

outline

appropriate
by
those
laws

(or sections), where


as
a

looked
to

interested, of
the
in
nuce

suggestive It

the

actual

language.
the

should
of
not

be

stated

ere

that

" 1, containing
to
as

outlines

French
so

phonetic

according
use

recent

theories,

is intended
a

much

for

mmediate

for

forming of
can

later

condensed

synopsis

of

he

subject,by
may

the

aid

which

the

teacher,
to

expanding
class

it

as

deem

advisable,

explain

his

intelligently

PREFACE.

he

derivation small fraction

of

French of
the

words. hour

My

own

experience
devoted in reading,

is that
to

each class

judiciously
started of good added
a

such is apt

xplanation,
be
To

after

is fairly

both
the

inspiring
grammar

and

productive
have
The

results.^ chapter
on

proper
one
on

been

^e7ich
and

Versification, and
words.

Belation needs
to
no

of

Anglo-French

rench

This,

I suppose, referred
those

plea. of

Among be

grammars

in the
Matzner,

preparation
Brunot,

my

own

hould

mentioned Ploetz,

of

Cl^dat,
am

Chas-

ung,

Gayer,
to

Lucking, Edward
inchoate the

and

Plattner.

greatly
comments

indeb

Professor
in its

S. Joynes
state,

for valuable
for

my

MS.

and

kindest
of

aid work.
Fortier,
are

and

encour

during
Professors Daell,
L.

farther

progress

the

Also A.
due

Adolphe
A.

Cohn,
and

C. Fontaine,
others
or an

Alc6e thanks

N.
for

an

Sherman, in the be

my

imely If

suggestions

proofs

otherwise.
effort in the
towards
not

this
can

grammar

deemed

right

direction,
true

nd

contribute,
interests,
the
why,

in its humble which aim

way,

promoting only
the

ducational
also

should
at

consider

hxyw,

ut

and

developing will
be

critical

discernment

ather

than

versatility,

its ambition

amply
H.

fulfilled. EDGEEK

A.
Uniybrsitt May,
of

Nebraska,

1890.

To

students
may

wishing be

to

pursue

further

the
the

subject of
excellent

historical

French
Brunot

rammar

especially

recommended

works

of

firammaire
du
to

historique

de
The

la langue
latter

frangaise)
is the
more

and

Cledat

(^Grammaire
and
destined

hisno

ortque

frangais).
continue

elementary

oubt

(with

its companion-volume

Grammaire
rendered regards
the

d^mentatre
student
date.

de la

ieiUe

langue

/rangdtse) the
short
grammar,

valuable
now

services

of French

Brachet's

in several

behind

Remark.
not

"

The entirely

following
out

general place.
to

suggestions Learn
taste

as

to

how

to

use

this book
without

ay

be

of

well
and

Part

I.

(with
Then

o^

the

nglish
French
not

exercises,

according

age).
p.
p.

begin

reading

asy

(for
yet be

instance

Super's
to

Reader),
the

referring

for
lviii.

such

verb-forms,
study

may

understood reading,
one
are as

reference-list,
verbs,

; and

in

onnection

with

the
one

the they

irregular
are

79
and

etc..

Part

II., learning

them the

well

by
verbs without

there learn

classed
the

described.

When II.

ll

irregular

mastered,

remainder
to

of
and

Part

to

yntax
the

(with

or

the with

fine
the

print, fine

according and

taste

age)
according
to

; and

hen

syntax,

dealing

print

the

exercises

to

ircumstances.

These reading.

grammar-studies

should

all be

subordinated

ical crit

and

copious

CONTENTS.
[all
REFBRENCBS
are to

PAQB8.]

FIE8T

PAET.

Introductory

Survey

of

French

Grammar.
PAOB

ronunciation and Partitive Sign


viii

rticle

ouns

XIII
xv

Adjectives

umerals

xx xxiii

ronouns

erbs,

Regular,

xxxv

; Irregular,

.......

xxxv
bxi

ndeclinable

SEOOITD

PAET.

Grammar
"
^^

and

Syntax. 3-5

he

French

Language

History

1.

Elementary

Sounds

and

Accent.

istory

1-7 of

otation
Alphabet,

Sounds
7.
"

7-9
signs

Subsidiary

8. (accents, etc.)"

"

tion, Syllabica-

9.

ccent

and

Quantity

9-10

CONTENTS.

PAOB

ronunciation
Simple
and

10-24
vowels,

10-12.

"

Monophthongs,
"

13.

"

Diphthongs
"

dissyllables,

14-16.
rule,

Nasal

vowels,

15-16.

nants Conso"

(General
Proper
nouns

16-17;
words,

Special
23.

rules,

17-23).

and

foreign

oining

of

Words

24-5

II.

Common

Changes
....

26-7

III.

Article

and

Partitive

Sign.

story
or

27

efinite

Generic
Article

Article

27-8

ndefinite

28 29-30

artitive

Sign

IV.

Nouns.

istory

30-1
Formation
nouns,

lural

32-5
32.
"

Common
35.

Proper

nouns,

34.

"

Compound

nouns,

ender
Masculines, kindred
32.
"

35-8
Ferainines,

36.

"

Formal

relation

between

masculines

and

feminines,

38.

V.

Adjectives.

istory

38-9
Formation
'

lural

39
Feminine
40.
"

ormation
General

of the
rule,

40-2
changes,

Etymological
41-2.

40-1.

"

graphical Ortho-

changes,

-^Compound

adjectives, 42.
43-4

omparison

VI.

Numerals.
44 44-6

istoid

ardinals

CONTENTS.

XI

rdinals Numerals VII.


Pronouns.

46 46-7

ther

istory

47-8

lassification

48 49-53

ersonal
List, 49.
"

Pronominal
60-1.
"

particles, Reflexive

60.

"

Position

of 62^.

tive conjunc53-4
54-5

pronouns,

expression,

ossessives

emonstratives

nterrogatives

66-" 56-7 58-60

elatives

ndefinite VIII.

Verbs.
60-2 63-4
64-79

istory

lassification
Verbs

egular
aimer,
"

finir, romprcy
Minor

66-7.

"

Phonetic

and

other

changes,

68-9.
"

irregularities, verbs,
"

69.

"

Principal

parts,

69-70. 70.
"

Impersonal
etre,

70.

"

Compound
active

verb-forms,
tenses,
"

"

avoir, Passive

71-3. 74.
" "

Compound
Reflexive

73-4.

tenses,

verbs,

76-7.
79.
"

Interrogative

forms,

78-9.
forms,

Negative

forms,

Negative

-interrogative

79.

rregular
(General

Verbs
classification 83.
and description,

79-104
79-83.
"

Alphabetical

reference-list,

IX.

Indeclinable

Words.
105
105-8

istory

dverbs
Lists,

106-7.

"

Comparison,

107.

"

Negation,

107-8.

repositions

108
109 109

Conjunctions

Interjections

ii

CONTENTS.

SYNTAX.
PAGB

X.

Intboductoby

110-11

XI.

Abticles

and

Pabtitivb

Sign.
Ill

istory
of the
Definite
nouns,

se

Definite
article

(or Generic)
"

Article
112-14;
before proper

111-18

[before common
Generic

nouns,

114-16].
Indefinite

article,

117-18.

se

of the

Article

119

se

of the
Dependent
sign,

Partitive
partitive

Sign
sign, 119-20.
"

119-22
Independent partitive

120-22.

epetition

of Articles

and

Partitive

Sign

123 123-5

mission

of Articles

XII.

Nouns. 125

istory

ouns

without
with
a

Preposition

125-7

ouns
With

Preposition
"

127-^4
a,

rfe, 128-30.
other

With

130-1.

"

With

dans.en,

131-2."

With 133-4.

prepositions,

133.

"

Repetition

of prepositions,

XIII.

Adjectives.
134

istory
of

greement

Adjectives

134-7

lace

of Attributive

Adjectives

137-40 141-3

omparison

XIV.

Numerals. 143

istory Uses

diomatical

143-4

CONTENTS.

Xm

XV.

Pronouns.
PIOS

istory

144-5 145
of

ersonals
Use

conjunctiTes
147-9.
"

and
and

disjunctiYes,
y, 149.
"

145-50.
and
etrcj

"

Dative

tion, rela151-2.

en

Ist

2d

persons,
"

"

3d

persons,

152-7

(i7 or

ce

with

154).

Position,

156-7.

ossessives

157-9
159-63

emonstratives

nterrogatives

163-5
165-8

Relatives

ndefinites

168-73

XVI.

Verbs.
174

istory

greement

of Verb

and

Subject
Compound
and
"

174-8 178-85

ndicative
Simple
and
present, compound 17B-80.
"

present,

180. 181-3.

"

Simple
"

imperfect
future,
"

preterit,

Simple
conditional,

and

compound

183.

Simple

and
uses,

compound 184-5.

184-5.

Certain

idiomatic

Subjunctive
History
f

186-201
"

319.

Subjunctive
186-7; of
Tabular words

in

subordinate
statement,

clauses 188;

[General
193-5. of

principles,

Alphabetical
"

reference-lists
Infinitive for
use,

followed
195-6.

by
"

subjunctive,
Special
cases

subjunctive,
196-8.
"

subjunctive

Use

of tense,

19S-9].

"

Subjunctive

in independent

clauses,

200-1.

Infinitive
History
^

201-10
2Xil.
"
"

Inf.

without
a,

preposition, 206-7.
"

202-4.
alone
or

"

Inf. with
"

with

de, 204-6.
a,

Inf. with Inf. with

Inf.

de

or

207-9.

"

other

prepositions,

209-10.

Inf. after

nouns

and

adjectives, 210.
210-15
"

Participles
JI""fary, 211.
Present participle, 211-12

(with

"n,

212)."

Fast

participle,

212-15.

IV

CONTENTS.

XVIL

Indeglinables.
PAGB

Negations
History
f

216-25
216.
"

non

pas,
ne

pas,

216-17.

"

ne

pas,

217-18.

"

ne

alone, 223-6

218-20.

"

expletiye,

220-3."

Other

negations,

(nt,225).
226-30
"

Other

Indeclinables
226-8.

Adverbs,

Conjunctions,

228-^.

XVIII.

Arrangement

op

the

Sentence.

History

230

Direct

Arrangement Arrangement

231-2

Inverted

232-5

XIX.

Punctuation

and

Capitals
.
.

235-6

XX.

French

Verse.
236-8 238-42

Greneral

Character

Details
Number 239-40. of
"

syllables

cesura,

238.
and

"

Hiatus,

239.

"

Rhyme,

Choice

of words

constructions,

240.

XXI.

Relation

op

Anglo-French

and

French

Words.
242-3

French

Words

in English between Anglo-French


and French

Difference

in Form

Words
in

244-6

Difference
French

Meaning

between

Anglo-French

and 246

Words Words
to the

Anglo-French

lost

in French

249
250-72

Exercises

Syntax

Vocabulary

273-86

Index

287-93

PART

I.

RACTICAL

SURVEY

OF

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

(Calculated

for

Half

Term,

or

Less)

BRIEF

INTRODUCTORY
OF

SURVEY

French

Grammar
"i""c

FBONUNOIATIOir.
[For
fuller
to

information

the

student

is here,

as

elsewhere

in

this

Surrt^,

eferred

Part

II.]
The Frencli

1.

Alphabet.
letters
as

"

alphabet

contains

the

same

ritten
Some

the

English.
however,

of these
to

letters,

may
a

have
may
or

an

orthographical have
an

ign

attached
',

them.
d4;
grave

Thus,
'',

vowel
in
;

Accent
^,

(acute
in
to

as

in

as

d^s;
or

circumflex

mdt)
the
a,

to

denote

sound

or

origin
a

the

Disdresis
vowel.

(",
c

as

in

natf)

denote

separation

from

preceding
denote

And

may

ave

Cedilla
o,
u.

( ^,

as

in

^)

to

that

it sounds

like

efore
Note.
'

"

Name the

the

letters

as

usually

pronounced Particulars

(5, 10),
in Part

adding 3.

mute

to

consonants

(be, ce, etc.).


The

II,

"

2.

Syllabication.
a

"

general should

principle begin,

of syllabication

s that

non-initial

syllable
in [i.e.

if possible,
or

with
a

one

onsonant-sound

writing,

one

consonant

consonant-di

(ch,ph^
a

th^ nasal

; gn)'\
one

with

two

only
a

if the
"

last
Ex.

liquid

(r, t) preceded
4-pe'/4^

by

that

is not
;

liquid.

e-ra^ par-U^

af-fec-U, symp-td-me

a-che-ter^

go"'gni;

FIRST

PART.

[2-5

Note.
the

"

In

writing,
vowel

however,

(not
^

being

simple

consonant)
silent

goes

ith

preceding

ut

of account

(e.g.ex-it) and in pronunciation, (e.g.6o-nheur, written hon-heur),


In

h is left

3.

Accent-stress.
is given
to

"

French

slight
of
a

prominence single equal

cen (ac
word,
stress.

the

last

sonorons

vowel
are

hile Ex.
By
a

preceding

sonorous

vowels

uttered

with

parlA,
sonortms

salade^*
vowel
is

probability.
meant

any

vowel,

except

*mute'

(which,

ever, how-

counts

as

syllable).
"

4- Vowels.
quantity
slight,

The may

pronunciation be long
or

of the vowels The

is given

below.

heir

short.
; and

distinction, direct in
oral

however,
tion instruccase.

s often
can

and
the
never

even

uncertain
the the Simple
' '

only

teach
vowels

beginner
have

right
*

quantity
of

every
long

rench

vanish

English

vowels.

5.

Vowels.
'

(a) :
midway
"

1.

as

in

English
^father'

father and

(not
^at.'
"

quite
Ex.

so

deep)
6as,

"

2.

between
ma,

(1)

grdce;

(2)
1.

salade.
a

Closing
of
e

syllable
^err'

(cf " 2),


.

has

sound

approaching
a narrower

that

in
of

(being
:
=

uttered

rapidly,
at

with
of

aperture ics, and,

the

lips

(3^erm.

6)

the

end

monosyllab-

usually,
or

within
so,

polysyllabics

(e.g.Ze, me-na'\).
as
no

It

is silent, final
arises
a
8

practically it may be

in polysyllabics,
medially when

final

or

before
sound

; and

silent

harsh
2. Not

dme, (e.g.

dmes,

ma-Za-de;

de-ve-nir).
like
e

"

closing
Fr.

syllable,

it usually

sounds
'they
^

in Fr.

'

ere
"

'

(i.e.
=

^)

sometimes
bel'le ;
:

like

in

(i.e.
=

^).

Ex.

(=

^) fer,

(= ^
like
"

nez,

parlev,
in
'

almost
mute
:

they,'
;

but

usually

short,
bU,

except

before

(long) donnie
here
here

(short) donnS,
type
to
are

Letters

printed used

in

Roman

mute

(as

described

later),

t Hyphens

simply

divide

syllables.

6.]
1. long
'

PRONUNCIATION.

IH

, d
'

as

in

'

ere

'

(or ei

in

heir

');

or

2. short

as

in

let

"

(1) p^re,
as

fite ;

"

(2) br^ve, fitei.


but long
or

(t), /:
hydre
;

i in

police/
in

short:

"

G^^S)
in

^^"' ^^"'

(short) nt,
as
'

inutilQ.

(d) :
"

close

no/
;

or

more

open,
sotte,

approaching

'

not

(close)rose,
to

pdle

(open)

folle.

(A) :

produce
to utter

the
w

sound
as

of this vowel
*

(which
and then

is

Germ, instead,
or

u)

prepare pronounce
"

in Engl.
moving

rue/
the

try,

to

Fr.

i without
"

lips.

It is long

short

G^^S)

'""^^'i^^^/

(short) du,
mdt,

butte.

ExEBGiSE
;

I.
a,

"

a:

(1) car,
dmes,

fable,
assez,
"

table,
e:

bas,

grdce,
me,

dne,

me

(2)

ma,

ta, papa,

salade,

(1) le,

ve-nir,

re-bis,
des,

re-ce-vra;

dme,

base,

mMade,

re-le-va-,
promets
"

(2 :

fer,
parlez,
;

ver-re,

bel-le, met-tre, des-servir,

despote,

(= ^) nez,
donn4e,
"

sez,

parlei,

; ef-ficace

G^^S)
cr44,

arUe

(short)
m^re,
"

donn4,

parU,

d4,

bU,

4t4, r6v4r4,
;

h,

Gong)

p^re, ni^ce.

J^te, bite,
/

itre,

fe-nitre, p^se
dise,
o,

(shorter)br^ve,
hydre
rose,

iddle,

(t),/: G^^S)
inutile,
rddev,
vue,

^^^^ amie,
"

tie, abim^,

(short) ni, Jini, bdti,


pdle,
u

arrive.

d:

(as

in

'no')

uppose,
"

ddme,

(more open)
ruse,

sotte,

ob4ir,

procMe,

olle.

(a): (long) rue,

milr,fliUe, deluge-,

(short

u,

tu,

buite,

futur, firule,

minute.

6.

Monophthongs like
;

(combined
d;

vowels

uttered

as

one).
4:
"

(at), (eX): ei
baise,
eau
:

but

final
;
"

ai

of

verbs
parlai.
;

like

Qong)

maitre

(short) reine
o:
"

(= ^

u,

like
:
'

Fr.

(as in 'no') pause


than
e

(more open)
or

Paul. almost

(eH), (BU
like
e

1.
err

closer
*

in

'err';

2.

open,

in

"

(close

and

long)
; longer,

crev^e,

veux,
coeur

vosux

"

(open

and
:

short), seul,
like
oo

veule

leur,
or

(c
"

k).

{pa, oh)
roue

in

'fool,' but
oh.

long

short

(long) goUt

(shorter) doute,

FIRST

PART.

[6-0

Exercise
;

II.

"

a/, ei

(=
eau

long) 6ai"e,

raie^

maXtrey

?iaUre,

rasseie

(=
ai,

short) aime,
"

aimer,
:

fait, parfaite, pleine,

peinei beau^
:

(like ^

parlai.

au,

(close)pause^
I'estaure,
"

pauvre^
eu, oeu

eaucoui^,

fuseau;
deux,
veux,

(open)
neutre,

Paul,
voeux,

(close

reusQ,

boeuis

(open)

seul,

jeune,

eur,

boeuf,
oil,

"

ou

(long) goUt,
foule,
7.

^oiLse,

roue,

bravoure-,

(short

u,

Zowp,

covieau,

route.

Diphthongs.

In

other

vowel-combinations
has

than sound, The

those

described
the

above,

each
to

lement

usually

its

own

though

first is apt
are
:
"

be

nly
:

slightly
nearly
roi,

pronounced.
wa-

chief
"

exceptions

like

in

'

waft

(1) poivre,

joie

"

(2 shorter
or

moi,

4- vowel
in most
q

(or vowel-combination)
cases

If preceded

by

q,

but
hard
as

silent g
'

graphic and

sign
k
=

to

denote

that

and

so.und
=

like
ga,

(in *go')
'

respectively
Jca, he;

(i.e.ua, g
: etc.)
"

gue

g4

in

get

; gua,

que

Ex.

fatigxxa,fatigii^,faJtigwe {fa-tlg) ;
Exercise
voiture,

pratiqw^a,
voir,
:

pratiqne. avoir;

III.

"

a/:
"

(1)
gua,

botte,

poivre,
etc.

(2) moi,
pra-

oit,

tournoi.

gue,
gn4,

fatigna, fatigue,
gut, langue,

iqna,

qu.atf*e, gvL^re, qne-relle,


"

gue,

gnide,

pZogue,

6a^ue.

Other

oombinatioiis
cruel,

(firstvowel
b4at,

slightly
lieu,

dimmed)
diable.

pi^ce

lui, (= i?*-^s),

Dieu,

lia, riez,

8.

/betweenvowelsis
with

equivalent preceding
vowel.
as war

to French

t-y, of which
=

combines
as

its
=

Hence
in

pa/ev

pS"-/er pa/s

(ai

^),
'
=

ro/al

roi-yal

(oi

'wag').

But

country

pai-i,

9.

Nasal
in the

Vowels.
same as
a

"

single by
'

vowel
one
'

or

monophthong

fol low

syllable in Engl.

nasal
is

(n,m)

is nasalized

(very

nearly

thank

nasalized

by

n) ,

n,

losing

entirely

their

independent

utterance.

d,

10.]
The
French their sound
am

PRONtJNCIATION.

nasal

vowels

have

no

exact
one

English

equivalents.
by
the
;

Denoting

nasality
may
=

(which
represented
in

is

with

them)
as

sign

r*, their

be
3

in French
an,

follows
ambre.

an^

(a as

'far'). Ex.
"on,

ruban,
mouton,

on^

om

=0

(closeo).
^^
,
.

ombre.

ain,
ein^
eun

aim

|
)

^^

^ ^.

^^

j
i

main,

poyXain, peindre^

faim.
Reims.

aim

frein^
jeHii.

(eu 2).
nasalization,
they
are

"

But,

besides
i/,

this

(except chiefly
of
eu
a

in final

(y),and

unless

the
a,

finals
and

monophthong

-ien (6)
Hence

eceive
e/f
in.
,

the
em
im

value
=

of French
3.
'*'

a/,

respectively.
en,

Ex.
tt

empereur.
r

'

ai.

"

vm,

nymphe.

yn,
un,

ym
um

)
=

e".

"

ten,

hwmWe.

Exercise

IV.
"

"

/:
nasal

payer^

essayei,
:

noyer^

foyev^
guand,
empereur, simple,
sainie,

royal,

ap-

uyeTj

envoyev.

vowels
pente,
cousin,
moins; ;
un,

auj

volcan,

6anguet,
orient,

"mpe,

amph

en,

-vent,

enfant, iemps,
pincei,
vain,

atiencQ)

bien,

tien;

vin,

timbre,
essaim,

nymphe,
craindre;

oint

(=pO'in), Joint,
lion, ombre,
"

n,

tomber

lundi,

tribun,

empruntei,

humble,
ve-nu,

parfum,jeiln;
u-ne,

(but without
ho-norer,

d-ne, nasalization)

ann4e,

nnemi,

cousi-ne,

vai-ne,

bonne,

homme,

etc.

10.

Consonants.
as

"

The

French
in the

consonants

are

usually
:
"

ronounced

in English,

except

following

cases

a.

Initial

or

Medial.

sounds
sounds

like

s :

"^,
sh
as
or

fa(pn.
h
are

like
words cher,

(as
also

before
in

r,

I, and

usually

in
with

such
a

foreign

English

pronounced
chaos.

sound):

vocAe;

(=A;)

Christ,

VI

FIRST

PART.

[10

(before e,
"

i, y

-i
""

"

sounds

like

in

'

azure

geste^ joli, jambe.

i-

"

i.

j (always)

)
silent.
But
is made enounced
hofeit,

h is virtually

for

grammatical
h
^

reasons
'

(12,note
and
h
^

etc.)a
'

distinction

between

mute

rated aspi-

(once
"

slightly

in foreign,

chiefly

Grermanic,
harpe.

words):
sounds
as

('mute')
in
and
:
'

heure;

('asp.')^ros,
vowel-sounds

so,' a

except
few other
;

between

(and

in

trans
as

-f- vowel, in 'rose' sounds

combinations), where
base,
'

it sounds

son,

astre
as

rose, (= 2;)

transitif.

-gn-

nearly and

ny

in

'

canyon
a

gagna

(nearly
like
y

ga^'ya
'boy'

final -if, b^tai/

preceded

by

vowel,

sounds

in

(= bi-ta'/),ie/I (= vi-^'y), v
after
a

like I'y; but sounds usually -///-, medial, like y: brillei (= brt-y^)^ travai/fei (=
Note.
"

vowel

simply

trd-vd-/^.
in
*
'

/,

-II- may
though

also

be

sounded by

like

Uli

million
common.

but

this

ronunciation,

preferred

good
s*

authorities,

is less

before a vowel ii the verb-ending


=

sounds
4ions,

like and

[except

after

(or x), in

4i4,

: (often) 4ien']

e.g.

(= s*)naiion
moUi^,

7105*0,

partial,

propMtie,

factieux

(= **)question,

partions

(verb-form).
b, Final. silent.

Final

consonants

are

usually in
-er,

Only
are

c,

f, /, y, and
most
"

(except

in

polysyllables
Nasals,
ses

for

-ier)
a

the

part Ex.

ounded.
aimer,
"

of
"

course,

nasalize

preceding
cinq,

vowel.
on.

hat,

sec

(c

A:), i7, cTief, fer^


(as
in
=

Note.

Even
by
a

I is often
sounds

silent like y

baril,

outii,
:

fusil, etc.); and


cf. -//, above).

-i

receded

vowel

(travail

trd-v"^y

Exercise vaxihe,

V.

"

c:

9a,

re(pi,
"

gar(pn.

"

ch

chat,

chaleur,

her,

cochon,

chuchotev,

g^J'
to

g^l^^

gilet, gypse,

germe^

ouge,

orageux,

mangea

(e

only

soften

g)^
g
as

George
in

jardinQ,
gant,

our, juge, je, jeune, joie, jamais]

(but

'go')

0,

11.]

PRONUNCIATION.

VU

ointev^

grandj Jiasard,
raison^

etc.

"

A:

ha6it,
"

hewre,
s:
sa,

homme,
son,

hewrewx;
estime-y

A^ros,
rosey

arpG^

Jiaut,

halte,

(=")

ower,

d^shonorer^
r4gna,
y

transaction.

"

gn

gagna^

gagnevy

agne^

agneau^ seigneur

r^gner,

rdgne^

%Wjp,

ignorant^

cygnSy

bai-

nevy

rognon. sillony

//,

-///-;

b4tail, vieil;
travaUleury

brilleT, hriUanty guillotine

riUey

Jilleygentilley
=

travailleTy

(g

imply

hard

ouiUe,

cueillir
etc.
"

conseiller, vieilliry feuilleyfeuillage gi-yo-tin), ke : ke-yir) (but ill in Engl.) iUvstre, (cue ;

llumineTy

ft:

nationy

sectiony

patienty
inertiey

partiaJy d^mocratie

^gyptieuy
;

lSnipotentiairey

propMtiey
mixtiony

minutiey

(= "

hr^tieriy questiouy
vingty

moUi4.
sec,
avecy

"

Finals:
chocy
y

plomhy

piedy
t7,

irop,

eSy draps,

vends

chefy vify

foly

nvly

atal;

travail

ccueil

(= trd-va'y)yconseily vieil seuily oeU (= eu'y) (= Orkeu^y);/er, meryfiery hier, lewty honvieury hauteur;
mmer,

arlevy

entievy
to

premicT,
of pronunciation
given
above

Exceptions
occur

the

rules

will

be

noticed

as

hey

hereafter.

11.

Linking
words

of

Words.
combined
a

"

In

connected in

reading

or
are

cour dis-

closely in such
even

construction
of

apt

be

joined
word,

way

that

the

end-consonant silent,

the

cedi prewith

when
of the
'

otherwise
next

is pronounced with
a

he

initial syllable

word, Final
s

if beginning
c,

vowelas

ound

(vowel
;

or

h
=

mute

'),
=

d, g,
"

(x) then
:

sound

ollows

k, d

f, g

k,

(x)

=s

z.

Ex.

les amis

les hommes

nous

avons

vous

avez

(l^-z"ami)
'

(l^'Z^omm)
' *

(nou-z^avo)
'

(voU'Z^avi)
^

the

friends
komme

the

'

men

we

have

'

you
mon

have
ami

'

grand

rang

4lev4

six

het^res

(grU-t^omm)
'great
man'

(rdl'k'^4lev^ (si-z^eur)
*

(mZ-n^ami)
'my
friend'

high

'

rank

six hours

'

rtn

wmsn^

part.

[12-14

AETIOLES

AHD

PAETITIVE

SIGN.

12.

The
masc.
"

Definitet
or

Article hs
vowel

is:

singular
*

masc.

/a, fern,

fa;

lural Note.

fern,
a

(pronounce Z^):
or

the.'
la

Before
out

'

mute/
final

le and

both, /'.
"

by

eli sio E.g. ^the

('striking

')

of

their
Vdme

vowel,

become rhomme

ami

(m.)

^the

friend,'

(f.) ^the

soul,'

n.'

13.

French,
nouns

unlike
used
in
etc.,

English,
an

requires
or

the

definite
sense

article

efore

absolute be

generic

(so
then
'the

that

all,' 'generally,' the


'

may

understood).
le
'

It
mean
'

may

be

alled
'

Generic

Article.
les

Thus
hommes

fer

may

iron'

iron

(generally);

the

men

or

'

'

men

(gener

aUy).
14.
:
'

The
an, a.'

Indefinite

Article

is:

sing.

masc.

1//1,

fem.

ne

Note.

"

French

has

no

neuter

gender.

Exercise
To
are

(a, 6).
gender, masculine and

^H^"

facilitate
in the

the

recollection
to

of

feminine
in opposite

uns

vocahularies

the

following

exercises

arranged

columns.

Of

French
-eur,

nouns

not
-son

implying
are

natural fem.

distinction
there
are

of

sex,

those

in

-e,

^,

-ti", 'Xf
Masc.
'

-ion,

usually

; but

many

exceptions.

Fem.

e p^re

the
=

father
'

'
.
. .

Za m^e
.

'

the

'

mother daughter,
'

ejils (Is

8s)
friend

the

'

son
^
.

lajille'
la
soeur

the
'

'

girl

frh'e
ami

'

the
a

brother
'
.

the
'

sister

'

une
une

amie

friend

'

homme

(h mute)

'

man,'

femme
wife'

(pr.fa-m)

'

woman,

4-17.]

ARtlCLfiS

AND

PARTiTIVE

SIGN.

iX

Masc.

Fem.

e roi

Hhe
'

king'
the
'

lareine la maison
'

'the
'

queen'
house

e palais

palace

the

fai (forje
et

1/

ai

'

have

'),

'

I have
'

'

(pr. 4;
p^re
et

and

t never

linked)
2. Les

'

and
et

a.

"

1.

Le* ramie;

la

m^re,

p^ea

/es
4.

m^rea.

Lami;
et et
une

l*homme;
5.

les^amis;
uiCami;
et
une

les^amies,

J^ai

un

r^re

soeur.

J^ai
un

fai

une

amie,

6. J^ai

JUs

une

JUle; fai

palais

maison,

7.

Le

roi

et

reine, b,
"

1.

The
3. The

brother
friend

and

the
the

sister. friend

2.

The
4.
s

man

and

the

man.

(m.) ;
nounSj

(/).
add

The
in

brothers
the

nd

the I have

sisters
a

(French
de
'

like English,
a

plural)

palace

; I have

house.
d
'

of

(from).'
"

to

(in).'
de 'of,' and la
or

16.

Contraction.
with viz.
:
"

The le
or

prepositions
les

d 'to,'
one

lend

following

(never
'

with

V)

into

orm,

Ex.

du des

p^e p^es

of the

father.'
'

(m^es)
'

of the

fathers

(mothers).'
au

p^e

to

the

father.'
'to

auxp^es

(m^es)
Vami
'

the

fathers

(mothers).'
But
:

de

la m^re

'

of the

mother,' h
'

de

of the

fhend.'

1 6.

De

before

'

vowel have

or

mute

is (f

"

Ex.

d'wn.

17.

French

nouns

no

different
the

case-forms,

not

even

ossessive,
*

like

English.

Hence

English

possessive
by
on

must

Items
to

in heavy

type

to

be

carefiillj The

noted
stress

and

explained

the

student,

ot
a

be

emphasized

in reading.

is usually

the

last word

clause.

FIRST

PART.

[18

n Frencli

be

expressed

like
"

all other
Ex.

oblique
de

relations,
"

by

the

id

of
'of

preposition the

(i/e).
la
the

du

(=
*the

le)p^re
mother's'
'

the

father^s
'of

(or

father'), de
du
sel 'of

m^re

(or

the

mother

');

salt,' de9

pommes

of the De

apples.'
Ze, la,

18-

Independent
not

Partitive
'of the,' but

Sign.
is used word
or

"

with
nouns

le

eans

only

also

before
the

independent idea

of any

preceding expressed either


as

to denote
not

partitive
Thus

(any),'whether (=dele) pain may mean (any)


bread,'
according flour,'
'

some

in

English.
or
'

du

'of the

bread'
;

(some)
'

bread,'
of

it is used

de

la farine

the

flour,'

'(some)
sons,'

^(any)
'

flour';
sel
'

dee
'

fits
;

'of

the

sons,'

(some)
apples.'
In

(any)

sons

; du

salt

dee

pommes

(f .

its independent

partitive

use,

du

is (etc.)

usually

called

the

artitive

Article,

Exercise
Maso.

VI

(a, 6).
Fem.
'

hU

'

(the) wheat,
'

'

grain

to
....

farine

'

(the) flour
'

lepain

le beurre

'(the) bread' (the) butter '(the)paper'


'

la soupe
'

la viande

'(the) soup' (the) meat


'

'

?e toiY

'(the)milk'
the heart
' '

Tcaw

'

(the) water
'the the
'

le papier
cceur

la plume

pen'
'

le

Vdme
Za

'

soul

Ze foiY 'the
mon
son VGus

roof
ma,
sa

/en^^re
; pi.,

the
f
.,
'

window
m"s
'

(f
.

or,
or, as

before
above,
have
'

vowel-sound,

m^n)
ses
'

m.

my

(f
.

son)
;
avez-vous

; pi.

his, her,

its
?
'

avez

'you

f
'

'

have

you

il est

(pronounce ^)
'

'

he

(it)is

je parle
je
que
Note.

I speak
'

'

donne

I give

'

(ace.)'
"

'

whom,
and
a

which
must

De

be

expressed

before

every

noun

they

tively respec-

govem.

8-20.]
1.
Vdme Le

ARTICLES

AND

PARTITIVE

SIGN.

XI

a.

"

coeur

du

p^e

(but
2. Le
4.

de
hU

Pliomme)
de
mon

le

cceur

de
Le

la

h'e;

des

hommes, maison.
vous avez.

p^e.
pain,

3.

toit

t lea

fenfires de la
pommes que

Je
5.

parte

du

de
la

la

viande

des

"/'ai

du pain,
'

de

viande

es

pommes.

6.

Avez-voiis 7.
et

du

(*some

or

'

any

')pain
et
au

Avezsoeursf
a

us

de

la
avez

viande?

Avez-vous

des
9.
aujt

frh'es
Je
parte

des
p^re,

Vous
et a

de

Peau

du

pain.

la

eur

PJiomme.
a

10. Je parte
de
soeur. mon

liommes.

11. Je
donne

donne papier

de

viande

Pami
d
m^

fr^re.
13.

12.

Je

du
son

et

es
h,

plumes 1.

Je parte
man's

d^un

ami

{de

ami).
of
man,
are

"

The

son's

heart

; the
man

heart,

the

heart

n's

heart,
in 4.

the

heart

of the 2. of I

(these last four expressions


pen. the

dentical

French),
I

The
the

girl's butter,
of my

3. The soup

roofs

of

*the

ouses.

speak
5.

(cf. note
apples. you

above)
6. You

nd

the

water.

speak

brother's
7. Have

ave
?

bread,

soup,

and
salt

apples
and

(18).
to
to

paper

and

ens

8. I give the

bread and

the

girl's father.

9. I give

eat

to

girl's mother,

the

men.

19.

Deis
When
pain
'

used
its

alone
noun

as

independent
by

partitive
an

sign

a.

is preceded

adjective.
"

Ex.

J'ai

bon

I have
noun

(some)
is the

good

bread.'
accusative
'

b.

When

its

unmodified
pas

object
not

of

egative
'

verb.
; but

"

Ex.
n'est

Je

n'ai

de
'

pain

I have

any

(no

read

Cela

pas

du pain

This

is not

bread,'

20.

Dependent
preposition
a

Partitive
'

Sign." by
a

Z?a also
preceding

represents

the

nglish
as

'

of

required
^a (e.g.

word

spoken It is then But


usage,

part

of something
or

piece^of
as

bread').
in English.
to

sed

alone

with

the

article French^

precisely
contrary

s to

be

observed
partitive

that

English

requi

this

preposition
plus

also
wx"ins

after

adverbs

of
"

quantity
Ex.

(beaucaup

'much/

'more/

'less/ etc.).

Un

lt

FIEST

tARt.

r^O
'

orceau
avez

de pain
'

'

piece
of the

of

bread you

un

morceau
'

du
beaticoup

pain

que

0U8

piece
'

bread
'

have

de

pain

much

bread

plus

de pain

more

bread.'

Exercise
Masc.
*

VIT

(a, b),
Fbm.

e Zm'e
morceau
^

the
^

book
the

'

to carfc
'

the
the

'

map

piece,

morsel

....

to pi^ce bonne
noire
^

'

piece
'

on

'

good

good

ir

'black'
beaucoup

'black'

(de)
'

'

'

much,
'

many

peu
trop
assez

(de)

little, few
too
'

adverbs
too
'

of

(de)

'

'

much,

many

quantity

(de)
pas

enough
'

je
'
*

n^ai
.

I have

'

not

['not
of the

'

ne

(bef.vowel verb]
qualify.

or

mute
"

/i')
.

pas^
are

on

either

side
before

personal
noun

Note.

Adjectives
du

expresBed et

every

they

a.

"

1. J^ai
viande.

pain

de la viande.
du
pain noir

2.

J^ai

de

bon

pain

et

bonne

3.
as

J'ai

(adjectivesfrequently
X,
note

ollow

their

nouns,

explained

Exc.

2).
6. Je
bons

4.

Je

n'ai

as

de pain.

5. Avez-vous
et

de bonnes
soeurs;

plumes
parle
eau

parle
et

des

ons

fr^res
soeurs.

des

bonnes

je

de
d

frh^es
soeur

de
bon

onnes

7. Je
n^ai

donne
pas

de

bonne

la

du
pas

xymme.

8. Je

de

viande.
votis

9.
pas

Vous

n^avez

de

ivres.

10. beaucoup

J'ai
de

de

Peau;
et

n'avez

d'eau.
J'ai
peu trop

11.

Vms

vez

pain

de

viande.

12.

de

livres.

3.

Je

n'ai

pa^
ct to

assez
sosur.

de

pluToes.

14

Je

donne

de

pain

et

e viande
b.
"

1. You soup

have

bread repeated

and

soup.

2. You

have
3. I
you

good give
any
-^

bread
some

nd

('good'

before
to

'soup').
4.

lack
?

bread

(cf
.

above)
not

my

son.

Have
no

good
same

ens

5. I have

any
some

pens

(or I

have

pens
some

the

French),

6. I have

good

bread

and

water.

7. I

0-23.]
bread
man,
1

NOUNS.

XHI

ive

much

and

many 8. Have

apples
you

to
too

the many

good

man

(or I
?

give

he

good
2

etc.).

books

9. I have

ot

books

enough.

10.

I have

little paper

and

few

pens.

UOUKS.
21.
Plural.
s (silent)
:
"

"

French

nouns

usually
form.
"

form
Ex.

their

plural

by

dding

to the

singular

le p^e,

pi. les p^es.

xceptions

[22.]
Ex.

Nouns

ending

in

s,

x,

or

are

unchanged
le
nez:

in the
les
nez.

plural.

leJUs, pi. Us fits;


Nouns
most

leprix:

lesprix;

[23.]
and

in
of
to

-au,

-eu,

and

few

in
as
"

-ou,

add

jr,

instead

of

those
au

in

hat

ending

and

-cd then

(as well
add
;
jr.

many

in

Ex.

chapeau

-ail)change 'hat/ pi.


chevaux;

hapeaux;
'

feu

*fire,' pi.
coraux.

feux

chived

'horse/

pi.

orail

coral/

pi.

Exercise
Masc.
cov^in

VIII

(a, ").
Fem.

(pi. -8)
'

'

the

'

cousin
^
.

la cousine la chienne

e chien

the dog (pi. -s) 'the son' eJUs (pi. "r)

(pi. -") (pi.-s) -s)


)

'

the the

'

cousin bitch
'

'

la
. .

Jille (pi.
girl'

'the

daughter,

nez

(pi.
"

'the
'

'

nose
'

la voix la peau
'

(pi.
"

'the
'

'

voice
the niece skin
'

e chapeau
neveu

cheval
horse
'

the hat (pi. -a) 'the (pi. nephew -oj) (pi. chevaux) 'the

la ni^ce

(pi.peaux) 'the (pi. -")

'

la

jument

(pi. -s)

'

the

'

mare

e g^iral
'

(pi.giniraux) (pi. coraux)

'the
une

general
corail

armie

(pi. -s)
'

'

'

an

army

'the

',,,.,,,,

coral

to

rner

(pi. -s)

the

'

sea

IV

FIRST

PART.

[23-25
he ?
'

il

(eUe) a
n'a

'he
'

(she) has
has have
' '

'

; a-i-U

'has

i7 Us Us

pas
'

he

not
'

ont

they
pas
'

rCont
'

they

have
m.,

'

not
* '

mais

but

enfanty
et des

child
des

a.

"

1.
a

des

fr^res
de

soeurs^

(xmsins

et des

cousines.

heaucoup 4.
des

ffls^ mais
n^ont

il n'apas
pas

defiles.
chapeaux.

3.

Beaucoup
Les

vo'ix.

Mes
chiens
a

cousins
et

de

5.

g^rdmer.

aux

ont

des

chevaux.

6.

Les

coraux

de

la

7. Mon
b,

ghiiral
1. Have the

heav/covp brothers
to

de

neveux.

A-t-U
? 2.

des

er^ants f
he any
sons

"

you

and

sisters
4.

Has few

I give

hats
5.

my

sister. the
7.

He
to

has
my

nephews,
6.
sea.

but

any

nieces.

I give

corals
The

sister.
of

The 8.

general

have
has

good
many

horses.

voices

the

The

eneral

palaces.

Additional

Rules in
of

for

the

Plural.

[24.]
doorway,'

few

nouns

etc.),and

about

half

-al those
s

(bal 'hall/
in

camaval

'carnival,'
portail

-a/7

(dMail

'detail,'

simply etc.),

add

in the

plural.

[25,^

a'feul del, ail

(at
m.,

m., a-i),
'

'ancestor,'

is in pi. aYeux

sky,

heaven,'
'

is in pi. cieux
is in pi. yeux
in
some
*

(pr. eu^y),m.,
three regular

eye,'

(pr.'ew)
and
less
common
*

Note.

"

These
a

words
plural

have

also,

special

ignifications, in

form

(aXtuU

grandparents/

dels

artificial

skies/ mis

some

compounds).

Exercise
Masc.

IX

(a, 6).
Fem.

le

bijou (pi.

-x)

'the

jewel

'

laperle

'the
'the

pearl
cow'

le

bceufs, fs 6asw/(pl. mute),

'the

ox'

la vache

5,

26.]

ADJECTIVES.

XV

Masc.

Fem.

e mouton
animal village

'the

'

sheep

(genericterm),
'
'

la brebis
une

'the
'

ewe,
'

sheep

(pi.animaux)
(U
as

an

animal
*

bUe
viUe

beast
as

in

Engl.) 'the
'French' Frenchman

village

la

(S
city'

in

Engl.)

'the
"

ranfais (pi.
'

(adj.)
'
,

/ranfaise 'French'
la Frangaise
'
'

(adj.
French

e Franqaia

the

the

woman

ily

there he

is

'

or

'

there

'

are
'

; y

'

a-t-U
'

is

(are)

there

'

il est
'

'

(or it) is,' Ha


'

sont,

they

are

utile
dans
'

useful

jeune
'

'

'

young
'

in

'

; souvent

often
article

Note.

"

The

partitive

(du etc.) is omitted


camavdls
peu
est

after

de.

a.

"

1.
sont

II y

des

bals

et des
avez

dan^
de
coravM^

la ville.
mais

2.

Le^t

etails

bons.

3.

Voua
4.
Le

beaucoup
sont

bijoux

et deperles.

del
sont

noir;

les deux
noirs.

noirs.

. Les

yeux

des

Frangaises 7.

souvent

6.
et

Mon brebis

aievl;
sont

es ateux
animaux

des'Frangais.
utiles.

Le

boeuf, la
de

vache

la

es

8.

parle

{des omitted)
of
are

brebis.

b.

"

1.

speak
to

of

balls;

speak
There

the many

balls.

2.

give

me

jewels
city. of the
4.

my

sister.

3.
; my

Frenchmen
; the
ancestors

in

he

My

ancestors

cousin's
eyes

ancestors
are

French.
; the

5. My
skies
my
; to

nephew's
the

dark There

(= black).
is
a

. The

sky

heavens. 8. Are

7.

jewel
sea?

thereare

jewels) in

house.

there

corals

in the

ADJEOTIVES. 26.
Feminine.
feminine Ex.
'

"

All
form,

adjectives not
made by
adding f. grands;
'

terminating
e

in

-6

have

special
"

to

the

masculine
f.

orm.

grand f
.

'great,'

joli 'pretty,'
f
.

jolie;

ut

sojge

wise,'

so/ge ;

Jeune

young,'

jeune.

XVI

FIRST

PABT.

[27-34
Thus

27.

In

adding

some

changes

may

occur.

"

[28.] Final /becomes [29.] When


the openness

".

"

Ex.

w/

lively/
the in

f. vive,

the
of

penultimate

letter

of

masculine
the

form form

e,

this

vowel-sound
to

is

feminine the
cruel

denoted
a

either /,
/i,

by
or

its change
t.
:
"

h^

or

(often)by
:

doubling
'cruel
'

of

final

Ex.

cJier 'dear'

cMre;

cr%ielle; net

'neat'

neiie.

[30.]

Final

1^ n^t
and
"

oi
a

adjectives
bon

in ei7,

(m^

oty

and
'

final thick,'
'

monosyllables,
also

few Ex.

polysyllables
'good
'

(as
:

4pai8

etc.
'

are

doubled.

bonne;

pareU

similar

pareil/e;

grros'big':

grosse.

[31.]

Beau

'beautiful,'
'old,'
are

nouveau

'new,'

fou

'foolish, nouve/,
are
e

mou

'soft,'

vieux

before

vowel-sound

6e/,
feminines

fo/

mo/,

vieil
made

(the last optionally);


from

and
by

their
doubling

invariably

the

latter

form

I before

(helle

nouvelle^t

fo/le, molle^
Final
Ex.

both vieille),

in singular

and

plural.

[32.]
s.
"

c,

g,

and

are

before
long

usually

written

qu^

u^

public:

publique;

'long':

longue;

jaloux:

jcUousG.

[33.]

Among

exceptions 'fresh, f.

to

the

above

rules
'white,'

may

be

noticed

here:

/rat"
f.

fratche;
'Grecian,'
f. douce;

blanc f.
roux

f. blanche;

sec

'dry,'

s^che;
doux

grec

grecgue;
'red,' f.

faux
rousse.

'false,'

fausse;

'sweet,'

34.

Plural.

"

Adjectives
feminine
finals

usually
forms

form

their

plural

(fo
nonns

the

masculine

and

respectively)
"

like

with
good,'

corresponding
pi. bons
nouveau,

(bonnes) ;
pi.
-jr,

(cf.21, etc.). Ex. bon beau (f belle) beautiful,'


'
.

(f. bonne
pi.
pi.
beaux
same.

{belles) \

fou, pi.

-s,

mou,

pi.

-#,

vieux,

4.]

ADJECTIVES.

XVII

Exercise

(a, b).
( beau

rfine'
*

grand
petit

(f
.

'

-e)
^

great,

tall small
'

'

(f beUe)
.

beautiful,
'

little, (f. -e) joli (f -") pretty (f. ) 'useful utUe


*
.
"

'

( vieux
( public

(f. vieUle)^old, (f publique)


.

aged
'

public

'

\ heureux
agreer

(theureuse) 'happy
'

aimable
'

(f
.

"

'

lovely,

able
'active' actif(i, axstive)
c^er
secret

(f grecque) frais (f fratche)


grec
.

Grecian
'

'

f i*esli '

^ Wane
'

(f.blanche) 'white'
'
.

(ch^re)

'

dear
'

'

/awa? (f fausse) ' false


doux
'

(secr^e)

secret
'

(f douce)
.

'

'

sweet

c?"weZ
mw"^
ancien

(f.crueUe) (f muette)
. .

cruel
'

?r^s 'very,'

awsst
'

'also,' boy
'

ou

'or

'

mute
'

Ze gargon
Ze voisiii
*

the

(f andenne)
'

ancient,

the
'

'

neighbor
'

old
bon
Note

le monde
'

the

world
'

(f bonne)
.

'

good
agree
or

Za laine
in

'

the

wool
with
"

1.

"

Adjectives
as

gender

and

number

the
Ex.

noun

they pere

ualify,

whether
mere

attributes peres
;

predicate
mere

complements.
bonne.
or

le bon

a bonne
Note

;
"

lea bans
An
common

ma

est

2.

adjective
usually when form, of

may

precede

follow
bon,

its
;

noun.

Only

me

fifteen
vieux,

adjectives (beau^ joli;


precede
they
the
a
noun

mauvais

grand,

petit,
sense.

eune,

etc.)

in

their

ordinary
quality

thers

usually

follo^7
color,

denote

HiaHngi^iahing
to

(such
spoken
white

nationality,
from other

etc.), serving
the
same are

separate
rose

the

object
*

objects
always the

kind
past

(e.g.la

blanche

the

se

'),

and

when place

they

participles.

Often,

however,

uphony

decides

of

the

adjective.

a.

"

1. Le

grand 3.
Mon

gargon

et la grande est

file.
et
ma

2.

Je
est

parle
aussi

aux

jeunes files,
4.

frdre
de
ma

oMif

so"ur

tr^s

cti"e.

Les
a

files
la II

bonne
douce.
de

cousine

sont

tr^s cher

aimables,
et
ma

La

brebis
rri^re. ville de

laine

tr^s

6.

Mon

p^re
dans

Mre

7.

beaucoup
a
un

belles
chien
et

maisons
une

Vande

ienne

N.
et de

8.

II

beau

belle
est

brebis^ tr^s

eaux

chevaux aussi

belles

vaches.

9.

Ma

m^re

bonne
ou

t elle est

tr^s heureuse*

10,

Avez-vous

dji lait

frais,

VITI

FIRST

PART.

[34-36
fralche^

reaufrajche?
12.
est

11.
est

J*ai
et

de

Veau
est

et

fat
La

aussi

du

lai

frais.
ami

II

faux^

eUe

fmisse.
est
un

13.
homme

maison
du

de

on

blanche.
little
Uo

14.

Son

voisin

monde.

b.

"

1.

My

son

and

my

little good
4.

daughters. 3.

2.
An

give

ome

good

bread
a

my

sister's
woman.

daughter. My dear
man women

active

an

and

very'^active
is
mute.
men

friend's
and
a

pretty

ittle

sister
;
are

5.

beautiful
beautiful

beautiful

oman

beautiful
many

and
men

6 (^partitive).
women

here

good

and
7.

(good, adj. repeated)


is
a

in

the

old
a

village
cruel fresh
and 12. Have

of N.

He
My

very has
to

cruel
a

father,
very
sweet

and

she

is (elle)

mother.

8.

niece
water

voice. 10.

9.

I give
man

milk
the

and happy
you

fresh
woman.

my
I

little girl. have


13.
not

The

happy

11.

any
a

white

horses.
new

any

white

pearls

I have

tiful beau-

house.

36.

Comparison.
article
same
or

"

Plus

means

^more,'
^

or,

if preceded
'

by

the

definite

possessive
^

pronoun,
^

most

; and
'

moins
'

eans,

in the
grand
'

way,
great'
'

less

'

or

least.'

"

Ex.

grand
'the

great

plus

(^more
plus

=)
my

'greater,'

le plus

grand

est great-

mon

grand,

greatest.'

36.

Only
without
Pos.

three plus

adjectives (or moins).


CoMP.

form

their They

comparative
are
:
"

and

lative super-

Sup.

bon

'

'

'

good

meiUeur
pire
'worse,'
'

better,'

le meilleur
lepire

'

the

best

'

mauvais
'

'bad.': little
'

'the
'

worst'

petit
Note.

moindre
means

less,'

le moindre
comp. and

the

least

"

If petit
petit.

'small mauvais

'

(in size),its
be

superl.

are

plm

petity le plus

Even

may

regularly

compared.

36.]

ADJECTIVES.

XIX

Exercise
Masg.

XI

(a, ").
Fbm.

ar"re

tree

'
.......

^a^ewr
trunk
'
.

the

flower'
leaf'

e tronc

(c mute)
'

'the
'

lafeuiUe 'the
rawd^jjme

e c/^e

the

oak lily
'
.

'the hawthorn'
'the
'

e lis

(s heard) 'the
fir'
ivy
elm
'

la
...

rose

rose

e soptr^'the
'

Z'^jwnc
la vigne

'

the
'

thorn

'

e lierre
orme

the
'

the
'

'

vine
'

'

an

la France
'

France
'

e mMal
'

'

(the) metal
'

VAngleterre VAmMque
'
'

England
'

'

or

(the) gold
'

America
'

argent

the

silver,
'

money

VAllemagne
la Su^de
'

Grermany
'

'

fer

'

(the) iron
'

Sweden Seine
'so

e Bhin

the
que

Rhine
'as
'

'

la Seine
...

'the
.
.
.

'

ussi
.

{or so)
.
.

as'
'

; si

(aft. negat.)
'

que

...

as'

lus

que

more

than
h
'

(or, before
'

vowel

or

mute,'
or

es

(pron'ce cd) 'these'


they
'

(m.
ne

cet) this f.); prideux


'

'

f
.

cette

'precious'
'

ls sont

'

are

;. ils

sont

pas
'

they
'

are
'

not

l demeure
Note
are

he
Most

dwells
names

or

lives
of
trees

;
or

en

in

(a country)
(some
in
-e

1.

"

shrubs

excepted)
are

and

etals

masc.

Most Before
always
names

names

of

countries

and
and

rivers

in the

-e

fem.
article

NoTB

2.

"

of countries
*

rivers after de

definite

s used,

except

after

en

in/

and

often

of, from.'

a,

"

1. Mon

fr^e

est

plus
rose

grand
est

que

ma

soeur.

2.

Le

chine

st

le plus
est
ma

bel arbre^

et

la
so"ur

la plus

belle

fleur,
que
mon

3.

Cette

Ule

plus

jeune
est
mon

elle est
ami.

plus

jeune
5. La

fr^re,
est

Cet

homme

meilleur

France

aussi

elle que

PAngleterre.
7. Vor

6. VAllemagne
et est

n^est

pas

si grande

que

AmMque, 8. La
est

Vargent
moms

sont

les m4taux que

les

plus

pri-

eux.

Seine

longue
est

le

Rhin.

9. Mon
de
mon

heval

trks bon;

votre

chevdl

meilleur;
pas

le cheval

oisin

est

le

meilleur.

10.

Je

n^ai

le

moindre

souvenir

FIRST

PART.

[36, 37.
II
demeure

(remembrance)
de
b, France;

de

cet

Jiomme.

11.

en

France.

Du

in

le roi
rose

de
more

Sv^de.
beautiful
of

"

1.

The
the

is

than

the
3.

lily.
Iron

2. Charles

(Charles) is
is

youngest

my

brothers.
4.

(Le fer, as
man

generic)

more

useful
5.
as

than
man

gold.
is my
7.

This

young

is

my

earest

friend.

This
vine.

best
is

friend.
more

6. The beautiful 9. This


10.

ivy

beautiful

the England

France than voice world.


not

than
man's

ermany.

8.

is older
woman's

America.
is better.
11.

oice the

is good,

but
man

this in

My

cousin

best
in

(de)
12.

the

My

best

friend

(/.

ives

America. 13. He

I have

the

least

remembrance

of

brother.

is smaller

than

his

little sister.

imHEBALS. 37.
Below
the
to

are

given
to

cardinal
as

and

ordinal

numbers

20

(higher
Cardinals.

numbers

be

learned

they

occur).
Ordinals.

1
2

un

1st

premier second

deux

2d

(c

deuxi^me

g) or (x z)
=

3
4

trots

3d
4th

troisi^me quaJtri^me cinqui^me

quatre
cinq
six

5
6
7

(q

k)
Finals
before
"

6th
usually
silent

(x

sepi

ss) (set) (^It)

6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th


12th

sixi^me septi^me huiti^me


neuvi^me

(x

z)

consonant-

8 9

hult

sounds.
vowels,

Before

/=

V,

and

neuf(f=jgr) dix (x ss)


=

z.

dixi^me
onzi^me
douzi^me

(x

z)

onze

douze
treize

(ei

long)

13th

treizi^me

quatorze

14th

quaiorzi^me

37-40.]

NUMEBALS.

XXI

Cardinals.

Ordinals.

15 16
17 18 19

quinze
seize

16th

quinzi^me
seizUme

(ei

long)

16th
17th

dix^ept dix-huU

Fr. (diss-sety i) (diz-^U)

dix-septi^me dix^huimme diaj-newmdme

18th
19th 20th

dix-neuf (diz-neuff)
-ymgt
etc.

20

(^ silent)
Inflection.

vingtUme
etc.

38.

Cardinals
feminine

up

to
wwe,

million and that

are

invariable,
'

except 80
'

that

is in the

quatre-vingts of

(literal
have

*four

twenty's,

fourscore'), and
s

multiples followed
deiix

cent
an

^100'

he

plural
"

sign
Ex.
'

when
cents

not

by
cent

added

numera

deiix

^200,' but

trois ^203,'

quatre-

vingt-neuf
Note Note
1.
2.
"

89.'
In dates,
and
a

cent

and
do

quatre-vingt
not

are

invariable. the

"

Cent
*

mille

require

indefinite

article

cent

{mille')ersonnes p 39Ordinals
Anomalous

hundred

(a thousand)
treated

persons.'

are

precisely In

like

adjectives.
before
names

40.

Usage.
are

"

dates
of

and

of
for

overeigns,
first"

cardinals

used

instead
also
"the

ordinals,

except
names

the

(and, optionally,
"

seeond"
^

before
of

sovereigns).
quatre
'

Ex.

Le

dnq

octohre

the

5th

October

'

enri

Henry

Fourth.'

Exercise
Masc.

XII

(a, 6).
Fem.

abitant

^inhabitant*
'

"

habitante
.
. .
,

'inhabitant'
'

e th^me
*

the

theme

\
.

la legon

lesson
'

'

e mot
an

the

(common)
' '

'

word

la parole
une

the
^

(notable) word
'

'

'b,

year
*

annee

a
an

year
hour
'

quart

quarter

une

heure

'

Xn

FIRST

PART.

[40

Masc.
^

Fem.

e soldat
*

the

'

soldier
'

une

'

'

arm4e
^

an

army
'

ctobre
cent

October
"

la date

the

date

100

'

mille

(or mi7
in, in the
^

in dates
^

after

1000
etc.,
'

'

a.d.)
without the
^

1000

'

quatre-vingts
en
'

80

'

:
'

in

81/

final

year
'

(also Van
^

year
avec
' '

')
'

pendant
un"

during
'

; par

per,
'

with
;

heure

an

hour

'

or

one

o'clock
soeur

(deux

heureSy

etc.)
2.

a.

"

1.

J'ai
chevaux.
a ce

un

fr^re,
3. II
a

une

et

trots
ans

cousins.

Vbu^

ez

cinq

quatre-vingts
ans.

*
=

He
a

is 80 years
trois la

ld

');

elle

quatre-vingt-deux

4.

Cette ville
5.
huit
mil

mille

abitants;
et
en

village

trois

cents

habitants.

J^ai

seconds

egon

le troisi^me mil
7. huit

th^me.
cent

6.

En

mil
;
en

(or dix-huit) cent


huit
cent

ingt;

quatre-vingt
octobre
j

quatreout

ingt-huit.
le

Le

premier

('of

usually
Henri

left

in

French);
II y

deux

(trot's etc.) octobre;


deux
soldats

premier

('the'
'

omitted)
a

; Charles
cent
*a

(or gecond), Henri


dans
cette

trois

(quMre, etc.
anrdes.

mille

arm4e
les
un

(obs.French
premieres

hundred,

not

hundred').
heures, cinq
cow

9.

Pendant
et

0.
b.

II

est

trois

heures

quart.

"

1. He

has

one

and
man

two

oxen.

2.
years

My

mother
'

has

our

white
years

horses.

3.
woman

This

is

85

old
4.

(transl. has
are

'), and
first of
1888

this

is 80

years

old.

There

200

ords

in the

first lesson.
May

5. Charles
and
the

I ; Charles

II ; Henry

V.
7.

The
year

(mai)
sentence

second

of

October.
is
one

In

he

(cf
.

6, under
He is

t is eight

o'clock.

9.

rich

a). (riche) with

8.

It

o'clock dollars

fifty

(dollars) s.

year.

1-44.]

PEONOUNS,

ETC.

xxin

PEONOUNS

AND

PEONOMINAL
Pronouns.
are

ADJEOTIVES.

Personal

41.

The

pergonal

pronouns

either

conjunctive
b.

or

dis-

jnnotiye.
a.

Conjunctive
(or after) the
or

Disjunctive
the verb,
save :

[placed

directly

before

verb

as

unemphatic

["eparated f r.
at

subject

object]:

predic.
'

emphatio]
'

moi
*

I,

me

toi

thou, he,
'

thee
'

'

hi
elle
nous

'

him her

'

she,
'

'

we,

us

"Ous

'

you,
m.

you they,
'

*n

./ l/es,
Note
"

f.

'

they 1.
"

'

I
me,
'

^""

'

them,'

leur

'

to

them

'

eux

)
.

olles f ) them
te, le, la are

Je,

before
^

vowel-sounds

y', m%

i\
the

, /'.

Ex.

fai
"

I have,'

m*aime

he

loves

me.*

Note

2.

To
*

the
self

disjunctive pronoun
'

is often

appended
etc.

mphatic

mdme

e.g. moi-mSme

[ I myself,'

42.

Position

of

the

Conjunctive
whether

Pronouns.
construed
as

"

The

conjunctive personal r object (direct or


le vols
'1
see

pronouns,

subject
:

indirect), precede
ye
vous
common

the

personal
it to

verb
you.'
as

e.g.

je

him,' In
two

le donne
cases

'I give

Exception,

"

they
it by
a

follow,

in

English,
:
"

the

verb
The
e.g.

(being

then

attached

to

hyphen),
in
you

viz.

[43.]
:

subject-pronoun (Je,
'

iw,

etc.)
9
'

interrogative it ?
'

lauses

ai-je

have

I,' Vavez-wous
te,

have in

[44.]

The

object-pronoun (mc,
"

etc.)

affirmative replaced
by

impera

clauses,

me,

te being

then,

however,

moi,

tXiV

^IRST

^AM.

[44-46
^

oi^ except

before
it to
*

en

(46).
"

Ex.

donnez-U

give

it/ donnez-fe^give

ui ^give

him/
give
me

aimez-moi
some.'

^love

me/

donnez-moi

me/

onnez-m^en

45.

Of
the
^

two

object-pronouns,
le (la,

that

of
lui

the

3d
"

person
Ex.

comes

earest
donne

verb,
I

les) preceding
him.'
which
the

(lew).
'

Je

vous

give
'

it to
I give

you.'

Donnez-le-moi

G-ive

it to

me.'

le lui donne
Note.
"

it to
of

Two

conjunctives
cannot
occur. me
"

first is
me

direct donne,
*

2d

person,

Hence
to

(not //
//
him
vous

vous
a

object but) //
you

Ist
me

onne
'

h
:

vous

He
vous

gives

you.'

envoie
you.'

lui

He

sends

to

im

but

//

I* envoie

He

sends

to

46.

Pronominal
'thereto'
of
are

PARTICLESi
ordinarily
eux, (elle,

"

En
with
y

'therefrom,
reference instead other
to

thereof things,
en

nd/

used

nstead

de

lui

and elles),

of

It lui
"

(eUe
Ex.

ux^

elles).
en

They

are

then

placed
to

after
of it.*

pronouns.

I lui

parle

'He

speaks

him

Exercise
Indicative
present

XIII
of

(a, 6).
*

aimer

love
nous vous

ing.

1.

faime
aimes

'

I love
'

'

(etc.,f n.) c
.

pi. 1.
2.

'

aimons
aimez
' '

we

love
love
love
to

2. tu

thou

lovest
'

'

you they
only

3. il aime
Note.
"

'

he

loves

3. ils aiment

The
present

French

present

(faime
love

etc.) corresponds
also
to

not

the

ndefinite
loving

in English the

(*1

'),but

the

progressive

("

'), and
aimez

emphatic
'

present

('I do
2d

love').

love

!'
'

(Imperative
donne

pi.)
etc.,

donner
'

'give

(Pres.je
'

like

/atme)

penser

think
'

(Pres.je
'

pense

etc.)

je

crois
'

I believe

il est d

it belongs
de
'

to

'

fai
void

besdn
'

I need

'

(lit. have
'

need

of

')

behold,

here

is, here

'

are

46,47.]
Note
1.
"

PBONOtTNS,

ETC.

XXV

Vous
'

*you is used

'

may, between way


to

as

in

English,

refer

to

one
near

person

or

several

Tu
Note

thou
"

intimate

friends

and

relatives. pronoun
the

2. is to

The
place

only
the
or

render form

conjunctive
before
it,
or

personal

emphat

disjunctive
Je
Vaime,
mot

after
the
*

predicate
person
so.'

.g.

Mof,

j'e I'aime,

'/ love
used
:

him.'

For

3d

the

isjunctive
a.
"

form

alone

is sometimes

ijii le pense

He

thinks

1. Je of the

Paime
3d

(give in
:

each
^

instance

all
or

possible
^

ings render"Ous

persons
aime.

here
2.

him/

her/
il

it

'); je
3.

ime;

moi\Je
Pavez
d, dit

les
nous

//

me

le donne;

"Ous

le donne;

je
Kous
5.
nous
une

e lui donne;

le lui

donnons;

je
de
mo/,

le leur

donne.

said

').

4.

II parte

mot

(tot,lui^ etc.).
je
pense

ense

('of') mot
ct elles.

(tot^lui^ etc.);
6. Aimez-moi
une

eux;

ensons

aimez-le.

7.

Donnez-moi
8. 10.

lume;

donnez-lul donnez-la-moL
11.

plume; 9. Pensez du
en
sa

donnez-la-moi.
d moi
et d

Vbtis Ce
12.
du

avez

la

ose^

lui.
hesoin.

livre

est

elle.
des

Donnez-moi
nous

papier,
avons

j'en ai
hesoin.

Donnezheurre: le donne

fous

plumes,

13.
crois.

Void
15.

onnez-m'en. ;

14.

J'ai

parole,

etjy
him.

Je

oi-mhme
b.
"

je

le donne
me,

d lui-mime. and
I love
some

1.

He
us.

loves
3.

2.
4.

We
Here

love is

him,
a

and
:

loves

I give

him
it to of

pens.
; I give

hat
give

ive

it to

him

; I give

her
me

it to

them

; I

it

you.
and

5. They
of
; give

speak
7.
a

and
and

of

him. her
a

6. You

think
8.

of
me

im

her. him

Love

me,

love is him.
to

also.
give

Give

book
are

book. give

9. them

Here
to

book,
10.

it to

her

ere

the

books,
11.

Think
12.

of
I have

(a) me,
a

nd

of her.

This

horse

belongs 13.

him.

fine

ouse,

and

I speak 14.

of it.

They

have

fine houses, give


me some.

and

they He

peak
a

of them.

Here
I
am

is the
thinking

paper,

15.

as

fine book,

and

(= think)
"

of it. reflexive

47.

The

Reflexive
like
*

Expression. myself,'
lit.
loue
*

English in
'

expre

praise
loue,

etc.,

are
me

French
^

rendered
'

ither

by
or

je
by

me

praise

(=

myself
me

unem-

phatic)

je

me

moi-m%me

'1

praise

myself

XVI

FIBST

PABT.

[47,4a
like
think
preceded

(*myself
etc.,

emphatic),
if
are

etc.

"

Expressions
the

^I

of

myself
by

also

in

French

reflexive
a

is

reposition,

rendered omitted,
only

by

je

pease

moi-mBme
the
person

(meme,
3d

ever, how-

being
It is to

often

especially that
for

with 3d

person), etc.
French
has
^

be

noted

the

pecial

reflexive,

viz., the
'

herself,
For
euXy soi,

themselves however, is preferred

conjunctive se (sing, or pi. : : or ace. dat.), and the disjunctiv


the
in regular the
II

himself,

oi.

personal
or

pronoun
reference

(/ui

lle,

elhs)

plural,

with
*

to

individual

person.

"

E.g. II

(die)se
se

loue

He

(she) praises

imself

(herself)'or
pense d
ne

(eUe)
one

loue

lui-mime
of
^

{elle-meme)
thinks
parler

Chacun

soi

Every
qu^d,

thinks

himself
He

(subjec
only
de

indefinite). II
'

songe

lui

(-mBme)
doit

of

imself

(subj.an
seldom
precedes

individual).
speak
other

On

rarement

soi

One
Note.

should
"

of himself

(one's self).'
:

Se

object-pronouns

it

se

rest promis

he

promised

it to

himself.'

POSSESSIVES.

48.

The

possessives
Adjectives

are

either

adjectives or
(the
M.

pronouns.
Pronouns

(combined
M.

with

noun)
F.

noun

understood)
F.

ing,

mon

ma

(or
note

morif

cf

1)

I.
ton

}"
my.
,

le mien

la mienne
"
*

mine.'

mes

les miens
fe Hen les tiens Ie si en les siens le noire

les miennes la tienne les tiennes


")
,

ing,

ta
tes

(or tan)

^^^

/
M
)

thine

'

ing,

son
ses

sa

(or son) \

I..

his, her,
its.'

la sienne les siennes

his, hers,

its.'

ing.

nos

"^.^'^j'our.'^

la nStre lesn6tres

,
^"^^ ^^"-

ing.

"'^^'^Vyour. j
VOS

la vStre ie voire les vStres


/e /eur

!"
,

yours.

ing.

/eur

la leur )
tiieirg
)

'

leur"s j

their.'

les leurs

8,49.]
Note
1.

PRONOUNS,

ETC.

XXVn

"

The

feminine
with
a

forms

mon,

ion,
mute.'
are

son

are

used

before

ords Note

beginning
2.
"

vowel

or

'

When

the
are

pronoun-forms contracted,
as

preceded with
to
au

by
the
mien,

de

or

d,

hese

prepositions
de (i.e.

usual,

definite

rticle

le mien

to

du

mien,

d le mien
as

etc.).

49.

The form
in

possessor
to
use,

determines, but this


form

in
is

English,

which
made
"

sessi posto

then,
noun

farther,

g^ee
mon

gender
livre;
ma

and

number
plume;
mes

with

the

possessed. hava
*

Ex.

ai

livres
'

^1

my

book

(pen,

ooks)

; son

livre

his

(her) book
XIV

; sa

plume

his

(her) pen.

Exercise
Masc.
'

(a, 6).
Fem.

e caract^re
'

(the) character
'

'

la disposition

'

(the) disposition
'
'

'

e courcige
^

(the) courage
^

hardiesse
.la
.

'

(the) boldness

e m4rite

(the) merit
'(the)

la vertu

(the) virtue
'

souvenir
'

remembrance

la m^Tooire

(the) memory (the) conduct


'

'

savQir-vivre

'(the)
breeding
'

good
. ,

behavior,

la conduite

'

aimable

'

amiable,
'

kind
'

'

courageux
vertueux
'

courageous
'

virtuous
' '

m"morable
a.
"

memorable

1. Mon
et

fr^re
;
mes

et

le

Hen

Tna

soeur

et

la
2.

f tonne

mes

r^es

les Hens
;
"0S

soeurs

et

les

tiennes.

If of

re

mArite

le nbfre

m^rites

et

les nbires.
;

3. Son
de
mon

(give all
frhre
5es
et

possible

enderings

of

son) caro/Ct^re
et

le caractkre

et le mien
et

eur

disposition

la

voire

(et la lour).
de

4.

vertus

les

ours.

5.
et de

Ces

hommes
de

parlent
ies
du
et
au

ion

ami

du

mien,
miens
au

de

ia

ceur

la mienne,
6. Je
d
mon

fr^res (or soeurs)et des


pain

(o
mien,

miennes).
Je
pense

donne
ami

d
;

ion d

petit
mes

fr^re
amis
et

et

leur

aux

lours.
vdire*

Je pense

d V aimable

enfant

de cette

vertueuse

m^re

et au

XVm

FlUST

PART.

[49-51
his ; my
and
yours
; her

b,

"

1. My pens

book
and

and
his.

his ; my
2.

pen
memory

and

books
;
our

and
memories

is

; my

Our

and theirs

yours.
; his

3.

His

character and
; of

and
theirs.

theirs
4.

character

nd

(her) merits
of
yours

We

speak
and
courage

of

his

ind
I

brother
am

and

his

kind

sister
great

of

yours.

thinking
6.

of my

virtuous
of

friend's

and and

of

ours.

The dear

remembrance
to
me

his

good

disposition

of

ers

is very

(me).
Demonstratives.

60.

The

demonstratives

are

either

adjectives or
Pkonouns
or

pronouns.

Adjectives

(combined
M.

with

the

noun)

(noun
F. M.

phrase

understood)
F.

Sing,

ce

(cet^cf. note)
'this,
that.'
ces

cette

celui
'

celle
or

this
.

(one)
.
.

that
celles

(one).'

I.

ceux

'these,

those.'
ce

'these
'

(ones) or
'

those
c^est

(ones)

that

(or

c',

in

[ence
refer-

'it is, that


NoTE.
"

is'), indef.
a

Cet

is used

before

words

beginning

with

vowel

or

h *mute.'

5 1
'

To
.

emphasize
'

the
'

difference
'

between

'

this

'

'

and
to

that,'
noun

here

c/ etermined ceci
"

and

-/a
ce, or

there
to

are

frequently With

suffixed
pure be

the
ce

by

celuL

the
may

pronoun

they
to

orm

'this'
Ex.

and

cela
et
'

(which

contracted and
one.'

qd)
one.'

that.'

Ce

cheval-ci

celiii-la 'this
woman
'

horse
that

that

Cette

femme-ci

et celle-la

this hon

and

Cela

(or

n familiar

phrase,

qa)

est

that

is good.'

Exercise
Masc.

XV

(a, 6).
Fem.
'

jour

'

the
'

day

'

la nuit
'

'

the
'

night
the
'

e mois

the

month

la semaine

week

1,52.]
Masc.

PRONOUNS,

ETC.

XXIX

Fem.

e langage
'

'the

language, hoy
^

talk

'
.
.

la langue
la

(the)language
'

e gargon

the
*

JiUe

'

the

girl
'a

enfant
*

child'

(generally)
.

une

enfant
'

little girl

'

onsieuT

(pron.me-s'eu) pi.
sir, Mr.'
m^me
'

messieuvs

madame

(pi. Toesdames)
Mrs.'
;

gentleman,

madam,
'

dame

(pi.
wise,
'says;'

'

-s)

same,

-self
^

\Jlady
; vrai
'

'

sage
dit

prudent,
'said'
tu

good

true

'

'said' (pret.);
dis
'

(past pple)
U dit
'

je
a.
"

dis

'

I say,'
d,

thou

sayest,'
et d,

he

'

says

1.

Je pense
2.
ceux

ce

gargon
cet

cettejille;

d cef

hommes.
et

J'aime
de
votre

nfants
de

enfant et celui de votre frhre, 3. Ce monsieur-ci


4.

enfant fr^re
et

et
;

ces

celui -la
sage
que

dameS'Ci
son

et

celles-ldb.
5.

Ce

larigage
'

n^est

pas

si

elui

ami.

Ce
ce

quHl

(ce

que

that

which,

what
est

') dit
bon,

st

vrai,
a

6.
pas

C'est vrai^
bon.

jour-ci

est

tr^s beau.
mois.

7. Ceci

el

n'est

8.
and

C'est le mime
this night

b.

"

1. This

day
my

; these

days

and

these 3.

nights.

This

girl and

cousin's
4.

(=

that

of my gentleman
more more

cousin).
and beautiful
prudent

These lady.
that

ooks
This

and

my

brother's.
is very

This

that than
than

language

beautiful,
prudent,
you

e.

6. These
Here
?
are some

boys

are
:

very
do

those.
or

pens

prefer

these (pr4f4rez-vous)
9. This

hose

8.

He

loves
true.

this

little girl, it is true.


It is the
same

is true,
week,

ut

that
the

is not
same

10.

month,

the

same

nd-

day.
Interrogatives.

52,

The

interrogatives

are

either

adjectives or
Pronouns

prononns.

Adjectives

combined

with

noun)

(noun understood)
'

qui
que
*

who

whom

'

(or, after
'

'

preposition,

quoi)

what

uel

which,

what

'

lequel

which

(one)?

'

XX

FIRST

PABT.

[53-58
doubling

63.

Qud
fern.
"

is inflected
In
lequel,

like

an

ordinary
of

adjective^
the def
.

in the

compounded

article
; and
:

le and
a

qtiel, each

element
or

has

its

independent
le
as

inflection
usual.
;
" "

precedi

de

combines
m.

with

Thus
lequel

m.

lequel,

f. laquelle;
lequel

pi.

leaqueh^
etc.

f. lesqtteUes

(de

=)

duqud^

(d

=)

auquel^ que^

64.

Qui,

quoi

are

invariable.

Relative

Pronouns.

66.

The

relatives

qui^ lequel^
:
"

quoi

are

also

pronouns.

They

re

described

below
*"

[p^^^ Qui
after
to
a

who,

which,
qui

that

'

has

the

direct and

object-form
can

qm.

But

preposition

(not gwe)
*

is used,

then
dxmt

refer

only

persons

(^whom').
'which,'
less

Whose'
often

is expressed 'who,' is rarely

by

(59)
except

[57.]

Lequel

used

after

prepositions.
*

It inflects
what'

like
chiefly

the
after

interrog.
prepogitions
*

leqv^
in
a

(53).
general
to

[58.] Quoi
sense
' '

which,
:

is used
a

or

ndefinite

e.g.
to

// n'y
speak

Hen

de

quoi

parUr

There

is nothing

speak

(lit. of

which

')"

Exercise
Masc.
*

XVI

(a, b).
Fem.

le grandrp^re
'

the

'

grandfather
'
.

lagrand'm^re
V Spouse
'

'the grandmother'
'

V^poux

the
^

husband
master,
'

the
^

wife,

spouse teacher

le mattre
'

the

teacher

'

la mattresse

mistress,
'

le roi

the

king
'

la reine
'
. .

'

the

queen
*

Vempereur

the

emperor
^ '

Vimpiratrice
' '

the

'

empress

malade
'

sick
'

; mortel

mortal

r(mge

red

arriv^
re^

'arrived,* 'received'
'

with

aux.

'be,' not

'have'

tomb^
ce

fallen

'

; acheti
ce

'

bought

'

qui

(nom.),

que

(ace.) 'that

which,

what'

8,

59.]
1.

PRONOUNS,

ETC.

XXXt

a.

"

Que/
2.

rot

Quelle

reinef

Quels
Laquelle

livresf

Quel/es
files
quo/
A

per-

onnesf 4.

Qui

aimez-vousf
dit
ces

3.

de
5.

ces

aimez-

ousf

Que

nous

notre

grand-p^ref
est

pensez-

ausf

Lequel

de

maitres

le meilleiirf

6.

Lesquelles

de

es

JiUessont

bonnes?

7.

J'aideuxfr^res
8.

{de laqxielle) parlez-vousf


de
vos

Auquel

de

(deux soeurs); duquel vos fits pensez^ousf


ma

uxquelles
est

files
10.

pensez-vousf
la
est sont
.

9. C^est

grand^m^re
11.

ui

arrivSe.

C^est

reine

que

faime.
12. Lies

U^poux

(L' Spouse)
d

d qui
vous

elle pense
pensez

malade.

maitres

(Les

dames)

qui

arrives,
parle.

13.
14.

L^empereur Le clieval

{La
qui

reine) de qui
et

(or fax
je

dont

cf

59) je
15.

est

rriv4

que

a^heti. 16.
dis

Le

cheval

auquel
'
'
=

(not
what

qui) je
vrai

onne

de

Veau.
ce

Ce
est

qui
vrai;

('that
ce

which

') est

st

hon; h.
"

que

quHl

dit est vrai,

1. Which teachers of these of these

king?

which
2.

queen?

which
of these these whom

teachers horses?

(m.)?
which which
love

hich

(f.)?
houses

Which
which 3.
are

(one)

(one)

grandmothers?
?

(one) of
is sick ?
4. Of
one one

books?
do do
you
m.

(ones)

Who
they? which

you

{transl.'love-you')
do you
ones

? who ?
?

whom

speak?
and

o whom

speak

5. Of
6. To
does

{give both
(m.
8. What

f.)?

f which

(m., f

.)
precede

which
he say
?

and

f
are

.)

? to which

nes

(m., f.)?
of

7. What
must

you

ing think9. The


I

(d, which
who has
we

'what':

quoi

etc.)?
whom
you

eacher boys

('is')
love. which

arrived;
10. The
de

the
red

teacher
rose

love;
have

he

whom
rose

which
speak. of
whom

he

white

of

(not
says

qui)

you

11. you

My
are

randfather

(grandmother,
12. What he

grandmothers)
is true.

hinking.

69-

Relative
whose,

Particles.
whence*'

"

Dont
used

'

of
de

(from)
with
for
a

whom

or

hich,

is often

for

relative;

nd

oO
a

'to

which,
with

where'

is generally
to
'

used
or

d
"

(or dans)
Ex. I
Le

nd

relative,

reference
parle

place

time.

heval

dont

(or duquel) je

the

horse

of

which

speak.'

XXXn

FIRST

PART.

[59, 60
^the house
to

La

maison

ou

(or

laquelle) je
be

vais

which

I go.' Note.
"

Dont

must

used

when

in

English

whose'
'

is
must

or

could

be

used,

unless

preceded

by

'

preposition,

whose
of
dont.
as

be

expressed

by
of

duquel
the

(de

laquelle,

etc.),

instead
the

The
if
*

rrangement

words used
man

is in in
whose
au

either
"

case

same

of

whom'

(etc.)
amv4

were

English.
son

Ex.

Llwmme whom
parlez

(font
the 'the

fits est

^the

(lit.*of
voiis

son')
man

has

arrived.'
whose
son

L'homme

duquel fits'

you

speak.'

Exercise
a.

XVII

(a, 6).
qui,
or

"

1. Vempereur

dont

(or
qui,

de
or

duqueC)
vous

Us

parlent,
re^u

2.

Uhomme
3.
4.

dont
La Le

(or

de

duquel)
laquelle,

avez

ce

chevaL

maison

dont
ou

(or de
6.

but

not

de

qui)
Le

parte.

palais
est

(or dans
7.

lequet) il demeure.
Ce
monsieur

5.

p^re

dont

Venfant
donnez

malade.
rose

d,

Venfant
les

duquel
sont

ous

la

rouge,
avec

Varhre

dont
il est

feuilles

tomMes,
h,
"

8.
1. The

Vhxymme
master

lefilsduquel
you speak;
is

arrive,
horses
; the
men

of whom
man

the sick

of which

you

speak. have

2.

The

whose

wife

whose
roof 5. 6.
to

ons

arrived
4.

(soivt arrives). 3. This


The
man

house

the

of

which

is red.

of

whose

son

he
we

speaks. speak. city

The The

(lady-) teacher
in whose
he

of

whose
I have

beautiful been

books
7, (i"ti),

king

palace

The

which

(where)

has

arrived.
Indefinites.

60.

The

indefinite
inflected

pronouns
at

and they
tout

adjectives are
are

quite like

ous. numer-

When

all,
that

treated
'
.

ordinary
'

only adjectives,observing tous he (f.toutes),and plural


'

(f toute)
quelqu'urt
m.

every,

all

is in

that the

some

one,

somebody

is

in

plural
of quelque

(f.qu"lqu*une) (f quelques-uns
un.

qutlque^-unes),

being

compound

and

61-64.]
Observe

PKONOUNS,

ETC.

XXXni

also

the
'

following

"

[61.]
and

On

one as

(=

'

people

generally,
"

they

^) is

always

gula sinword

used

subject
:

alone.

Unless
for
^

followed

by

beginning
after

with

Z, it is frequently,

euphony,
'

changed

to /'o/

et^ si^ ou,


' '

oh, que
; qu'on

e.g. si Von
or

if

one

; et

(^always
usually

silent
before

Von

and

one

que

Von

(the

latter

A^sound).
[62.^
one,

Aucun

or (adj.,

pron.

referring used

anybody,'

personne
*

(pron.

noun) any ^anybody,' indefinitely)


construed
then meaning
U
n'aime
^

to

definite

and
^

r/en
'

not

are (pron.) anything,' usually (placed before the verb), and mean

with

ne

nobody
they

(not
have

anybody)
without

'and
ne,

^nothing.' if there is
no

This

negative
"

verb.

Ex. II

n'aime
aucune

personne
de
ces

(rien)
'

'

He

loves loves
no

nobody
one

(nothing).'
of these girls.'

JUHes

He
^

H^aimez-vous
'

personne

? (rien)
^No

Do
one

you

not

love

anybody

(anything)?

Personne
^

ne

Vaime

loves

him.'

Qui

aimez^ous?

Personne.

Whom

do

you

like ?

Nobody.'

^no,' [63.] Hu/ (adj.)

(pron., only
Ex.

as

subject)
knowledge any,

^none'

requires

ne

before
n'en

the

verb.

"

Hu/
'

ne

Vaime
no

^None

loves
of it.'

him.'

Je

ai nulle

connaissance
a
'

I have
^

[64.]

Tout

before
; but

noun

means

every,

all,' if the

noun

is undefined

whole,

all,' if it is defined
tout
man,'
means
^

by

an

article all.' city


"

or

pronoun.
tout

As
homme ville
'
^

pure
^

pronoun,

everything,
ville
'
'

Ex.

every whole

(any)
'

toute

'

every
men,'

tovie

la

the

city,' tous
; tout

les
est

hommes
'

all

tout

son

courage

all his

courage

perdu

everything

(all

is lost.'
Exercise

XVIII
'

(a, b).
.

chaque

qu/elque

(invar.) every, some (pi. -s)


^ ^

each
'

chacun quelqu^un

(f
.

'

'

-e) every (cf 60)


.

one
'

some

body,

'

anybody

plusieurs

(invar.)several

'
. .

autrui

(invar.)others

'

XXXrV

FIRST

PART.

[64
'

tovt

le monde
'

'

all the
'

world,

everybody

il chante U U
danse
Teste
^
'

he

sings
dances
'

he

he

(it)remains
non
^

'

(mi
Note.
be
"

yes/
it only

no,'

bien
* *

well,'

si

if

The

negatiye

particle
by

/le

not

is placed

before

the E.g.

verb,

and

can

separated
*

from

personal
ne

object-pronouns.
Vaime
*

//

n'cume

personne
a.

He

loves

nobody.' et

Aucun

No

one

loves

him.'

"

1.

On

chante

Pon

danse. mortels.

2.
4.

Tout

homme

est
me

mortel.

3.

Tous

Us

hommes
queJques

sont

Que/qu^un

Va

dit.

5. AveZ'Vous

livresf
de

6.
vos

Oui,

fen
10.

ai

qudques-wns.

7.

Donnez-moi

quelques-unes 9
ne

belles pommes.

8.
ne

ITaimezchante.

vous

personne
Personne
de

9. Je n^aime
me

personne.
12.

Personne

11.

Va

dit.

Qui
Aucune.

aimez-vousf

Personne;
ami
ne
me

Laquelle

cesJUles
belles.
per

aimez-vousf

13. Aucun

reste.

14t. H^avez-vous
sont

r/enf
16.

Je n*ai
a

rien.
une

Rien.
rose.

15.
17.
ne

Toutes

es

files

ChaquefMe
Vont
Tout
one

Plusieurs
parte pas

(or plusieurs

sounds)
19. and

dit.

18.

Cet homme
en

beavxxmp

d'autrui.
1.

le monde

parte.

b.

"

One
2.

sings, Every
4.

is happy loves
are

(=
her

they

sing

and

are

happy).
are

good
All

mother her

children. 5.

3. All
Here

en

mortal.

children
are
or

beautiful.

re

pens
; here

(des plumes)', here


are
some

some
en

(=
void

few:

quelques)
^
=

pens

(en

void,

quelques-unes

few').

6.

He

loVes

nobody,
nobody nobody.

and

nobody
of him.

loves

him.
you you

7.

He

thinks

of nobody,
No,
?

and
I love

thinks

8. Do
9. Have

love
not to

anybody?
anything

Nobody.
I have

said

I have

said

nothing.

said

nothing 11.

im.
of I

Nothing. these

10. Every boys


speaks of several

child
of

loves him.

this 12.

teacher.

Every dances.

ne

Everybody

13.

am

thinking

persons.

5,

66.]

VERBS.

XXXV

VEEBS.
A.
Regular

Verbs.-

65.

Erench

verbs

are

divided

into

four is
^

classes,

according
"

to

he

ending

of their I.

infinitive,
:

which
aimer

as

below

-en

Ex.
"

love.'

II.
III.
IV.

-/"
-re

Jin/r
rompre

'

finish.'
^

"

break.'
'

-01 r

"

recevoir
nearly all the

receive.'

Classes

I-III
some

comprise few

verbs

of

the

language.

hese,

with

exceptions

(so-calledirregular
of

verbs)
and

conjugated
to
one

without
model.

change
Class
all vary
of

their

radical
only

form,

accor

IV the its
own.

comprises root-form,

sixteen
each
one

(pri mary

verbs.
some

These

and

has,

esides,

peculiarity

The

Regular
three
to

Conjugation
classes. the

is, then,
it is of
some

properly
practical

made

up

of

he

first

As

advantage,

owever,

place
the

paradigms
class

of the

four

classes
on

side
the

by

side,

hat

verb

of

fourth general the

(recevoir) which,
of

whole,
con-

epresents

best alongside

the

character

that

class

is here classes.
that

juga
many

model-verbs
well
to

of the

first three
student regular /^-verbs.
tenses

KoTE.

"

It

may

be

caution
adopt

the four

rammars

(especially French)
II

conjugations

er-verbs,

iV-verbs,

III

o/"-verbs,
of the

IV

66.

The

conjugation

simple
stems

of

verb

consist

in adding

to

its

different

certain

endings.
heavy

These

ndings
few

(in

the

paradigms identical
as seen

below
for

marked all verbs.

by

type)

are

ith
The

exceptions
of
a

stem
of

verb,

in the I-III

paradigms
unchanged,
some

below,
in

consists IV
often

ither

the
or

root

alone
root

(in
extended

changed),

of the

by

added

ending.

XXVI

FIRST

PART.

[67
tenses

67.

Below

are

given
serve

the
as

simple models

of all

aimer
regular

Unir^
y

and

rompre^

which

may

for

verbs,

and

of recevoir.
Indicatiyb Present

aim-e
*

je Jin-is
(am love)*
loving,
*

je
etc.
*

romp-s
1

je
etc.
*

re^-8
1

I love do

I finisb,'

break/

receive/

etc.

aim-es

tu

Jin-is

tu

romp-8
2

tu

regoi-s

il aim-e
aim-on aim-ez
8

Jin-it
Jin-iss-ons
Jin-iss-ei

il romp-t
nous
vous

il regoi^
notis vous

ous

nous vous

romp-ons romp-ez
romp-ent
^

recev-ons
recev-ez

ous

Us

aim-ent

Us

Jin-iss-ent

Us

Us

regoiv-ent

Imperfect
*

aim-ais
*

je Jin-iss-ais
lov'g,
'

je
'

romp-a/S
I broke/
etc.

je
*

recev-ais

I loved did

(was love)'

finished/

etc.

received/

etc

aim-ais

tu

Jin-iss-ais
Jin-iss-ions
Jin-iss-iez

tu

romp-ais

tu

recev-ais
recev-ait recev-ions

il aim-ait

il Jin-iss-ait
nous

il romp-ait
nous

U
nous

ous

aim-ions
aim-iez
^

romp-ions

ous

vous

vous

romp-iez
romp-aient

vous

recev-iez

Us

aim-aient

Us

Jin-iss-aient
Preterit

Us

Us

recev-aient

faim-ai^
*

je Jin-is
'

je romp-is
'

je
*
*

reg-us
I received
*

I loved

I finished

I broke

aim-as

tu

Jin-is
Jin-it

tu

romp-is

tu

reg-us

il aim-a aim-dmes

il romp-it
nous vous

il reg-ut
nous vous

ous

nous vous

Jin-imes
Jin-ites

romp-tmes

reg-umes
reg-utes

ous

aim-dtes
^

romp-ites

Us aim-erent

ilsjin-irent
Future

Us romp-irent
*

Us reg-urent

^ j*aim-er-ai
"

je Jin-ir-ai'
'

je
' "

romp-r-ai
I shall

#8
'

je
*

'

recev-r-ai
I shall
recev-r-as

I shall

(will) love

"

'I shall

finish

break

receive

tu

aim-er-as

il aim-er-a

tujin-ir-as iljin-ir-a

tu

romp-r-as

tu

il romp-r-a

il recev-r-a

-ent
*

silent
sounds
=

everywhere
e

in and

3d

pi.
cond.
; but

Final
=

dropped
and
'

ai
^

in
must

impf.

^ in pret.
use
'

after c, d, t. fut. (6).


'

The
the the

student
stem

observe fut.
present
is the

in

fut. the
infinit.

of

shall

or

will/

Note
its

that

of

the the

however, (^recevoir,

losing

oi)

and

endings,

of avoir

(73).

7.]

VERBS.

xxxvn

Future
atm-er-Ofis
atm-er-ez
nous vous

(continued).
nous

us

fin-ir-ons fin-ir-ez fin-ir-ont

romp-r-ons romp'r-ez

nous vous

recev-r-ons
recev-r-ez

us

vous

aim-er-ont

Us

Us romp-r-ont

Us recev-r-ont

Conditional
^

aim-er-ais
'I should
love*

je fin-ir-ais
"

je
*

romp-r-ais
I should

je
break
'

reeev-r-ais

(would)

I should

finish'

"I

should
receive
'

aim-er-ats

tu

fin-ir-ais

tu

romp-r-ais

tu

recev-r-ais

l aim-er-ait

fin-ir-ait fin-ir-ions fin-ir-iez fin-ir-aient

U romp-r-ait
nous

il recev-r-ait
nous vous

us

aim-er-ions
aim-er-iez
aim-er-aient

nous vous

romp-r-ions
romp-r-t'ez

recev-r-ions recev-r-iez recev^-aient

us

vous

Us

Us romp-r-aient

Us

Subjunctive
Present

*aim-e
*

je fin-iss-e
shall)
love
'

je
"

romp-e (etc.)
break'

je

regoiv-e
*I

I (may,

(etc.) finish

"I

(etc.) receive'

tt

aim-es

l aim-e

tufin-iss-es il fin-iss-e
nous vous

tu

romp-es

tu

regoiv-es

il romp-e
nous
vous

il re^oiv-e
nous
vous

us

aim-ions aim-iez
aim-ent

fin-iss-ions fin-iss-iez fin-iss-ent

romp-ions
romp-iez
romp-ent

recev-ions
recev-iez regoiv-ent

us

Us

Us

Us

Imperfect
aim-asse
*

je fin-isse
(could,
love
'
*

je

romp-isse
'I
might

je

reg-usse
*

I might

I might finish'

(etc.)

(etc.)
'

I might
receive

(etc.)
'

should)
aim-asses

break
tu

l aim-at

tufin-isses il fin-it
nous

romp-isses

tu

reg-usses

il romp-it
nous vous

il reg-ut
nous vous

ous

aim-assions aim-assiez
aim-assent

fin-issions

romp-issions

reg-ussions

ous

vous

fin-issiez

Us

fin-issent
observe
in

romp-issiez Us romp-issent
'

reg-ussiez Us reg-ussent
'

The
that

student
the

must stem

cond. is the

the

use

of

should

or

would.' losing

ote

of

the

cond.

infinit.

however, (recevoir,

ta

oi) ;
*

'

imperfect the shortened the endings and 3, preceding foot-note Cf page. in is variously The rendered sul)junctive
.

of

avoir

(73).
The

English.

meanings

iven

above

are

only

the

most

typical.

xxvm

FIRST

PART.

[67

Imperative
*

im-e

love
*

Jin-is
love
'

finish

'

romps

break

'

'

refoi-8
recev-ona recev-ez

receive

im-ons
*

let

us
'

Jin-iss-ons
fin-iss-ez
Infinitive

romp'Ons
rompsz

im-ez

love

im-er

(to)

love

'

Jin-ir

'

finish

'

romp-re

break

'

recev-oir

receive

Pasticiplbs

Present

im-ant
*

fin-iss-ant
'

romp-ant
'

receiHint
* *

loving

finishing

breaking

receiving

Past
'

im-e
Note.

loved

'

fin-i

'

finished

'

romp-u

broken

'

ref-u

received

"

Precisely de-, and

like

re-cevoir

are

conjugated
verbs
in

all compounds
-oir
are

of
in

-cevoir

{aper-y con-,

per-cevoir).
II.
^

Other

described

87-9.

I.
^

III.

ccepter
^

accept.'

agir
bdtir choisir

act.'
*

difendre
entendre

'

defend,

forbid.'

riiler

burn.'
'

build.'
^

^hear.'
^lose.'
^

ouper
'

cut.'

choose.'
cure.'

perdre
pendre

onner
^

give.' protect,

gu4rir
nourrir
'

hang.'
^answer.'

arder

'nourish.'
punish.'
^

r4pondre rendre
*

keep.'
^

punir

give,
*

return.'

arler
^

speak.' think.'
le doigt

remplir

fill,fulfil.' vendre
^

sell.'

enser

IV.
'

'

concevoir

conceive
*

the
'

finger
; le

'

; la main
'

the
'

hand.'
'

le devoir

'

the

duty

fruit
main

the *he

fruit
cut

; pauvre

poor.' 'the (lit.

Obs.

II

se

(dat.)coupa

la

his

hand'

and

for himself^).
"

Note.

The

Subjunctive
in
a

is used
is not

chiefly

in dependent

clauses

when
a

the

tatement

contained
it
causes

them

certain aurprise.

of being
The
desire,

or

becoming

reality,

when

feeling preceding imparting will be

akin

lo

subjunctive
command,

is, then,
doubt,

equired
or

by
sorrow,

certain

words
to

(as
in the

of

fear,
a

oy,

etc.)
words

the

subordinate exercises

clause that

such
follow.

character.

ome

of

these

given

7.]
Verbs

VERBS.

XXXIX

(regular) requiring
*ask,
'

the

subjunctive
'wish,'

"

emander

require,'

souhaiter

d^sirer
d

'desire/
^

rdonner

command,

prier'

pray,

ask,'

^fe

ndre

forbid.'

Exercise

XIX

(a, b).
qu^il
2.
le coupe
II
me

a,

"

1.

Je

coupe

Varhre;
;

je desire*
quelqu'un.
;

je

bdtis
son

(2 tenses)
2, p.
mo7i
se

la maison

fentends
gargon

donne
:

ivre ; il pwiit

(2 tenses) le
des

elle vend

(not vendf
mon

cf

note foot.

xxx\i)
livre
;

fruits.

3.

Je

gardai

livre ;
si

je gar-

erai
II

je luiparlais;
;

je lui parlerais
brUlera

fy

pensais.

brida
si
vous

le doigt
aimiez
son

il
cet

se

la

main

il pensaii

son

r^re

homme,
;
nos

il penseraif

A
qu'il

vous,

5.

II
son

emplit

(2 tenses)
6.

devoir

j^ordonnais
amis;

remplH
que

evoir.

Nous
pas
nos

perd/ons
amis;
ens

je
que

souhaite
nous

nous

perdions
nous

il disira

perdJssions
que parole;
nous

nos
nour-

mis;

nourrissi
les pauvres.

lespauvres;
7.

il ordonna
sa

iss/ons

lis

entendaieni
entendu.

Us donneni

r^pon-

raient,
argent I

sHls

vous

avaient
^

(had)
him

8.
lui
en

lis

de

d cet homme

et

je defends
any
;

quHls

donneni

(transl
V utile
;

forbid

them

to

give

');

Us

choisisseni quails

je

esire
;

quHls
Us
mon

choisisseni
rendeni

^V utile
notre

je disirais je

choisisseni
quHls
me

utUe

nous

argent;
regoit
mes

souhaite il

endeni

argent.

9.

II

de
coraux.

V argent;

recevra

des

leurs; je defends quHl


b.
"

regoive

1.

Conjugate
forms

in

full

parler^ choisir,

punir,

vendre,

concevoir.

Give

the

of couper, and their

and

perdre

that
the

have
forms
and is

fere dif-

endings, agir,
4.

meanings.

3.

Give

of

enser,

and

entendre

that
of 5.

have

the

circumflex,
whose
stem

their
nour-

eaning. and

Give

the

forms

nourrir

iss-,

their

meaning.
terminate

Give
in
-ons,

the

forms
their

of

brdler, meaning,

bdtir^

nd

r^pondre
those

that

and
their
are

and

hen

that
*

terminate
requiring

in
-ions,
the

and

meaning.
spaced.

Words

subjunctive

ii

FIRST

PAR'f.

[68-T2

68.

Minor
E
mute,
a

Changes.
and
also
a

[69.]
their

(save
an

in
e

fut.
mute.

and

eond.),
This following
tu

become

pen

before

syllable
into
mener

containing
^,
or

is denoted
I
ov

change
"

by

the

doubling
pr. ind.
Us
;

of

(cf.29).
;

Thus,
menons,

*lead':
vous

je

mene,

menes,

i
etc.

nene

nous

menez,

mhnent
fut.

je (subj.

mene,

in 1st

and

2d

pi. ; imp've
"

mene)
Cider
'

mh-ne-rai^
pr.
etc.,

etc.

out) (through
fut.

; cond.
"

mhnerais,
Appeler
^

'yield':

Je
"

cede;

Je

ederai,
mener

call

pr.

fappe//e,

etc.

(-e//-herever w

has
"

en-).
^

Note.

Celer
e,

hide,'

geler

freeze,'
I and

acheter
t

buy,'

and

some

thers

take

instead in before

of doubling

[70.]

Verbs

-cer
a,

and
ai,
o.

-ger
"

change
Thus,

and

to
'menace'

and
:

ge

espectively

menacer

pr.

i.

menaqons
etc.
"

(since

menacons
'

would
'

be

menakons)
mangeais^
i before
e

; impf. etc.

enaqais^

manger

eat

mangeons^
y
to

[71.]

Verbs
'

in drown

-ye?* usually
'

change

mute.

"

hus,

7ioyer

pr.

je noie.

Exercise
'

XX

(6).
'

ener

lead

'

'

eeler
'

hide,
'

conceal
'

trox^er

'

trace
'

'

eter ' throw


'

acheter
'

buy
'

'

manger
'

eat
'

ppeler b,

call

employer

use

prot4ger
of above
to

protect noting

"

Conjugate
change

the

simple

tenses

nine

verbs,

very

of letters

according

68-71.

Compound

Verb-forms.
of the
case

72.
avoir

The
'

COMPOUND

tenses

active
certain

are

made

by

the

aid

have
of

'

(or,in
by

the by

of

intransitive
^

verbs,

specially

motion,

the
the

aid

of

itre
'

be

');

and

all the

orms

of the

passive

aid

of "tre

be.'

3.]
73The

VERBS.

XLl

conjugation of
below.

these

auxiliaries,

which

is quite

ular, irreg-

is given

INDICATIVE

A"oir

have

'

itre'he'
Present

Sing.

1.

fai (pronounce ji)


*

je

suts

I have
as

'

'lam'

2.

tu
a

tu

es

(pr.

^)

3. U
PI.
1. 2.

i7 esi
avoiis avez
nous 'VOUS

(= ^)
somm6s

noiLS

vous

dtes
sont

3.

lis ont

Us

Imperfect
Sing.
1.

avals
*Ihad'

fStals
*

'

was

2. 3.
PI.
1. 2.

tu

avals

tu

4tais
itait 4tions 4tiez ^talent

U avait
notes

avlons
ame^

n(ms
vous

i;ot"S

3.

Us

avalent

Us

Preterit

Sing.

1.

feus (eu
"

Fr.

je throughout) fits
'

I had
eus

'

'

was,

I became

2.

tu

tufua

3. II eut

Ufut
eHmes eMes

PI.

1.

nous
vous

nousfdmes

2. 3.

Useurent Future

vousfDites Us furent

Sing.

1.

aural
'

je
(wUl)
hare
'
*

serai
I shall
seras

I shall
auras

(will) be

2. tu
3.
U

tu

aura

sera

LII

FIRST

PART.

[73

PL

1. 2.

Tious

aurons

nous vous

serons serez

vous

aurez

3.

lis auront

ils seront

Conditional
Sing.
1.

faurais
*

je

serais
*

I should

(would)

have

'

I should

(would)

be

'

2. 3.

tu

aurais

tu

serais

il aurait
nous

U
nous vmis

serait
serious

PL

1.
2.

aurions auriez

voiLS

seriez
seraient

3.

ils auraient

Us

SUBJUNCTIVE

Present

Sing.

1.

faie
*

je

sois
*

I have

(may

or
*

I be

(may be)
'

or

shall

have)

shall

2.
3.

tu

aies

tu

sois

il ait
nous vous

il soit

PL

1. 2.

ayons ayez

nous vous

soyons soyez

3.

ils aient

ils soient

Imperfect
Sing.
1.

feusse {eu
*

u)
could,
'

je fusse
*

I had
or

(might,
should

were or

(might,
should

could,
'

have)

be)

2. 3.

tu

eusses

tu

fusses

il eM
nous vous

ilfHt
eussions
nous

PL

1.

fussions
fussiez

2.

eussiez

vous

3. ils eussent

ilsfussent

3-76.]

VERBS.

XLIII

IMPEBATIVE

Sing.
PI.

2. 1. 2.

aie

'

have
'

!'
us

sois

'

be
^

!'

ayons
ayez
^

let

have

!'

soyons

let
!'

us

be ! '

have

!'

soyez

be

INFINITIVE

'

avoir

(to)have

'

^re

(to)be

PARTICIPLES

ayant
ew

'

having
^

'

^ant
^

'

being
'

(=
the
the

Fr.

u)

had

4t4

'

been

74,

To

form

compound

tenses

of

any past

verb,

active

or

assive,

combine

auxiliaries
same
:

with
as

the

participle

of

he

main

verb

on

the Thus

principles
:

in English
^

(observing
f
avals

5-6,
'

below).
I had I
was
*

act.

fai
:

aim4
suis

have
*

loved,'
am

im^

loved,'

etc. ; pass.

je

aim4

loved,'

/^tois

im4

loved.' observed
to

[75.]

It is to be

only

that

the

past
an

participle

(aim^,

eing

in French
f. aimSe;

subject
pi.
m.

inflection
f.

like

adjective (sing.m.
with with
a

im^,

aim^s^

aimSes), agrees
but

ing preced-

object if conjugated with avoir, dire (reflexive verbs, conjugated with


direct
Thus
est
are
:

the

subject
loved.' 'these

hereafter,

excepted).
have

La

JUle

que

fai aim^
is loved.'

'the

girl
gargons

(that) I
sont

lle

aim4e

'she

Ces

aim4s

oys

loved.'
"

Note.

The

participle direct

with

avoir

is

unchanged

if there

is

preceding

object.

Thus:

J'ai

aimi

cetteJUle.
are
con-

76.

As

already
dire

indicated
instead
be
of

in 72, certain
avoir.

intransitives
verbs

juga
thus

with

Among

always verbs
of

onjugated

should
*

noticed
'

especially
arrive,'
venir

the

three
most

of

otion,

oiler

go,'

arriver

(with

its

LIV

FIRST

PART.

[76
'be born,

compounds)
die.'
"

^come/
II
est

and

also
'

nattre

arise/
II

and

mourir
*

Ex.

arriv4

He

has

arrived.'

eat

laort

He

as

died.' Exercise
Maso.

XXI

(a, b).
Fem.

le

verre

'the
'the
'

'

glass book the


'

Za bouteille
Za livre

'

the

bottle
'

'

le livre
morceau

'the
'

pound

le

'

piece

Za trancJie

the

'

slice, piece trunk


'

le

'

coffre
' '

the

trunk,

'

chest money

la mcdle
la monnaie

'

the
'

wallet,

V argent

(the)
'

'

silver,

(the) coin,
'

change

Dieu

God

d^ease
' '

'

goddess

arriver
si
'

arrive
'

(always

with

^re)
home
'

if,' chez

at, with,

at the

of

Verbs
'

governing
exact,

the

subjunctive

exiger

demand,'
regretter
'

app

r4hender

apprehend,'

regret.'

a.

"

1. J^ai
heureux;

un

cheval; elle prie


nous
sommes aurons

je desire
Dieu
que

que

vous

ayez
heureux.
des
serons

un

cheval;
2. Nous
nous

je

suis

je
nous

sois

vons

des amis.

amis;

amis; de de

avions
nous

amis;

4tions

3.
nous assez
nous

Nous

V argent;
nous

bons;
contents^

je

pensais

que

aurions

V argent;
4.

serions

ous

avions
et que

de
soyons

livres.

II

desire 5.

que
avez

nous une

ayojis
moZZe,

courage^

heureux.

Vous

Vavez-

ou^

achet4ef

6.

Ouiy j^ai achet^


A.
7.

cette

maUe;

je Vai aohet^
les
livres vendu
au

chez

M.

(for Monsieur)
Us

Ont-ils
8.

donn^
aurions

gar^nf

Oui,

les lui out


les
aviez

donnis.

Nous

deux

livres^

vous

achet^
vous

(or

acheties:
cet

obs. 10.

the II 12.

difference
regrettait
Les
maisons

9.

II

exige

que

acceptiez

argent,

quails eussent
^4
bdties.

parU. 13.

11. La

maison

fut
que

bdtie.

nt

On
On

exig4
or

cet

argent

(cetteperle) fi
15.
Nous

rendu

(rendue).
aim4s

14.

donna
si
nous

quHl

fCtt puni.
bons

serions

(or aimies)^

etions

(or bonnes)

6,77.]
J^apprShende
expletive
est
"

VERBS.

XLV

6.

que
ne

raa

malle

ne

(verbs

of

fear
"

require
17. Mon

when

affirmative) soil

perdue.

ousin

arrivS. in full aimer


itre
:

b.

Conjugate
aim4,

with

avoir

[compound
je
her
her
suis

present

ai

etc.] and
"

[passive
1. He

present;

ainU
; he

(o
has
Her

aim4e), etc.].
her. 2.

Translate

has

loved

sister

oved

She

is punished
4.

by
they

(par)
lost

father.

3.
?
are

yes

will
have

be

cured. lost them.

Have

their

brothers
horses

Yes,

hey

5.

Their

beautiful
sister
?

lost. have

. Would

you
her.

have 7.

protected I was^desiring
glasses
a

his

Yes,

I would
answer.

rotected

that

he

might
if I

8.
money.

hould
They This

have
have

bought
eaten

and of
sold their

bottles
meat

had
a

had of

piece

and
it
are were

slice

bread.

0.

trunk apprehend

would
that I
regret

be

if

(indie.) good.
(cf. sentence
so

1.

They

books
you

lost thought

6, under

a).

12.

that

have

(ainsi

Interrogative

Construction.
is by

77.

erb

subject (e.g.ai-jef
the

pronoun

connected
^^^
^

hyphen
noun

to

the

*have
a

I?')?

subject
personal

is

placed

efore

verb it

and

corresponding
rompt-ilf

pronoun
the
tree

is appen

after
m^re
^

L'arbre (e.g.
maladef
'

^does
mother

break? The

Votre

est-elle do
"

*is is not

your
rendered

sick?').
-e
a

uxiliary

(does, etc.)
Before
I love

in French.
final
or

Note

1.
'

the
?

appended before
'

je

becomes

(e.g

AimS'je ?
a

do

'), and
f

il

ellej

fter

vowel
2.
"

Aime-t-il (e.g.
Instead
to

does

he love

'

-tA-t-il 9

is
'

inserted
he ?

has

')

Note

of the

regular
the
'

interrogative question
'

construction,

t is quite

common

introduce

by

placing
the

the

hrase

est-ce

que
the

is (pr.^'s'/c*)

it that
common
or

before

pronoun
construction

(or noun)
in
^

and

verb.

EsJ)ecially
surprise

is this

questions
do

implying
?
'

denial.
'

"

Est-ce

que

faimef

I love

Est-ce

quHl

est

aim4f

is he

loved

'

LVI

FIRST

PART.

[78, 79

Negative

Construction.
'

78-

The

negation
viz.
or

not
ne

is with

verb

usually

expressed

by

wo

particles,

and

pas

(or,more
very
or

emphatically,
lacking, is

point)
placed

Ne

(n' bef.
the

vowel personal

^mute^),
verb-form
cases

rarely
a

before
or

preceding
are
:

object-pronoun
immediately

Pds

poiTvt^

in certain

omitted,
"

placed

fter
ne

the
suis

personal

verb-form.

Ex. I
am

pas point

malade.
cet
mon

not
not

sick. love

Je

n^aime
n'ai
ne

enfant,
tMme.

I do

this

child.
my

Je

pas

fini

I have

not

j"nished

theme.

Je

le lui

donnerai

pas
I shall
not

{point).
Note 1.
"

give

it to

him.
^

As

seen

above,

the do

negative

auxiliary
'

do

'

is not

expressed
I love
not

in French
'

(i.e. I
*

not

love

is rendered

simply

by

Je

n^aime

pas).
both
negatives precede
a

Note

2.

"

Usually
aimer
^

simple

tive infini

(ne pas
79.
:
"

etc.).
negatives,
the following
may

Among

other

be

noticed

here

Jamais
'

'

never
'

ne
ne

'
.
.

'

que
rien

only ^nothing' ^nobody'

plus

no
*

more

le

guere

not
'

much,

ne

personne

scarcely These
are

arranged
a

like

ne

pas,

except
ne

that
ne

gwe,
rien
"

per-

onne

follow
to

participle,
a

and

that

only

plus,
note

are

allowed
ne

precede

simple

infinitive
He
never

78, (cf.

2).

Ex.

II

perd

jamais.
plus.
d* argent.

loses. think
scarcely
of

Je

n'y
n*ai
ne

penserai

I shall

it
any

no

more.

Je

guere

I have
He
has

money.
a

II

ttCa

donni
ne

qu'unefleur.
parler

given

me

only

flower.

Je

disire

plus

(or ne
I wish
to

parler

plus).

speak

no

more.

79.]
'

VERBS.

XLVn

Neither
.

'
.

nor

is usually
' '

expressed
"

by
tenses
.
.

'

'

neither
. .

ni

ne
=

nor
ne

with
.

simple 'neither'

;
.

le

ni
with

(arranged
compound

pas)

ni

'nor'

"

tenses.

Ex.
ne
n^a

"

pense

ni

ne

parte.

He

neither neither

thinks

nor
nor

speaks. spoke.

ni pens^

ni parM,

He

thought

Exercise
Masc.
'

XXII

(a, 6).
Fem.
'

e temps
temple

the
'

time temple

'

une
'
.
.

position

position
'

une

Sglise
'

'

church
'

e cfiemin
'

'

the

'

road

la route

the
'

route,

road mountain

e 7nont

the

mount,

hill
'

'
.

la montagne
'

the
'

'

'

TnoTvtrer
'

show
'

pr^firer
'

prefer

ouvert

open

; id

here
but

'

Verbs

requiring

the

ncertainty

is implied

subjunctive, (i.e. generally


or
'

only

when they
are

doubt
used

or

when

negatively

interrogatively,
jpenser
a.
"

with

si

if

'):

"

'think,'

sparer
vous

'hope,'
donne de 4. id

d^cZarer belles

'declare.'
2.

1. Esi-ce 3.

que

je

fleurs?
est-eUe parle
ne

Stcis-

e aim4f
Les

Sera-t-elle
ne

pr^fMef
pas pas
m'avez

Sa
6.

sceur

punief

fleurs
7.

sont-elles
ne
m^en avez

II

ne

pas

(o

point).
II
ce

Vous
9.

parU,

8.

II

punit
cette"

jamais

es

enfants.
ne

Vous
plus
de

ne

jamais
pas

montri
11.

4glise.

0.

parle

cette
ne

montagne.

Votre

ami
son

n^a-t-il

ue

cheval-ldi

12.

Je

pense

quHl

punisse

enfant

3.

Esp4reZ'Vous
quHl
me

que

votre

flile gu4rissef
15.

14.

Je
que

n'esp^rais
ce

oint

dAfendlL
16.
quHl II

Si

vous

d4clarez
ne

gargon

st

hon^

je Va^ccepte.
ni
ni
n^esp^re

n^entend
sa

ni

r^pond,

17. II
ne

Je
m^a

ne

ense

vende

maison. ni

18.
pens4,

ni

ntendu

appeU,

19.

N^aviez-vous

ni

espiri

u^dle

guMtf

20,

J^esp^re

quefaurai

le temps.

LVIII

FIRST

PART.

[79,80
love
?

b.

"

1. her.

Do

you

love
he sister

her

I do

not

her,
He

and

I shall
not

not

love

2. Has

accepted speak show and

this Ex. (cf.


me

book
4,

has

accepted road
has
to
no

it.

3. Does

my
He

a)

4. Will

the

be
not

long?

5.
me

does

not

his
has

books.
not

6.

She
them is

shown

her
church

books,
is
never

she
open. of this

shown
route

you.

7.

This

8.

This

longer

open.

9. He

speaks
nor

only
acts ;

beautiful
neither
to

mountain.

10.
nor

He

neither
My

thinks father of this

he
me

has
not

thought
ne

acted.
note

11.

has
man

ordered
; my

(de

point
me

78,

speak
no

father

has

ordered

to

speak

of

this

an

more

(cf.79,

Ex.

5).
Verbs.
with
the

Reflexive

80.

Verbs
me

are
'

construed
'

reflexively
or

reflexive
te
irous
"

object

pronouns
'

myself

Ho
nous

(for) myseK,'
*

'

thyseK,'
^

etc.,

himself,

herself,
se
'

itself,'

ourselves,'
.

yourselves
compound

(yourself),' etc.,
reflexive by
'

themselves,

etc.

(cf 47).
the

In

enses,

verbs
"

always
Thus
PRESENT
:

take

auxiliary

itre, to

be

rendered

have.'

IND.
'

je
tu

me

flatte ^
^

I flatter

myself thyself
'

fejlattes
se

thou

flatterest himself

'

il
nous vous

flatte ^ he
nous

flatters
'

flattons

we

flatter
flatter

'

ourselves

"0us
se

flattez ' you

yourselves

(or -self)

'

Us

flattent ' they

flatter
etc.

themselves,'

COMP.

PRESENT

IND.

je
tu

me

^1 suisflatt4 (orflattie) fesflattS (-e)' thou hast flattered


^

have

flattered thyself
etc.

'

myself
'

il

s^estflatt4
"

he

has
or

flattered
h mute

himself,'
me,

Note
Note
an

1.
2.
"

Before
The
place

vowel
of the

te,

se

become
the
a

m',

t\ s\
except

reflexive
when

pronoun

is before
to

verb,

ith

affirmative

imperative,
to
moi,

it is appended

it by

hyphen
"

(me,

e being

changed

toi)
.

Cf
.

44,

0,

81.]

VERBS.

XLIX

Note

3.

"

In

compound
auxiliary
has

tenses
were

the

past

participle
not
^tre

is treated

recisely
eUe

as

if the

avoir,

(cf. 75).
sont
un

"

x.

s'est

flattie ' she

flattered
'

herself/
elle s'est

Us

se

flatt4
coup,

they

have
gave Many
.

flattered
herseK

themselves

; but

donni

she

(ind.obj.) a
are

stroke.'
in French
to
'

8 1

verbs

used

reflexively
are
:

when

not

so

sed

in

English.
or

Such
passively.
or

verbs

generally
il ^arr^te

be

translated

ntransitively
^

Thus
is

he
se

stops/
trompe

il s'ap'

rocke

he

approaches
etc.

approaching,'

il

he

is

istaken/

Exercise
* '

XXIII
'

(a, 6).
s^approcher
se

^arriter covAiher
'

stop

s*

Verier

cry

out

(de)

'

approach
'

se
'

tromper
*

doiUer

(de)
*

suspect

go

to

bed

be

'

mistaken
*

lever

'rise

'

^amuser

amuse

se

d^fier(de)

distrust

'

(enjoy)
se
*

o.

s.'
'

porter
rue

be

(in respect
bien
'

to

health)
'
'

Je

ports
vous

am

well
9
How
are
'

Comment
hier
a.

portez-vous

you
;

'

'yesterday/ aujourd'hui
s*arr^ta.

'to-day
s'est

encore

'yet'

"

1.

L'fiomme

2.
Ma
soeur

Elle

couchie,

3.

Je

me

uis

lev4

d dnq

heures,

4.

s'est

beaucoup

amtisie
lis
se

dans

a viUe.
voiLS.

5. L^arm4e
7.

s'approcha doutais
ne me

de
sa

la mile.

6.

sont

dSfl4
vous

Je

me

de

conduite. pas
ma

8.

Comment
10. 11.

ortez-vousf
vous

9. Je
ites-vous

porte hier,

tr^s-bien.
soeur

A
me

quelle
suis

eure

coucMe
et

Je

oucMe

d,
et

neuf
quart,

heures, 12.
ne

je

me

suis

levee

aujourd^hui
13.

cinq

eures
mon

Arrite-toi;

arr^tez-vous. moi.
se

Approche-

oi,

enfant,
1.

te

dAfiepas
throughout
is

de

b.

"

Conjugate
but
my you

flatter and
well.

se

rijouir,
brother
not

2. had

well,

brother
called

not

3. sister child

My had

topped Do

when
you
not

him,
?

but 5.
been

my

stopped.
everything.

enjoy
women

yourself
have

This

suspects

6.

These

mistaken.

FIRST

PART.

[82-84.

JB.
A

Irregular
irregular which

VerbSm
defeat
student

SJ^*"

full this

treatment

of

the

verbs

would
to

simply
the
a

the

urpose

of reading

brief
the

introduction, earliest of

is
moment

enable with It
common

egin

at

practicable the
a

fair

knowledge

of the

prominent
to

features
here verbs,
to

French few
of

grammar.

has

seemed
and

best,

therefore, of

describe irregular and

only
or

the

most

ative representdetermining

the

enough
or

to

help
at

the any
to

student
moment,

in

rregular

forms,
in

consult

study, and then

the

detailed

xposition

Part
list of

Second,
such

"

161;

add,

for
as

reference,
may
cause

an

lphabetical
some

forms

of

other

irregular

verbs

the

earner

difficulty.

82.
some

The

Irregular in
-er,

verbs,

as

already

noted

(^^),consist
70

of

verbs
; and

-/",
in

-re

"

altogether

about

primary

verbs

of all verbs

-oir

(16 primary).
forms,

83-

Principal past
are

Parts. participle,
the

"

Five

the

infinitive,
and
of
a

present

participle,

present
principal
can

indicative,
parts

preterit
French them
are

dic in-

called

verb,

because
to

all other certain


For

verb-forms rules, the which

be
the

derived
regular

from

ing accordwithout
less

for

verbs
are

exception.

irregular
to

verbs know
or

they
the
at

much parts

so. an

But

usually

it is sufficient in order
to

principal

of

rregular form.

verb

make,

least

recognize,

any

other

[84.]
as

The
a

principal

and

derivable

forms

of

aimer

(which

may

erve

model

for all other

verbs) are
(i.e.add \
.

those after
"Li8

described

below:

* Inf.

"

( f^t- faimer-ai
^

aimer

"

-at
"

:;

r). ^
after

( cond.
Pr.
part,

faimer-ais

(i.e. add

r).
for
for

aim^ant

\ T'
(
:

esubstitute ( "^^3-/"**^'^"^ Sf' impf. ind. faim-ais (i.e.ub. s -ais

-anO

-ant

Past
Pr.

part, ind.

a/me:

compound
imp've impf.
aime.

tenses,

/ai

aim4,

etc.

fa/me

Pret.
stem

ind,
:

faimai:
cf
.

suh]. faimorsse

(i.e. add

sse

to

the

note

below).

4,

85.]

VERBS.

LI

Note.

"

The

plural

of

the

pres.

ind.
-sse

is the

always impf.

from

the is

pres.
to

part.

aim-onsyjin-iss-onsy romp-ons).
stems

The

of
found

subj.

added

the

ret.

aima-^Jini-y rompiwith
^

(always
the

in 2d

sing.).
of

Compare
partir

the
'

above
:
"

principal

parts

the

irregular

erb

depart

Inf.

parting i
paxt.

f
cond, partir-a/s.
*

Pr.

part-ant
part/
:

|?'"f ^J'f ^"'^-".

(impf.
Past

uia.jepart'ais.
tenses,

part,

compound
"

fai (orje suis)parti.


tu

Pr.

ind.

je pars

pr.

ind.

je
vous

pars,

pars,

il part;
partent.
"

(pL

from

pr.
pars,

part.)nous
partons,

part-ons,

partez.

Us

ImpVe

partez.
:

Pret.

ind.

je parfis
the

impf.

suhj.je
parts of

parti-sse.

86.

Learn

principal

the

following

ten

verbs

(irregularparts
Inf.
Pk.

in heavy
Part.

type)
Past

"

Part.

Pres.

Ind.

Pret.

Ind.

Partir
depart

parfant

parti

je pars je
sens

je

partis

Sentir
feel

sentant

senti

je

sentis

Souffrir
suffer

souffrant

soufferf

je

souffre

je souffris

Offrir
offer

offrant

affert

foffre
je
je
y^ts
mets

foffris je je
vetis

Vitir
clothe

vetant

vetu

Mettre
put

mettant

mis

mis

jLcrire
write

ecr/yanf
liaant

Serif
iu

j'"cris

j'ecriyis

Lire
read

je je

lis

je je

ius

Vivre
Uve

vivant

vecu

vis

vecus

Craindre
"

craignant

craint

je

crains

je

craignis

fear

Instead

oi partissant

(cf.jinissanty

t Instead

ot partis

(cf.^nis).

FIRST

PART.

[85

Each

tense

of

these of the

verbs

is

conjugated
indicative
as

regularly,
is formed

observing
from

that

the

plural

present

the
endings

present
-ons, nous

participle
-ez,

(by
for
vous

substituting,
Hence:

usual,
Pr.
;

the
pars,

personal
tu

-ent

-ant).
partez,

je

parsy
tu

art,

partons,

Us partent
etc.
"

je souffre,
tu
"

souf

fres,

il

souffre, nous
craignons,

souffrons,
vous

je
Us

crains,

crains,

i
on.

raint,

nous

craignez,

craignent;

and

so

Exercise

XXIV

(a, b).
' '

demain
Note.
"

to-morrow

'

; lorsque
requires

(lorsqu^) when
the requires
ne

sur

'

upon
9u".

Craindre
without
"

*fear'
ne,

subjunctive
an

after
ne

When

sed

itself

it
c

generally

expletive fear
he may

before speak.'

the

subjunctive.
a.
"

Ex.

Je

rains

qu*il

parle

*1

Conjugate
Translate:
quHl
partftt

throughout 1. 2.
II
part;

all the
U

verbs

given
hier;

under

^,
pensais

h,

"

partU

je

ne

as

Nous
nous

partons

aujourcPhui;
lorsquHl
qu'U

il d 4 sire

qv"

ous

partions

demain;
vous

partions
et

arriva; le sente point

partons!
;
vous vous

II sent

que

Vaimez,
le sentUes;

je dSsire je n'esp^rais

(it) sentez;
r argent
sur

vous

que

entissiez,

4. si

SHI

part,
avals.

je souffrirai
5.
II met
son

beaucoup;
livre
sur

je
la

lui

offrirai

fen
;

table; qu'U

il le

it

la table

je defends

quHl

Vy

mette;

je d^fendis
6crivent;
Us

Vy

tt.

6. lis
Us
plumes;

^crivent;

je

souhaite

quHls

^criront

de-

ain;

Scrivaient
il
or

lorsque
donna

farrivai;
quHls

Us

4criraient
7.
vivons
nous ne

sHls
vit

avaient
enjcore;
nx"us

es

Scrivissent.

II

v^ut;

je
ct

priais temps;

Dieu

quHl

v^cHt;

nous

encore;

ivions

ce

j*appr4hende
ne

que crains pas


ne

vivions
ne

pas,
crai-

. Je

Grains

quHl
parte;

parte;

je

ne

qu'U

parte;
vous

nez

pas

quHl

craignez-vous
que
vous

quHl
ne

paHef

craigniez
;
vous ne
a

uHl

n'4crivtt;
pas;

je desire
sHl

le craigniez

point

raindrez

souffrait,vous
il est
encore

craindriez.

9. Mon 10.
est
ne nous

fr^e
bonne

eaucoup

souffert, et
lui
moi-m^me.

souffranX.
11.
La
que

Une

osition

(m.)

est

offerte.
II
craint

lettre
vous

4crite,
lisiez
sommes
sa

je Vai

crite

12.

lettre.

3.

Graignant

que

vous

n^arriviez

jioint,

partis.

86.]
86.
make,

VERBS.

Lni

Aller
do.' is
as
"

'

verbs

hold,' dire tenir say,' faire go/ ira/i/" come,' The conjugation of these five very common follows (irregulararts in heavy type) : p
' * ' *
"

Pronounce

wen

(likebien).

faites
Exercise
en

XXV
use

(a, 6).
of
se

aUer
"

^go

'

away

(obs.the

and
tenses

en

^away of oMer,

') ;

de

^to.'

a.

Conjugate
and

throughout

all the

venir,

teniVf

ire, b.

faire.
:

"

Translate
leur
chez
d

1. Je vais
;

cTiez M,

Adam,

2. Mes
le temps.

fr^res

n'iront

as

chez
ira

cousin
son

Us

iraient

avaient ai'ils

3. J'esp^re
y aille.

uHl

cousin;

je n'esp^re
exige
que
vous

point

quHl

4. lis

ll^rent

Paris.
aussi
;

5.

II

veniez;

si

vous

veniez

iendrait

ilvient;

ilviendra;
tient

eUe
rose

est

venue;

ordonnez
ma

u'elle

vienne.

6.
7,

EUe

la

d,

la

main;

ni^
venir

iendra

la

rose,

Vous

dites
mon

quHl
p^re

viendra;
me

dites-lui quHl
il
s^en

de

lle desire

que

je
cela

le dise; il s^en

dit
va;

viendra
ira;
en

(vien drait
je
sou-

disant

alia,

8. II

s^en

aite

quHl

s^en

aille,
mxi

9.
soeur

II demande

que

nous

nous

oMons thee

ensez-vous

que

s^en

aiUef

10.
Elle

Var4;'en
s^en

(^get
alUe.
le

ence,

go

away');

allez^ous-en.

11.
venir;

est

12.

Que fait

le gargonf

je

le

ferai

fordonne

quHl

fosse;

aites-levenir.
87.
Verbs
alike,
""

in

"

recisely
-1 "

-o/r. have some


" -

Verbs

in

-oiV,

though in
common.

not

conjugated
As

principles
-

model

-^

Pronounce

fai- Ukefe-

here

and

in

derivations.

87-89.]

VERBS.

LV

or

them

all

may

serve

recevoir
67.

receive/ which
and

has

been
parts

scr deare

already repeated
:

under

Its principal

derived

here

Inf.

Pe.

Part.

Past

Part.

Pr.

Ihd.

Prst.

Ind.

Recevoir
p.

recevant
Pr.S.

requ

je reqois
tu

je

recus
Ipf.

rent's

s.

je

rece"Mii
C.

je
tu

regoive

j'ai regu
etc.

il

rw^it
recevons recevez

je

recuaae

refoives

nous vous

je'recevr^is

il revive
nous
vous

recevions
receviez

lis regoivent
Ip've

Us

resolvent
Ipf.

regois
recevons
recevez

je
Note.

recevais

"

Like
in

recevoir -cevoir
'

other
"

verbs

conjugated, (concevoir conceive,'


^

are

as

already
decevoir
^

noticed,

deceive,'

devoir etc.). (masc. sing.) is


it from
dus.

Also

owe,

ought,' it (i.e. Hence has


:

except the
devoir^

that

its

past
to

participle

dO

circumflex,
devant, dH

guish distin-

du

de

le).

(f.due)^

e dois^ je

[88.]

All

verbs
1st
;

in

-oir

(savoir'know'
pi. present

excepted)
from
'

form,
the

like

ecevoir^

their

and

2d they

indicative
pourvoir

ent presdrop,

participle
recevoir,

and

all

(save
this

provide
some
'

')
'

ike

their the
root

oi in the

future

and

conditional,

slight
:

hange

of

attending
'

loss

(e.g.voir
'know'
'

see
:

fut.

err-ai;
'

pouvoir

*be
'

able
vaudr-ai;

pourr-ai;

savoir

aaur-ai;

cUoir

be

worth

vouloir

'wish

voudr-ai).
classified.

Other

irregularities

cannot

be

conveniently

89.
:

Below

are
'

given

six

of

the
'

most

common
'

verbs
be

in

-otV,

iz.

devoir

owe,

ought,'

voir
'wish,

see,'

pouvoir

able,

can,

may,'

avoir

'know,'
"

vouloir
Tenses

will,' falloir
are

'be

necessary'

(imper

left

unconjugated

regular.

Ip've

sac/ie

9.J

VERBS.

LVII

Pb.

Ind.
weux
"eux

Pbet.

Ind.

vovlu

je
tu

je voulus
Ipf.

s.

il veut
nous
vous

je

voulusse

voulons
voulez

ils veulent
Ip've
*

veuillez

please

fdUu

Ufaut

ilfallut
Ipf. 8.

ilfodlut

Exercise
Note
after doubt

XXVI

(a, 6).
'

1.

"

Vouloir
Also

'wish
savoir

'

a.nd

falloir*be
the

necessary

require

the
que,

subjuncbut only is

iye

que.
or

requires is
or

hen

uncertainty

implied

subjunctive (i.e.frequently
('Xt
him
que
are

after
when

it

used

egatively,

interrogatively, 2.
"

with

si).
is necessary
to
mon

Note

We

say

Ufaut

qu*il vienne
for

that

he

come

'

// lui
*

faut

venir
come.'

(*It

is necessary

come

'),both
*

expressions My brother

He

must
come.'

But
is, two
one

only

//

faut

frere

vienne

ust

That
but

constructions
when

allowed

when

the

subject

pronoun,
a.

only

it is

noun.

"

Conjugate

throughout

recevoir^

devoir,

pouvolr,

savoir,

nd
b.

vouloir.
"

Translate
une

1. Mon

onde

re^it

une

lettre;
une

j*esp^re qu^il
2. Nous
semaine;

ecevra

lettre ;

sp ^rez-vous
nous

quHl

receive

lettre 9 par
;
nous

ecevons

trois

dollars;

recevions

dix
par devez

dollars

Lveut

que

nous

recevions

deux

dollars
vous

jour
venir;

regimes
ne

et

argent
que

hier.
vous

3.
deviez

Je

sais
;

que

je

pense
venir;

as

venir

ils devraient

they

ought')
sing.).

Impersonal

verb

(used

only

in 3d

person

vm

FIRST

PART.

[89, 90.

je

ne

pensais brider
ma

pas

quails

diissent

venir,

4.

II

voit

la maison

l voyait
vit

la maison;
;

il vit s^arr^ter
vei*ra

quelqu\n;
il
me

jevoulais
s'il venait

uHl

nQce
voir

il

me

demain

verrait
ne

Je peux
;

cet

arbre-ld,
pas

je

ne

puis

(or je

peux
;

pas)
pourrai

oir

je
voir

ne

savais
; ;

que

vous

pussiez

le voir

je
Je

ous

demain

ils peuvent

venir

sHls
;

veulejtt,

6.

d 4 sire le
sait

uHl

le

(it)so/che
voire
vous

je

sais

quHl
sache

le

saura

je

savais

qvHU
venir,
;

aveZ'VOus

le"pn

(sachez) quHl
que
vous

favJt

7.
neveux

II

eut

que

parliez;
voie^

U voulait
vous ne

parlassiez
Us

je

as

quHl

me

ils voulurent le vtt;


on

voir; sait pas

voudront
qu'il

vousparler;

voudraient
=

quHl fact
or

le veuUle

(orveut

f que

Hhe

that');veuillez
vous

venir il

demain.

8.
mon

Ilfaut frbre
;

que
vous

ous

parliez^
;

faut
;

parler;

faut

que

arle

il

faUait
vtnt,

venir
or

faudrait
a

venir,
venir
nous

^U
;
en

le dAsirait

il

fallu quHl
il

lui

fallu
il

il leur aller,

fcUlait
or

venir,

fallait quHls
nous en

vinssent

faut

il

faut

que

ous

aUions,
List only,
verbs become
an

90.

Alphabetical

of

Other

Irregular list of
the

Forms.
such
common

"

Below
forms

is
of
in

giveo,

or

reference
irregular
he

alphabetical
as

other
ing, read-

(simple)
until

may

cause

learner

some

difficulty
verbs, given
as are

has Part

familiar Forms
be

with

the

irregular

described omitted pi. of

nder

"

161,

II.
it must

easily

inferred

from
that the

those 1st

(thus, especially,
ind.
never
are

remembered

and

2d

the

res.

usually have
a

made in

from

the

pres.

part.,

and

that

irregular

verbs

"ir

stem

-iss, like^nir). bois Pr. I.

cquerrai

Fut. Pr.
I.

zcquiers

y.
or

acqu^rir

boive

Pr.

S.
I
or

I of
S.
*
.

boire
'

cquis

Past
Pr.

P. P.

Pret

acquire.'

botvent
bous bu

3 pi. Pr.

drink.'

sseyant

Pr.

I. of bouiUir

boil.'

sseyerai

)
^^^
)

Past

P.
y

8si"rai

of asseoir
*

btAS Pret. buvant

of boire

'

drink.'

sseyant

Pr. Pr.

P. I.

seat.*

Pr.
Pr.

P.

ssieds

ceignant
or

P.
"" \ of
ceir ceindre
*

ssis

Past

P.

Pret.

ceignis

Pret.t.

gird.'

tteignant

Pr. Pret
P

tteignis

ri-

P.

ceint Past

P. P.

atteindre
attain.'

ttelnt

Past

0.]

VEEBS.

T.nr

onnais

Pr.

I. Pr.
P. P.

"crivant of connaitre
*

Pr. Pret.
Fut.

P.

onnaissara

Scrims
^nverrai

}""
'

^crire

write.*

nu

Past

know.'

of envoy P.

er

send.'

nnus

Pret. Pr. P.

^eignant

Pr.
Pret.

onstruisant

onstruisis

Pret.
Pr.

jof;
*

construire
construe.'

^eignis
^etn"

of
*

eteindre
extinguish.'

Past 3
s.

P.

ontraignant

P. of contraindre
constrain.'

(or

Pr. Pr.

I.)
P.
'

ontraignis

Pret. Past P.
Pr.

feignant
Past

ontraint

feignis Pret.
of

feindre

feign.'

(or

8.

I.)
I.
.
-

feint
hats

P.
-"
*

urais

(reg.)
Fut.

Ipf

(or3s.Pr.I.)
of courir Pr.
*run.'

urrai

I. of hair
Pr.
P.

hate.'

ru

Past

P.

joignant joint Past

rtM

Pret.
Pr.

joignis Pret.
of

jotndre 'join.*

usarU

S.

P.

m"

Pret.
Past

}
P.

of

coudre

sew.'

(or3s.Pr.S.)
lis Pr.
I. P.
-fc

su

aignant

Pr.
Pret.

P.

'

/t'^ant Pr. lu Past


*

"

of /irc

read.'

atgnis

P.

of
Past
s.

craindre

fear.'

ainf

P. Pr.

/mi Past

P.
I. Pr. P.

(or 3

1.)-^
*

/"is Pr.
believe.'
*

ois Pr.

I. of craire
I.

luisant

of luire

shine.'

ois Pr.

oissant

Pr
"
-

}of
J

luisis Pret.
grow.'
men*

croitre

Pr.
Pr.
P.

I. of I.

mentir mourir

lie.'
*

""i'""'^-^! of
Past Past
P. P.

croire'

beUere.'

meurs
meure

die.'

S.
I.
'

meus

Pr. Pr.
Past

Pret
Pr. I.

J of
or

croitre

grow.'
meuve

mouvoir

move.'

S.
P. of P.. P.
mourir
*

"t^e

S.
"
*

jnorf

die.'

of

cueillir

cull.*

eiUerai

Fut.

motdant
mou/u

Pr. Past

is Pr.

I. Pr.
P.

P.

isant

of cuire
*

moulus
ntourrai
mourus OTu TOMS

Pret. t.
Fut.

Uff o |J

moudre

grind.

'xts

Pret.
P. I. I.
or or

boil.'

4
/

of mourir

die.'

it Past

s.

Pr.
*

I. sleep.'

Pret. Past P. ")


,

rs

Pr.

dormir

mouvoir

'

move.

uis

Pr.

Pret.
Pr.
I.

uisant

Pr.

P.

of verbs
*

in

-duire

nais

Pret. uisis Past P. uit

lead.'

natssant

Pr.

P.

of nat^e naquis
"^

'be

born.

Pret. P.

Past

lX

FIRST

PART.

[90

nui

Past
Pr.

P.

sens

Pr. Pr. Pr.

I. of

sentir
'

feel.'
serve.*

nuts

I.
*

sers

of nuire
Pr.
P.

hurt.'
sors

I. of servir
I. of
"orftr

nuisant

go

out.'

nuisis

Pret. Pr.
I.

'Solvant -solu
P.

Pr. P

P.

parais

Past

}
!

of yerbs
*

in

-sovdre

paraissant Past
Pret.

Pr.
P.

[ of
f
*

paraitre

paru

appear.'

suffi
su^s

Pret. -sclus P. Past

solve.'

parus

Pret.
Pr.

}
I. P.

of

suffire suffice.'
*be.*

peignant

Pr. Pret.

P.
'

svffisant
of peindre paint.'
2.

peignis

1. suis Pr.
suts

I. of efre

peint 3

Past
s.

P.

Pr. Pr. Past

(or

Pr.

S.)
P.
-

suivant
"ttiw
*

plaignant

Pr.

of su,ivre P. Pret.
Pr.

follow.*

plaignis

Pret. Past P.

of

plaindre

pity,'

suivis
to,"int t" tus

/"/am"

("") 'complain.'
^

P. Past P.

(or

^j

^^,.^^

s.

Pr.
.

I.)
"

(or "i)
Pret.

1^ .besUent.'
J

paisan

I of p/aiVc ^

'please.'

plait

s.
s.
^

Pr.

iJ
1. 1
-

vatlle Pr.
,
.

S.
P.
P.

pleut
,

P.
^

1.

/)/" Past

P.

)" of /
*

pleuvoir ^

rain.

valant
ra/w

Pr.

Past

of vaUnr
*

2. "/u Past / plus Vret.


,^

P. 1
"

of

plaire
^

, *

please.
*

va/u5

Pret.
Put.

be

worth/

vaudrai
'

plut 3
or

s.

Pret.
*

of pleuvoir
please.'

rain

vazir

(3. vau")
Past
P.

Pr.

I.

plaire
Pr.

r^cM
"\

renant

P.

v"cus

Pret.
Pr.

}^^

rture

live.'

renne

Tr.S.
Past
Pr.

l^^prendre }
or

rU

P.

Pret.

J
*

v^^s
1.

I. of vetir 'clothe.' I. of vivre


*

take.'
vis ris

Pr.
Pret.

live.'

repens

I. of repentir

repent.'
"

2.

of voir

see.*

rtPastP.
.

1
"
^

ris

Pr.

I.

or

Pret. Verbs

of

nre

M *

u. laugh.'

Note.
t

"

in

-aitre

retain

the

circumflex

only

where

i is followed

by

(^paraxtf butparats).

91-03.]

INDECLINABLBS.

LXI

IKDEOLINASLES.
As

all

indeclinables

(i.e.dverbs, a
here

etc.)are
said

found them.

directly

in

he

dictionaries,

little need

be

abbut

Adverbs.

91.
'

Adverbs
'

are

either:

a.
'

single,

as

id

'here,'
'

oh
etc.
'

'where,'
;
or,

in,' quand

when,'

dijdb already,'
'

Men

well,'
d, peu
'

b.

dverb-phrases
'

like
tout

d d

present
'

at

present,'

pr^s

nearly,'

,peine
Note.

hardly,'
Most
to

fait entirely,'
can

totjit d, coup
into

suddenly,'
by adding

etc.
the
in

"

adjectives
the

be

converted
or

adverbs

uffix -ment
"

feminine

form,

to

the

masculine

if terminating

owel.

Ex.

fort
grand

strong
*

:
'

fortement
:

'

strongly
*

great

grandement

greatly
*

franc
long
'

'frank long
* *

'

:
:
*

franchement
longuement
* *

frankly

lengthily
*

'

facile
*

easy
true
*

r
:
'

facilement
*

easily truly prettily


*

vrai

vraimenf
:

jolt
92.

pretty

joliment

'

Comparison.
those

"

Adverbs

capable

of

comparison like

ciall (espe
four

derived aid
of

from plus

adjectives)are
or

compared,
the

tives adjec

by in
^

the

moins.

Only
"

following

this
'

respect

irregular,

viz.
'

ien
'

well

mieux
'
^

better
'

'

le mieux
le pis le plus
'

best
'

'

al

bad(ly)
^

pis
'

worse
* '

worst
'
'

eaucoup
'

much
'

plus
moins

more
'

most
'

eu

little

less

'

le moins

least

Prepositions.

93.
^

Prepositions,
de
*

like
^

adverbs,
through,'

are

either
^

a.

single,
etc.
;

as or,

to,'

from,'

par

contre

against,'

XII

FIRST

PART.

[93-95
'

b, prepositional
'

phrases
far
use

like
etc.

d, travers

across/ ajin

de

in order

to/ jusqu^di
Note
:
'

as

as/
of
*

1.

"

The
.

prepositions
*

is
a

often
*

different from
' '

in

French
parts

and
*

nglish

cf
;

penser

think
*

of in

; acheter

buy early

; de
en

toutes

on

ll
act

sides

de

bonne
man

heure
'

good
so on.

time,

agtr French

honnete
requires
a

homme

like

an

honest

; and

Often,
vice
versa
*

also,
:

ositi prepob^ir

where
'

English
'

does

not,
sonner

and

cf

plaire

please/
etc.
a

obey

; ^couter

listen
in

to/

quelqu'un infinitive
'

ring used

for

some-one/
or

Note

2. To

"

As

English,

an

is
to
'

with

without French

sition. prepoor

the

English

infinitive-sign

correspond

in

de

is used
an

especially

before

subject-infinitive placed
an

after
or
:

its verb,

and

efore //

object-infinitive when
imprudent de

idea

of

separation
est

source

is implied.

x.

est

parler

(but

Parler
a

imprudent

subject-infiniti
de
him
*

ithout

preposition

when

heading

clause).
de parler
*

// s^abstient
He

parler
to

He

bstains

from

talking.'

II lui

defend

forbids

speak.'

Conjunctions.

94.

The
mais

conjunctions
^

are

likewise
^

either:
etc.
;
or,
'

a.

single,

as

and/

but/

'

qiie

that/
^

si

if/

6.

conjimctioii
parce

phrases

like

avant

que

before/

pendant

que

while/

que

'because/

etc.

Interjections.

95.

Simple

interjectionsare
etc.

ah

ah/

"5 or

'

o^

oh/

Mlas
en

alas
avant

ban

'good/
d

few heure

inter
'

jectional phrases,
well,'
etc.,

like
occur.

forward,'

la bonne

very

also

Exercise
ADVERBS

XXVIL
:
' '

Men

'

'

well
' '

toujour s
surtout
'

always
' '

ailleurs
partout
bos
'
'

elsewhere everywhere

especially
'

franchement
doucement
'

frankly
'

'

in
'

low
'

tone

'

gently
'

haut

aloud
'

longuement
'
'

lengthily
'

'

tdt^ bientdt

soon
'
'

(t prherU

at

present
'

quelquefois

sometimes

d, peine

'

hardly

5.]

INDECLINABLBS.

LXni

peu

prds

'

nearly
' '

sur-le-champ

on
'

the

spot,

both marcM
bos
haut
tout
'

cheaply
-

immediately
toiU tout
tout

below
^

'

d coup d de

'

suddenly
'

'

above
'

fait

'

entirely
'

at
'

all
'

suite
*

immediately
'

'

evt'^tre

perhaps
PREPOSITIONS

aussi^
:

si

as,

so

pr^s

'

after

d, travers
'

'

across,

through
to
'

'

vant

before
^

(in time)
'

d^apr^s

'

'

according
even
^

evant

before
'

(in position)
'

jusqu'd,
aiUour

to

errih'e
^

behind
'

de de
de
*

'

around
'

us
'

under
'

hors pr^s
*

out
near

of
'

upon
chez
at
or

to

the

house

'

of, with,

among

CONJUNCTIONS

(those spaced
^for
'

requiring

the

subjunctiye):
que que

fin

4n

order

that

'

mme

*as'
'
'

avant

'before'
'

orsque

when

hien
'

que' que
que

although

uoique
'

'although
'

sans

'without
'in
order
; but

that
that

'

'

uisque
Note.

since
Adverbs
time

pour
follow
the

"

usually

personal

yerb-f
follow
est
venu
a

orm

adverbs Ex.

f specialized

/ parte

toujoursde

demain) (as aujourd*hui, II nCa toujoursaim"" II vous.


^rit
tr^

hier,

participle.

hier,

1.

Monfrh'e
a

bien,

mats

ma

soeur

4crit N^ous

beaucmtp
tout

mieux,
d,

II lui

parU

franchement.
4. Ne

3.

sommes

fait
chez

ontents

db present.

voulez-vous
vous

pas

venir

tout

de

suite

on

p^e

5. De

quoi plus
coup.

cet homme

a-t-il parlS
vous

si longuement

?
me

. Nous

parlerons
tout

doucement

si

le voulez,
cent

7.

II

^pondit

8.
de

peine

a-t-il

personnes

dans

Valise.

9.

J'ai

peu

livres^ mais

en

moins.

10.

Je

sais

XIV

FIRST

PART.

[95
deux

ue

mon

ami

lui

donn6
la table, moi,

pen

pr^s

cents avant

dollars.
quatre

11.

Le

ivre

4tait derri^re
II

12.
et

II viendra venait

heures.
est

13.

ellait vUle. 17.

devant

eUe

apr^s.

14.

II

hors

la

16.

JHrai

jusqu'd, V4glise.
soU

16.

J'y

itais
aim4e,

lorsqu'U

rriva.

Quoiqu^elle
vous

bonne

eUe

rCest pas
lui

18.

Je

iendrai

puisque

le voulez.

19.

Je
le

ai

Scrit

fin
ne

qu^il

{pour quHt)
21.

vienne.
II vint

20.
avant

Bienqueje
qu^eUe

(it)sacheje

le dirai

point.

fHU

venue.

INDEX

TO

PART

I.

"
with

le

15

conjunctions
consonants
:

94 pron.
.

indef.

article

14
60 52

inf. sign

93.2
1

16
.

indefinites
interrogatives interrog.
constr'n.

ccent-signs

contraction

16

cent-stresA
accent

3
1

77-9
95

ute

de

with

le

15

interjections
irregular

djectives
agreement
'Ex. X.

26

etc.

partitive

18-20 93.2
see

verbs.

82

etc.

(X. 1).
2.

inf. sign def. 91 article,

place

le.
50-1
. . .

U
with
gener.

12 defh
art
constr.
...

dverbs place

demonstratives devoir

15

(Ex. XXVI).
26

89
1

16
18
XI.
2.

ieul

diaeresis diphthongs dont

in part,

al=au

23-4 86
1

7
59

spec'l

use

Ex.

Uer

lequelf inter
relat linking

52

lphabet

57

oir

73
6,

11

^ change

in verbs,
12.

69
n.

cun

82 elision
en,

pron.

part

46

mauvais,

comp
art

36 38.1

n, comp

36
etre,

conj
neut.
v

73 76

mille,

no

monophthongs

with

rdinals inflect'n for ordinals

37
39 nasal vowels

40
1

/aire, conj
feminine
:

86
ne

78

dilla
no

(Ex. XVIII.
Y.
neg.
constr
*n

1.)

ntf

art.

38.1
......

nouns,

Ex.

78
21
etc.

rcumflex

1 26
:

adject's

26-33
nouns

d, pi

nul
gender
:

63

mparison

numerals
:

37 25

adject
adv
tenses..
.

36
92

nouns

Ex.

V,

XI.

at/, pi

adject's
generic grave article
acc't

26-38 13
1
oir-

mpound

74 66-8

verbs

87
61

onjugation

on

LXVI

INDEX

TO

PART

I.

"
37
39 pouvoir prepositions
present, Ex.

"
89 97 XIII.
1. 83 savoir

ordinals infl'n

8
:

subjunctive
Ex. XIX,

XXI-XXV.

part,

article

......

18-9 principal
20 75, 80.3
quantity

parts

syllabication
tout

preposition participle, pronouns.

pron.

particles

46 60,64
4 52 56

past

pers.

ersonne

.41-6 62

qui

interr

venir

etit, comp
:

36

relat quoi
:

verbs vouloir
vowels:
pronunc'n,

interr

52-4 56

plural
nouns

21-5
34

relat

4 etc
reflexives

adject's

47
verbs

possessiyes

48-9

reflexive

80-1
.
. .

y, pron.

part

PART

IL

METHODICAL

PRESENTATION

OF

FRENCH

GRAMMAR

WITH

ISTORICAL
SKETCH

INTRODUCTIONS, OF
THE

VERSIFICATION,
OF WORDS

AND AND

RELATION

FRENCH

ANGLO-FRENCH

(Calcuulted

for

Two

Terms,

or

Less)

THE

FRENCH

LANGUAGE.

Fbench,

Italian,
southern

Spanish,

Portuguese,

Ehaeto

Eomanio

(spoken in
that

chian, spoken

in have

Switzerland),nd Eumanian a Turkey) constitute a northern


sprung from
or

(or Wallagroup and guages of lanare

popular

Latin,
'

which
or '),

therefore

called

Bomance

Bomanio

Eoman (i.e.

Neo-

Latin The

New-Latin'). (*
development
of the

French

language
other

from

Latin may

under

the accessory
as

influence follows. time the


that

of various

tongues

be briefly

sketched
From

the

Gaul

began

to

be

conquered
our

by

the

Eomans

during

last two

centuries vulgar

before
Latin

era,

Eoman
romana

soldiers

aud

colonists
government

brought

(lingua

and rustica)y

(sermo urbaofficials literary Latin Aided in its spread by the into the subdued country. nu8)y and the iron system of Eoman superior culture of its speakers
perhaps
the

colonization,

also by the

Celtic

and

Latin,

resemblance in latter tongue idioms

the

between
a

the

old

few

centuries conquered

almost

wholly the

obliterated

the native

of the

Gaul, and the or northern middle been to have Basque^ the language seems of southern which Gaul (Aquitania) and these idioms have left but slight traces ; in French.
The inroads and Burgundians,
of of Germanic conquests in the 5th century,
"

barbarians,

Celtic in

tribes

"

Franks,
the

Goths,

brought
contact

Teutonic
tha

form

speech

into

Gaul

and

in

with

SECOND

PART.

omanic.

The

Teutonic succeeded
the
into

dialects

(cafled by
their

common
own

name

iThgua

theodiscd)
of

in

holding

for

long

ime

alongside
were

Romanic

(lingua romana),
it, however,

until,
a

finally,

hey

merged
of

it, bequeathing

considerable
of

number survived struggle

Germanic

words French. literary


of

romanized,

many

which

ave
The

in modern

between the in
or

and Rome latter,

vulgar
and

Latin her

was

also

radually,

with

decline of

influence
was

in

aul,

decided
more

favor

the

which

meanwhile

uffering This

less

important idiom

dialectical
early branched
of

changes..
into
:

Gallo-Romanic nowise
the

two

leading,
southern,

hough

homogeneous,

families

dialects
*yes'

the

alled

langne

d*oc
in the the
now

(as

expressing
^

by
i.e.

(as spoken
northern,
=

Roman

provincia,'

oc^) or Provence),
'

venc Proand
'

he

called

langae
usually rise

d*oIl

(as

expressing

yes

by

il^

French southern

oui), or
idiom

Old
to
an

French.
early literature,
the 11th then

The

gave

which
12th

hone

with
"

extraordinary the
age of

splendor the

during
"

and

enturies the

troubadours, of southern of

and

perished

ith The

political

independence idiom
consisted in the

France. sub-dialects,
favored
of

northern
that
one

several
of

of

hich

spoken
circumstances

province
the

Ile-de-France,

political

and the

fostering gradually
century,
or

influence took
it

the

niversity

of Paris

or

Sorbonne,
in the 14th

precedence
became

all

the

others,

until,
of

the

ational
a

language of later

united

France,

Modem

French.
lexical and

And

series
the of

modifications,
of

especially

tical, syntacinto

language

the day.

14th

century

has

developed

the

rench

the

present

Oc from Oxl
of

Lat.
disputed

hoc.
origin, in

probably
answers

for

(Lat. hoc) -f- 17,


il,

the

personal

ronoun

being the

repeated

(o je, o
Zeitschr.

etc.)
423,

and

il gradually

supplan

others.

[Cf.

Kuhns

m.

1877.]

THE

FRENCH

LANGUAGE.

To

the

above
has

sketch
a

should

be

added
part

that

French,

like
vocabulary

nglish,

borrowed outside
and

considerable

of its present
from Latin, of

from

languages, English.
the

especially Indeed, 11th


century, the

Greek,

talian,

Spanish,
ever

influx

Classical
after

atin

words,

since

but
so

especially

he

time

of

the

Eenaissance,
with

has the

been

large
from
the

that

they

ctually

vie
From

in

number

words they
are,

derived
for

popular part,

atin.

these,

however,

most

learly

distinguished
as

by sketched

not

adhering
under 1

to

the

laws

of

phonetic

hange, There

briefly
will

(next page).
appropriate of form, heads, inflection,

follow
of

hereafter,

under changes

eneral

survey which
of

those
the

sweeping

nd

syntax
course

French

language from Latin and


of

has
"

suffered
changes

during

its

ong

development of

consisting
of sounds,

hiefly
an

in

the

mutation

words

the

variation

almost
of

absolute

suppression and

case-forms,

synthetical

orms

comparison,
and

passive-forms,
and

in

the

evolution
of
a

of

ew

words of

verb-forms,

in

the

adoption

rigid

ystem

syntactical

arrangement.

SSCOKD

tAEt.

[L

I.

ELEUENTABT

SOUNDS

ASL

AOOENTS.

[1.
I.

HISTORY.
have

"

In
many

their

gradual

transition
as

to

modern

French, 'below.

Latin

words

suffered
"

modifications,
accent-

briefly

outlined words
has

Vowels.

A,

The
as

vo'oirel

of Latin

(with few
in form
:

ex-

ce

survived partem
.

such
Lat.
:

in French, accusative

though
has
:

often given bontS.


a

modified

e.g.

L.

(usually
F.
part
;

the

the

French

noun-form,
a

cf

47)

vincere
as

va/ncre
a.

; bonitatem

It received

different b.
:

form

according

it

was

free

(libre, ending
one

(entrav^e, followed
a.

by

two
u,

consonants,

belonging
were, as

syllable) or to it). Thus


a

tied

"When
:

free,

7,
:

and

also
:

riting

e.g. aml-cus

ami;
now

lu-na

-)-nasal, lu-ne; bo'tia

rule,

unaltered
changed

bonne.
as a

Other

vowels

(often

into
was

diphthongs, either change:

prevailingly
or

uttered
caused

monophthong).
sounds.

This
"

change

(1)

direct,

(2)

by

neighboring

(1)

Direct Fr.
=e,

Lat.

h,

e;

(exceptionally
phre;
later
now

a,

before

/) ;
ma4um:

e.g.

L.

sanita-tem

F.

santi

pa-

trem:

ama-re

aimer;

mal.
:

01

(or, by
old

change,

af)

e.g.

cre-dit

croit
by

vi-det

hal^-hat voit ;

avoit,

avait pied.
to

(so

all imperfects,

analogy).
CBU,
ueu,

=ie:
=

e.g.pe-dem:

fU

eu

(also
Jidrem

written,
:

denote
:

origin

or

otherwise,
:

OB,

i/e);
boBuf.

e.g.

fleur ;
;

no-vem

neuf;
deum:

gu-lam

gueule;

bo-vem:

u;

eu=o;

ieu

e.g.aurum:

ctr;

dieu.
Palatals
or
=

(2)
+

Palatal,

labial, changed the


fi +
i;
a

or

nasal
or

influence: following

"

(c,^,y;
into
T
a

or

', e

vowel)
n
=

preceding

vowel, -f pal.
=

both,

thong diphwith
to

containing
or

parasitic oi;

palatal

/
ui

[viz.a
;

ai ;
or

e,

pal.

ei;

o,

pal.=

ff-\-pal.=:
i=

pal. -\-a
:

iV] ;
habeo
:

directly

[viz. ^+

pal.=

pal. -\- e,
vocem
:

e.g. pdcem

paix;
pacare

ai ;

(of sol): soleil;


:

:
"

voix;
The
:

noceat:

ntiise;
u

payer
a

8olic(u)lu (==pai-ier)
shading

Scem

dix

cera

cire.

labial

sometimes

gave

labial
: ont.

to

preceding

vowel

e.g. clavum

clou

habunt
u
=

(popular form)
o:

"Nasals

efore

nasals
sinum
:

ti =
sein

ai;
;
sumus

S,

T=ei
:

(oi);

e.g.

amas:

aimes;
nasal

lana:

aine;

sommes.

They
was

also

produced

vowels.

b. "When

tied,

the

accent-vowel

usually

unchanged.

Exceptions:

-3.]

ELEMENTARY

SOUNDS

AND

ACCENTS.

=e

{mU'tit : met);
(noc-tem;
to
u :

o,

ou

(cor-tem:
ei,
as

cour;

du-Viare:

douter) ;

9,

7+

alat(d=oi
1/1

(tec-turn; toit),or

when
also
:

free
the

(J'/ngam : /eigne) ;
frequent
;

0+pal.

nuit).
e.g.

Here
:

belongs
;

change
:

of

/ after

yowel

a/-ter
vowela

au-tre

cabaNos

cheuaux
in the

fol-lem

fou.
or

B,

Accentless being
then

usually
on case,

surriyed whole,
like
a

initial syllable
except
^

when

ied,

treated,

the

accent-yowels,

for

endency,

in the
e,

former

of retaining
e

(ha-bere
14

especially

7, d,
they
a,
'

into
were

*mute,*
"

cf. after

avoir) and {IS-vare: lever;


tone-syllable harsh
;
vincere
:

ing of changrni-nare:

ener).
or,

Otherwise
in
to
case
e
'

usually of
other
:

the
ayoid
:

always

"

ost

of
mute

and

yowels

to

combinations,
:

immed
II.

e.g. partem

part
or

lana

laine
Thus

vaincre,

Consonants
Lobs
often
:
"

were a.

often
ac

lost
",

changed.
-,

A.

Initial
to

(h)

st-, ep

early

changed

to

esc-

eat', esp-,
now

were

arther

reduced

6c-, et-, 6p'


ex-

(e.g.achola,
often yowel

older reduced

eacole,
to
:

6cole

tahat:
"

Mait).
b.

So

also
were

Latin
often

(es-) was
lost by

(exclusam
The
"

cluse).
8

Medials
usually
lost

after
a

(patrem

pere).
cote),
t

loss

was

then
often

indicated
than be

circumflex

(costam:
m

Finals
in both.

re

less

in writing
may
c

utterance

(22) ;

disappeared oi
%o

B.

Change.

Here
K

noted

the

frequent
i,

change ^,
or
c

(or s)
s

f /?, 6 to

or

; of
to

(+
gn
"

Lat. the
was

a)

to

ch ; of

",

to

j {g)
to

; of

to

nd

of
s,

+ palatal
n,

last four

sounds

peculiar

French
:

(26).

"

fter III.

m,r,l"

mute

usually

inaerted into

before
French

r,

/ (jmoVre
receiyed,

moudre)

Classical
French
; but

Latin

Words
and

borrowed
also,

somewhat

rbitrarily,

endings, they

irrelatiye
or

of
in

the

Latin
to

accentuation,

inal accent

yielded
Hence,

only

slowly
to

part

the

transforming
are
more

endencies
to

of
the

French.

contrary
accent

popular
the

words, word
:

they cf L.
.

aithful

form

than

to

the

of

Latin

fragilem

obilem:

F.

(borr.) fragile,mobile;
of

(pop.)/r8/e (older/rai7"),meuble.']
"

2.

Notation
French

Sounds.
are

The by

elementary
the

sounds constituting

of

he

language

denoted
use

letters

ts

alphabet,

and

by

the

of

various
are

subsidiary
below,

signs

or

evices.

These

letters

and

signs
proper.

described

before

he

subject

of pronunciation The
as

3.

Alphabet.
written
1.
"

"

French the
more
:

alphabet

contains

exactly

the

ame

letters
The
older
as

English.
common
a,

Note in

and

names

of
^,

the

French

letters

French

denoted
enne,
o,

follows
erre^

6^,
t",

c^,
u,

d",

effe,g",
v",

ache

(h),

t,

ji,

ea, elle, emme,

p^,'kUf

esse,

v",

double

ics, i grec,

zede.

SECOND

PART.

[3-7
spelling
as

more
e

modem
as
e

practice,

especially
the
to

in

out

words, and
given

is

to

noun pro-

'mute'
e
*"

(cf. 14),
'

other
its proper

Yowels sound

above,

each
case

consonan

with
or
ce,

an

mute
or
w

added

in

any

[be

de^fe,
2.
"

ghe

je (23), he, etc.].


occur

Note

k and

only

in foreign from
the

words

; and

y is

rarely

real

owel,

except

in words

borrowed

Greek.

4.

Subsidiary

Signs

or

Devices.
has denote

"

These

are:

[5.]
them,

Accent-marks.
however,

"

French
to

three
the

accent-marks,
accent-stress

none

serving cf.

of

the
are

ord

(about
:

which

10).

Their

rather

mixed

functions

follows
a.

The

acute signs,
*

(/)
used,
:

and
the

the
former
the

grave
to
an

(^)
denote open,
serves
* '

are
a
as

almost
close

entirelysound,
as

honetic

n "p^Q
Note.
:
'

(cf.14
"

^),and
cases
*

latter

in m^re

(14).
nyms homo'

In
a
*
*

few
'

the
;
om

grave
*

accent
'

to

disting^sh
*

e.g.
:

to

has

where

ou

or

; la*

there/ la

the

; dH

since

des

of

the,

some.'

b.

The

circumflex
or

(^) most
of
a

often

denotes

some

etymological
is liable
is usually
'

ontraction,
over

loss

letter

(especially s), and


on
'

to

ccur

any
dge
'

vowel.

The

vowel

which isle
'

it rests
^

ong.

"

Ex.

(formerly aage), tie


burn.'
the

; cdte

coast

; briUer

(older brusler)
NoTB.
"

Even

circumflex du
'

sometimes
the,
some';

serves

to

distinguish

nyms: homo*

e.g.

du
cru
*

*due':
grown

*of
*

crois

'grow

(est):

croia

belie

(st)

'

cm

believed.'

[6.] DisBresis.
is used

"

Two
e,

dots
i,
u

("),called
denote
a

diaeresis,
these

separationare

ark,'

over

to

that

vowels
"

in Noel

ronunciation

held

apart

from

preceding

voweL

Ex.

hair (= no-^l)y

(= ha-ir), aigtce (= aigu-e).

[7.]

Cedilla
when

("small
that

z,"

formerly

z,

now

is

^)
has before
a, o,
u

sign

placed
of
*.
"

nder
ga
*

c,

letter written
will

the

sound

x.

(formerly
Silent
letters

cza).
chapter

in this

be

printed

with

roman

type.

-11.]
[8.]
By
a

ELEMENTARY

SOUNDS

AND

ACCENTS.

combination
vowels,

of letters,

yarious

simple These

sounds

thongs, (monophtheir signs

nasal
all described

etc.) are

also

denoted.

sounds

and

hereafter.

9.

Syllabication.

"

single

medial
thy

consonant

(save
gn)
belongs

nd

y)
the
eX'iL

or

consonant

digraph
:

(c/i, phy

nasal

following
"

vowel
two
a
or

e.g.

fe-ra^ ^-pe-l^y Orche-Uy


medial
consonants

cU-pha-bet
the

ut

Of
be

more

only
one

last

if that
the

liquid

(r, I)
to

preceded
the

by

that
:

is not
e.g.
trom-

iquid,

last two,

belong

following

vowel

er,

af'fec-ii^

symp-fdmey

par-fer,

al-lez]

a-p/^s,

sa-bre,

trem-

/e-ment.
Note
1.
"

In

pronunciation,
'

silent

h is left out

of account

e.g.

bo-nheur

written bon-heur).
Note
2.
"

Compound
:

words in-spireT.

are

for

the

most

part

divided

according

to

heir

elements

e.g.

Accent

and

Quantity.
French
a

10.

Accent-stress.
is
given
to

"

In

slight of
a

prominence single

cen (ac
word:

the

last

sonorous

vowel

.g.

parl6^

salade,

opinion^

prohabUUe. in
a

This

prominence,
or

consisting

raised
to

pitch
like all

or

increased
the
strong

mphasis,

in

both,

is

too

weak

dim,
Hence
are

nglish French

accent,

surrounding
save

syllables. in
e
'

syllables
with

of

word,

those

mute,'

uttered

equal

istinctness.
NoTB 1.
; and
"

Authorities
occasional

are

not

all agreed from


the

as

to

the
as

nature

of the
above,

French
may

ccent

deviations

rule,

stated

be

eard.

NoTB

2.

"

Sentence-accent.
the
some
'

Usuallj
when
word. the
"

the speaker Ex.


*

last

word

of
not

each

statement
em-

eceives

alone
instead,

accent,

does

intentionally
*

hasize,

other

J*ai
Honor

ctcheti la
demands

salade
it.'

have

ought

the

salad

; L*honneur

le demande

11.

Quantity.
is in French

"

The
not

distinction
very

between

long
in
part,

and

short

owels

marked,

and,

uncertain

10

SECOND

PART.

[11-14.
deviating

arbitrary,

the

usage

of As
in

every-day
a

speech
rule,
than

often the

from

theoretical
is and
more

laws. marked
vowel when
some
.

general

distinction

of

quantity

accented

in
has

unaccented
the
'

syllabl

the and

long

chiefly

when

it
e
'

circumflex rated sepa-

(e.g. ame),
from
pere,

it is followed protractable

by

mute

(hue), or

it by

sonant

consonant

(j?agf

basGy

table).
the learner
are

While
few

must

here

rely

mainly

on

oral

instruction,

details
The

given
is usually
the

below.
long
:

[12.]
a.

vowel
it has

When
as

circumflex

e.g.

dmf,Jete,

eveque,

mat.

(Rarely

it i

short, b.
c.

in aumdne,

hotel.)
e
*

Directly

before
separated

mute
a

e.g. /ue,

jolie,joue.
vowel, especially
or
e

When
g,
,

from

following
basCj

*mute,'
rr

by

sonant

s,

or

(e.g.page^
dissimilar

tigCy

^glisej
of

gaze),

by

or

(e.g.pere,
or

guerre)
d.

or

by

two

consonants

which

the

first is

nasal

the

second

r,

(e.g. jambe,
syllables
assez,

crainte;

sabre,

table, cadavre).
x,
*

In

final
as,

before
augur,

(silent)",
Jier 'proud
the
by

z,

or

before

an

audible

e.g.

expres,

prix,

(hutJi-iT
suffers

*rely

*),air,

perd.

[13.]

In
to

connected
the

discourse employed

quantity the

various

changes,

accor

emphasis

speaker.

Pronunciation.

14.

Simple

Vowels
is
as

(not

combined

with

other

vowels).

"

Their

pronunciation
In
the
are

described
of
vowels

below.
both quantity the
between
can

Jj^**

pronunciation
to

(about
quality

which

cf.

11)
the

and

quality
is fixed,
that

be
out

considered.

In
The

describing

below,
two

quantity

not

left

of
but In

sight.
a

relation

the the

is not

always

and

nothing
"

long

practice
English

teach French
the
'

student

to

observe

relation.

comparing that the

and
have

vowel-sounds,

it must

be

borne

in mind the

French
long.

never

vanish,'

which

often

accompanies

English

when

(d, d) has
in

two
*

slightly father
of
a
'

different

sounds
so

1. nearly
; 2.
more

that open,

of

English

(not
in
^

quite
a

deep)

pro ap-

that

at,'

in Webster's

ask

representing

14.]
the

ELEMENTARY

SOUNDS

AND

ACCENTS.

11

sound

quite
two

well.

The

former
"

occurs

when
base,

is long,
Mt,

except
"

before

consonants.

Ex.

(1) dme,

(tgre;

(2) camavcU,
a

paMe^

table,

tdcJier, IdL.
as

has

different
or

value

according
.

it ends
.

syllable

(as in

le, fe-ra)
1.
-e

not
A

fer-ma) (les,
SYLLABLE

Thus

(cf 9) :

CLOSING

(or
"e

Constituting

inconsistently
a

called

mute"

one) (French "e


or

is somewhat

mv"t^')
so,

general
at

rule end of

(cf. note
words

1,
of

2)
two

it is silent,
or more

practically
:

only

the

syllables
a

e.g. cape,

me,
:

salade,

tasse;

and

when

it constitutes it approaches

syllable
e

by
in
^

itsel

aboi-e-ment.

Otherwise
rapidly and

in sound rounded
pe-sant,
entirely
same

err/

being

uttered

with
me,

closer,
se,

aperture

of

the

lips

(=
1.
"

Germ,
At the

o) :
end

e.g. le,

fe-ra,
is not
to

d-pre-t4.
silent
when by (i.e.
:

NoTB by
:

of polysyllables belonging
a

-c

preceded

two

consonant-sounds

the
the

syllable in le also

fer

, etc.

cf.

9).

It has

then "By
a

slight

tinge this

of
somid the

e-sound

e.g.

sa-brCf
cases.

a-ble, ora-cle,
Note 2.
oyer
"

ca-dre. Within
or

emphasis except
a

is heard

in other
-e

word,
unless
;

in

initial should

syllables,
be
the

is

often
:

lipped

dimmed,
re-ve-nu

harsh

sound

result

e.g.

e-te-nir, Note

de-ve-nir,

but

dk-pre-t".
euphony Thus,

3.

"

In

connected
from above

discourse, rules.

and

emphasis
e

may

cause
or

ome

deviation in
que
a
one

especially,
in

is

suppressed
ne

lighted
ce

or

more

of successive
Final
e

monosyllables
in

je (e.g.

le puis.
silent
verse,

Vst

je rfts).

of

polysyllables

-6/e, etc., of

is entirely
e

efore

vowel

(e.g.oracle ancieny

On

the

treatment

mute

in

423.
.

2.

a-

NOT
an

CLOSING

SYLLABLE

souuds and
also

like before

in

ere

'

(French
but
except
les, est,

^) before
t.

audible
e

consonant,
'

silent

soxt;

early

like
"

in

'

they

(Fr. S) before
nez,

silent

consonants,
ver-re', es,

and

Ex.
;
"

(= ^) bref,fer-ma,
pied,
'

des-pote,

romets
Note

(= ^
"

parlev,

clet

1.
2.
as

Et*
Final

and
-es
*

is pronounced

^.

Note

"

of

polysyllables, E.g.
ames,

and

-ent

of

3d

plural

of

verbs

are

reated

if simply

-e

mute.'

tables,

donnentf

parlent.

(Cf

.,

however,

28.)

12

SECOND

PART.

[14.

NoTB

3.

"

Before
like ^.

doable

consonaDt
=

(usuallj
; hut

pronounced
=

as

simple)
ennemi=

often

sounds

Cf. essayer

isayei

dresser

drh-ser;

k-ne-mi. Note
4.
"

Followed

by

double
nenni

nasal,
'no

sounds

like

French

short

in

femme
Note

(pron. /Urn) 'woman/


and 5.
"

indeed/
in
'emment
e

hennir

'neigh/

solennel

'solemn/

in

ail adverbs
hy and
ss,

terminating
e

(e.g.violemment,
in dessous

Followed
'

sounds

like

'mute'

etc.) (= de-sou)

'

under/

dessus In that
these the
"

above/
words

in most

words
an

beginning inorganic

with

ress-

(ressembler
serving and
so

etc.).
Note
.

the
s

first
has
a

is only

insertion

to

denote

following

hissing

sound

(dessous for
use

de

sous

on)

6.

Concerning

the

orthographic

of

to

make

spirant,

cf

23 g.

sounds

almost
short crSes
;
"

like and

in Hhey

'

(=

in Grerm.
e

mehr),
"

but

it

is usually donn4e,

sharp,

except

before

mute.

Ex.

(long
vMt4,

(short and

sharp)

donn^^

cr^r,

d^,

citHbrM.
a

^,

when

long

have

almost

the

sound
and
^

of
when

in

*ere'

or

of
e

ei in

*heir'
"

(=

in

Germ,

mdhre),
trapeze

short
;
"

of

in

'let.'

Ex.

(long) m^re^
proc^de,

tMse^

y^te, ^tre

(short) acMte,
"

br^ve,

(i)/
amie

have

the
to

sound quality.

of
"

i in Ex. limite

according
;
"

police/ though (long) mise^ tle^


; style^

'

long

or

short
hydrej

odime,

(short) cri, JU,


a

type^
'

ami,

0,

(d)
or

has
more

rather
open,

closer

sound

than
that

o
o

no/
in
'

chiefly
'

when
o

long

approaching
short.
"

of

not

(=

in

Germ.
gros

c 8olt),hiefly
"

when
sottGy

Ex.

rose, (close)

trdne^

ndtre^

(open) soly
The sound

porter.

{H) :
I,

of this
a

vowel

(=
Latin
to
as

Germ,

has il)
in
as

no

equivalent
direction
'

in English. of and
tongue

It is is produced

changed

it-sound
utter
w

the
'

by

trying

in Ex.

true

with

the
ruse,

in the
;
u
"

ee-position,

in 'tree.'
minute,
sign,

"

(long) nte,

fliUe,pur
the
use

(short) buUe,
as

bu,
23,
.

"bout

of

an

orthographical

cf

under

g.

15.]
1 6.

ELEMENTARY

SOUNDS

AND

ACCENTS.

13

Monophthongs.
written independent with
two,

"

A
even

simple

vowel-sound
vowel-signs
"

is in French

often

or

three,

(relicsof
never

nce

vowels).
u or

Such
those

monophthongs described
^, long haisQ^

ginn be-

with

i,

"

are

below.
; but

ai

{a%),ei (ei),are
-ai

pronounced

like

or

short

final
aie,

in

verbs
seigley
"

like
r^tre,

^.

"

Ex.
reine]
at,
"

(long)
aMai
ot

maXtrey

feraiSy

vraie;

(short)aimeT,

faites,faitj

vrai^

peinei;
Note verb,
once

(= S)ferai,
In
deriyatire
by
e

(allverb-forms).
the

1.

"

forms
a

/aire 'do/

radical

vowel

(ai) of

this

if followed

fully
mute.'

pronounced

syllable,

is pronounced

(as

it

as

written)
are

like

'Ex.fa/sait (=fe-8aii), hienfaisance, etc.


when
not

a/, e/

monophthong^
occurs

only
in
a

followed
names

by and

vowel,

case

which

rarely then
Note.

except

few

proper

foreign

words.

They

sound
"

like
In
pay
sage

at,

ei,

"

Ex.

Corday,
and its

Ney. deriyatives
as

%
'

'country/

pay

son

(f. paysannti)

'peasant/
eau

pay

landscape/
sound
of

ay

is pronounced

if ai-i,

au,

have
0

the

the
I,

closer
r,

French

exceptionally

of

open

(chieflybefore
faut;
eau,

or

re).

"

Ex.
"

(long)

pause,

pauvre,
restaurs,

maux,

beau,

beaucou^\

(open)

Paul,

centaury.

eu

(ed),mu
*err* 'err.'

usually

have but and

when when

long
short

closer
open

sound
sound

than

in

(=
"

Germ,
Ex.

o); (close
;

the

of

in

usually boRuis with


;
"

veux,

monsieur

voeux,

long) (open
eH,

crewse,

jeudi,
usually
account

deux,

and
on

short)
of
the

seul,

jeunB

(but jeHne

close

lengthening
Note.

circumflex),j?etfpZe,
forms of
etc.
*

vewZent,
sounds

UuVyfleur, hamf.
like French
".
"

"

In

avoir

have/

eu

Ex.

eu

*had/y*ei"s *I had/

u
"

(oH, oU)
Ex. rowZer,
f/e

has

the

sound

of

oo

in
roue,

fool,' though
loue;
"

long

or

short.

(long)
doute,
before

Spouse,

voilte,

(slightly shorter)

oil, louer.

sound

i7(/)like

eu.

"

Ex.

at/

(="tt'y),cueiUe

(=skeu'y).

14

SECOND

PART.

[16,17.
Combined
a

16.
not

Diphthongs
into

and
one

Dissyllabics."
sound form

vowels
when
second
=

coalescing

either
over
'

diphthongs
into the
nnit

the

first vowel-sound
it is fully
;
or a
as
=

(i,o,
formed
:

w,

ou)

glides
=

before
^

e.g.

Jier

f*^r
by

proud,'

rC^i

night' be
'

dissyllabie,
forming
^

when
a
'

it is barely

distinct
:

enough

to

counted
'

syllable
; constmit,
"

itself

e.g.

fier

/*-^

rely
Note.

; nmt
"

fC^-i

hurts

Neither

theory
and

nor

usage

has The

definitely
tendency
to
a

settled
is for

the

limits
to

between

diphthongs upon the

dissyllabics.
It and
^t u

the
as

former
covering
or

encroach

latter.

will

be

useful

remember,

majority
derivatiye, diphthong

of

cases, or

that

terminating
by
a

French
consonant,

verb-root
rarely

roota

being
a

preceded

compound

form

with

following

vowel

(cf.examples
of diphthongs

above).
and
vowel

[17.] The
no

pronunciation
each

dissyllabics
or

offers

difl"culty,
its
own

constituent

simple
or

monophthong
in

having the
no

sound
cases
:
"

(more

less

fully

enounced), except

following
in

/aon
*

fawn/

'

paon

peacock

and

in

aomte,

S^iSne,

ttum

(also toon)
ao6
oi
=

gadfly.' 'August

ou

in aout

(the month).'
in

French

oi

(below)

poele

'stove'

and

poele

frying-pan.*

oi

(ot).
in Ex.
Note

This

diphthong by
*^a,

has

sound
wa-

that

may

be

represented

French

*^d

(nearly like
"

in English
voUure,
a

^waft').

"

*"d) poivrBy
"

joiQ, voir;
oi when

(^d)
by

toumcd,

^oi.
23,

1.
gn.

Concerning

nasalized

following

^n,

cf.

under Note
to

2.

"

In

many
:

forms,

an

older

oi

was

in the
:

last

century
,

altered Where

ai

(e.g.foihh
cases

fafble ;
texts

lisoit : lisa/'t connottre ;


retain
oi, it is
now

connaftre)
to

in

such
as

classical

customary

pronounce
the

it

ai.

"

For
with

roide
the

(or raide) 'stiff,


modern
*

rigid'

and is the

its

derivatives

older
not

spelling exclusrve,
u

pronunciation

prevailing,

though

practice.
ua^ (i.e.

+ vowel

or

vowel

combination

ue,

u/,

: etc.)

17-19.J

ELEMENTARY

SOUNDS

AND

ACCENTS.

15

a.

Not

preceded

by

g
a

ot

q,

forms

with
or

following

vowel

(or vowel-combination)
pronounced
in
s*^ave,

diphthong former French


lui,
u
"

dissyllabic
like French

(16)
ou,

being

in
more

the like

case
u.

almost
"

but

the

latter

Ex.

(diphthong)
tu-ez,

suace

SuMq,

suite,

huile,
ot

lu-a, (dissyllabic)
common

lu-eur.

b.

Preceded
.

by

q,
as

in
a
mere
^

French
graphic sign

words
to

of

old
that

stock
and

(cf note), serves


q sound

denote
"

like

hard

(in
(=

go

') and
g hard
qu.atre

k respectively.
as

Ex.

fatigua

(= fatiga), gnerre

g^r:

ngniUe

(=

dlgiy

hard), vigueur;

'go'),fatiguer, (= katr'), que, quel,

in

gui,

liqnide,
"

vainqxieur.
In several,
mostly

Note.
forms
a

modem,

words vowel,

borrowed
as

from also

the in
,

Latin,

diphthong

with

the

following

it does

English. aiguiser
e.g. most

his

occurs

torguue

chiefly

in

Ungual
and

(= Un-g^al), linguiste, aiguille


for
qu-

rguer

{argu-" :
containing
"que8tre

dissyllabic);
quad-

in

about

IGO

words:

words

(quadraturef
y

quadrupeds,

quad?'uple,

etc.);

quintuple

quateury

; requiem

etc.

18.

between

vowels
i combines

{aye,

oya,

etc.)
its

is equivalent
vowel.
=
"

to

French

i-y, of which

with

preceding

Ex.

payer
Note.
"

pai-yeT), royal
a,/
in
to
a

(=

fuyard roi-yal),
in proper
"

fut-yard).
(bayard.
to

After

is

mere

consonant

names

La

Fayette,
is

etc.), and
a

few
treat

other

words
a mere

{bayer, etc).
consonant

According
any

Littre,
except

there

tendency
=

as

after

vowel,

(e.g.royal
1 9-

ro-yalffuyard =/U'yar6f
Vowels.
same
"

etc.).
vowel
one or

Nasal
in the

single by

monopthong

followe is nasalized

syllable
the

nasal
in their
the

(n, m)
mouth
"

(i.e. uttered
with
n,

with

mouth-organs
at
once

vowel-position,
and

but

the
m,

air expelled
lose
e,
as

through

nose),
this

while

their

independent
"

utterance.

Besides

nasalization,
"

(y), u
a,

unless
at,

finals

of

monophthong

(15)

sound

if Fr.

eu

respectively.
no

The

French

nasal

vowels

have

English like
n

equivalents.

Represent

their
'^,

nasality
get

(nearest
following

in

Engl.

thank') by
:

the

sign

we

the

French

equivalents

16

SECOND

PABT.

[19, (
(

20.

Tj,

an,

ruban,

ambre tempete
simple

671,

en/ant,

'fin, mincef
syntoice,
"

nymphe

main,

poulain,

faim
Reims
ombre

frein, peindre,
u

on,
un,

mouton,

parfum, jeHn

humble

ii

kudiant,
client,

effrayant
orient,

audience

6i

coin,

soins,

poindre

etc.
Note
-en

1.

"

In

-ien
like

(-yen)
-in

final
=

or

belonging
"

to

verb-form,

and

in S^n

final,

sounds

(i.e.
"

ai).

Ex.

bien

(= bi-di), mien,

vieni

(verb-

form)
Note

; moyen

(= moi-ydi);
Minor
are

europeen
are

(= europ"-ai).
as

2.
om-n

"

irregularities

follows

"

a/n-/?,

pronounced
'autumn,'

as

d-n,

0-n

(without nasalization) in
em-,

damner

*damn,*
em-niy

automnQ
en-n
are

and
as

their
a-wi,

derivatives.
d-n

pronounced
always
a-m,

when

en-

represent

the

prefix

en

(Lat. in),

i.e. nearly
but

in the
a-n

beginning nasalization

of

word
the

(e.g. vowel)

em-menev,

en-nuyeTf

etc.);
see

like

(no

of

in

femme

(=fiini),etc.,
eni

under

14

2, note

4. cf. 14
:

of

the

3d

person
a

plural is

of verbs,
not

2, note
a

2.

in-

beginning
as a

word
by
o,

nasalized

before
"

vowel-sound,

though

treated
on

syllable
to

itself
more

(9, note
commonly

2).

Ex. in

inactif,inhumain.

is reduced

or

c,
*

monsteuT
'

(usually (cf.9, note

me-cieu)

'

sir,' and About

it is not

nasalized in proper

in bonheur
names,

happiness
see

1).

nasals

etc.,

24-5.

Consonants.

20.

General

Remark.
like
as

"

The

French
But

consonants

are

usually

pronounced

the

English. below

there 23.
:
"

are

various
The

exceptions,

however,

described
may

under
here

"

following

preparatory

remarks

be

made

21-23.]

ELEMENTARY

SOUNDS

AND

ACCENTS.

17

[21.]

Initial
to
or

or

medial

consonants,

"

f
than

is the

only

consonant-

ign

peculiax
often

French always,

; g^ y, A,

cA, and

medial

resen gn, ill, il rep-

other
are

sounds
for

in English.

\^2,']Final
in

consonants

the

most
are

part

silent,

except
a

hen

connected

discourse vowel

they

sounded

before
c,

ollowing

initial
r

(for particulars
-er,

cf.

23).

Only

^, /.

and

(except
even

in

-ier

of

polysyllables)are
words.

regularly

ronounced

in disconnected

23.

Special
below.

rules

for

the

pronunciation

of

consonants

re

given

m^^

Compound
last
consonant.

final
"

consonants

are

below
are

given

under
as

the
one,

head unless

vof
a

heir

Double

consonants

sounded

pecial

exception

is made
b.

(cf.cc,

gg,

below).
in radoub, rumb,
e,
i,

English

As

final it is heard

has

the
as
a, o,
s.
u.

sound

of

k,

except
to

before

y, where

it is pronounc of
s even

Changed
"

(cf.6), it

has

the
"

sound
ce,

before

Ex.

cas,

a"cte^

lac, accabler;

c^dev,

del;

"

fa, gargon,
c

has

the

soimd

of

g in second heard.

(= se-gd) and
after and
in

its deriyatiyes.
a

-c

final
some

is usually words
'

It is silent

nasal
estomac
a

(blanc, etc.);
*

after
tabac
mon com-

in

marc, (^clerc,

pore)
*

stomach,'

tobacco/
words.
a

croc

hook/
done

coutchouc

india-rubber/ and
be heard,

few

other
when

less
that

"

In

'then/

it may

especially

word

heads
cc

sentence.
",
t,

before

c-c.

"

Ex.

accea

(= aksey
^machine';
by
far
or

ch

sounds
in
'

1. like
"

ch

(=sh)
latter

in

2. like
less

ch

(= fc
whose

chaos.'
on

The

sound,

the

common,

is

heard, English

the

whole

(except, usually,
have
that

before

i),

in words
*

cognates

sound
charme,

(cf. chaos
chasse,

chaos,'
chose,

Christ
chaise,

'Christ,'
chtichoter, architected

etc.).
"

Ex.

(= sh)

choux,
"

chez, chien;

chimie

chemistry

'), monarchie,
Chnst,
chr^tien

Christian ('

(= ^) chaos, '),technologies

icho,
.orchestre\

18

SECOND

PART.

[23
Before
and
a

Before
in

consonant,

ch
or

is

always

k.

rowel,
by

it has late

the

sh-

sound

words

of

Latin

Oermanic
while
in

origin,
most

also, of

change,

in

several

words

of Greek

origin;

words

Greek

origin

it has

the

^-sound.
Note.
in
"

In

'

archange
it is like g. As final final

arch-angel/

ch

is=k

in

almanaQh.

it is mute

and
=

drachme d.

Engl.

it is heard
it is

in sud except

south.'

^=Engl./.
*

As
as

heard,
a

only

in with

c/ef *key,'
a

and

in

neuf

nine,'

jours
NoTK.

nine
"

adjective days ')


.

before

word

beginning

consonant

(e.g.neuf

Irregularly,
when the

/of

b(mf*

ox,'

ceuf
added

silent

plural-sign
and in nert

is

nerf (or neri) (ftaufs,jtifs, n"rfs). o


egg,^
*

nerve,'

come be-

is also

silent

in chet'd'ceuvre,

de

bosuf.
in
as

has

the

hard

sound

of

English
Fr.

'go/
=

except
^

before forcibly
gant,

{eu)j

i, y,

where As

it sounds
final

j (

2;

in
"

azure/
Ex.

enunciated).
gorge,
naste,

it is usually
"

silent.
=

(= g)

goUter,

gloire,
"

chagrin;

Er.

j)
long,

germe,

gilet, gym-

ligei, nageur;

(silent) bourg,
give
e

ge

gu
a,

-f- vowel.
o,
u

"

To

to

g the

fricative after
sound

{=j)
it

sound

even

before

silent
versa,

is inserted it it
a

(e.g. nagea^
e

na-zha)
silent

; and
u

vice

to

give after

hard

before
as

(eu), i
g
;
"

is
Ex.

inserted

(e.g. gvLerre,
gageure,

if

g^r,

as

in

'go').
hard
With

"

(=J)
gn^re,

na^ea, gneule,
ge

pigeon, gmtarre,
and

mangea

g)
regard
"

gvierre,
to

figne.
before
a

the

combinations
eu

gu

vowel,
under
u

it should

be

noticed: -geure
.

a)
it

in

-geur

is
the

monophthong

(cf. nageur
e

g),
a

while
-ure

in

consists

of
;
"

silent
u

(orthographical)
may

of

suffix

(cf

gageurCf the
Uf

above)

b)

of
.

gu

in

some

words
"

form silent

diphthong
even

with
Of

following

vowel
to
"

(cf
verb
"

p. 15, b. in
-gner
sugg^rer

a,

if it belongs
before final
6,
i,

is note) ; c) u from (^e.g.fatiguons

before

fatiguer),

gg -g

^g-gin

Ex.
*

(= sug-g^r^.
grog,

is heard

joug

yoke,'

zigzag,

pouding.

gn

between
sound

vowels
resembling

(or
is

and

vowel)
gn

is softened in
' '

to

liar pecu-

that

of Engl,

cognac

(= con-yac)
of

But

the

n-sound

palatal

(made

with

the

back

the

23.]

ELEMENTARY

SOUNDS

AND

ACCENTS.

19

tongue),
one,

and
two

it blends coming

with
near

the

following
a

y-sound

almost
"

into

the

being

nasal

y{y).

Ex.

gagnev

(^ gd-yi), agneau; (= soi-yeu) ; gneux


Note it.
1.
"

craignit, r^pugner,
sound

saigne;

indigne

\ dgogn^

\ soi^

ipargnev.
be
ny. in

The

exact

French gn
*

of gn
like

can

learned

only

by

hear

ing

In
2.

Switzerland,
"

sounds

just

Engl.

Note

with

poign-

onion/ and (poignard dagger/ etc.) i


oignon
*
"

In

more

optionally

words

beginning

is silent. borrowed cognition,

Note

3.

In

certain
:
*

modern
agnat

words

from

Greek

or

Latin,

g/f
etc.

is pronounced

like g-n
in signet

(= ag-na),

stagnant^

stagnation,

and

g is silent

signet.'

is

now

silent

in

French. origin,

Yet
an

in

many
h
so

words

of

foreign,
as

especially when
the
once

Germanic,
pronounced
or

initial

is still treated far


as

in (aspirated),

it prevents

elision

linking

(26) of

preceding
h
^

word.
'

Hence
h
^

the

necessity
"

of distinguishing

between

mute

and

aspirate.*
;
"

Ex.

mute

') habit

les (Z'haftit, habits),huile,

exhorteY

(* aspirate
Note.
"

') h^ros

(leh^ros,
h is
*
'

les

hSros),harpe.
of in
Latin
or

Grenerally

mute

in words

Greek
a

origin

(e.g

omme,

habit,

heroine), but
origin

'aspirate' harpe,
*

words

of
"

different,

chiefly

eutonic,

(e.g.

halle,
:

haie,
'

etc.).
he'roa
as

Among

exceptions
in its

should

be

noted
in

especially
some

h, ia
with

aspirate

in

(but

not

derivaderiva-

tiyes),and
hurler

words

inorganic

A,

haut
well

(L. altus)and
as

tives,

as (L. ululare),haleter (L. halitare),

in hora

(L. foras');
note

n huit and

derivatives words

it prevents beginning
mute

elision with
an

but

not
'

linking
*

(cf. 27, (about


some

1).

In

dictionaries,
with
*,

aspirate with

340

against

500

beginning such
as

A
*, or

'

')

are

usually

marked

conventional

ign,

or

the

like.

always
strong
=

sounds

like
"

in

English

azure,'

if enunciated

with

sonancy.
k.
It

Ex.
only

Je, jeter,jour, jouir, juste,


in foreign
words.

English

occurs

/ regularly

sounds
"

like

English

(e.g.il, JUer,

docile,
are

aile

^l,

Ulustre),
to the

The

combinations
rules
:
"

il and

ill, however,

subject

following

20

SECOND

PART,

[23
in
an
*

-//final
after
"

is usually
a

(cf.note
where

2)

regular,

as

until'
y-sound

(Ft. I)
(=y
"

except

vowel, Ex.

it simply

denotes

in

^boy').

(= y) hkaJI
Note
1.
"

1), exU; (regular) civil, avril (cf. note deuil (= deny). (= 6^d'/), vieil (= vir^y),
Usage
is not

consistent vowel.

with
Though
as
=

regard

to

the
most
-i

pronunciation
part

of
as

final

-t7, unpreceded
it may also
or
'

by
be
or

for
or

the

uttered Littre
=

written,
=

pronounced avri,
*

-Vy
p^ri'y,

simply
"

(thus
is

g^ves
t

avril

avril,

avrVy

p^rtl

etc.).

It

regularly before
other
a

in

haril

(= bari) barrel/
=yentry)
common.

chenil
*

kennel/ /u"il *gun/ tool/^ourctl


*

gentil and

(but
a

vowelwords,

sound

*fine/

outii

eyebrow/
Fr.

few

less

Note

2.

"

a,

ue

before

-i7 sound

like

eu

(cf. 15).

"

Ex.

cu/

(=

euy)f

orgue//

(=orgeuy).
is regular, in note
sound 1
as

-ill' medial below


the

'ill'

(Fr.%), in
by
a

some

words

enumerated

(mille, ville, etc.).


preceded when
viUe,

Usually,
consonant

however,

denotes

i'y, when
a

Jill (e.g.
vowel
or

//'/), or
=

simply
"

y-sound,

preceded
miUe-,
"

by

(e.g

patlle

pay).
biUet,

Ex.

(=iU)

(=

iy

y) JUle

famille,

briUant

; paillej travaiUer,

ccmseMa,

vieiUe,

feuille

fouillei.
Note
*

1.

"

Medial
*

-///-

has

its regular
*

sound:

a.
*

in

mille

'thousand/
and in
their

mille

mile/ ville
; b.

city/ pupille
trisyllabic
c.

ward/
in

tranquille

tranquil/

derivatives their

in

words
a

and

derivatives;

in

few

distiUer, scintilleT, etc.) -iller (e.g. forms less common not enumerated

above.

Note

2.

pronounced
=

-ill, (i)l'ginstead paille=pal'y.

il,

are

in

parts

of
*8

France

(especially
above
:

in

the
=

south)
b^tal'y by

of

(0'y"
This

described

e.g. b^tail

Jille JiV y
good Note

older

pronunciation
; but

is adhered the
"

to

certain

authorities

and

in certain

styles like

it is much
eu

less Ex.

common.

8.

"

a,

ue

before

-ill sound

Fr.

(cf. 15).
is owing

oeiUet

(=

eu*y/), cueillir (=keu*yir).

^History.
"

The

varied

pronunciation

of

i7(/)
has

to

varied

origin

of this combination
comes

of letters. from
Latin
cases

When

i7(/)
E.g.

its regular

sound,

it generally

directly

//(/).

mille
a

tranquillus). In
changed
:
"

other

it represents

Latin
"

(L. mille),tranquille (L. naturally -/V/- (which


il*y,
a

enough

like

heard

cf. note

2), or

in Engl, million -illiid, ill,iVy or -/c"//-(=

to

pronunciation
some

yet

eiVy), or

other

sound,

23.]
or

ELEMENTARY

SOtJKDS

AND

ACCENTS.

21

atin

not.

E.g.

Jille (h.Jilia) lentille (L. lenticula),beille a


*

(L. apiculd)
(in yentiU

eiller

is silent -I-

(Lat. vigilare).'] in^ls {^Jiss)


it sounds
as

son/

and

in the

plural

^enf/lshommes

omme

y: cf. note

2 under

-i/).
and

Some
*

authorities

prefer

JiU "=ft.

-I
n

final is mute

in cu\
a

backside,*

$ov\

full.'

fi,

not

denoting

nasalized

vowel

(19),are

pronounced

as

in

English.
=

English usually
in

p. the

It

is

silent,

howerer,
m'pt
"

in

the

initials

6ap^,

sculpt-,
etc.

and
; but

combination

(e.g.bapteme,
-p, -ps, -pt
"

sculpter,

compter,

exeviption, 'p
and

redemption,

etc.).
in

For cap.

final, cf. below.


-/)", -pt, etc.,
see

final
t.

is silent, except

About

final

under

forms
in
coq

with
*

A:-8ound and cinq

(cf. 17
*

under
where

+
it

vowel).
sounds

Alone like

it

occurs

only
dnq

cock,'

five/

k.

(About

in

combination,

cf.

76.)
and
more as
revere,

is

more

dental

trilled
stated

than

in English.

It is always
ruse^

pronounced,

except
coricert,

below

(-r).
"

Ex.

grand.,

fier ;
-/"

perd,

final

is heard

in monosyllables.

Also in
-e?*,

in

polysyllabics,
r
^

except,

usually

(cf.note), those
is silent. cf.
"

ending

-ier, whose
me
r,

(or

plurals) (but fi-ev ' rely':

s,

if

Ex.

(heard) /er,
hier^
honneur,

fier

proud
revoir;

16), /ar,

panfeur,

(silent) donnevy

arriveT,

houlangev

(pi. boulangers),

derniev

(pi.demiers),
NoTB.
*
"

tapissiex

(pi. tapissieTS).
is heard
*

final of polysyllabics
*

in
*

amer

bitter,'
'

cancer

cancer/

cuiller

spoon,'

enfer
as

hell,' "ther

ether,'

\iiver

winter

(and

cf. 20,

21).
in
^so,'

has
one

in French,
sonant
as

in English,
'

two

sounds
more

: one

sharp

as

in

rose,'
8

but
occurs

both

forcibly
two

enounced vowels, and

than

in English.

Sonant
I
or
n

between
"

also

between
respirer, poser,
Usually
:

and

vowel.

Ex.
"

(sharp s), son,

pastevr,
rose,

observer
mish'e
8

(op-servev)^asser-, p
transition.
when
it begins

(sonant s)

base,

; balsamique,
sonantized parasol

is not

the

second

member

of

coni

pound

e.g.

entresol,

(para

sol),vraisemWahle.

22

SECOND

PART.

[23

sc

before

e,

t,

souuds

like

s,

"

Ex.

sG^ne,

science,

sc^Z^at,

sceptiqvie,
final
is mute, except

in
in

-s

as

*ace/

bis
^

twice/ h^las
*

alas/ jadis
vis
'screw
'

formerl

Us

*lily in tons

'

(but
*air

silent
when

Jieur-de-lis) mats
Cf. +
sign,

maize/
below

; and

generally
-cs,
cases

pronoun.
consonant

also

(-cs,etc.).
except
consonant

-ds, -fs,
:
"

etc.

(i.e.final
s

s) are
a

silent,

in the

follow,

ing

a.

When
singular

is the

plural

preceding

is heard,

if heard
b.
r

in of
-rs
'

the

(e.g.lac:
where
s

pi. lacs,

chef:
c.

pi.

chefa)
'

but

cf.

^note),

is also

heard,

is not
"

the

regular

plural-sign, is pronounced
sense
*

except

in

volontiera
d. both

willingly'
consonants

(e.g.vers,
are
*

enuers).
in
cens
*

Jils

son
sens
' '

flss
*

heard March,'

census,'

; laps
ours

laps,'

forceps

'forceps

';

mars

mcsurs

(also moeui's) manners/

(als

ours)
has

*bear.'

usually is

the

sound

of English

t.

But
"

medial except

-ft-

before
s

vowel

pronounced
some

like
cases,

s*

(s sharp),
explained

after
"

(o

x)
tUy

and

in

other

as

below.

Ex.

("
;
"

t)

jetevy
=

tiMe

; bestial^

garantie^

clirkien,
patience,

moitie,

entier
,

(ti

(= nd-s'o), portion, s') nation d4mocratie. (^initiate '),propMtie^


it will
words be

partial

initiev

Usually
English

found

that like
as

-tish,

has
or

the

si- sound,

when by
c

in

ing correspond-

it sounds
sounds

is represented

(cf.ex.
Latin
by
s

above).
or
x

[Historically ti
like
f

si wlien
"

it represents

popular

ti pronounc

tsi, hence
was

not:
once
i

a.

When

it by

is
s

preceded

(e.g
chOtiev

question

mixtion^, or b. When 'chastize').


"

preceded
the

(chretien
inflected
the

Christian/

is

final
to
one

of

an

stem

(e.g. parti-e,
i"

parti-ons).
"

c.

When

belongs

of

endings

(participle

excepted),
a

tier

is

diphthong final is

in all of which le (infinitives excepted), tiere, tiers, tieme, (e.g. moiti", entier, entiere, volontiera)." of French origin silent,
except in brut
ne/

-t
*

'rough,'
'neat';
as

chut

hush

'

dot

portion/
"

fat

fop

(pish) /Am"7 (cf. 88) 'eight/


'fff" -f^f -pfi 'St
by

and

cf. below
:
"

(-cf, -gt, etc.)


cf,

final
authors,

""^f

are

treated

follows after
a

differently

described
i

different
in

is mostly
in

silent

nasal

(e.g. instinct

after

(except
like

strict) and
is silent
"

the

termination

-sped
a

(e.g. asjoect),but
e
*

sounded

kt
"

elsewhere,

i.e. in

generally

after
'

and
in
t'mgt
a

(e.g. tact,
twenty,'

exact,
some

correct,

direct).
uses

-gt

doigt
"

'finger

and

in

of

its

(cf. 88).
except

/t is silent.
in sepf
'

-pt

is

silent

after
set

nasal
:

and also

sounded

after

vowel,

seven,'

pronounced

(cf.76

sepieme).

23-25.3

ELEMENTARY

SOUNDS

AND

ACCENTS.

23

st

is silent
ouest

in
*

est west.*

'is/ but

sounded

in

Christ

(not

in

J^sus

ChriBi),est

east/ and
th
has

the

sound
English

of simple
v

t,

"

Ex.

ath^.
only
in

sounds
like
Vy

like
except

Wy

which where

is used

foreign
the

words,
value

sounds
u

after

vowel,

it generally

has

of

(New.

york

Neu-york).
like
a

is pronounced lowed by

gz when

initial, like

and
k8

in
in

the
other

prefix
cases.

ex-

fol
Ex

vowel-sound
exil^ eajht^mer;

; but
"

"

Xenophon,

excuse^

Jixe, Alexandre.
dix
the
*

-X

final

is

silent.

Only
sound
proper letter,
'

in of

'

six
ss.

six

and
has

ten/
same

when
sound

not

used
soixanu

tut

adjectives,
'

it has in
some

the

Xalso
as

in

'sixty

(and

names,

BruxelUs,

etc.).
"

Final

is silent. -Ix

Concerning
sounds
except
as

this in English

see
'

18.

gaze

(e.g.a^ur).

When

final it is silent

(e.g.nez),

in

gaz,/ez.
of

24.

Pronunciation
is very

Proper and
usage

Nouns. is
not

"

The in all here


to

pronunciation
cases

of Only

proper
a

ouns

irregular,
more
common

fixed.

few

ules

for

the
names
:

irregularities

are

given.

Proper

are

pronounced

according

the

preceding

rules,

serv ob-

A.

As

regards
:

foreign Job,
m

names

"

a.

that

any

final consonant
Brutus, do
sound

is likely

to

sounded
;
"

e.g.

David,
and that
a
n,

Esther,
retaining
em

Jupiter,
their
and
en

Gil Bias,
own

Suez
not

("

"),
a

tc.

b. that

final
and

sounds,

nasalize like

receding

vowel,
=

medial

sometimes

French

(i.e.
=

Abraham (= A-bra-d-me), Jerusalem, ai) : e.g. in Adam) c. that etc. ; ; Benjamin, Memphis,
"

Elohim, ch
in

Eden,

(but
sounds

usually

ike

e.g. Jericho,

Michel-Ange,
=

etc.
some
:

(but

like

Engl,

sh

Michel,

Achille,

Archimede,
B.

Eschyh
regards
:

"sMl,

and
names

others).
"

As
words
etc.

French

a.

that

final

and

st

are

heard
;
m,

in

ome

e.g. b.

Arras,
that
are

Beims
s

Vaugelas,
a

Agnes,
consonant

Clovis,

M^dicis

Brest,
n,

Ernest,

"

medial silent

before
e.g. Basle

(especially /, Bale),
in

i)

nd

also

final

Maistre),
25.

-It, -Ix Duguesclin;

(now
heard

usually

Maistre

(also

Larochefoucault (but

Soult).

Foreign
as

words

with

unchanged

orthography

are

usually
"

pronounc

in

the
;

language whig

from

wliich
,

they

are

borrowed.

Ex.

album,

riumvir,

amen

Cromwell,

(pu-iy)

etc.

^4

S^OKD

l^ARl-.

[^6-28

Joining

of

Words. words
are

26.

In

the
as

sentence,
one,

closely

connected

apt

to

be

pronounced
a.
a

by

elision
that

(" cutting
would

"

off

both
hiatus

in
:

utterance

and
a
=:

writing)
;

of

vowel

occasion
utterance,

e.g, le

Va

and

b.

by
of

linking
one

(in

not

in

writing)
pronounced
=

the

ant end-consonor

word,
vowel
"

whether
of another Final
e

otherwise
:

not,

with

the

initial

e.g. Zes amis

R-z^amL

27.

Elision.
in

of

monosyllabics
a

in

-e

and

few

compounds

-que,
a

and
or

final
h
an
'

of
',

la,

are

usually loss

(cf. notes)
indicated

elided

before
by

vowel
use

mute

their
"

being

in writing

the

of

apostrophe.

Ex.

Varhre

le (for.

arbre),fai (for je ai), quHl jusqu^db (ioT jusque ^).


Note
and Note
their 1.
"

(for
/a

que

it),Vdme

(for la dme)

The

articles
"

le and
Ex. le

are

not

elided

before

numerals,

except

its deriratives. 2. verb


to
"

onze,

le huit ; run.

The by
a

personal hyphen verb.


are

object-pronouns
elided
Ex. only donne-m'en,

{rne.tetle, la)
the

when
en,

appended

to

before

particles
;

taini t/, if peravec

the

same

"

menez-ry

but

menez-le

vous,

envoyez-le
Note

eri^chercher.

3.

"

The
note

demonstrative

adjective
its only the than

ce

is cet

before

vowel

or

*mute'

(cf. 107,
4.
"

1).
always

Note

Jusque
parce

elides
que,

before before
compounds those
un

vowel-sound;

quoique

lorsque, puisque,

que, tandis

and

personal

pronouns

(i7, elle, on)


Note
5.

; qudque,
"

presque

only

in

quelqu'un,

presqu'ile.
a

In
least
*

other

combinations

described
sporadic

above,
cases

hiatus
:

remains
a.

(at
/ of
SI

in

writing),except
before verb-forms
present when
:

in the

following

if

'

is elided with
sing,

il. Us, ending

(e.g.s'il) ;
in
an
s

b.
t

in analogy
in the
in
a

in

the

2d

sing,
to
a

imperative

and

in

3d

indicative,
by

is added

2d

imperative
en

ending

vowel

followed cf.

the
a

appended
is inserted

object-particle
between
a

or

(e.g.donnes-en,
in
a

vaa-y in

127),
3d

and and

-tan

verb-form

ending

vowel

the
:

sing,

appended

subject-pronoun

^e.

aime-t-il, a-t-il, aura-i-il

cf. 151

b).
"

28.

Linking
or

of

Words.

If

one

word the

ends
next

with
begins

consonan

consonant-combination,

and

with

28-33.]

ELEMBNTABY

SOUNDS

AND

ACCENTS.

25

vowel
consonant

or

mute,'

the
it
"

end-consonant

"

or

exceptionally with
"

preceding
vowel-sound,

is

apt

to

be
the

pronounced
two

the

initial

thus

'linking'

words.

Ex.

ous^avez,

cet^Yiabit,
This

dherts^arideSf is regularly the


two

respect

humain, when
as

[29.]

linking between

observed is close,
the
matter

the

tical syntaca noun

relation

words

between its

adjective and
other
cases,

its determinants, it is largely much


a

verb
of

and

subject, etc.
or

In

option

euphony,
ance utter-

though
or

it is observed reading
than

more

regularly

in

solemn

otherwise.
the following rules
are

In linking

words,
c,

are

to be observed,

viz.

"

[30.]
z

Final

"/, g^ and
"

(or x)
vous^avez

pronounced

like
-,

/r, ", A:,

and

respectively.

Ex.
etc.

(= voU'Z^avez)
/in

grandT

Juymme

{grU-Comm),
A

About
"

neufy

cf. 88.

[31.]

final nasal
cases

vowel close

which

is rarely connection
vowel
u

carried
"

forward,

except

in
an

of

syntactical

usually
=

develo

"-sound
though

before
not
more

the
as

initial

(un
=

ami

vTn^ami;

sometimes,

good,
consonants

u^n^amiy
the

eu).
is usually

[32.]
final

Of

two

or

end-

linking
but

effected
penultimate,

by

the

(e.g.eBt^ici,
two

sept^heures, be always
un

d"serXs'^aride%) ;
with
silent
-t
or

by

the

if the
by

last
none,

consonants

-ct

-ct

(e.g. respect
word
be
a

humain)
singular
des

and

unless
mets

one

pronounced, exquis
;

if the
but in

in silent

(un

exquis,

corps

pi.

des

mets'^exquiBf

corps^exquiB'),

[33.]
d of

Some

end-consonants
is rarely

are

rarely

or a

never

linked.
common

Thus
phrases

especially
:

nouns

linked,
un

except

in

few

e.g.

sourd

tmuet;

chaud

etfroid;
"

marchand

stranger

; but

grand^^hommej of
grii^

vend^ilf gentii,

ied^a

terre:{d=t).
=

-/ silent
un

is not
vent.
"

linked
m

(except
never

in

linking

^en^r^)
-p and
is
not

; e.g.

fusil a

is

linked:

e.g. la
"

/aim
silent

et

soif.
"

of

nouns

linked. are not and camp, plomh -6 of cAamp, linked ; silent is not -r verbs of adjectives and

usually
un

linked,
son

except

in

sustained
a

style,
or
un

as

especially
tort.
"

in
s

poetry in

; e.g.

Spicier

vec

Jils;
; e.g.
'

hlamev

tort

hldmer'^a
avis

of words

the

sing,

is not

linked
et

le bras
'

^endu,
links
en

int^ressant.
thereby

t is rarely

linked
'

after
is

r;

and

and immense

never

(being
paix
;

distinguished

from

est

'):

e.g.

desert

; il "/"wt

lui et elle

(but c^estTelle),

26

SECOND

PART.

[84-36

11.

COMMON

PHONETIO INFLEOTIOH

AND

OBTHOGBAFHIO
AND

CHAKaES

IK

DERIVATION.

34-

The

following
may

changes here
at

are

of

such

regular

occurrence

that

they

be
to
e

stated
the
two
e,

the

outset.
no

[35.]

Owing
^ ;
a or

accent-stress,

other precede

e-sound
an

than

an

open

(d;

-f

consonants)
the

can

end-syllable ^
occurs

containing

silent

only
with

exception
a

being
e

that

in

immediate

connection in inflection

silent

(donn^e).
would'be
contravened,

Whenever
mute
or

this

principle
are

^ of the

tone-syllable

made
if I,

open
n,

(=
*,

^,

or

with
"

the

following verbs,
a

consonant,

especially

or

doubled).
manner

In

radical

(not i) (fem.
'

is
an

treated
e

in
"

analogous
Ex.

before
cher

any
'

syllable
dear

containing

^mute.'

cliJere

(fern
mener

of

^),secrbtQ (pres. of
appeler
^ *

of

'

lead

'),c^de

c^der

mhnQ secret), yield '); cruelh


ancienne
menerai

(pres. of (fem.
of
^

appe//e

(pres.of

call

');
"

(fem. of

ancien

cruel) old ')


; but

jette (pres.of jeter throw

');

(fut.of mener)

cederai
Note
consistent

(fut.of c^der), appellerai


1.
"

(fut.of appeler).
required. The Academy
now

Before
use

-ge
e.
"

was

once or

allows

of
With be
in

Ex.

protige
to the

protege.
of
a

Note

2.

"

regard noticed
:

doubling

consonant

before

mute

the
not

following

may

/ is always

doubled

in
; n

feminine

forms,

but

consistently

tense-forms

(cf
.

126

note)

always

in feminine
irregularly

forms,
in both

but

rarely

in

tense-forms

(cf

tienne,

etc.);

t somewhat

feminine

and

tense-forms.

[36.]
be

Between used before

two

vowels,

/ is preferable
"

to
:

y before
;

mute,

while/

must

other

vowels.
:

Ex.

croi'e

croyant

; effra/e(or effraye)

effrayer; pa/erai

(or payerai)

payer.

37-40.]
[37.]
e,

ARTICLES

AND

PARTITIVE

SIGN.

27

When

and

are

to

retain changed

their
to
are

hard

sound

(as
:

in

can/

go,')

before

i, y, they
vague. In

must

be qu

qu

and

gu
even

e.g. publique

(fern,of
vowels

public^;
Vice

verbs

and

gu

retained

before

other

e.g. moquons
versa,

(of moquef).
when
to
c

and

are

to

have

their
:

soft

sound

before

a,

o,

u,

they

re

changed

q and

ge

respectively

e.g. pla^ons

(of placer) ;

mangeons

(of manner).

m.

AETI0LE8

AND

PAETITIVE

SIGH.

[38.
ille

HISTORY.
*

"

Already
'

in
'

Latin,
sometimes

and

especially

in
manner

the

popular

idiom,

that

'

and

unus

one

were

used
the

in

ing approach-

that

of

real

articles.

In

French
and
as

le
un

(relicof

Lat.

accusative

ilium,
'the'
sense

with
'

irregular,
an,'

proclitic,
a

accent)
function
are

(Lat. unum),
denoting
applies.

like
how

English far the

and

have
to

special they

proclitics

of the

word

which the

attached
the

Moreover,
an

Latin

use

of
use

partitive
*

genitive
or

has

in
the

French

given article, By

rise to

extended
noun

general whose

of de

of,' with
be

without
in in in
a

definite
sense.

before
use

any of

meaning
was

is to

accepted unknown
article,

partitive

this

de

(le),which
a or
*

almost partitive

Old

French, corresponding

modern
to

French

possesses
'

special
any,'
as

part

English

'

some

explained

in

45.]
by
some

39.

Prench

nouns

are

usually meaning

preceded
is to

unemphatic
These

word

denoting
the

how

their

apply.

determinants

Definite or
are

(Generic)^the Indefinite^and
below.

the

titive Par-

Article^

described

40.

The

Definite
either
"

(or Generic)
like
is the

Article.
'

"

This
before
made

article
nouns

is

required general
que
more

English

the

'
"

whose

meaning

specialized

and

thus
or

definite
where

Vor (e.g.

fai

'

the

gold
no

which
article
or

I have
occurs

');
"

else

"

in

English

usually

before

nouns

used,
est

definitely,
^

in their

absolute

generic

sense

(e.g.Vor

pri-

deux

gold

is precious

').

28

SBCOND

PART.

[40-5'^
Femikinb.

Masculinb.

Sing.

Ib
*

(or r

27)
y

/a

(or /' : 27)


'

PL

/es^
"

Ex.

le p^re 'the

the. father

'

; la

m^re

the

'

mother
de
ma

; V amour

masc,

love'

mother's love
comes

love

')or
from

'

as (definite, in V amour in love as (generic,


'

m^e
vient
'

'my
du
coeur

Vdmour

'

the
or
'
'

heart fathers

');

les p^res

et les mh'es
'

the

fathers

and
the

the
man

mothers,'
'

and f em.,

mothers
'

generally

; Vhomme

'

or

man

; Vdme,
may

the
in

soul.'
its individuality

Note.
as

"

A
as

conception

be
or cases

definite
entirety

(/*orde
the

num.

pere)

well

in its generality

{^f'orst pr"cieux). Hence e


It is only and here

use

of the

definite

article
the

in both

in French.
in have

for
in

convenience, this
respect,

to

emphasize the
terms

different

usage

French
been

English adopted.

that

definite and
clear
by

generic
the
context

The

distinction

is always

made

(cf.,farther,
prepositions

Syntax,

195).
'of
or

[41.]

Contraction.
a
:

"

The
or

de

and

'to'
one

blend

with
viz.
"

following

le

lea

(never

with

la

V)

into

form,

de le into

du ; des;

Ex.
"

du

p^re

'

of the

father

'

deles'^
le
/as"
"

cfes p^res(m^re5) 'of the


au
'

fathers
'

(mothers)'
fatheTS

au

"

p^re

to

the

father

;
^

aux;

"

auxp^res

(auxm^res)
'

to

the

(mothers).'
But
:

de

la m^re
"

'of the
French,

mother
the

; de

Vami
were

'

of the

friend.'

\_History.
These

In
by
a

Old

contractions

rfc/,dels^ al, als respectively.


consisting
au,

common

process

of mutation

"

in the

change
s,

of

Z to

"

have

become

du

(formerly deu)
to

deSy

aux

(a:for

as

expla

under
Note.
now
"

47, En
*

B).]
in
'

and

les
in
a

are

contracted

fes

(formerly
*

els

or

eus), which
titles,
as

is

retained
es

only
*

few

expressions

denoting
es
sciences

academic doctor

bachelier

lettres

bachelor

of letters,' docteur

of science.'

42.
"

The
Ex.
un

Indefinite
'

Article
father,'
une

is:
m^re

masc.
'

un;

fem.

une

'an,

a.'

p^re

mother.'

48-45.]
43.

ARTICLES

AND

PARTITIVE

SIGN.

29

Dependent
only
in
a

and

Independent
of
or

Partitive
or

Sign.-by

When
noun

portion
absolute
for

the

thing
use

things

designated contemplated, the preposition

its

generic part

is really
by

it is in French

the of

most

preceded

de

'of

(=

'

portion word
vin
'

'), whether
icne

grammatically
beurre
.

required
pound
thus

by

preceding

(as in
'

livre^de
'

'

of

butter,'

heaucoup^de

much

wine
wine
=

cf

44), or
wine,'

not

required
sont
'

(as
venus

in

fai du

vin
or

I have

some come,'

des
n*ai

soldata
pas

soldiers any
In

some

soldiers

have

je

de vin

I have

not

wine

').
use,
or

its latter

where

its

prepositional

value

is

no

longer

felt, de

(with

without

Ze, Za,

les) is in French

usually

called

the
As

Partitive
will be

Article
shown the
etc.

{Varticle paHitif).
the

under

head
/"as

of S3rntaz,

where

this
a

subject
as

properly

belongs,

de after

negatives being where


once

{point,etc.)
; but

is reallj
no

dependent
such

titiv par-

sign

{pas

nouns)
etc.

it is
value

longer

felt in

the

actual

language,

pas

have

the

of negative

particles.

[44.]
on

The
by the

dependent
a

partitive

sign
is
a

(i.e.de
true
save
nouns

grammatically

required

preceding like

word)
'of

preposition. only
that of

It
French

is

used,

whole,

in English,

requires in
wne

it not

only,

like
*

English,
a

after of

quantity
also

(as

livre de

beurre

pound

butter

but '), by
"

after
or

adverbs

of

quantity,
as seen
^

in by
much
plus
'too

English
the examples

rendered below.
'

adjectives
Ex.

otherwise,

heatLCoup
pain

(adv.)
little

de

beurre

(adj.)
(adv.)
much
=

butter

; pen
'more

(adv.) de
bread';

bread'; (adj.)
pain

de

livres

(adj.)books';
assez

trop

(adv.) de (adv.)de pain


Much
etc.
are

(adv.

4-

adj.)
or

'enough

(adv.

adj.)bread,'
construed

'bread
tkiSf that
:

enough.'
'

in English

similarly

before

e.g.

much

(enough, etc.) o/*this.'


Cf., farther.
The Syntax.

[45.]

independent
of
de

partitive
the

sign

(=

the

^partitive

article
de

consists

either

with

generic

article

(i.e. of

du^

la^

30

SECOND

PART.

[45-47.
is the the
the

des:

41),

or

of

de
is

alone.

The

latter
an

case

when

partitive

noun

preceded

by

adjective
^1 have
some

supplanting
good

generic

article
when

fai (e.g.
it is

de
the

ban

vin

wine')

;
a

and

usually

unmodified

accusative

negative
The

verb

(je n'ai
has
or or

pas

de

vin

'

have
occurs

not

any

object of '). wine


not
sense
'

independent English
'

partitive could
^
'

sign

in

French

only

where
fe
w

have

'some'
sense

(except in
*

of

'a

quelques)

any where

(except in
the

of
sense

every

tout)

but

also

in other

cases

partitive
:

is present.

Examples

J^ai

du

beurre.

I have
beurre
pour

(some)
you
some

butter.

Avez-vous

du

f
vous.

Have I have Do

(any)

butter

J'ai

de

PamitU
des
vin.

friendship sell books?

for you.

Vendez-vous
J^ai
J'ai

livresf

you

de du

bon
vin pas

I have
I have

(some)

good
red

wine.

rouge,

(some)
no

wine.
wine.

Je

n^ai

de
pas

vin,

I have That

(not any)
wine.

Cela
For

n'est

du

vin.

is not

farther The

details, independent
de.
^
"

cf. Syntax.

[46.]
a

partitive

sign

is

always

excluded

by

preceding

Ex.

VaraignAe
lives
on

vit^de
flies.'

mouches

(not

vit^de

des'^mouches)

The

spider

IV.

irOUNS.

[47.

HISTORY.
been which

"

A.
to

Loss
one

of
in

CaBes.
both

The

six

Latin
plural.
more

case-forms
This barren
only

have

in French

reduced has

singular
noun

and
even

sweeping

reduction,
the

made

the

French
case,

of forms
gradually.

than

English
ancient

with

its possessive

was

brought

about Latin,

Thus,

the six

Gallo-Homanic
this

speech

had,

like
was

five

declensions popular

and

cases,

though

(complicated

system

simplified

in the

speech.

The

Old

French

dialect,

till the

beginning

of

the

12th

century,

47.]
three

NOUNS.

31

ad

declensions
modelled
murs

and
on

two

cases.

Then,
second,

till the
but

end

of

tliat century,
; e.g.

ne

declension, Nom.
Ace.
two
was

the

Latin

still two
pi.
"

cases

sing,
"

mur

(L. murus) (L. murum)


finally reduced
but
"

Norn.

mur

Ace.
to
one

murs

(L. muri) (L. muros)


And in

These

cases

were

in the

14th

century.

thai
type

ne

not

the
a

nominative,

tlie

accusative

(marked

bold

above).
"

Only

few

words

as

Jils
the

(L. JJlius),satur
nominative in both
;
cases,
sire

(L. soror),traitre
instead
as

(L.

traditor)
A

preserved
few
others

in singular
have
; pasteur

form,
but

of

the

accusative.

survived

distinct

words

e.g. patre
.

(L. pastor)
Sign.
been

(L. pastorein)
the
to

(L. senior);
terminated
less
s

seigneur

(L.

seniorem)
B.

PlursLl
having

"

As

accusative

plural
or

in
to

"

all

euters

reduced

masculines, speech
"

often

feminines,
the

already

in sign
a

the

early

Galk)-Romanic
French.
x

naturally

became

pltiral By

in modern

confusion, for
nouns

however, has
come

(for
used

oo,

both

conventional

signs

in

Old

French of -/
yet

to

be

instead in
-u,

-us)
with
in the
a

of
as

s,

as as
or

the

regular

plural
cliange

sign

final

monophthong
:

well

those

which
."

final

to
x

-w

plural in

e.g. (^evau-x

(for chevaco
Farther,
no

chevax

restored
ended

and

retained
a

already

in

hissing
the

chevaux), (5,x, sound


rules
have

chapeau-x.
or

if the change

singular
in the

it suffered z),

plural.
nouns

Some
and

of

actual
names

for
been

the

plural
only

formation
since the these
most

of

compound
century.
neuter
was

(53)
C.

proper
"

fixed

17th the

Gtender.
neuter

Latin
nouns

had
being

three

genders.
for
:

Of
the

lost

in French,

changed,

part,

into

masculines.

Hence

the

following

general Lat. Lat.


masc.

analogy
and

neut,

Fr. Fr.

masc,

fern. however,
that

fern.
considerably

This

general

correspondence,

has

been

disturbed
:
"

by

various
neuters

influences,
in
-a

chiefly
became

of

false
in

analogy.

Thus with

1. Latin
in
-a

plural L.

feminines,

analogy

feminines

."

e.g.

arma

(n.) :
voile

Fr.
etc.

arme

(f.); L.
2.

folia (n.) :
Latin

Fr.

feuille (f.); L.
in
-us

vela

(n.): Fr.
of

(f.) ;
became

"

Several

feminines with

(especiall
in
; L.
us

names

trees)

masculines ct/pres L.

in analogy
; L.

masculines Fr.

e.g.

L. cupressus Fr.

(f.) :

Fr.

(m.)
casnus

ptnus

(f.):
ckene
in
-e

pin
"

(m.)
3.

cedrus
Lat.

(f.):

cedre

(m.)

; low

(f.):
as

Fr. end in

(m.).
L.

Several
became

masculines
that

(or neut.)
being
the

changed
gender

so

to

in French
e.g.

nine, femi:

usual

of

words
:

-e

cometes

(m.)

Fr.

cotnete

(f.);

Jj.pulverem

(Fr. pulvis, m.)

Yr.poudre

(f.);

L, ami/letum

(n.) :

32

SECOND

PART.

[47-50.
-eur,

Tt.

amulette

(f.).-*4.
in te, L.

Abstract

nouns

in

in
:

analogy
e.g. L.

with

abstract

ouns

(as
5.

chaleur
A

(f.);
few
sense

etc.) generally, color (m.) : Fr.


are

became

feminines

color
:

(m.)
peur in
*

Fr.

couleur
in
*

(f.);

L.

pavor but
'

(m.)

Fr.

(f.)
their

nouns

masc.

their guard,

concrete,

feminine garde with

abstract
"

e.g.

garde
L.

(m.)
nox,

watchman
masc.

(f.)

guard,
."

are.'

6.

minuit
;

(-nuit:
*

is

in

.)
gent
'race,

analogy

midi of
gens,

(-rfi

L.

dies,

m.)
the
so

gens
sense
on.

(pi. of
person,'

nation':
masc.

Lat. many

gent-em
uses,

f.)

assuming

became

in

but

not

all

(cf

02

d)

and

Nouns

of in
a

Grerman
manner

or

Greek

origin

also main,

preserve

the

German

or

Greek

gender

analogous,

in the

with

that

described

above.]
for the

48,

"

French and change Plural Common

nouns

have
But,

as

rule

different
nouns,

form

singular
other

plural.

unlike

English

they

suffer

no

whatever.

49.

Formation.
nouns

[50.]
X

not

terminating adding
sot
x

already
to the

in

sibilant
form.

(s,", z) form
is simply
monopthongs
some

their
a

plural

by

singular
s

spurious in
in
-u.

(47, B)
It is

substitute
to

for

after

nearly
-eau,

all

added and
of
"

all

nouns

in
-aw,

and -(o)eu,

-ou

(note 1) ;
in plural

always

to

final
in
most

the
cases

required
and

conversion of -ail in many

final
Ex.

-al

(note 2)

(note 3).
*

a.

added

Sing,
"

p^re
maison

father^
'

pi.
'
"

p^res
maisons

house
'

"

fleur

flower
b.
X

"

flews

added

(1)

directly

Sing,
"

chapeau

^hat'
'

pi.
"

chapeaux

feu
vceu

fire
'

feux
vceux

"

'

wish
the
'

"

(2)
Sing,
"

after

conversion
'
....

of

-a^, -ail

to

-au

g^n^ral
'

general horse
^

pi.
"

g^n^rav^x
chevau-x

cheval
"

corail

'coral'

'^

corau-x

50.]

NOUNS.

33

Nouns Sing.
"

in
'

sibilant

are

invariable
pi.

JUs
prix

'

son
'
'

jUs
prix

"
,
.

price
^

"

7162^

nose

"

nez

Note

1.

"

Seven
'

nouns

in
*

-ou

add

in

the
*

plural.

They
kibou
*

are

hijou

jewel/ toy/
Note

cailloH
*

pebble/
"

chou
in

cabbage/
-ou

genou

knee/

owl/ joujou
The

pou
2.

louse/
"

Others
nouns

add

s.

A
:

few

in

-a/

simply

add
*

in
'

the

plural.
*

most
some
'

important

are

monosyllables
*

(except

mal
*

evil

and

val
*

vale

');

polysyllables in general

as

aval foreign

surety/ camavcU
names

carnival/
and

r^gal

entertainment

and

of

plants

animals

(nopal

'Indian

fig-

tree/ chacal
Note

'jackal/ etc.).
"

3.

Nouns

in

-a/7

are

differently

treated.

About
and

one-half
a

of
less and

these

(d^ail^ epouvantail^
add
x s

^ventail, gouvernail,
singular.

poitrail, portail,
change

few
-au,

common)
add

to
*

the

The
;

remainder

-ail

to

then

(corail coral/
4 ;

pi.
Yet

corau-x

travail
'

'labor/
in

pi.

travaux,
or

rarely

travails, cf. note


* '

etc.).

ail 'garlic

has

plural

ails

aulx;

and

b^ail

cattle

has

bestiaux.

Note

4.

"

The

following
the
some

nouns

have
meaning

double of the
:

plural
noun,

form, and
a

an

irregular

retaining

general
manner

regular

restricting
^ancestor,

in

that

meaning

aieuf

grandfather'

]
'

^
'

( aieius
'

^^^,

, '

grandfathers
'.

del

sky,

heaven
^

'

"'^"^
'

^^""^^ ^"^^"^'
in

( dels
'

skies

pictures,

clime,

testers,

etc.

yeux

eyes in

mil

'eye'

"odls

oeils-de-boeuf 'oval
of
4.

windows'

and

many

(
'I

names

natural

products.
'

' //"flKff//labor'

i^

\.

(cf.note
varies
s

4;

3)
with

o\

( travaux
""

labors
omcial

'

( travails
regard

,,",.,

'

, '

reports
form

'

;
of
use

brakes

, '

Note

6.

"

Usage

to

the
nouns

plural

foreign

nouns.

Generally
piano-s,

is added

to

simple

of

familiar and

(alhum-s,
some

operas,

while etc.), remain

others,

especially

compounds,

pure

Latin
or

words,

unchanged
or

Qes

post-scriptum,
have
^

Us
their

Te

Deum,

les credo
form

-credos,

les requiem
f

requiems^

etc.),or

foreign

plural

{lesmaxima

les minima^

les lazzaroni,

les ladies

les torieSy

etc.).

34

SECOND

PART.

[51-53.
in take
:

[51.]
not
:

Proper used

Nouns

are

for Names

the

most

part

unchangped
however, dynasties

the
the

plural plural

when

figuratively. denoting

of

persons,
or

sign

a)
those

When
"

illustrious

families
by
way

e.g. les ScipionSj


to

les Bourbons.
to

b)
whom

When they
e.g. La

applied,
properly

of
;
or

comparison, when
;

other

persons

than

belong
a ses

used

as

titles of books
*

or

works

of

art

France

C^sar-s

des

Raphaels

pictures

of

Raphael.'

Note.
or

"

Several
alone

geographical
plural.
so

names

(lesIndes,

les Vosges,

etc.) are

used

chiefly

in the

[62.]
names
' '

As
of

in English,

also

in French

various
or

nouns,

especially
the

abstracts

or

material,

are
*

used
silver,

chiefly
money,'

alone
'

in

singular
,

[e.g.
others
or

ver-

dure
are
'

verdure,'

argent

lait

milk,'

used

chiefly

or

alone
*

in

the

plural
'

[e.g. ancetres
surroundings,'
'

etc.] while (rarely sing. m.


*

ancest

.)

annales
funeral,'
Note.
more
"

annals,'
*

environs
t"nehres

yj-azs

ex'penseB,*

funeraille

maeurs

customs,'
nouns

shadows,'

etc.]
.

Several
or

have

in the the

plural

specialized

meaning,

ing differ-

less

from

that

of

singular:

e.g.

^er

'iron,'

pl.^ers, generally
grace and
so

'fetters,'

but graces

also
'

'implements
'

of
'

iron,'

'kinds
*

of

iron';

'charm,
on.

mercy,*

thanks

; ciseau

chisel,'

ciseaux

scissors,'

53.

Plural
of with
a

of

Compound
having
form
or

Nouns.
lost
meaning,
more
are

"

A.
or

When less
of

the

members

compound, regard
to

their

identity

written

together
as

without

any
word.
"

intervening
Ex.

hyphen,

the

compound

is treated

single

gendarme

(for gent
^and

d^arme)
under

'gendarm,' public ban

pi.
or

gendarmes;

banlieue

(for banrlieue
'grandmother,' of
a

or jurisdiction ^jurisdiction ')

precincts

of acity,^

pi. hanlieues;

grand^m^re

64, B) (cf.

pi. grand*m^res,
are

B.

When each

the
of

members
them, in the
to

compound
or

separated and

by

a
7iu

hyphen,

if

noun

adjective (demi
it would

excepted)
the

is put compound

number be

in which resolved than


nouns

be construed
to

were

according and

its

logical

meaning.

But

other
"

words
Thus,
'

adjectives always
pi.
versver
'

remain

unchanged.

ver-luisant agreeing

'glow-worm,'
worm

luisants

(luisant
place,

'

shining

with

lieu

'chief
'

head-quarters,'
with

pi.
lieu
'

chefs-Ueux
place

'); chef (chef 'head,


'

leader

being

in apposition

');

arc-en^iel

rain-

53-66.]
pi.
arcs-en-del
'

NOUNS.

86

bow/

"arches (i.e.

skies

")

; Hdtel-Dieu
"

hospital/ pi.
avanircoureurs

sky/' not Hdtels-Dieu (i.e.


"

in

the

"in hotels

the
of

God/'

not

of gods

") ;

forerunners of

'

; apr^s-midi

afternoon/

pi.

apr^s-midi
t^te-dt-tite

the (i.e.

parts

the

day

coming

"after

midday");
are
'

^interview/
to

pi. tite'd"'tite i.e. between

(because
two)
words

the

meetings

always

"

head

head/'

passe-partout

master-key/

^l, passe-partout

(because both
following

are

indeclinable).
[54.]
If
From
:
"

this

general

principle

(B)
is

are

derived

the

special

rules,
a.

viz.
one

member
or
*

of
bj
an

compound

noun

qualified
take

by
the
'

another

noun

in

apposition,

adjective,
places,'
*

both

members
*

plural
;

sign.

"

Ex.

chefs-lieux
b.

chief

choux-fleura
are

cauli-flowers

veps-luisanta

glowjworms/
If the
or

grands-peres
members

grand-fathers.'
combined

of

compound chief
*

by
the
*

preposition

expres

understood,
"

the

member

(generally
'

first) takes

the

plural

sign.
*

Ex.
'

arcs-en-ciel
*

rain-bows/
hospitals

master-pieces/ chefs-d'ceuvre
; timbres-poste
*

pots-

de-vin
Note

bribes 1.
"
"

; Hdtels-Dieu
one

postage other, both

stamps.'
are

If

member

does

not

qualify

the

unchan

Ex.
"

tete-a-tete

'interviews.'
member
as

Note

2.

If the
the
*

second
compound,
'

is

plural
be in

in
the

sense,

it has
or

the
"

plural
Ex.

sign,

whether

such,

plural

not.

le

char-a-bancs
c.

coach

(" with
is
a

benches").
verb-stem

If the

first member
unchanged
*

and with
or
-s,

the

second
to

noun,

both
"

are

generally

(usage
*

varying

regard in both

the
and

noun).
*

Ex.

perce-neige d. If the

snow-drops

; essuie-main

sing,
a

pi.,
noun

towels.'

compound particle

consists

of

particle

and

noun,

the

is unchan

if the
"

is

preposition
*

governing
'

it, but
;

otherwise

it is
*

inflected.

Ex.

les

apres-midi

the

afternoons

lea

avant-coureurs

the

forerunners.*

55,

Gender.
or

"

French either
can a

nouns,

whether
or

names

of

living
that

beings
at

not,

are

masculine
teach the
But

feminine.
to

No

rules

are

all practical the gender


of

learner
a

determine,
rules of

in every
will
cases, can

case,

noun.

few in

general
a

help
as

him

to

decide

with

relative

certainty

majority
practice
56S2.

also aid him

in acquiring These
rules

what
are

only

constant

teach

him

fully.

given

below,

36

SECOND

PART.

[66-59
the
Latin
"

The
by

classical
the

student

is helped

in

determining between 47,


the

gender
and

of
French

French gender,

oun

general
in the

analogy historical make the


noun

existing

described aid
to
or

introduction,
a

C.

All
with
a

students
French

should,
noun

an

memory,

it

habit

to

associate
a

the

definite

(when

begins

with

vowel)

the

indefinite

article.

156,2
a.
^

Masculines
denoting
le

are

Nouns
the

male
'

beings
ox.'

e.g. le p^re

'

the

father/

le

roi

king,'
not

boeuf

the

b.

Nouns
from

implying
of

distinct
nouns,

sex, as

when

their

termination
below 'the
"

differs

that

feminine
le hU

described
le noyau

(57 b)
kernel,'
le pain

e.g. le

sofa *the
'the
le

sofa,'

^the

grain,' 'the
'

le courage

courage,'

le

fantdme
nam

phantom';
name.'

'

the

bread,'

fer

'

the
are

iron,' le
:

the

[57.]
a.
'

Feminines
denoting

Nouns

female

beings
'

e.g. la

'

m^re
'

the
the

mother,'
cow.'

la

soeur

the

sister,' la reine
not

the

queen,'
of

la vache
sex,

b.

Nouns in
:

implying

distinction

when

they

nate termi-

-e

(thase
usually
'

in

-ge, -^me,
:

trees

excepted)
the

as as well -dme, -cfe, -sme, ' the life,' la table e.g. la vie

names
'

of

the

table,'

la

lumi^re
'

light

'

"

but
'

le

d^e
oak.'
'

'

the

seat,

the

siege,'

le

Steele -fe,

the

century,'
:

le cMne

the

ii^

e.g. la
son

bont4

'

the
:

kindness

; la piti4
'

'

the

'

pity

-ei/r,

'ton,
'

(not

-sson)

e.g. la terreur
'

the

terror,'

la possessi

the

possession,'
gender of
nouns

la maison
denoting
the

the
living

house.'
beings is
the

[58.]

The
in

whose
is

sex

not

implied

the

meaning by their

of

word

as

commonly
*

used, the

for

most

part

determined
*

ending

(e.g.la
*the
be

personne
lobster,'

person,'

la
'the

connais-

ance

the of

acquaintance';
these may,
*

le homard
however,

la for

mouche

fly')

few
or

used for
be
names

optionally

either that

gender
are

(e.g

une

en/ant
gender,

child

');

and
may
*

of
by
m.

animals
using
or

used

in
or

only

one

distinction
or

made

after

them

male

femelle (la
[59.]

baleine

male
numerous

femelle

the

whale'
to

f.).
rules 66,
commerce

Among

exceptions
very
common nouns

the
:
"

general Masculines,

57,

may
*

be
com-

noticed

the following

59-62.]
doute
*
*

NOUNS.

37

merce/

doubt,'

Jleuve
*

river/ parapluie
tonnerre
'

'

umbrella
verre

(but
*

pluie
*

rain/
; comity
*

reve fern.),

dream/
*

silence

silence/
*

thunder/
*

glass
coeur

committee/

c6t"

side/ traits
*

treaty

; bonheur

happiness/
';

heart/
nouns

Aonncur
common

'honor/

ma/Aeur

misfortune/
as

;"oison
*

'poison

and

several
*

of

natural
auteur

gender,
"

camarade

comrade/
r///a, loi

esclave

slave/

deve
vertu

pupil/

'author/
'

Feminines,
*

'law/
"

foi 'faith/ (in


j'

virtue/ apres-midi
'

afternoon

; image
creme

'

image/
'

page
'

page
'

book)/
'

neige

snow/
Note.

rage
mam

rage/
Nouns

boucle

'

buckle/

cream
'

clef

key

/aim

hunger/

fin 'end/
"

'hand/
in
are

thirst/ so//*'
-e,

on

manner/
6000
to
are

,/af
of

which

some

feminines
sweeping

and

some

2000

masculines,
though

especially

refractory
representing

any

classification. ending
a,

njute,

most

often
some

the

Latin

feminine

quite

frequently

represents
nouns

other with

vowel.

[60.]
(=
'

Several

are

used,

differentiated
*a

meaning,

both
une
'

as

masculine
'a

and
a

feminines.
'

"

Ex.
'

un

enfant

child

(=
'

boy)/
criticism

enfant

child

girl)
la

; le critique

the

critic,' la critique

the

; le manche

'the

handle/

manche
'

'the post,
'

sleeve';

le mode

'the
"

manner,'

/a mode
'

'the

fashion
the
a

; le poste

the

the
;
un

station,'
'

la poste
'

the

post-office
*

; le voile

veil/

la

'

voile
or

the

sail of

aigle
:

an

eagle

(bird),une

'

aigle

an

eagle

(as

standard

coat

arms)

and

many

others.

[61.]
*

Several

nouns

of different and
thus
'

gender, have
'

though
a

identical different
'

in

form,
"

are

of

different the

origin, book,'
a

naturally

meaning.
page,'
'

Ex.

le livre the the


vase

la

livre
'

the

pound
'

; le page

the
'

(boy)
the
'

la page
;

page
round,
'

(of
the

book)

; le souris

the

smile,'
tour
'

la souris
tower

mouse
'

le

tour

the

circuit,
'

the many

turn,'

la

the

; le

vase

the

vessel,'

la

mud

and
are
:

others.

[62.]

Some
uses.
*

nouns

of different

genders

in

singular

and

plural,

or

in

different
a.

Thus

Amour fem.

love/ ddice
plural

delight/

'

orgue

organ,'

are

masc.

in the

singular

and b.

in the

(amour,
*

sing., being
are

often, fem.
'

however,
nouns.
*

fem.
They

in
are

poetry).
masc.

Chose

'thing/

personne

person,'

as

in

the

pronominal

expressions
and is fem.

quelque
personne in
its

chose
*

something

(not, however,

in

quelque
c.

chose Foudre

'whatever')
*

anybody.* proper
sense,

lightning
'of
a

'

but

masc.

when

used

metaphorically
d.

person.

Gens
gent
its

'people,
'

persons' nation

(properly
wavers

plural
masc.

form and

of

the
:

feminine
it is but
masc.

noun

race,

')

between

fem.

when

adjective

follows

(e.g.les gens
'

s"rieux
people

'serious

people'),
a

fem.
'

when

it precedes

(les bonnes

gens

good

').

Yet

preceding

'all

is

38

^ECOKb

PART.

[62-64.
having distinct

lways

masc.

(tous)^save
tons (e.g.

when

followed
tons
a

by

an

adjective
gens, but

feminine
Note.

form
"

lesgens,
by
'

les honnetes

toutes

les bonnes
masc.
:
*

gens).
e.g.

Gens

followed

noun-determinant soldiers';

is always certains

de

nombreux

gens
study.*

de guerre

numerous

gens

d'e'tude

certain

en

of

63.

Formal

Relation genders
by

between

Kindred

Masculine
more commoH

and

Feminine animals in form

Nouns
are,
as

Different
denoted

of
use

persons

and

of

the

rule,
a.

the

of different

words.
are
*

The

difference from
*

is either

radical,
*

when
*

both

words
'

derived

different
'

sources:
'

e.g.

pere

father,'
'

mere
*

mother horse
'

; ftomme
'

m"n/
'

femtne
'

woman
*

; roi
cow,'

king,'
etc.

jeine
or

queen b.

; cheval

jument
feminine for
change
:

mare

bceuf
is

ox,'

vache
derived

relative,
the

.vhen derivation

the

form
the
most

clearly made

from

the

masculine

being

part

in accordance

with
a

the

principles

determining

the chiefly
that
to
m.,

of

masculine
-e,

adjective
are

to

feminine
feminine

(cf. 07, etc.),except,


-esse,

tiiat final

-enr

changed

in

the

to

-euse;

and
-teur

masculines otherwise

in
to

-teur

when

derived
:

from ami,

French
m.,
*

verbs,
*

change
'

-tense,

f.,

friend

; cousin,

cousine,

f
.,

'

cousin

-trice ; berger

(cf. 78)
*

e.g.

amie,

shepherd,'
baronne
'

bergere

shepherdess

chien
'count,*

*dog,'
comtesse

chienne

'bitch*;

baron

'baron,'

'baroness';
'

comte

'countess';
acteur
'

tigre
actor,'

tiger,' f/^rcsse
'

tigress
etc.

; danseur,

ra.,

danseuse,

f., 'dancer,'

actrice

actress,'

V.

ADJE0TIYB8.
[64.
HISTORY.
in French
"

A.

The

case-forms
the
same

of
manner

Latin
as

adjectives
those of

have

been

reduced

in

precisely

nouns

(47,

A,B).
B. The genders
The have
latter
-a

also

been
the

reduced

to

two:
-e

the

masculine which
now

and
corresponds

the

feminine.
to
even

has

distinct
bona
=

ending
Fr.

(mute),
though

the
to
.

Latin
such

(e.g. Lat.
as
m.,

bonne),
-a

it is

often

added

feminines
grand,

had

no

in

Latin

grandis,

; Old
to

Fr.

grand,

f. ; Fr.
the

grand,

(Lat. graridis, ui., m., f.), or grande,


and
like

sometimes

both

the

masculine

and
grand

feminine
seen

m (triste,.
a

f.).

trace

of the
'

old

feminine
where

form
the
an

is yet

in

few
by

words
a

grand*-

iere

grandmother,'
to

apostrophe
t.

is inserted,

ing, misunderstand-

denote

the

loss

of

(imaginary)

64-66.]
Some

ADJECTIVES.

39

adjectives
cf.
Lat.

retain

in the

feminine
'lively,'

more

primitive
Lat. vivus;

form
be'nin
:

than

in

he

masculine: from

vif:

fem.

vive

from

benigne
beau:

benign'
*

benignus;
Lat.

nul: bellus;

nulle
gros:

'none/
*

from

Lat.
from

nullus;
Lat.

elle

beautiful/
In
other

from
cases,

groaae suffers
to

large/
a

grosaus,

tc.

the

feminine
change,

form

purely
its

orthographical pronunciation, che-re, with


:
e-

(and

comparatively by
analogy:
; cruel
:

modem)
e.g.

serving
'

denote

made
:

cker:

f. chere

dear*
'

(e

to
'

avoid

ute

35)

cruelle

(to
long:

avoid

void

onne

publice)'public'; the openness (to denote


The
Degrees
by the

longue
of the

cru-e-le) cruel ; longe, (to avoid


o-sound),
are

public
g
on. as
'
"

publique
Mong';

(to
bon

j)

and

so

C.

of

Comparison
of
independent

expressed,
words

they
more,*

were

already
"

n Old

French,

aid

(/)/ms

moins
=

less,'
Fr.

Lat.

pluSf minus).
pire,
a

Only
have

three

Lat.

comparatives in French,

{nielior^ p^jor,minor
and
no

meilleuTj
except

moindre)
few

been
terms

retained
in -ws/me,

superlative, 16th

if

technical

imported

in the

century.]
form but either

65,

French

Adjectives
and

have,

as

principle,

different

for

singular
no
'or

plural,
change.

and
As

for

masculine
they

and
are

feminine,
placed

suffer

other

attributes

before

after

their

noun

(cf.221).
"

66.
a

Plural
manner

Formation.
analogous plural
to

Adjectives
of

form

their

plural
"

in

that

the

nouns

(cf.50).
so

Ex.
for

joli ^ pretty,'

joHs (fem. jolie,pi. jolies,and


invariably
pi. pi. end

on
'

all

feminines, grands;

which
"

in sing,
beau
*

in

e) ;
;

grand
'

great,-

pi.

beautiful,'
'moral,'

beaux;

Mbreu

hebrew,'

pi. Mbreux

"

moral
"

moraux

g4n4ral

^general,'
*

pi. gen"raux;

mduvais

'bad/

pi. mauvaia;

faux

false,'

pi.

faux.
Note soft,' add 1.
s
"

Bleu
in the

*hlue,'
plural.
in

feu

Mate

(= deceased),' fou
but
to

'foolish,*

mou

'

Note

2.

"

Adjectives
to
-a ux,

-a/

have forms

slowly

yielded

the
met

tendency with

of

changing

-al

and

plural

in

-ah

are

frequently
they
are

in the
being

literature

finals^ glacials, (fatals,


in number.

etc.);

but

constantly

reduced Note

3.

"

Polysyllables
more
common

in

-ant,

plural, but

the

practice

-ent, is to

may

optionally
it.
"

drop

in

the

keep

Ex.

putssan(t)8.

SECOND

PART.

[67-73.

Formation

of

the

Feminine.
not

67.

General

Rule.
in
e

"

Masculines, remain
:

ending
"

in

6,

add

in

he

feminine
*

; those
'

unchanged.
^

Ex.

grandy
'

fern.
'

rande
:

great

; mauvais
^

mauvaise

bad
'

'

joli: jolie

pretty

imi

aim^e

beloved

'

"

jeune
Before

jeune
this
These

young/
the
form

68.

Special
to

Rules.

"

e,

masculine
either

subject
due

certain the
than fact

variations. that the

being

A.

etymologica
a more serving

to

feminine
;
or

has B.

retained

primitive
chiefly

form
to

the

masculine

orthograpMcal,
the feminine

denote
below

the

pronunciation

of

form,

re

described

(cf.64, B).
Chiefly
Etymological
to
".

A.

Changes:
Ex. br^ve
'

[69.]

Final

f is changed
active
benign
*

"

vif:
^

f.

vwe

^lively,

vivid';

actif:
B^in
'

^active';

bref:
*

brief

(^.-74).
in the

[70.]
:

and

malin

malicious

resume

feminine

ost g

henigne,
Absous

maligne.
'absolved'

[71.]

and

dissous

"

dissolved'

are

in

the

feminine

bsoute,

dissovte,

[72.]

Fims

{from

Germanic

form

/rcsc) afresh'

is in the

eminine

fratche.
Beau
'

[73.]
mou
a

'beautiful,'
'

nouveau

'new,

different,'
singular,
h 'mute,'

fou

'foolish,'

soft,' vieux beginning

old,' retain
with
a

in the
or

when their

placed
older

before

noun

vowel in
hel

masculine

forms

bel

(also used
this latter

et

bon)

nouvef,
or

fof, mo/,
plural,
e.

vieil

(the last optionally).


made have
:

Their

feminine,
form

singular

is always
we

from

by

doubling

I before

ence

Sing.
m.

Plur.
vow.
or

beau

or

(+

mute

') bel

beaux

)
Ugou

tiful

f.

belle

belles

73-75.]

ADJECTIVES.

41

m.

nouveau

or

nouvel

nouvea^ix

)
"- new

f.
m.

nouvelle
fou
or

nouvelles

)
f^^ijgj^
)
soft
)

fol

fous

f
.

fo//e
mou
or

folles )
mous

m.

mol

f
.

mo//e
"/eux
or

mollea

m.

vieU

vieux

-,

f
.

vieille
hel
arbre
'a

vieilles J

Ex.

un
'

beautiful
^

tree/
^

un
'

beau
;
une

palais

*a

fine
'

palace

une

belle dme
'

beautiful
arbres

soul the

belle maison
trees
*

beautiful
*

house

; les

beaux

fine

; les

belles

maisons

the. fine houses.'

B.

Chiefly Orthographical
with
e
:

Changes:

[74.]
" 35,
open
a. a

In

accordance

the

orthographical
form

principle

stated
as

penultimate feminine

of

the

masculine

is designated

in the By

its change according

to to

where
"

the
cher:

following
f.

consonant

is not
amer:

doubled
ambre

b.

Ex.

ch^re
sec:

*dear';
sbche

^bitter';

secret:

secrete

^secret';

(ch: 76, 1)

^dry';
b.
.

bref:
By
"

brhve

{v: 69).
of
a

the
Ex.

doubling
cry"l
:

following
* '

/, /i, and
; anden
:

(except
*

of -cret,
'

-plet)
net:

cruelle
muet:
has

cruel

ancienne

ancient

nette
"

*neat';
Inquiet

mweffe
the

^mute.'
inquihte.

NoTB.

'uneasy'

feminine

[75.]
other

Final

/, /?, f,
than
e

as

well

as

s,

are

also

often

doubled
Thus
:

after

vowels

(s for

etymological

/ after
'similar';

ei, i, to

designate f. gentille
'

the

reasons). (e.g.pareil: 2/-sound


and

pareille
nvl

gentil:

'nice')j

after

in

(f

nulle
/I,

Lat.
i

and

nulla) null, (of monosyllables


sot:

no.'

and

diminutives)
bellot:

after

e.g. bon

bonne

'good';

sotte

'foolish';

beUotie

'pretty.'

42

SECOND

PART.

[75-80
*

in

monosyllabics
*

(bas 'low/
Also losing
etc.

las

tired,' gras
cypres

fat,' ^ros

'big/

etc.)
Fem.

xcept

?-as

smootii/
two

in

^pais

'thick/

fessed 'positive/ profes 'prom^is


etc.,

(these
:

their

grave

accent),

'mongrel.'
having

"

orms

basse,

lasse,

(the
and their
^

Lat.

originals,

bassus,

ss).
before
and
s.
"

[76.]
retain

Final
or
:
'

c,

g,

(spurious
utterance,
^

sign

for

s)
qu,
^

are

e,

to

restore

written
:

gu^
'

Ex.

public

publigue

public

; long

longue

long

; heureux

heureuse
Note
1.

happy.'
Grec
:

"

'Grecian'
; and

is in
'

fem.

written
'

grecgue
*

(i.e.grec-qucj
dry
'

to
c

avoid

gre-gue

36)

blanc

white,'

franc

free,'

sec

change

to

li

(blanche,franche, seche'). Note Doux 2. faux sweet,'


*
"

'false,'
in the

roux

'red'

'

prefix

are,

for historical

reasons,

fem.

douce,

(us'ly of hair), prefix fausse, rousse, pr^fixe.


of final
gu,
a

[77.]

To

denote
over

the

unaltered
e.
"

pronunciation Ex.
aigu 'sharp':

diaeresis

(6)

is placed

the

added

aigu-e.

78.

Nouns

in

-(t)eur used
from
be

appositively

as

adjectives
otherwise that

end
in

in

the

fem.

"(t)euse trix): cf. 63,


profession
Ex.

if derived
b.

French
noticed, by
men

verb-roots,

It is to

however,
remain

such

nouns

-trice (Lat. if denoting


feminine.
acteur:

chiefly

practised

unchanged
:

in

the

danseur:
*

danseuse
'

'dancer';
;
"

chanteur
m.

chanteuse docteur,
serviteur

'singer,'
m.

ctn'ce

actor,

actress

auteur,

f.,

author,'

f.,

doctor.'
the

Note

1.

"

Ambassadeur,
imp^atrlce,
in
e

empei'eur,

enchanteur,
esse,

form

femi-

ines

ambassadrice,
2.
"

enchanter
-sse

servante.

Note

Nouns
the

add

(traitre: traitresse

'traitor').

Favori

favorite'

forms

feminine

/a

wnYe.
*

79.
are

few used with

adjectives (dispos
only with
masc. nouns.

lively,'

fai 'foppish/
and
a

aquilin

aquiline,'
'

etc.)

nouns,

few

others

(crasse

'

gross

etc.)only
80.

feminine

Compound
in gender
'

Adjectives.

"

In

compound
when

adjectives, the
co-ordinated
;

first member
the second,

s changed

and
and

number dumb*;

only

with

.g. "our"?-mu""

deaf

f. sourde-muette thin-sown,'

pi.

sourd(e)s'muett(e)s
the determining
are
nu-

ut

nu-pieds

'bare-footed,*
"

clair-sem^*

with

nd

clair- invariable.
*

Compounds
sing,
or

denoting pi.

shades

of color

invariable

.g.

TQuge-f"mc" deep-red/

81-84.]

ADJECTIVES.

43

Comparison.

[81.]
^

The
'

comparative
or
^

of
'

adjectives
the article

is formed
and

by
the

placing super-

plus

more

moins

less

before

positive,

lative

by
the
*

putting

the

definite
"

(or

possessive

adjective)

before

comparative.
'

Ex.
finer
' '

beau

fine
'*

plus
moins

beau

le plus
fine
'

beau
beau

the

finest
least

'

beau
'

beau haut
*

less

'

le moins
m,on

'the
'

fine
*

hauf

high

'

plus

higher

plus

haul

my

highest

[82.]
two

Boriy mauvais,
different
ways
as

petit

"

These old and

in

(one
shown

adjectives are compared irregular) according


:

to

their
,

different
(
^

sense,
'

below

good

meilleur
'

le meilleur
le plus

[*good-natured,
'

silly

plus

hpn

6on]rare

mauvais

( ' bad, "{^bad, (

evil

pine
quality'
plus
mauvais

le pine '^
le plus
mauvais

of poor

(^little'

moindre

le moindre
le plus
first and

oetit

\
1.
"

'

small

(in size)
in
use

'

plus
between and

petit
these

petit
forms
as

Note

The

distinction

second
absolute analytic

of

comparison

(especiallyof
and
the

mauvais
usage

petit)
the be

is not
second

so

to

excliide
NoTB

all option,
2.
"

popular
above

is towards

or

form.

From adverbs

adjectives
and
as

should

carefully

distinguished

the

kindred

6/e/i, mal,

peUy

about
*

which chief,'
of
no

cf. 168. dernier


comparison.
*

[83.]
eternal,*

Some
etc.,

adjectives, such
by
reason

principal
admit

last,'

kernel

of

their

sense,

84.

'As

(so)
. .

...

as'

is

rendered
'than'
grand
que
vous

by

aussi

(or
is

si

usually

negation) Ex. numeral).


"

in

que;
U
est

and
aussi

by
que
'

que
vous

(or by
'he
so
'

de
as

before tall
as
a

as
'

'

you

; il n'est

pas que

si grand
vous

he

is not you

tall
; i7

you
plus
de

il est plus
ans

grand
^

'he than

is taller

than

qninze
Note.

he

is
much

more

fifteen
as'

years
is

of age.'
by
autant

"

'As

(many)
.

...

rendered

(or

tantt

usually

in

negation)

que.

44

SBCOND

PART.

[85-87.
or
an

[86.]
'

Man
as

J,

more,

most'

before

noun,

adjective

with

nomi,

are

rendered

follows:
*
'

'many'

beaucoup
de

de
the

(jqt plusieura
def
.

'several');

'

more

plus

de

most

fa plupart

(with

article).

VI.

iniMEBALS.
The
Numerals It should

[86.

HISTORY. Latin
forms

"

are,

as

rule, however
nonante,

derived
:
"

from
the

correspondin

numerals. for
*

be

noted,
octante,

That
which

older

French

70,
even

80,

90,'

septante,

of
in
use,

septarUe

and

nonante,

found
France, the
*

in classical

authors,

are

yet

dialectically,

in parts

of
by
'

have

been

supplanted,

presumably

through

Celtic

influ

awkward

forms

soixante-dix

(*sixty-ten

'), quatre-vingts
') ;
"

('four
*

twenties

cf.

four-score

'),
from

quatre-vingt-dix
;
'
"

('eighty-ten
ending
-lewe

b.

That

1st

is premier

(Lat. primarius)
all

c.

That
'

the

(Lat.

-esimus)

is

used

for

ordinals

second

upward.]
though with
common

87.

list of the

numerals,

properly

belonging given

to the

vocabulary,
88.
1 2
un

is, in accordance

practice,

below.

CARDINALS

(ali masc,

except

une).
14
16 16
quatorze

(f Mfig)
.

deux
trois
quatre

quinze seize

3
4
5

(ei

long)
=

17

dix-sept
dix-huit

(jx
)

ss)
=

cinq six

(q
=

k^

Finals
before
or
'

mute
cons't

18 19

yx

7
8
9

sept
huit

(a: ss) {sit) (""")

dix-neuf
vingt
vingt

asp.,
are
*

if 20
adjectives 21 Before

6-10

(gt mute)
et
un

10 11

neurif=ff) dix (j; ss)


=

vowels,

(or vingt-un)
22

/=Vf

and

x=z

vingt-deux uingt'trois
etc.

in vingt

sounded
23

onze

12

douze
treizc

13

(ct

long)
not

30

trente

"^

Hciico
follows

usually

in dates
etre
*

(/e cinq

mars

or etc.),

where

no

determined

oun

(six pent

six perhaps

').

88-90].
irente

NUMERALS.

45

et

un

(or trente"un')
:

00 91 92

quatre-mngt-dix quatre-vingt-onze

.
.

trente-deux
quarante cinquante

etc.

i
"ilent'i

quatre-vingt-douze

50

60

soixante

(jx

ss)
(^-x=

70

8oixante-dix
8oixante-onze soixante-douze
quatre-vingt8
quatre-vingt-un

71

-88) (or soixante-et-onze)


:

72

etc.

80

(gts silent)

81

"yQftin
)

vingt

82

quatre-vingt'deux

silent)
to
a are

89,
un

The
'

cardinals
'

up

million
form

all uninflected, and


'100'
not
'

except

that

one

has

the

feminine

une,

that

multiples usual by
an

of

vingt

^20'
sense

(i.e. and quatre-vingts)


have
"

cent
s

in their followed

collective

the

plural

sign

when

added

number.

Ex.
'

quatre-vingts

'80'
cents
'

(lit.four
300/
but

twenties
trois
cent

')
dix

but

quatre-vingt-deux

82

'

; trois

'

310.'
But compare year, Fan
not
a

trois

cent

'the
sum

year of

300'

(troiscent

denoting

certain

collective

years),jxige

quatre-vingt

'page

80.'
They
in the

MiUion,
with

trillion, etc.,
de
:

are

nouns.

take
*

plural, books.'

and

are

construe

e.g. deux

millions

de livres

2,000,000
old

Note.

"

Mille
era,

(m.)

*1000'

is mil

(reallythe
by
'

sing,

form)
"

in

dates

of

the

Christian

if it is followed
'

another

number.
'

Ex.

mil

deux

cent

(also douze

cent)quatorze
to

1214

; but

Van

mille

the

year

1000.'

90-

Contrary
from
:

English

usage,
"

French

employs
denote of
the

cardinal

numbers

deux

(inclusive)on
qucUre
mars
'

1. to
the

day
'

of
;
"

the

month

e.g.

le

fourth however,
Henri

March

2. after

names

of

sovereigns
quatre
'

(where,
IV,'

second

is also

used) :
Note

e.g. Henri
'

Henry

deux

'

Henry

II,'

Charles

second
1.
"

Charles

II.'
'Charles
quintus V

In

Charles-

Quint
the

(the emperor)

and

Sixte-Quin

Sixtus

(the pope),

Latin

survives^

46

SECOND

PART.

[90-93.
it is in
:

Note
use

2.

"

In

quoting
or

chapter,
when

page,
the
'

etc.,

optional,
its

as

English,
e.g.

to

cardinals
or

ordinals, 'chapter

numeral
only

follows

noun

chapi-

tre

trois

troisikme

III

(but
for

le troisieme

chapitre).
first'

91-

Ordinals.
the
ordinal

"

Except

premier

and

second

second/

numbers
a

are
e

made

by

suJSixing

the

cardinals,

of which

final

is dropped.

Cinq

'

-i^me five ' forms

to

cinguQme,

neuf
in
'

'nine/
21st/
'

neuvi^me;

and

unihae,

instead

of

pre-

mier,

is used

31st/

etc.

92-

Ordinals

are

inflected
Ex.

in

gender
la
j le
ot

and

number les

like

mon com-

adjectives.
"

Je premier^
'

premi^re^

premiers

(m.)

or

premih'es

(f .)

the

first

'

la

sixieme,

les

sixi^mes

'the
Note

sixth.'
1.
"

Deuxieme
and

is optionally
in compounds

used

instead

of

second

when

there

are

more

than

two,

always

Note

2."

Tiers
as

'3d' (f. tierce) ordinals


:

and
e.g.
une

(vingt-deuxieme etc.). (f. quarte) *4th' are quart


tierce personne
*

still at
'

times

used

regular
*a

third

person

quart

voleur

fourth

thief

(La Font.).

Other
93.
Collectives.
"

Numerals
"

(Nouns
are
'

and
formed

Adjectives)
by

These

usually number

suffixing days,'

cardinal.

Ex.

une

huitaine

of

eight,

eight

-aine dtzaine une

to

93-96.]
10/
une

PRONOUNS.

47

douzaine
: une

dozen/

etc.
une

"

Such
'

forms
about

often
20,

express 100.'

an

mate approxi-

number

vingtaine,
"

centaine

about

94.

Fractionals.

Mo/tiSj
*

t., *half'
the time

(noun;

and
*

construed
'

as

such:

.g.

la moitU
preceding
noun
:

du

temps
noun

half
with

of
a *a

') ; demf
or

half

(either invariable
and
*

nd

its
une

hyphen,

variable,
une

f. demie,
et

following

ts

e.g.

demi-heure

half-hour,'

heure

demte

an

hour

and

half);
quarter

tiers
of
an

(f. tierce)
hour
as

'third,*

quart
*

'quarter'

(e.g. un
*

quart

d*heure
etc.
,

*);
in

"

cinquihme
English,
an

fifth,'

aixfhme

sixth/

the

enominator

being,

ordinal.

95.

MuLTiPLicATivES.
*

"

DoubU
*

double,*

triple
etc.

treble/ quadruple

fourfold/

quintuple

fivefold,*

sextuple

sixfold,'

VII.

FBOHOTJirS

AND
A.
or

FBONOHINAL
General
Reduction
case-forms,

ADJEOTIVES.
of
have FormB. A

[96.

HISTORY. retaining

"

few

prothan the

nominals,
and

two

even

three

resisted
language;

better
but

ouns

adjectives
have in

the

analytic
one case

tendencies
and
one or

of
two

the

reat

majority

only the

genders.
as

The many

personal
as

ronoun

i7, alone

whole
ace,

language,

has in

retained and

three

different

case-forms

(nom.,
The

dat.)

singular

plural,
have
two

masculine

nd

feminine
same

(cf. 100).
cases,

personal relative

pronouns

^e, tu,
forms reduced

forms

for

the

three

and

the

qui, two
were
as

for

two

cases

(nom.,
the

ace).

All
to

the
one

remaining case-form

pronominals for
the

already
as
an

in

14th

entury

singular
as

well

one

for

the

plural,

hat

form
neuter

usually gender

representing,
is

here and

elsewhere,
pronominals,
between the

original
as
mes,

accusative.
nos,
ces,

he

lost,

several

qui,

tc.,

have

obliterated
FormB.
:

even

the A

distinction
of

masculine

and

feminine.
have
two

B.

Double forms
have
tone

plurality

French

pronominals
they

ifferent
as

an

independent
; and
a

(and

usually

to

the in

tone

proclitic word
eo,

stronger) when (usually weaker) when


determine. and the m",
Thus,

are

used
sacrifice
gave

they

their

favor

of

the

they

Lat.

ego

he

proclitic replaced
the
gaye

form
by

je (through
its

io,

jo)

independent

form

gi^

(now

object-form
me

moi) ; Lat.
independent
the

niihi
form

ach

proclitic

form

and
mon

the

(through ml-) gave mot (cf. 1, B) ; Lat.


mien

mium

the

proclitic

form

and result

independent

(1, B)
but

; and

so

n. a

This

difference

of form

is the

chiefly

(as in

the

examples

quoted)
also,

different

treatment
causes.

of

accented

and

unaccented

vowels,

in

art,

of other

48

SECOND

PART.

[96-98.
be
here

C.

Derivation.
French

With

regard for
the
are

to

derivation,
part

it may
come

noted from

that

the

pronominals
they

most

directly formations, and


apparent

Latin,
by

though

exceptionally
or

the
use

result

of

new

compositi

by

the
cases

pronominal
where
; lui

of

few

nouns

adverbs.
at

Thus,

to

quote

few

the
is from

connection
a

is not

first sight

ye, moi

(cf. above)
; it is
a

vulgar
has also

Latin

dat.

illui
the

(procliticaccent
independent

on

-lui)
el;

proclitic

dat., and
;
"

replaced

older

ace.

leur

is from
icest,
as

illorum
cet

ce,

the

adjective,
being
ce,

is from

eccistum used

(==ecce
before
eccehoc

istum)f later
and

cest,

(the

last

form

yet
the
:

regularly
neuter,

vowels,

basis

of

the

feminine

; cette)

is from

(ifo, fa, ce) ;


"

"

ce/ui
is

is from

celui ecc'illui (iceluiy


;
"

but-

the of

fem.

celie from
"

ecc'illam) ;
"

on

from
:

homo

Hen

from

rem

(ace.

res) ;

from

ihi ;

en

from

inde

etc.]
pronouns

97.

The

French
are

the

English,

Personal

adjectives, (including Reflexive)^Possessive,


Relative,
words
in and

and

pronominal

like

Demonstrative,

Interrogative,
of

Indefinite.
a
:

98.

Most

the

pronominal exceptionally combined

have

double
cf. my,

form

in

French they
lose
a

(as
are

more

English
the

mine).
usually
more
:

When

closely

with

word

they

determine, and

they

their

accent-stress
or

in favor
form than the

of that

word,
they We
are

receive

shorter

lighter
as

when
tone.

used
have

independently,
a.

and

such

have

then

proclitic

(usually called
when the

conjunctive, or
is combined

foi-m adjective)
closely
with

which
or

is used

pronominal

verb b.

with

noun

; and

An

independent

(usually called
is

disjunctive
pronominal

or

pure

pronou

form, which
the
name

used
noun

when

the

is separated

from
No

verb
for
sanction
:

or

the
two

it determines.
of
pronominal
The

the

classes
uniform

forms

described

above

has

received

by

usage.

terminology
pronouns,

adopted

below

(conjunctive
for

disjunctive
the other

for

the

personal
though

and

adjectives
open

pronouns

pronominals),
preferred
prefer
to

in

some

respects

to

objection, is the [The author


but
he has

terminology

by the

French

grammarians.
use

would,
not

indeed,

uniform
a

of proclitic
so

ent, independdeviating

ventured

adopt

terminology

much

from

common

usage

(cf

however,

Liicking.

.,

Matzner

adopts

: conjunctive

disjunctive throughout).]

99,

100.]
All

PRONOUNS.

49

99-

monosyllabic

pronominals
ce:

in

-e

(except
also

only

the
their

demonstrative before
a

adjective
vowel-sound
27.

107,

a), and
for

la, drop

vowel

fai (e.g.

je

at,

as etc.),

already

described

in 27,

2.

Personal 1 00.
The

Pronouns
Pronouns

(Reflexiveincluded).
are

Personal

either

a.

conjunctive
b.

or

b.

disjunctive (98).
a.

Conjunctive
(or after) the verb
or aa

Disjunctive
f r. the
;

[placed

directly

before

[separated
as

verb,

save

unempbatic
.

subject
^-^

object]

predic.

emphatic]:
A

.^

Pers.

NOM.

Ace.

DAT.

NOM.

Ace.

me

moi

me

to

me

me

iu

te
thee
to

toi
thee thou
thee

IT
thou

//
Illm.
he

le
him, it
to

lui
him

lui

(it)

(it)

he

I
elle

liim

f.

elle
she

la
her

lui
to

(it)

(it)
SB

her

(it)

she

I
SOi

her

m.

f.
refl.
nous
we
us

lui, (or

refl.
nous to
us

refl. elle)

we

us

vous

"0US

II
you

you

to

you

you
eux

you

"J

ils
Illm.
they

les
them

(m.)

leur
to

they

(m.)

them

(m.)

f.

elles
they

les
them

them they

elles

(f.)

(f.)

I them
sol

(f.)

se
m.

f.
refl.

(eux,

refl.

refl. elles)

50

SECOND

PART.

[100-102.
each
three different
have only

Note

1.

"

As
and

seen

above,
tu

il, die, Us, elles have


while however,
*

case-forms,
one.

je and
forms
'

two,

all the remaining represent loves him


us';

pronouns
cases

Identical
*

may,
nous
*

different

nou8 (e.g.
*

aimons
to
* '

e
"

love

; II

aime
I speak

He

//

nous

"crit

He

writes

us

Je lui parle
it ';

to

{or to her)
'

';

Lui

(note 3) le/era
Him.'

He

will do
*

Qui aimez-vous?
of
*

Zi//

Whom

do you

love 1

Je

parle de lui
Note
2.
"

I speak

him').
*

Vous
Tu
*

you
'

may, is used

precisely
between

as

in English,

refer to and

one

person

or

several.

thou

intimate

friends

relatives

(cf
.

Syntax).
Note 3.
"

To

render
is placed
*

conjunctive
before
it,
or

personal

pronoun predicate person, thinks

emphatic,
:

the

disjunctive form
or

after the
For

e.g.

Vaime

Je

Vaimpy

moi

I love
:

him.'

the
*

3d

the
so.'

Je disjunctive

Moiy

form

alone 4.
"

is sometimes

used

e.g. Lui le pense

He

Note

To
:

disjunctive pronoun
'myself,'

is often appended
vous-meme

the emphatic
*

-meme

*8elf

(107)

e.g. moi-meme

(or 'tnetnes) yourself

(or

-selves).'
101the

The

Pronominal
are

Particles
also

en

and

/.

"

With
en

conjunctivepronouns (Lat. inde) ^thereof of


=

reckoned and

the

particles

it, of them'
as
a

/
a

(Lat. ibi) ^to


dative
or case

it,
respectively

to them,'

which
of
to

are

used

genitive

and gender

the

3d

person,

in either

number,
to

with

reference

things

(exceptionally with
in
an

reference
sense

persons,

especially
"

if understood Ex.

indefinite

or

to personified

objects).
en

parle. livre Laissez ce

Jl

speaks of it. Leave this book (pes livres),

He

j'e/i ai
Voild,
en.

besoin.
papier
y

du

prenez-

(thesebooks), I need it (them). is paper, take There some ( of it).


=

Vos

raisons

sont

bonnes^

je

Your

reasons

are

good,

I yield

m'/ rends.

to them.

Je

my fie.
102.
A.

I rely
of

on

it.

Position
Unlike

the

Conjunctive
usually

Pronoun.
places the

English,

French
as

pronouns,

whether

construed

conjunctive subjects objects,


or

immediately

102.]

PRONOUNS.

51

before

the verb:
it
to

e.g.

je
;

h
ne

vois

^I

see

him';
*I

ye
not

irous
see

le donne
him.' immediately,

^1 give In two
as a.

jou'

je

le vois pas
they

do

constructions, in English,

especially,

follow

the verb
a

being

then

appended

to it by

hyphen,

viz.:

The

in subject-pronoun (Je,tu, etc.)


?
*

interrogative it ?
'

clauses

e.g.

aije
The

have

'

; Vavez-"Ous

'

have

you in

b.

object-pronoun {me,
"

te,

etc.)

affirmative
changed
'

pera imto

me, en

te
"

being

then,

however, ^give it

moi,

toi, except
*give
me,'

before it

; e.g. donne-le

(but

ne

le donne

pas

not');

donnez-le-lui
'give
me,'

'give

it to

him'; 'give
me

aimez-mei
some.' come

4ove

donnez-moi

donnez-m'en

B.

Of

several the
one

nearest

verb

object-pronouns (whether before


the il
me

those
or

of

the

3d
Of
se,

person
the

after).
is 1. gives

latter, if

more

than

occur,

order

of sequence
'he

2. le
me';

(la, les
donnez-

3. lul

{leur).
"

Ex.

le donne

it to

le-m^i;

je le lul
; il
se

donne

'I give
'he
en,

it to him'
promises

; donnez-le-leur

'give

it to The

them'

le promet
particles
donne
en
'

it to himself.' follow
'

pronominal
:

always
me some

other

tives conjunc'

e.g. tZ
'

m^en

he
'

gives
he

; donne-m^en
'

give
en

me

some

; U

lui
"

donne

gives

him

some

; donne-leur
some

'give

them

some.'

En
to

follows

y: envoyez-y-en

'send

there.'

Farther

examples

102

II Paim^e.

He

loves
him

him

(her).
boot

Aimez-le
me

(-Id).
un

Love

(her).
me

II

donne

livre.

He

gives
me.
me

Aimez-mei

Donnez-moi Paimez
me

(ace). (dat.)un
pa^.

Love livre,

Give
Do

book.

Ne

not

love
given

him.
it to
me.

EUe

Pa

donnS.

She
He He

has

II le lui dira,
"Ous en

will

tell it to
to you
me,

him

(her).

II

parle,

speaks it to

of it.

DonneZ'le-moi,
plait.

s'U

"Ous

Give

if you

please

{litif
Send them

it pleases
to

you).

Envoyez'leS'leur.

them.

52

SECOND

PART.

[102-106.
it to himself.

II

se

Pest promts.

He

has

promised

Je le lui ai donn^, lui


s'en en

I have

given
speaking

it to

him. about

Je

parle.
amuse.

am

to him at it.

it.

II

He
en
enverra.

is amused
will send it to
me us

Elle

leury

She Tell

them

some

there.

LHteS'/e-lui,

him.
some

Donnez-m'en

(nous en)
en

Give
Take
I will

Gonduisez-nous-y.
vousy
For

there

(us some). (or to it).


some

Je

enverrai,
details,
see

send

you

there.

farther

Syntax,

254-6.

103.

The

Reflexive
from

Expression. English,
the

"

French

differs in its principle being

reflexive
follows

expression
:

general

[104.]
for

Preceded
the 1st

by
and

no

Preposition,
person

the

unemphatic
the
'
^
=

refle

2d

is simply

object-form
'

of

the

conjunctive
dat. ; ie,
or

personal

pronoun
for

{me
the

'

me

myself
se

ace.

nous,

sing,

plur.
me

"Ous), while (^himself,herself,


^

3d

person
'

is used
or

for
"

themselves

ace.

dat.).
loue

Ex.

Je

loue

I praise

(she)

praises

himself

{lit. me).' (herself).'


myself

II

se {elle)

^He

If the

reflexive

is emphatic
after

(as in
the

'He

praises

himself!'),
form,

the

pronoun

is repeated
not
me

verb

in its

disjunctive
by
myself 'He
an
'

usually
"

(though
Ex.

necessarily) strengthened
loue
II
'

added

m^me.
me

Je

moi-mbme
se

praise

(lit.I
^

praise

himself'

myself). (a luirm^me

parle
se

lui-m^me

speaks lui for

to

because

is in the

dat. ; about

soi

cf. note,

105).
Preceded
alone,
"

[105.]
by

by

preposition,

the
not

reflexive

is

the

disjunc

form
-m^me.

usually

(though
a
'

ened necessarily)strength'

Ex.

Je pense

moi-mSme
speak
except
personal
a

I think

of myself,'

Nous
Note.

parlous
"

de

nous-memes

We
used
the

of ourselves.'
in

Soi

{soi-m^me)
In
"

is rarely other
cases

the

singular,

and

in

eneral

statements.
are

object-forms /"//, elle,

uXt

elles

preferred.

Ex.

Chacun

pense

soi

(or soinnemo)

Eveiy-

105,

106.]
thinks

PK0N0UN8.

58

body

of

himself.'

La
parler

vertu

est
*

aimable
One
maux

en

soi

'

Virtue
to
*

is lovable speak
of

in

itself.'
"

On
But:

doit rarement Les


guerres
ne

de aoi

ought
avec

seldom
elles
*

himself.
evils

entrainent

des

Wars

bring

with

them.'

//

(e//e)

songe

qu*a

lui

{pile)-mime

He

(she)

thinks

only

uf

himself

(herself).'
POSSESSIVES.

1 06.

"

The

Possessives

are

either

a.

adjectivesor
b. Pronouns
as

b. pronouns

(cf.98).
a.

Adjectives
with
a

(combined

noun)

(construed

nouns)

o
00
ID

H
CD CO

oc

K O
00

00

00 OQ

o an

"

"

CO

Note

1.

"

The
a

adjective
or

feminine-forms
'

mon^

ton,

son

are
'

used

before
histoire

vowel

mute

"

Ex.

Ttion

dme

on

(f .)
are

'

my

history.'
feminine
to
m',

(f .)

my

soul

IMOf

ta,

sa

the

regular

forms,

and
before

were
a

formerly,
vowel -sound,

like
a

the
con-

definite

article

/a, abbreviated

t\

s'

54

SECOND

PAUlt!.

lor. tio6,

truction

which
ma

has

suryived
and
tante

in

the

expressions The

m*amourf

nCamie

(also,
feminine
in

ncorrectly,
moTif

mie)^
son,

(for Vante?).
in

anomalous became

forms

ton,

introduced

the

12th

century,

regular

he

14th.]
Note
usual 2.
"

When

the

pronoun-forms according
to

are

preceded
take
place.
etc.
one

by
"

de

or

d,

he

contractions,
le
Two
et

41,
le

Ex.

ifu

ien
Note

(for de
3.
"

mien),
ton

au

mien

(for d

mien),
determine
et

possessive

adjectives
we

cannot

noun.

Thus, and

nstead

of Mon

Jr ere,

must

say

monfrere

le tien *my

brother

hine.'

Demonstratives.

107-

The

Demonstratives

are

either

a.

adjectivei or
b. Pronouns
as

b. pronouns

(cf.98).
a.

Adjectives
with
a

(combined

noun)

(construed

nouns)

107,

108.]
1.
"

tHOIfOUKS.

66

Note

The and

consonants,

adjective masculine cei (the more original


The
cet, cet

form form

ce
:

is used
cf 96,
.

before before
the
'

C)
ce

vowels

and

'

mute.'

plural

(ces) comes
"

from

and
boy

feminine

from {cette)
'

Cf
.

73.

Ex.
*

ce

gar"pn
'

'

this

et

enfant
^

this

child,'

homme
'

this

man

; ces

gargona

(or

Jilles) these
Note 2.
"

boys
The
'

(or girls) ;
ce
or

cette

Jille*

this

girl.'
*

pronoun-form

(alone,or
contraction

compounded

with
to
an

-ci

here

nd

-la

'tHere
or

to

ceci\
he

ce/a

bj
or

fa),
"

refers

unnamed

object
What

to

sentence,

expressed says
or

understood.

Ex.

Ce

quHl
'

dit est

vrai

(That which)
already this
or

is true.'

C'est bon
.

That

is good

(viz.something
*

spoken that
"

of,

pointed

to)
veut
or

Voulez-vous
*
...

ceci
means a
'

ou

ce/a f
.
.

Do

you

ish

Ce/a

(or Ca)
masc. noun

dire

That

.'

Note

3.
being
'

Meme
placed

{memes),
before
'

fern., is either
in

pronominal
'

tive, adjecafter
'

its
:
'

the homme

sense
*

of
same

same
man

or

it in

ense

of
*

self-same,
his very
sense
'

very

e.g.
"

le

meme

the

ses

gestes

emes

gestures
*

;
same,'
'

or
or

it is

pure
to
est
a

pronoun,

being

used

ently independpronoun
'

in the
sense

of

suffixed
son

disjunctive
'

personal is the

7 s'aime
In
Note
sense

-self, -selves * lui-meme he loves


*

of

e.g.

livre

le

meme

his book

same

himself.*
is
an

of
4.
"

even,'

meme

adverb,
in pas

and

invariable.
use
*

The

definite
"

article

its original

as

determinative in that
manner.'

is

ometimes

met

with.

Ex.

N*agis

de /a

sm-te

Do

not

act

Interrogatives.

1 08. b. pure

The

Interrogatives

are

either

a.

pronominal

adjective

prononiu
a.

(cf.98).
b.
:

Adjectives
with
a

Pronouns
as

(combined

noun)

(construed

nouns)

Masc.

Fem.

Masc.

Fem.

Referring

to

persons

or

a.

Referring
:

to

persons

or

things

things

Sing.
PI.

quef
mjph

I who?
I

quelle quelles

lequel
lesquels

which

one

?
?

laquelle lesquelles

which?

which

ones

56

SECOND

PART.

[108, 109.
Referrmg
pi.
to

b.

persons

alone

Sg. and

qui

who

(Ace. whom)?
things

c.

Referring

to

alone

Conjunctive
Disjunctive
T-v"
"

(of. 100) flri/e )


"
_

"."

wnar

quoi

Note and
or

1.

"

In

Uquely

etc., le is nothing

but

the

definite
a

cle, arti-

it is contracted
Hence
etc.
"

in the
=

usual

way
d, lequel

(21) with
=

preceding
de

de

A.

de

lequel

duquel,

auquel,

lesquels

desquelSf
Note
2.

The

interrogative accusative
quoi

qui

is singular

or

plural,

nominativ

Q
Note

who
"

') or
Que
and

whom
one

').
another
as

3.

supplement

conjunctive
only

and
verbs absolutely

disjunctive

forms

(cf.100).

Que

occurs

in the

nominative after

after
and

of condition

{etre,devenir, etc.). Quoi (without verb) in exclamation


is

is used and

prepositions
"

interrogation.

Ex.

Qu*est-ce?
parlez-vousf

'What

it?' do
you
"

Que
speak

dit-ilf
?
'

'What

does
'

he
!
'

say?'

De

quoi

Of

what

Quoi!
of
ou

What
a

Note

4.

About

the

use

as

pronoun,

cf. 111.

Relatives.

109.

The

Eelatives

are

all
Pronouns

(following

the

word

or

words

referred

to) :

Exceptionally

lequel

(laqueUe, etc.) is

used

adjectively

before

noun.

10,

111.]
The

PRONOUNS.

67

110.

relatives

qui\ lequel
:

differ

from

the

interrogative

n the

following
:

respects

Qui

a.

It has

the

direct
reference
*

object-form
to

que

(except when
word,
as

used
in

bsolutely

without
Vaime both the
bien

any

preceding
I love except
refer

Qui

faime, je
used

Whom
or

I love,

well

').
"

b. It may

for

persons

things,
it
*

after

prepositions,

here,

like
'

interrogative,
less often

can

only

to

persons.
except
of

Lequel

which,'
or

who,'
more

is rarely
specific
reference

used

after
gender

prepositions,
or

for

purposes

of

distinction

number

in

case

of doubtful

(276. a).
and

111.

The

Pronominal
*

Particles
'

dont
for
de
'

ou."Deni
a

(Lat. de-unde)
of
'

whence
which,
d

is often

used

with
; and
or
^

relative

in

ense

of

(from)
used
to

of whom,

whose
a

ou

(Lat. ubi)
when,
est

is generally

for

(or dans)
or

and
in
de

relative
of
vous

interrogative
to
mort

with

reference
"

place

time,

sense

where,
parlez
ou

which.'

Ex.

Uhomme

dont
you
speak

(=

qui)
La

'The

man

of whom loge
'
"

is dead.' where which

maison

(=

dans

laqueUe) je
Note
a

The

house
'

(in which) ') is

I live.' by

1.

Whose

(*of

rendered

dont,
The
as

or,

after

preposition, of the

by

duquel
is in

(de
both

laquelle,
cases

etc.).
same

construc

sentence

the

if

of

'

whom the
son

were (etc.)

used

in English,
"

observing

that
le p^re
avec

dcmt
est

must

head
The

relative

clause.
father
'

Ex.

Le

JUs dont
Vhomme
son

malade

whose

is sick.'

le

JUs duquel
arrived.'

vous

Ues

arrivi
2.
"

The

man

with
'

whose
and

you
'

have

Note

D'ol/

means

'

whence

par

ou

by

which,

where.'

58

SECOND

PART.

[112

Indefinites.

112.

The

Indefinites

are

of

three
b.

kinds,
Pronouns
as

viz.

"

a.

Adjectives
with
a

(combined

noun)

(construed

nouns)

112.]

PRONOUNS.

59

c.

Adjectives

or

Pronouns.

m. m.

nu/f f. nuUe
auGun,

f.

none (rarelypi.)no, aucune (rarelypi.)any

us'ly

with

ne

one

(with
with

ref

to

distinct

noun)

no,

nobody,

none,

usually

/le

S.
PI. S.
PI.

m.

tout,
touSy

f. toute f
. .

every,

all, everything

m.
m.

toutes

all
.
.

te/, f

telle

^^.
'

^^

^^^ ^^^^
et Vautre
unes

m.telSytteUesi
m.
m.

S. PI.

run
les
uns

at I'autre,

f. Vune
.

both
both
kinds

et les autres,

f les

et les autres

S.

m.

f.

p/usieurs

several

NoTB

1.

"

As

seen

above, and

about

one

half

of the

indefinite

pronouns

do

ot

distinguish Note
or

gender The

number.
"

2.

"

adjectives
noun
"

as

also
be

the
used

pronouns

if referring
for either

to

precedin

following But

may

indifferently refer
to

persons
tout

things.

pronouns

used
a

absolutely
sense.

persons

alone,

and

rien excepted,

which
"

have

neuter

Note

3.
to

Lon
insert in

for
a a

on.

"

It

is customary,
V before
on

though
when

largely by
a",

optional,
word
"

euphonic vowel-sound,
et

preceded
et,
si,

^nding
Ex. is preferred,

especially

by Pon
:

ou,

que.

si Pon

dit;

(t always
by
an

silent)
^sound

dit. e.g. si
a

On,
on

ever, howdit;

if followed
to

Va

and

qu^on

is preferred
dU; que
now

que

Von,

except

before

A:-sound:

e.g. qu^on
This
was

Pon

commence.

/', though
once

purely

euphonic,
on,

is virtually by

the
noun

definite

article,

"vhich

freely

used

before

as

origin
"

(Lat. homo).

Note

4.

"

Aucun,
a

personne,

rien.
^any

Aucun
one,

(adj., or
*

pron.

referring

to

distinct

noun)
*

anybody,'

personne
are

(pron. used
then

indefinitely) anybody/
with
^no,

and

rien
the
"

anything,'
'

usually

construed resp.
also

ne
no

(placed before
one;
"

verb)
nothing.'
ne

not,'

and
This

mean

nobody;

meaning

they

have,

by

ellipsis, without

whenever

the

verb

is omitted,

and

in certain

phrases.

"

Ex.

60

SECOND

PABT.

[112, 113.
remains
no

Aucun

ami

ne aucune

me

reste,

No

friend
loves

for
of these

me.

21 n^aime n^aime
n'ai

de

ceaJUles.

He He

one

girls.

personne.

loves

nobody,

Je

rien.
vient?

I have

nothing,
comes are

Qui
quoi

Personne.
f

Who

Nobody.
thinking

periseZ'Voibs

What

you

of ?

rien,
a

Nothing. cr44 le monde


de

Dieu

rien

God

has

created

the

world

of

(rien here
Note
*

noun).
Tout
may
mean
'

nothing.
'

6.

"

every,
to

any,

all,
as

whole,

everything
in the

(as

adverb

wholly

') according
particulars

its construction, the

described

Syntax.

For

further

about

indefinite

pronouns,

of. Syntax.

VIIL VEEBS.

[113.

HISTORY.
but

"

The

Latin
not

verb

appears such

in
a

French
sweeping
a

considerably
reduction
as

remodelled,

its forms

have

suffered
actual

those
*

of other
I
am

parts

of speech.

The

loss

of

synthetic
the
use

form of

(like
verb-

mor

loved,'

etc.) is
*1
am

generally
loved,'

compensated

for by

hrases
a new

(je

suis aim"

etc.),

or,

exceptionally,

by
more

the

creation

of

synthetic of
the

form

(like
verbs

aimer-ai:
as

cf.

A).
with

The
the

important
are

eatures

French

compared

Latin

those

described
A.

below. Remodelling.

General

All
:

the

synthetic alone

forms excepted

of
"

the
are

passive
lost
in

its past

participle
The

(Lat. amatus
voice

Fr.

aim")

rench.
the
a

passive

is there

made
'

periphrastically,

as

in
*

English,

aid

of the
not

auxiliary
uncommon
are
*

kre

be

(Lat.

amari

Fr.

etre

aim"

be

loved past of

*)

practice
in the

already

in vulgar
manner,

Latin.

Some
by the

of

the

enses

active

also, in like

expressed

aid loved

the
""

uxiliary

avoir
the

'have

(Lat.
the

amaveram

Fr./auai*
gerund
verbs

aim"*l
has

had

')"
the

arther,

supine

has

disappeared,

the

coalesced all

with

resent

participle,

and
Fr.

deponent
inflected

have

assumed

active

orms

(Lat.
Latin

imitari:

imiter^

like
lost

aimer).
in French
; but

The

form

for the

future

is also

it is replaced

another

synthetical
the

future

form.
amare

Already

in

the
to

vulgar

Latin had

of

the
en*

6th

century,

expression

habeo

I have

love

'

almost

113.]
the

VERBS.

61

tirely supplanted
all adopted

regular
this
manner

future

amabo

I shall

lore.'
and

The

Romance
the

ongues

of expressing

futurity,

in French

wo

elements main,

n the

into one (aimer 4- at) early coalesced its own inflexion). Their independent and
the ago. in
'

(atmerat,at
value
was

retaining,

then

faded

out

f memory,
a

composite
"

nature

of the
French

future

rediscovered which
amare

only has
no

bout

century

Similarly
Latin,
was

the

conditional,
the

xact

equivalent Fr.

formed

from

phrase

habebam

(in

aimer-ais

I should

love

').
there
remain
amo,

Of

Latin

synthetical

forms

in

French
amavi

the
:

present,

fect, imperaimaiSf
:

and

perfect present
the

indicative

(Lat.

amabanif

Fr.

ai'me,

aimai), the
the

and

pluperfect

ime,

aimasse),
present

imperative
past

subjunctive (Lat. amem, (ama: aime), the infinitive

amavissem

Fr.

(jamare:
:

aimer),
as

nd

and endings

participles
are

(ace. amantem,
distinguished,
changes, the
-ona

amatum

aimant,aim").
main, in

Personal

in

French

in

the

Latin,

allowing,
toward

of

course,
as

for
that

phonetic
reducing
one,

and

for

certain

cies tenden1st

uniformity,
-tmuSf

Lat.

endings

of

the

pi.
but

present,
'Umu8

-amtis,

from

as

in
by

sumus).
analogy,
s

-itnus, Among
"

into

(virtually from
changes

neither,
may

more

anomalous
with

be

mentioned

here:
an

apparently, after
verbs
au,

the

2d

singular
to

of
1st

personal
singular

enses,

organic

(or, x,
of most

eu)

was

added
the I

the

present
:

and
Fr.

preterit

outside the
stem

of

conjugation
terminated

(e.g.Lat.
in
also
-s

nimpo

pres.

romp-s), unless, Jin-is: cf. below) ; to


of
a

indeed,
the Ist

already

(e.g

singular
:

imperfect
Fr.

(hence
; and
en

conditional
sing,

1 1 verbs

(e.g.Lat.
most

rumpebam
oir-verbs,
:

rompais)
dona
:

to

2d

imperative
:

of
Fr.

re-verbs,
;

and

er-verbs
; Lat.

before
Fr.

(e.g. Lat.
but

rumpe

romps

Lat.
$

recipe

Fr.

re^ois
in the

donne,

don^

ea-en,

cf.

127).
like the

This

has

persisted

language
others

in spite
to have

of the

efforts

of authors

Comeille,
ending
in

Moli^re,
4,

Racine,

and of

it removed.
sing,

Further,

characteristic lost
in the

the
and

3d

person preterit

in

Lat.

(ama-t, etc.) is
of
the

French

present

indicative
and

of

verbs

first
of all
a

subjunctive
before

conjugation, and in the (e.g.pres. il aimq, pret. verbs


subject-pronoun
it is then written
this
as

future

indicative
fut.

present

t7 aima,

il aimera,
in analogy

etc.)
with

Only

following
it, but

t is restored,

forms

preserving

if simply

euphonic

(e.g.a-t-il^
divided
into

aime't-il, aimori-il,
B.

etc.). Historically, Conjugations.


and
a

the
The

French former,
has,

verbs

may

be

living

dead

conjugation.
verbs latter,

comprising, the all

originally,
times, been

derivatives

of Latin
on

in and
its

-are

and

-ire,

from

oldest
new

encroaching
the

the

has
own

also
resources

appropriated
or

verbs

formed
and
latter

within

language

from
to

borrowed

from

without,
The

made

all these

conform

one

of its two

models

of

inflection.

62

SECOND

PART.

[113, 114.

coiDprising,
verbs,

originally,
besides
a

Latin few
'

verbs others,

in
as

-ere,

-^re,
not

now

consists
to

of
the

such

of

these

have

yielded

unifying

tendencies

of the

'

living the

or

growing

and

encroaching comprising

conjugation.
more

It is natural

that
verbs,

living

conjugation,
only
it is
other

than

four-fifths
should regular
-re,

of

all French
be

and

implying
but

two

models
to

of
count

inflection,
to

also

called
one

the large

regular;
group being

customary

the

verbs

also

of

the

conjugation,
regularly
do
not

viz. verbs
to

in
one

the

great

majority
are

of these
counted

inflected that

according conform
to

model.
three

As

irregular of the

all verbs

any

of the

models
The

Begular

conjugation.
verbs
to
can

infinitive
in
-er

of French

end
6600

only
out

in

-er,

-/", -re,

or

-oir.
of
about

Verbs

(amounting

about
at

of the
Latin
a

whole verbs

number

7500

French
many

verbs)
Latin

included
verbs

first and

only

in

-are.

Later,

however,

in
have

-ere

-ifre, and
to

number
-er

of

Germanic,
All,
except

and

of

new-created
er,

verbs,
one

been of
more

added

the

class.

aller, envoy
Verbs
also, well
as

follow

model
to

conjugation.
than Latin

in
by of

-tr

(amounting
of

600)
verbs
verbs.

consist

of
-^re,

Lat.

verbs

in

-ire,

and

transfer,

several

in

-ere,

-esc^re,

{-iscire)
most

as

Germanic,
greatly
-esc-

and

new-created
by these

In

their
-escere

inflection

of

them

have

been

influenced

the

verbs
in

in

(-iscere).The
changed
to

inchoative

syllable
into

(-I'sc-) of

verbs,

French

ts(^s)
imperfect

has

entered
indicative

the

present-forms
great

(the
of
e.g.

infinitive
the

of the
its

having

resisted

majority intercalation):
:

excepted) and (only 24 simple tr-verbs


Jlorescimus
: :

the

verbs

liAt,

"t.

Jleurissons ;
The

but

also

JjaX.

Jinimus

Jinissons ;

ItSit. dgimus
an

Yr.

ag/ssons,

etc.

choa in-

syllable
by
a

(no
vowel,

longer

imparting
t

inchoative
hence

followed

otherwise

(s) :

t^^ whenever sense) Jloresco : Jleuris ; Jlorescit:

is

fleurit; ago:
Verbs
in

ag-is,
-re

etc.
to

(amounting

about

325)
one

come

from
of
or

Latin

verbs

in

-ire

or

ere.

About
Verbs in in

two-thirds
-oir (55) differ more
come

of these
from
or

follow

model

conjugation.
-ifre.

Latin

verbs

in

-ere

All

the

primary

verbs

-oir

less in^their

mode

of

conjugation.]
verbs, like
some

114.

With

regard

to

their

use,

French
'

English,

re

either

Transitive
a

Q
In

going

over

to,

affecting

object :
be
either

having i.e.)
direct

direct

object, or
special
uses

Intransitive,
these
as

accompanied

by-

object.
having
or a

verbs

may

Reflexive,

reflexive

pronoun

their

(direct or

indirect

object,
U

Impersonal,
their

having

the

indefinite

(^non-per sonal')

'it' for

subject.

115-118.]
115.
The of

VERBS.

63

conjugation
Voice,
and

of

verb

involves,

as

in

English,

distinction For their

Mood,
meaning

Tense,
the

Nnmber
student

and

Person.
directly

form

is referred

to the

paradigms

below.
of

116.

Classification
of verbs for

French
purposes

Verbs.
means a
manner

"

The

cation classifimore

practical
arrangement

nothing
as

less

than

their

in such

to

be
that

most

easily

learned.
number
as

This

is accomplished
may be
each

by

so

grouping

the
as

greatest

possible

conjugated
representing
as

by
a

the

aid

of

few

type-verbs
while

practicable,

regpular
treated

con-

juga
by

the

remaining

verbs

irreg^^ar

are

themselves.
Note 1. also
"

The
to

same

principle

of
verbs.

classification
Thus,
as

to

some

extent
seen,

may
verbs though

be

pplied 4

the

irregular
so
on,

will

be

30 alike,

in

indre,

in
as

reated

-oirf and irregular.


"

are

all

conjugated
or

precisely

[Note

2.

Verbs

that

are

regular
an

irregular

according point

to

the be

actual
the
very

tate

of the

language

may

from verbs
verbs

historical
in fact

of view
their

pposite.

Many
many

regular irregular

have
have
not

deviated
to

from
it.

old

tion, conjugaand the

while

adhered confused.

The

actual

istorical
A

point

of view

should

be

good
vitality

historical
as

classification
not
on

of

the

French
to

verbs,

based

on

their

wn

models,
recent

their

adherence

old

models

(cf. 113, B),


etc.), is
that
-er

nd

adopted
The

in

historical

grammars

(Brunot, CMdat,

f A.

Living

Conjugation

nd

root-extending

("/a conjugaison worte"),


classification
that

-ir verbs including

("/a conjugaison vivante"), including The Dead Conjugation (119, a), and 6.
-re,

-oivy and

radical
coinciding
other

-ir

verbs. with the

"

The above

ractical

followed
by

below and

(nearly
some

historical)is
117.
The

adopted

Mfttzner

recent

authorities.
classified,
follows
:

French
the
or

verbs

are

most

conveniently

according

to

termination

of their

infinitives
all
whose

as

[118.]
of
:

1st

er-Class,
in
^

comprising
language
"

verbs

"

about
ends

6500
in

ut

the

7500

the

infinitive

er

e.g.

aim-er
Only

love.'
two

Irregvlar.

verbs

of

this

class

(a//e^

'

go,'

cnuoycr

send

')

are

rregular.

64

SECOND

PART.

[119-122.

[119.]
whose of two
a.

nd

600 than more all verbs /"-Class, comprising in 4r : e.g. fin-ir ' finish.' infinitive These ends verbs
or
"

re

distinct
or

sorts,

viz.

Regular

Moot-extending
forms

ir-verhsy which
and

all

"

about

660

in their
but extend

present
the

(the subjunctive excepted) and


adding
to

imperative

clu in-

infinitive
root

in their

imperfect
iss
or

ative indicis

the

by

it the

syllable
instead
is

(of

inchoative
b.

origin,
or

cf. 113,

B)

e,g.Jin-is(8y
whose
to

of simplyj^n-.
never

Irregular
90
verbs

Radical

ir-verbs^

root-form this

extended. divided,
are

Nearly
their

(only
into

24

simple)

belong

division.

Being
they

in

turn,
as

several

discordant

groups

(cf. 169, 160),

all

classified

irregular.

[120.]
Irregvlar.
the

md

or

re-Glass,
ends
a

comprising
-re

all verbs
'

"

about

326

"

whose

infinitive
About

in

e.g.

romp-re

break.'
deviate into
more or

third and

of
are,

these

verbs

(36 simple)
turn,

less

from

model

verb,

in

their

subdivided

discordant

groups

(cf. 169

d,

160).
or

[121.]

IV th

o/V-Class,
ends in

comprising
-oir:

all verbs
recevoir
some

"

about

bb As

"

whose

infinitive primary
the

e.g.

'receive.'
peculiarity

all

the

verbs
class

of this

class
as

have

of their

wn,

whole
"

is treated

irregular
French,

(cf.160, d).
verbs

Note. forming

In

some

grammars,

especially

in

-oir

are

classified
the
the

the
Its verb

III

regular

conjugation

(those
a

in

-re

then

forming
re-

IV

th).

model

verb

is recevoir

'receive,* which model


is

compound
not

of
use

and

primary

Becevoir,

-cevoir however, serves


and in

(Lat. capere),
as
a

in

alone:

cf.

161.

perfect

only

for

other

compounds

of

-cevoir

(4),

the

main

for

devoir.

The

regular

and

irregular

verbs

will

be

described

separately

below.

Regular

Verbs.
"

122.

Simple
made

Verb-forms.
the
are

The

simple

verb-forms auxiliaries,
as

(i.

those

without

aid
made

of by

independent

in

English verb

love,

loved)

adding
endings with

to

different

stems

of

the

certain
by

endings.
heavy

These

(in
few

the

paradigms

below

marked
for

type)

are

exceptions

ideu^

tical

all verbs.

23.]
1 23.
:

VERBS.

65

As

model-verbs
'

for
'

the

three
'

regular
'

verb-classes
^

may

erve

I. aim-er

love

; II. fin-ir

finish

5 III. romp-re

break.'
the

Verbs

of the

I and

III

conjugation

have
the
II

two

stems

one

[aim', romp-^, and the other of the (or romp-re-)'].Those omp-r4s(s) [Hn-y fin-ir-y ffn-is(s)-'].

adical

infinitive
have,

[aim-er-,
one

besides,

in

1 2

For This

the
t

different
is

origin

of the

Pres.
c,

and d,
*

the
t

Pret.

Jinis,cf.
nearly

113,

B.

always
as

dropped

after

(i.e.in
') etc.
as |lnal

all

verbs

of

III
^

conjugation),
In
verbs

il vend

(from

vend-re
as
e,

sell

ai not

final pronounced

but

"

(cf. 16).

^
^

Cf. foot-note
The

3 of page

preceding. dependent
on

generally subjunctive,
rendered according

some sense

preceding

expression,

is variously

to the varied

of that

expression

(cf.

256,
^

etc.).
For
the different origin pf the Pres. and

118, B). Impf.^niMe (cf.

123,

124.]

VERBS.

67

PI. 1.
2.

nous vous

aim-ions
aim-tez

nous vous

jvnriss-ions fin^iss-i'ez Jin-iss-ent

nows vous

romp-tons

romp-iez
romp-ent

3. Us

airnrsnt

Us

Us

Imperfect
1.

S.

faim-asse
I

jejin-isse^
(might, love)
^

je romp-isso

loved
should

I finished

(etc.)

I broke

(etc.)

2. 3.

tu

aim-asses

tu

fin-isSBS

tu

romp-isses
romp-H

ilaim-at
nous
vous

Ufin-7i
nous

U
nous

PI. 1.
2.

airrirassions
aim-asstez

fin-issions

romp-issions
romp'issiez

3.

Us

aim-asseni

vousfin-issiez Us fin-isseni
Imperative

vous

Us

romp-issent

(Present)
!

S.

2.

aim-e
airn-ons

love
let

fin-isfinish
love
!

romp-S

break!

PI. 1.
2.

us

fin-iss-ons fin-iss-ez

romp-ons rompsz

aim-ez

love

Infinitive (Present)
aim-er

(to)

love

fin-ir finish
PABTICIPLES

romp-re

break

Present
aim-ant
loving finishing fin-iss-ani

romp-ant

breaking

Past

aimr4
124.
The

loved

fin-i finished
which of all French
amasmes
occurs

romp-u

broken

circum^x

in

the

1st

and the

2d
loss

pi. preterit

and

3d

sing,

imperfect

subj.
is for infiuence is for

verbs

denotes
"

of

an

Old
:
s

French

s.

Thus,

aimdmes
the

(for amames
the

Lat.

amavimus
amastes

intercalated amavis-

through and

of

2d

pi.) ;

aim"tes

is for

(Lat.

; tit)

aimAt

amast

(L. amasseC).
3

See

foot-Dote

1, p. 66.

See

foot-note

2, p. 66.

68

SBCOiH)

PART.

[125-129.
Changes.
itself,
or

126,

Phonetic
changes of denoting
mute

and

Orthograpj^ic
the sound
are

"

The the
:
"

following

affecting

simply viz.

manner

it in writing,
and
e
are
or e

to

be

observed,

[126.] E
made

before
with
"

syllable

containing
I and
t

an

mute

open
to
^

(=

^,

following
mener
voils meneZy
^
^

doubled),
je
mhne^ fut. cede,
:

according

35, which
nous

see.

Ex.

lead
Us

'

pr.

tu

mines
menerai,

il mibne;
tu
meneras,

menons,

menent

je

etc.

"

coder

yield':
"

pr.

je

tu

cedes,

etc. ; fut.
tu

je

cederai

(4, 35), etc.


nous

appeler
appelons^
^

'calP
vous

pr.

j^appelle^

appelles^
fut.

il appelle;

appelez^

Us

appe/lent;

j^appellerai,

jeter

throw':

pr.

je jetfe;

fut.

je jetterai.
"

Note.

Of

verbs

in

-e/er and
an

-eter

some
e

double

/ and
for
the the
mute
'

f
,

some

take verb.

e,

or

both

methods of 90

of expressing
verbs,

open

are

used

same

Thus,
and
'

out

simple

48

double
especially *buy,'

/ and

t before
'

syllable,
peler
e,

of

the

remainder,
'harass';

16

(note
acheter

celer haleter
so

hide,'

geler
change

freeze,'
e

peel,' 20

harcder

*pant')
the

to

while the

others

becqueter, (bosseler,

etc.)

do

in

present,

but

not

in

future

and

conditional.

[The
is

doubling
in
now

of / and

t is originally

due

to

the

existence
this

of

double
principle

consonant

Latin

(cf

ape/fare, several
-e

jactare),though
cases.]
as

etymological

disturbed Imperatiyes
an

in

[127.]
an

in

(as well
'Give
But

the

irregular

'

va

go
en

! ') are
or

extended
note

by

a
"

before Ex.

appended
a

objective
some

particle
to

(cf.27,
tes

5.

b).

Donnes-en
attention
to
'

Jean

John.'

Donnes-y

soins
some.'

'Give
en

thy

it.'

Envoie

en^chercker

'Send

to

find

Va

(prep.)
noted,

France p. 113, added,

Go

to
s,

France.'
which
is
case,

[As

this

regular
in false

in

the

2d

Imperative
with
the

of
sing,

re-

verbs,

has

been

in
"

either
The
s

analogy
to

2d

of

he

present

indicative.
In

of tr-verbs
e

belongs of

the is

inchoative

stem.]
though

[128.]

future

and

conditional, by
a

-erai^s)
then

sometimes, the

arely,

dropped

if preceded

vowel,

which

takes

circumflex

hus,

louerai

or

(chieflyin poetry)
Verbs
wherever

lourai,
c

[129.]

a.

in

-cer

and

-ger

change
otherwise

and

g to

(f and

ge

respectively
at,

they
r

would

be

hard

before (i.e.
menacais,

o).
"

Ex.
'

menace
'

'threaten':
;

m,enaoons;

etc. J manger

eat

mangeons

mangeais,

etc

129-135.]
b.

VERBS.

69

Verbs
'

in

"guer
'

and

-guer

retain
*

gu

and
'

qu

even

before

a,

o,

u.

"

x.

Jatiguer

tire

fatiguais ;
the

manquer

fail

manquais,
before

[130.]
M.
"

In
Ex.

vaincre

^-sound

is written but vaincu.

with

qu

any

vowel

except

vainquanty

vainquis,
y of
an

[131.]
e
*

The

semivowel
this change

infinitive

efore

mute,

being

optional,
:

-yer however,
or

in

is

usually after
a

changed
and
e.
"

to

Ex.

oyer

drown':

pr. note;

payer

*pay'

pr. joa/'e

(less commonly)
following
in

paye,

1 32.

Minor
regular

Irregularities.

"

The
so

verbs
usual

being

almost

(two

of

them

entirely

their

sense)

re

conveniently

described
II:

here

[133.] Conjugation
Benir
'

"

1.

bless
sense
*

'

is in the
'

past

participle

regularly

b^ni,

or

irregularly

b^nit

in the

of
'

consecrated.'

F/eurir

blossom

changes

its root
indicative
*

to (^Jleur-) Jlor- in

the

present if

particip

and figuratively

imperfect
in the
sense

(fiorissanty Jlorissais, etc.),

used

of

fiourish.'

3. Ha/r

*hate'

drops

its diaeresis
and imperative
etc. ;
"

(6)
imp

in

the

singular

of
tu

the

present
it haii ;

indicative
nous

(pr. ind. je
v.

hais^

hais^

hatssons,

hais^

haissonSy

etc.)

[134.] Conjugation
The personal
after
a

III

"

ending radical

t of
c

the

3d

sing,

present

indicative
most

is

dropped
of

(in vaincre),d (occurring in


t;

verbs

this

conjugation), and
present

and

radical

tt is

in

the
to
L

singular Ex.
vaincre

of the

indicative

and

imperative

reduced

1.

'conquer':

ind.
c

pr. j"

vaincs,
qu

tu

vaincs, any

il "ainc,
vowel,

etc.,

observing
u

everywhere

that

becomes

before
but

except

(130)

vainquons,
*
'

vainquez,
:
'

vainquent;
tu

vaincu:

(cf. 161, list).


etc.
etc.

2.

vendre baftre
*

sell strike

ind.
:

'pr.jevends,
b(xts,
tu

vends, il bat;

il vend,
nous

3.

je

bats,

battons,

136.

Principal

Parts.
Present of
a

"

The

Present Infinitive,

Participle,

Past

Participle^

Indicative^

and

Preterit

are
serve

called
as

the key-

principal

parts

verb,

because

they

may

70

SECOND

PART.

[135-137
forms

forms, be The

by
made

tlie aid
out.

of which,

all

other

regular

of

verb

can

method

of such parts of

derivation
aimer

is illustrated

below
by

by
their

giving aid

the

principal
Parts:

and

the

forms

made

Princ.

Debited

Forms:

Inf

'mar

"

G-"-^^ i ^^*' f^'"^^'*'^^


( cond.
( pr.subi.
"""""/..';,..;. (

"^*

after
-ais

r).
r).
for
for
o

fai'mer-ais (i.e.dd a
;W/ii-e
i

after
-e

o 2.

T"

"

Fr.

4.

Ci.e. substitute

part,

atm-ant

-awO. (

impf

ind.

/a//n-ais (i.e. sub.


tenses,
.i

-ais etc.

-ant).

3.

Past

part,

a/me

compound

fai
i.i./ir

aim4,

4.

Pr.

ind.
"

fa/me
"^
^^

}
-

"

,.

(cf.note
-o
.

1)
.,
.

i
.

imp've ^

aime

throughout 8

(cf. v

j,

^\

note

1).
j

K 5.

Pret.

( impf.
mm
:

ind.

fat

subi. faima-sse "'


"^
.

(i.e. add ^

-sse

to

the

I
Note
1. As

stem
the

cf. note

2).
ind.
as

"

is already

seen,

pi. of present
the
same

of

/r-verbs
the

is itself part,

irregular, part,
to

being

virtually
:

formed

from pi.

stem
"

present

(pr.

finiss-ant
consider

pr.

ind.

finiss-ons,
as

etc.).
of
the
verbs.
to

It

is, indeed,

helpful
pros,

always

the

pr.

part,

the

basis

plural

of

the

ind.

and

imperat.
2.
"

in both
-sse

regular

and

irregular
is added

Note

The

of the
pret.

impf.

subj.
its last

the

pret.

stems

aima-,

Jini-frompi136.

the (i.e.

without

letter).
are,

Impersonal used
Among
*

Verbs.
in
more

"

The person

impersonal singular
may be

verbs
with

in

French

as

in

English,
*

only
the

the

3d
common

the here
:

impersonal
'

subject
it is
snows,'

il

it.'

noted

tl neige

il gele

it freezes,'
'

/*/pleut

(irreg.)*it
'

rains';

il faut
*

(irreg.)*it
'

necessary,'

il importe
it is
'

it is of
'

importance
and such

; il semble

it appears
a*

il/ait (irreg.
is
'

(lit.

'

it makes

such

weather)

; il y

there

etc.

137.
the

Compound
auxiliary

Verb-forms
verb
past
avoir
'

(= Verb-Phrases).
have
^

"

By

using

or

Hre
a

'

be/ conjugated
the

usual,

before

the

participle forms
are

of made.
the

verb,
To

compound
these,

active
must

and

all the
therefore

passive

describe of
two

anticipate

here
to

conjugation
irregular

auxiliar

which

properly

belong

the

verbs.

137.]

VERBS.

71

In

verbs

-affinal

pronounced

as

/, but

not

final

as

(cf. 16).

72

SECOKD

PART.

[13
nous
vous serons serez

PL

1.

rums
voiLS

aurons aurez

2. 3.

Us

auront

Us

serorU

Conditional
Sing.
1.

faurais
I should

je

serais

(would)

haye

I should

(would)

be

2. 3.
PI. 1.
2.

tu

aurais

tu

serais serait
serions

il aurait
wows vows

U
nous

aurions auriez

voics

seriez seraient

3.

i7s auraienb

Us

SUBJUNCTIVE

Present

Sing.

1.

faie

je

sois

I have

(may

or

I be

(am,

may
etc.

or

shall

have)
tu

shall

be),

2.
3. PI.

tu

ales

sois

il ait
nous vous

il soit ayons ayez


nous
vous

1.
2.

soyons soyez
soimt

3. Us

aient

Us

Imperfect
Sing.
1.

feusse
I had

je fusse
(might,
should
I
were

(was, etc.)

have)
2. 3. PI.
1.
2.
tu
eusses

tu

fusses

U
nous

eUt eussions

UfOi
nous vous

fussions
fussiez fussent
i

vous

eussiez

3.

i'Zs eussent
1

Us

Cf.

foot-note,

p. 71.

137-139.]

VERBS.

73

IMPERATIVE

Present

Sing. PL

2.
1. 2.

aie

have let have

!
us

sois be !

ayona ayez

have

soyons soyes

let be !

us

be !

INFINITIVE

Present
avoir

(to)have
PARTICIPLES

^tre

(to)be

Present
ayant

having

4tant

being

Past
eu

(pr.w)
"

had

^t^ been

[138.
and

HISTORY.
whose
h

^t^oiVis

from
to
v

Latin

Aa6ere,
and

whose

h is lost throughout,
yocalized
to

is changed

(in
are,

fut.
as

cond. made
or

u),

or

ost.

The

future
aver-

and
=

conditional
auV-,

usual, present

from

the

infinitiye

(Old French "tre has


=

auT')^ and
at

the

imperfect
verbs
*

its forms
estre,

from
*

least
stare
essere,

three

different
Fr.
etc.

esse

(-at, -ais). (vulg. Lat.


fut
Lat.
*

ssere

Fr.

etre)
of
etre

be,'

(Old
suts

ester)
from

stand,'

and

was.'

he

derivation

from
and

sum

(vulg.

sui
As

in

nalogy
other

with/"i)
forms
stortum ;

etc.,

of
are

fus, fusse
not

from
agreed
est-;
ai

fui^fuissem
:

is clear.
"tant,

for
from

he

scholars ",ais

quite

probably possibly
essere,

et"
^

tant-evfij

from

the

radical
^

and

serai
estre

as

in
the

panish,

from.

sedere

'sit'

{seder- scr-)+

(since

gave

ld form

estr-ai),
The
on

139,

Compound
the
same
^

Active
principles
as

Tenses
in
English,

are

formed
the

in
of

French,

by

aid

auxiliary,

avoir
the

have,' verb.

and
"

the

past

participle
compound

(about which
tenses

cf.

141)
are

of
:

main

Thus,

the

of

aimer

74

SECOND

t"ART.

[139,140

INDICATIVE

Comp.

Present

Comp.

Preterit loved

fai
tu
ds

aim4 aim4

I have

loved hast loved

f^^

"*^^
^

I ^ad

thou
etc.

Comp.

Future

faurai
Comp.
aim4

aim6

I shall

have

loved

Imperfect
I had

q^^^

Conditional
have

favais

loved and

faurais
so
on.

airrU I should

loved

140.
formed, and
Each the

The
as

Passive
in English,

Voice.
by the

"

The

passive
of
an

tenses

are

also

aid

auxiliary,
of the

dfre
main

'be,' verb.

past

participle
is termed

(about which
like the
tenses
are,

cf.

141)
also

tense

corresponding
as

tense

of 4tre, English,

The the

compound compound

passive
active

in

made the

by

forms

of

itre

(fai

4te,

etc.)and

past

participle

of the

main of aimer

verb.
is
:

Thus,

the

passive

INDICATIVE

Present
Simple
Passiyb
'

Tbnsbs:

Compound
'

Passive
^

Tenses:

je

suis
es

aim4
'

am

loved

fai
tu
as

4t4 aim4

I have

been

loved

'

tu

aim4

thou
etc.

art loved

'

4t4 aim4

thou
etc.

hast

been

loved

'

IMPEBFECT

fitais

'

aim4

was

loved

'

favais
PRETERIT

4t4 aim4

I had

been

loved

'

je fus

aim4

was

loved

'

feu^

4t4 aim4

I had
etc.

been

loved

'

etc.

141,

142.]

VERBS.

75

141.

The

past

participle
or

(awU,

etc.)
The with

is in

compound

verb-

forms

changeable it agrees

unchangeable.

general the word

principle

is

that

in gender

and
is

number

it qualities^

provided have
a.

that
the
active

word

already
rule the
:

mentioned.

Hence

following

definite

In

construction,

past

participle

agrees

with

preceding

la)

aim^

(not a following) direct object : e.g. je Pai (V for le I have loved him or (or her) ; je les (m. aim4e
'
'

f.)ai
b.
In

aimSs
passive

or

'

aimSes
construction

I have

loved
it agrees

them.' with the


even subject, U) it follows

when

by

inversion
:

(except
^

after
'

the she
'

impersonal

the

participle
or

e.g. e//a est aim4e

is loved
b4nie
saved

'

; Us

sont (elles)

aim4s

aim4es
!
^

they

are

loved

; qiie

soU
me

la main
! ' ; but,

qui
U
a

nCa

8auv4

blessed

be

the
une

hand

that
a

has

Hi

fa/t

une

emplette

(=

emplette

H4faite)

^a

purchase

has

been

made.'
in

Where

active

construction
unchanged
:

there
e.g.

is

no

preceding
cette

object,
*

the

past

participle

remains

fai

aim"

Jille

have

loved

tlii

girl.'

[HISTORY.
the word

"

The
'
=

past
'

participle
the

is

verbal

adjective (cf. *I

have

written

letter

have

letter

written

')

and

originally habeo

agreed

with

the

qualified,
une

whatever
:
now

its position

(cf.Lat.

scriptatn the

epis-

olatn

=fai
to

"crite

lettre
as

^crxi). Gradually,
unchangeable of usage,
word in the
part

however, of
the
now

participle after being before


the
18th

ame

be

looked

upon

an

verb

; and

much

uncertainty
that

and

variation
with
to

the

principle if already
was

followed,
mentioned
in

virtually

it agrees began

the

qualified
15th, and

he

participle,

prevail

established

century.]
142.
the

iire

FOR

avoir.

"

few

intransitive
change
avoir,

verbs
of but
II

(chiefl
or

of

irregular
are

conjugation),
compounded 'He

denoting with

position
always

condition,
"

never

with
'He

dfre.

Ex.
'

II est aUS
or
'

is

(or has)
to

gone.'

est

mort

(has) died
These

He

is dead.'

verbs,

grouped

according

their

meaning,

are

76

SECOND

PART.

[142-146.
'

'

JdUer
^

go

tom^"er
*

fall

'

partir

depart
out

( nattre

'

be

bom
'

'

'

sartir
/

go
*

( 4clore
'

'

hatch
'

arriver
'

arrive
^

( mourir

die

'

"" entrer
*

enter
*

( d^c^der

decease

'

ventV

come

[143.]
the
case.

About
avoir

fifty other
when

verbs

of

a
a

similar
progress
with

kind of
etre

are

used
action the

(somewhat
expressed
reverse

freely)

with

emphasizing its result,

the

by

verb
"

rather Ex.

than
a

and
ce

when

is

the

//

grandi
*

pendant
has

temps

'He La

has

grown
a
*

during

this par

time.'
The

//

est

grandi

He

(is)
La

grown.'

procession
est

pass^

ici

procession

passed

here.'

procession

pass^e

The

procession

has

passed.'

144.
and
ace.

Reflexive
intransitive
or

(or

Reciprocal:
used
are

150)
a

Verbs."

tive Transipronoun

verbs

with

reflexive The
1

in the
se

the

dat. alike
2
vous,

respectively
for 3
ace. se.

reflexive.
are
:

forms
me,

of

pronoun,
nous,

and

dat.,

sing.

2 te,

pi. 1

[145.] The
;

conjugation
reflexive

of

the

refl6xive

verb

is

as

usual,

observing
1. that

the

pronoun

precedes
to

the
102.

verb,
E.g.
'

except
il
se

in

the he 2.

imperative
flatters
that

affirmative,
'

according
^

JUxtt

himself

flatte-toi flatter thyself


tenses
to
are

the
efre,

compound in English

formed

by by

the
'

aid
'

of
:

the

auxiliary

be

rendered
*

have

e.g.

s^esf

fiatt^ * he
their with

lias flattered

himself
"

3. that
agrees
s' est

past
a

participle

as

in compound

active

forms

preceding has

direct

elle

flattie 'she
^

flattered
to

s^est

dit

she

(has) said
an

herself the
one's

: object,if there be one herself but (se dir. obj.), (se indir. obj. dat.).
* =

e.g.

ell

[146.]
here

As
se

example
^

of

reflexive

conjugation

may

be

given

ff after

flatter

self.'

146,

147.]

YEBBS.

77

INDICATIVB

Simple

Tbiysbs

CoMPOirND

Tenses

Present

je meflatte
I flatter myself

je
tu thyself

me

suisflatt4(e)
JUxtt4(e)
ar SB

tu

tefloMes
thou

fes

flatterest

il

sejlatte
he

il
himself

(eUe)s^estJlaM4(e)
ft

flatters
nous

nous
we

flattons
ourselves

noiLS

nous

sommes

Jl(Ut4(e)s
s

flatter

vous

vousflattez
flatter yourselves

vous

vous

^tesflatU (e)s
sont

you

Us

seflattent
they
flatter themselves

lis

(eUes)se

flaU4(e)s

Imperfect

Jemeflattais
I flattered myself,
etc.

je m'4taisflatt4(e)
I had
flattered

myself,

etc.

Imperative

flatte-toietc. flatter

thyself,

jlattons-TKyuslet

us

flatter ourselves,
"

flattez^ous flatter yourselves.


so

[147.]

As

in English, nearly

also

in French may

several be and
much used

verhs
as

are

exclusively Yet
the

eflexive,

while

all

transitives
more
common

such.

refle

construction habitually
in English.
or

is much

important,
more

and

verbs

that

re

frequently As
examples

reflexive
may
s^arreter
se
*

frequent
the
*

in

French verbs
se

han

be

mentioned s'asseoir

following

(some
fight,'

of
se

them

irregular) :
*

stop,'
'

sit down,'
*

battre

coucher s*"crire
se

go
*

to

bed,'

dotUer

suspect,'
one

s*^crier

cry

out,'
*

s*"crouler
be
bored,

crumble,'

be

written,

write

(to)
to

another,'

s*ennuyer
get

eel, lonesome,'
se

/acher
'be

'grow

angry,*

se

lever

'rise,
se

up,'

se

plaindre

complain,' silent,' Note.


an
"

porter

(in respect
away*

health),'
and
161

se r^jouir'rejoice,'

iaire

be

s*en

oiler 'go should


or

(cf. 150

under

aller).
English

It

be

especially

noticed

that

when

transitives

ave

identical

kindred
a

intransitive
"

form,

the

latter

is regularly

rendered

in French
'

by
'

reflexive.

Ex,

'close

'

(tr.) /ermer, (intr.) sefermer;

raise

lever,

rise

se

lever ; etc.

78

SECOND

PART.

[148-152,
form
are
:

[148.]

Many
often
se

reflexive
transitive

verbs meaning

followed

by

prepositions Examples
a

expressions s'approcher
se

of special

in English.
s*

de 'approach/
*

douter
se

de
de

'suspect/
*

entendre

'be

judge of/

passer

de

do

without/
The

sermr

use.'

[149.]

reflexive

pronoun has
se,

is

in

French in

often
without

weakened assignable

dat.
reason.
:

of

relation
.

Cf

s*en

(dcUivus commodi) or it (where away aller go


'
'

slipped however,

is treated

as

an

ace.

eile

s'en

est

alUe).
[160.]
'

Reciprocal

Use

of

Reflexives. love
one one

"

Reflexive
on

forms
se

often
'they
are

denote

reciprocity:

Us s'aiment
'

'they
us

another;

bcU

fighting

; aimons-nous

let

love

another/

151.

Interrogative
pronoun but
it For the

Forms.
is
is

"

In

interrogative personal it by
noticed 6 before
as
a

forms, verb-form,

the

subject
in
'

placed
connected
rest,

after

the

as

English,
have
I ?

with

hyphen
only
the
one

(e.g
that
:

ai-je
a.

').
-e

the

it is to be
to

final
"

of
two
^

verb

is changed

affixed
.

pronoun Ex.

the

words
I love ?
'

being

really

treated

(cf 35)
the

aim4-je
When
the

do

b.

3d

sing,

terminates
t is,
a

in

vowel with
either
note

(e,a)
forms

lost

etymological
it, added,

termination though
a

in

analogy
on

preserving
as

with

hyphen

side,

if being
aime-

nothing
'

but
does he

phonetic

insertion

(cf.27,

5).

"

Ex.

t-il?

love

'

Thus:
INDICATIVE

Present
Simple
*

Forms

Compound

Forms

aim^'je ?
9

do
'

I love
thou

'

ai-je aim4
love
?
'
'

have
'

I loved thou

'

aimes-tu

dost
does
?
'

as-tu

aim4

hast
has

loved
?
'

'

aime-t'il?

he

love

a-t-il aim^f ?
'

he
f
'

loved
we

aimons-nous

do

we

love

avons-nous

aim4

have

loved

etc.

etc.

[162.]
common

Instead
to

of this

direct
a
'

interrogative
question
"

construction,

it is phrase

quite

introduce

by

placing
Mo
'

the

est-ce

que

is it that

(pr. ^*c'A:*) as

is

placed

in

152-156.]
before
Do

VERBS.

79

English
f

"

the
?

subject and
'

the

verb.

"

Ex.
rompu

Est-ce
9
^

que

je

romps

I break

Est-ce

que

je Vaurais

Should

I have

broken

it ?
common

'

Especially

is this the
1st

circumlocution
of the present

where ends

euphony
in two
or

requi

it

(as when
-ge),
In the
written,
or

sing,

consonan

or

in interrogations
language in popular this style

implying
circumlocution

surprise
is
more

denial.
common

Note.
in

"

spoken and

han

the
tense.

used

somewhat

indiscriminately

or any

153-

Negative
expressed
ne

Forms.
by
the vowel
or an

"

The
of
two

simple words,

negation viz. the

'not'

is

usually

aid
or

negative

particle

(jC before
personal

'mute')

placed

immediately it, and

before

the

verb
more

object-pronoun preceding

the

adverb the
not

pas

(or the
*

emphatic
"

point) placed
:

immediately

after
I do

personal

verb-form.
;

Thus
'

je

ne

finis pas
finished rules
*

(or point)
'

finish
*

je

n^ai

pasfini
"

I have

not

; il n'est

oint

aim4
"

he

is not
and
point

loved.'

For

further
Lat.

see
'

Syntax.
and
punctum
not
=

[NoTB.
point

Pas

(originallyfrom
the real

possum
ne.

step

')
=

simply
*

strengthen
' *

negative

Comp.

English

naught
154.

na

not

voiht

whit.']
Forms.
"

Negative particles,
as

Interrogative
as

These

are

made

hy

placing

the of

negatiye

above,

before 151.
?
'
"

and Thus:

after

the

interrogative

form
que pas

the

verb pas

described
*

under
love
'
"

n'cUme
dost

f)

do

I not
?
'

n*a{mes-tu
aim^f

pas

(or est-ce n'aimi-jepcuf f (or e8t"e que tu n'aimes

je

f)

thou

not

love
?

pas n*ai-je

(or est-ce

qite

je

n'ai pas

ainuft)

have

I not

loved

etc.

ISBEGULAB
1 56.
Verbs
as

YEBBS.

deviating regular
are

in their called

conjugation
irregfular.

from

those

already

described

166.

Their
stem,

irregularities, make
a

consisting

mainly

in

variation
in French

of the

difficult, but mastering


a

important,
few

chapter

accidence.

Yet,

by

guiding with
a

principles,
reference
to

and
those of the

studying

the

irregular
way

verbs, in groups
explained
below

principles,

in the

good

command

whole

field is readily

gained.

80

SECOND

PABT.

[157-159.
be
to
two

167.

The
:

irregular

verbs

may

referred

large

divisions

The
their

First

Division

comprises derived

verbs parts,

that
so

have
that

the the

same

stem
can

in

principal be made,

and

latter
of

always

in accordance
the

with

the

general
sentir
:

rules

deri

vation

(135), from
sent-ant:
plurality

former

inf. (e.g. and


verbs
so

fut. senJtir-ai

pr. part,
The

pr.

subj. sent-e,
irregular

on).
to

great

of the

belong

this class.

The
their

Second

Division
parts

comprises in
some

verbs
of

that

change

the
as

stem

of

principal in 160:

the

derived

tenses,

descr

e.g. inf. devoir:

fut. dev^r-ai;

pr. part,

dev-ant:

pr.

subj. doi"-e,
No

3 pi. pr. ind.

doiv-ent).

imperfect

ind.
except

no

imperative,

irregularly derived, (save savais) or subj. is ever and va (of oiler), and sache (of savoir) veuille (of vouloir)^

1 68.

These

two

divisions

with
where

their
the

sub-divisions
student while
he
can

are

farther
an

described
of the

below
their

in 159-160, chief of

have

easy

survey

irregularities,

should referring

study
to

in

detail

verbs

each

gronp

separately,

by

the

alphabetical

list of irregular student below,

verbs, notice

" 161.
that
are

^[^
B,

The

should
the

in

each

sub-division
in
a

(A,

etc.)

model-verbs
in ordinary
the

printed
type.
For

bold
first

type,
course

others,

conjugated
in the

like them,
only

he

is advised

to learn

former,

looking

them

up

for each

group

alphabetical
of their

list " 161


as

(afterunderstanding
explained
under the key-verbs

fully ing head-

the

principles of
an

description
the

that
easy

list).
"

Knowing

(altogether47), it
like them.
division preceded

is

task

to

acquire

those

conjugated
"

[159.]

The

First iV-verbs

Division.

To

this
-n",

belong by

a.

all irregular

(save
re-verbs the

those

in
-nir
boire,

vowel)
The

; b. all irregular

(save
is

faire).
syllable

tV-verbs b.
No

all

lack

stem-extending
common

119,

other

irregularity

-is(")
or

cf.

to

1 1 ir-

re-verbs.

159.]
The

VEBBS.

81

verbs
groups
"

of

this
:

division

may

be

studied

in

the

following

order, A.

A-E

/i//", entirely
part, and
whose

regular,

except

that

the

stem

is

fui- {fuy-

36)
B.

in pres.
"

forms

derivatives

from
the the

it.
root

iBrverbs

pres.
",

ind., being
follows

(oftenestwithout
and
v^tir
are

its

end-consonant) +
are

3d

conjugation,
that
sens.

which
the
^

otherwise
part.
vHu

regular
:

(observing159), except
:

has

past
:

e.g. sent-ir repentiVy

pres.

ind.

These
"

sentir

so

also mentir,
"

partir^

sortir^ aervir;
;
"

dormir

(reallylike sentir) ;
C.
"

"^iir (pres.vH-s)
pres.

bouillir
the
root

(pr.bovrs),
+
e,

iR-verbs

whose

ind.

being
past

follows

the

Ist

conjugation
in

; and

whose

part.,

if the ind.

inf. ends
couvr-e;

in

-rir,

terminates
convert.

part,

e.g. couvr4r: pres. -erf: These are: cueillir (pr. this


"

past

conveniently caeillre)^ is
(Meillerai

coimted

to

division

though
so

its also

fut.

(with
-^^

changed

assaillir
D.
"

couvrir: stem); (pr.assaill-e),


BE-verbs
having

ouvrir,

; offrir,souffrir

in their pres. part, anew


to

consonant-sound
di-re (e.g.
:

(inheritedfrom
and dis-ant) (e.g. naU^e:

Latin) added
supplanting
naiss-ant;

the

root-vowel

pres. that

part,

any

root-consonant

following
"

vowel

peind-re:

peign-ant).
order
-ire
:

Verbs

in

-uire, -dre, and These verbs

the same sound -crire also repeat in the following be studied may
to

in pret.

ind.

1.

"

added
and

the

root-vowel

all verbs

in other
luire,

(exc. those
dire;

in

rire),viz. con-duire^ d con-struire (etc.),4'truire, -duire),


-crire

(and
cuire^

compounds
nuire;
"

in

//re ;
2.
ss

"

sufSre, supplanting

confire;
final

"

p/a/re^
radical
;
"

taire.
:

all verbs
;
"

in
-attre,^

-(Atre

viz. connaiire^
^

parattre,

paitre

naitre

cro/ire,
like
the

Compounds
also

verbs verbs

(^con-sentirf etc.),when
are

and

defective
list,

here

omitted.

conjugated (They are all

simple,

described

in the

alphabetical
^
'

161).
Hyphen denoting here
loss
to
s,

Written
The

conduire.

separate
when instead

prefix
i

from

radical.
by
t

circumflex,
exc.

of

used

is followed

(in croltre

always,

before

m).

For

archaic

-ottre

n. of -aitre cf. 17 (^oi,

2)

82

SECOND

PART.

[159,160.

3.
4.

supplanting

final

radical

eoudre.
d
:

I(y)supplanting
supplanting
craindre,

final radical
final

moudre
all

"

te-soudre.
in
-Tvdrey

5. gn

radical
ceindre,

nd:

verbs

viz.

peindre,

plaindre,

teindre, feindre, en-freiiidre,

joindre.
6.
If

added

to the

root

vowel

all verbs in

in

di-crire

(and
in

other

compounds

-crire),
D-group, their

icrire^ -crirej viz. inrscrire (and other

compounds
Observe

-scrire).
that

of aboye

verbs

of the

lire and
pret. in

those
-us,

in

-aire, -aitre

(exc naitre),and
E.
"

croitre, form,

irregularly,
new

BE-verbs
part,
"

with
in

no

radical
in
w,

sound
"

in the
metire;

pres.
"

part.

[past

{(s),pret.
part, in-

is"] r/re;
pret. in

prendre; viwre;
"

"i//Vre ;

[past

us]

croire;

"

con-clure.

[160.]
the

The
two

Second
irregular
-mr

Division.
er-verbs by
a

"

To

this

division

belong

only
in

(aUer, envoyer);
vowel
5
c.

b. irregular

iV-verbs

-rir^

preceded

2 re-verbs

(poire

; faire)

d. all oir-verbs.
common

peculiarity

to

aU

the

verbs

in

-ir

[save courir]
strengthen

and

[save voir] of ""oir(e) to their root-vowel [e


=

this

division

is that

they

ie

or

0/,

ou

(old 0)
pres.

to

eu]

in the

pres.

ind.

and

subj. and
sing,
and
dev-oir:
meurs,

imperat.

whenever
:

it receives 1 sing,

the

tone,

i.e.

in

the

3 pi. pres.

(e.g.ten-ir
1 sing,

tiens, but
mourir:

1 pi.
pres.

tenons;

dot's, 1. pi. devons;

1 sing,
Verbs

1 pi.

mourons).
their
root

in

-ntr

strengthen

also

in fut.-cond.

(cf. below).
be

For

the

rest
were

the

verbs

of this

division
viz.
stems
:

may

studied

in the

order
A.
"

they

enumerated

above, its

ER-verbs:

a/ler
"

forms

from only in

3 different being

roots

(see the
the
"

verb) ;
loss
of

envo/er
to
enverr-

is irregular in the
the

changed

(by
B.

oy)
:

fut.-cond.

iR-verbs
i of -tVin

all lack

stem-extending

syllable

4s(s);

all

drop

fut.-cond.

besides,

modifying

their

in those (courir: fut. cour'rai), -nir, (ten-ir: fut. tiendW-ai). Other root

160,

161.]
are

VBKBS.

83

peculiarities
;
"

best
"

studied

under

each

verb.
other

Here

belong

courir

mourir;
"

ac-quSrir

(with

compounds

in

-quMr)
C.
D.
"

ienir,

venir.

RE-verbs:
oiR-verbs
:

faire
all

"

boire,
compounds

"

(save the
fut.

jw^-,

pour-n)oir)
also
modify
asseoir

lack
the
form
are

oi in fut.-cond.
as

devoir: (e.g.

devr-ai).They
AU,
-us.

stem

described
part,

under

each and

verb. in

save

voir,

their

past

in

-u,

pret. verb.

Other belong

peculiarities
:

best

studied
comp.
"

under
of

each

Here

re-cevoir

(and
"

other

devoir;

-cevoir);
r;

mouvoir;
"

pouvoh^ asseoir. Verbs.


below
are as

pleuvoir;

sa"Oir;

fa/hi

valoir;
List

wouloir;
of

"oir;

Beference

Irregular

161.

The
The

irregular

verbs

are

described

in alphabetical
follows
:

order.

principles

of arrangement
"

1. Every

simple

verb

even

when

occurring is given

only

in composition

(like -cevoir
Under
use

in re-cevoir,
are one

etc.)
"

in its alphabetical

order. in

it

enumerated
of

its compounds.
is pointed
"

When
out
as

it is

not

itself,

its compounds
place.

model
a

and

described verb

in its alphabetical
whose order

Exceptionally
is
this

compound

derivation
even

is not

evident,
to

given method.
them

in

its

alphabetical
2. The

without
are

reference

principal
tenses.

parts

given

first, and
are

below
those

the

derived

The

principles
of the

of derivation present of

described
regular The
wise other-

in " 135.

The

plural

the

ind. the

is considered
present

whenever

it contains is inflected

stem

partic.

imperative

like

the

present

indie,

(unless

stated).
3. Bold

type
to

denotes
the

irregularities

in

the

principal verbs
tenses

parts

with

reference

regular

conjugation (in oir; but

simply
with

with

reference
to

to

the

stem)

in

the

derived

reference
^

the

principal
the

parts.
Latin
oi, that

Hittoricallj

it

was

original

vowel,

not

disappeared

as

atonic

(^mouerehdbeo;

mov^r-ai).

84

SECOND

PART.

[161.

Pronounce
2

a-k^-rir. Pron. a-kier.

Hyphen
"

in above
Pron.

list used

to

separate
*

prefix
a*y.

from

verb.

a-kkr-ri

(C. -re).

Pron.

161.]

VERBS.

85

*Ap'paroir
infinit., and

(Lat. ap-parere) 'appear'


in 3d

is defective,

occurring

only

in

the

sing.

pres.

ind. il appert.

Asseoir
verb

be seated (Lat. as-stdere s'asseoir (je m'assiedSf etc.)


asseoir

'

near

') is

used

chiefly

as

reflexive

sit d^jwn.'

Like

also

rasseoir,
:

surseoir

(which,

however,

in

the

pres.

ind.

is sursois

and

defective

cf.

seoir).

Avoir:

for

full

conjugation
3.

cf. 137. compounds


o-,
com-,

Battre:

cf. 134,

So

also

de\

"r-, ra-^

re-battre.

bu

hois
bois

bus
Ipf. 8.

boit
buvons buvez

busse

boivent
Imp've

bois

Pron.

d'soir.

Fron.

a-siV.

Exceptionally

the

form

assois

is also

found.

86

SECOND

PART.

tl61.

[Ft.
To

Lat.

bullire
*boil*

boil/ with
transitively

loss
use

of // in pres.

ind.

sing.]

express

/aire

bouillir.

Like
Br

bouillir also

r tf-bouillir,e-bouillir.
is defective. brairont It

at

re

(low

Lat.

bragtre), 'bray'
brayaient;
il braira,
has

has

brayant;

brait,

braient;

brayais,

; il brairait, brairaient.

Bruire

bruisaant

(Lat. rugiref) 'roar' (bruisse, rw'ssais) ; b

only

bruyant
bruis, tu

(as adj.) ;
bruis,

jc

ftmyaw

or

bruit ;

je

il bruit

(no pi.); je

bruirai^s).
ceignant

Ceindre

ceint

ceins

ceignis

(169.D.6)girt! Conjugated
like peindre
*
'

(which see).
; ng

So
=

also

en-ceindre.

[Lat.
voir

cingere
capere

girt
*

d intercalated

(^)n.]
aper-cevoir,
all
con-

C6

(Lat.

take

')

occurs

only

in

compounds:
are

cevoir,

d^-cevoir,

per-cei^oir,

re-cevoir.

These

conjugated

like

rece"oir Choir
past
*

(which see).
fall
':

only with

in

the

pres.

ind.

je

il choit^ inflnit. and chois, tu chois,


dechoir
and

part,

chu

itre.

Compounds
Lat.
is

are

"choir,

which

see.

[Old

form

cheoir, from
'

cadSre

(through cadere) *fall'].


like
except suf-Jire,

Circon-cire
part,

'circumcise

conjugated

that

the

past

is circon-cis.

[Lat. (Lat.
ore

circum-cidere

'cut

around'].
only
in circon-cire^
see

'Cire

c/dere

"

ccedere

'cut')

above.

CI

close
Pr. 8.

Cl08

clos

F.

clos clot
pi. wanting

clorai
C.

close

c/prats

161.]
[This
defective
p. p.

VERBS.

8T

verb

from

JjbX. ciaudere

elote'].
3d sing,

Compounds
and

clar desome

(only
tenses
:

d^clos),(f-clore (p. p.

i^clos and

pi. of

i7 "cl6t^

(only etc.),en-clore (= clore)ffor'clare


'close')
in

p. "p./or-doi)

-clure

(Lat.

cludere
past

co/i-c/i/re

(which see),

ex-clure,

re-clure

(only

inf. and

p.).

[Lat. con-ducere
So
pro-y

'

'

conduct

changed

to

where

not

lost.]

all verbs
recon-,

in

-uire, viz.

compoupds
"

of

-duire

en-, (d^-,

in-, intro-,
con-^
tn-,

repro-, r^-, s/-,


"

tra-duire);
"

compounds
"

of -strut

re,

d^-truire ; (jd"-, ; cuire recon-struire) re-)\ p. p. 4ui) ; nuire (p. p. nui). Only bruire (which the defective see) deviates.

luire

: (re-lui're both

Connattre

(159. D. 2)
know
p.

connaUrai
C.

connaitrais

[Lat.
noHre and

co-gnoscere circumflex

know

'

Old

Fr. conoistre, the


loss

t intercalated

; later

coii-

(the
derived

denoting

of

s) ;

8c

ss

in

connaissant

forms.
in

Cf.

naitre.']
naitre
:

So

all verbs
;
"

-a'rtrej except farther


-

i.e. the

compounds
pat^re

m^-connaitre,

re-connaitre

and

/}arat^re

with

compounds,

(defective)

rS'paUrt.

88

SECOND

PART.

[161

Con-qu^rir

'

conquer

ac-yu^V
'

(which see).
=

Con-traindre*

constrain

conjugated

peindre

(which see)

Coudre

coiLsant
Pr.
couse

(160. D. 3)
sew

8.

F.

Ipf.

I.

coudrai
C.

cousais

coudrais

[Lat.
So

con-suere,

whose

appears

outside

of the

inflnit.]

also

d^-coudre,

re-coudre.

Courir
(160. B)
F.
run

courrai
C.

courrais

[Lat. currere
of i,
as

(through cun-ire)
where

'

run.'

The

rr

of

the

inf. through

loss

usual

follows
-nV
cu:-,

a
con-,

vowel. dis-,
en-,

Cf.

wourVat.]
r"-, ""-,

So

also

all compounds
as

par-,

s'entre-secourir
tenses.

(hyphen,

here).

Of

these

ac-courir

usually

has

etre

in comp'd

[Lat. co^perire
So
all verbs ouvrir
as

cover/ p changed
-mr

to
:

r.]
compounds
"

in

and

-frir, viz.

of

couvrir

re(rf^-,

; couvrir^
:

(with entr*ouvrir,
Lat.

; rouvnir)

souffrir, offrir,
e-cn're

-crire

(same

-scrire,

scribere

'write

') in

(which see),d

r"'crire.

Pron.

cour-rai^s),to

distinguish

from

the

Ipf. cou-rais.

161.]
craignant

Verbs.

dd

Craindre
fear

craint

crams

craignts

Conjugated

like peindre

(which see).
from
Lat.
tremere
seems

[The

usual

deriyation

uncertain.]
CPUS

Croire

croyant
Pr.

(36)
8.

CPU

crois

(169. E)
believe
F.

crois

Ipf. s.
crusse

croie
Ipf
"
.

croit
I.

croyons
croyez
crotent

croirai
C.

croyais

croirais

Imp've.

crois

[L.

credere
used

believe only

*:

"

oi, which accroire


CPU

before
'make

vowel

is

oy.]

Ac-croire

infaire

believe.'

CroMre

croissant
Pr.S.

CPOiS
crois

cpAs
Ipf.
crusse

(169. D. 2)
grow
F.

8.

croisse
Ipf. I.

croit

croissons croissez croissent


Imp've
crois

croitrai
C.

croissais

croitrais

[Lat. (^
The from

'

crescere

grow

old

form
In
crus

croistre,
croissant

intercalated

; later

croitre
sc
"

denoting circumflex
cru,

the

loss

of

s).

and

derived
distinguish

forms
these

ss.

of
crus

cru^

crms,

(crusse) to

forms

crois,

of croire

(see above).]
sur-croitre,
-crus

So

also

"ic-croitref d^-croitre, re-a'oitre, is often

though

the

vicarious

circumflex

omitted

in

-cru,

-crois,

(crusse).
cueilUs
Ipf. 8.

Cueillir

cueillant

cueilli

cueille
Imp've

cueille

cueiUisse

[Lat. col-ligere
So also

con

legere

(cf.cuetV/arat).]

ac'Cueillir, re-cueillir.

90

SECOND

PART.

[161.
cuis

Cuire

cuiaant

cuit

cuisis

(169.D.l)cook
Conjugated
like
*

I
con-duire
'

[Lat.

coquere

cook
or

(which see). s : c (later cocere


=

in

conduisant,
d^chois
etc.

etc.]
d"chu8

D"-choir fall, decline


F.

d"chbant
d"choyant
Pr.

d^chu

cf.

Ipf.

S.

C.

S.

voir

d^chusse

d"cheiTai(ja)
*

d^choie
'

D^-crire

describe
destroy

(conjugated
'

"criret which

see).
.

D"'truire*

conjugated

like conduire

(which see)
dots
doia

[LAt'de-struere.
dus
Ipf.

du

(f.due)

s.

doit
devons devez

dusse

dohent
Imp*Te

dois

[Lat. debere
circumflex
to

b changed

to

; and

e,

when

accented,
=

to

oi.

Du

with

distinguish that it has

the
is

form

from

du

de

le."]
like "evoir
also

Observe
except

devoir
the

conjugated
in

precisely du.
"

of recevoir, which,

that has

circumflex

So

re-devoir,

however,

re-du,

dit

dis
dis dit disons

d/'s
Ipf. s.

disae

dites disent

Imp*ve

dis

[Lat. dicere
So
except and

say,' whose

appears

as

in pr. part,

and

derived

parts.]
parts

also

compounds

of dire has
save

(contre-,d"-y inter-, mau-,

m"-,pr"', and derived

re-dire)
in

that
that

maudire
all,

88

in pr. part,
have

(maudissant)
instead

they

redire,

-disez,

of

-dites,

2d

pi.

161.]
dormant
Pr.

91

Dormir

(169. B)
sleep
F.

B.

dorme
Ipf
I.
.

dormirai
C.

dormais

dormirais

[Lat. dormir

'

sleep.*]
in

So

afto

en-dormir^

r-en-dormir.
in-, \ntro-,

-duire

(Lat. ducere)

con-dufre

(which see), d^-,

pro-,

r"-, "^-

trorduire.
"ch
ant

H-choir
fall due

"chu

il "choit

Ipf. F.

S.

il "chvt

t7 echerra Fonns
not

given,

lacking.

[Lat. ec-cadHre
4cr/t

(through

-cadere)J]
4cri"is
Ipf.

Ecrire

^crivant
Pr.

Scris
^cris
"crit

(169. D. 6)
write
F.
^

s.

s.

derive
Ipf.

^crivisse

I.

"crivons
^crivez e'crivent
Imp've

"crirai
a

"crivai8

^crirais

"cri8

[Lat. scribere
"/",
; "/-)

'

write
changed

"- simply
to

euphonic

(commonly

before

"c-,

"m-,

h lost

or

".]
compounds in
-scnre.

So

also

d^-crtre,

ri-crire;

and

Envoyer
send

envoyant
Pr.
envote

envoyi

envoie
lojpVe
cfivote

(131)

envoyai
Ipf.

(\eo. A)
F.
enverrai

8.

8.

envoyasse

Ipf. I.

C.
enverratf

envoyais

Sometimes

written,

as

it is pronounced,

^chet.

92

SECOND

PART.

[161
the

[Probably
of y and
t

from
.

en

vote

(Lat. via)
con-voyer,

on

waj.'

For

the

InterchaDge

cf

131.]
(but

So

also

ren-voyer

four-voyer regular).

-6^r6.*Faillir
fail,

cf. 137.

faillant
Pr. B.

failli

faux
faux faut

faillis
Ipf. B.

err

F.

faillirai
OT

Ipf.

I.

faiUons

faudrai
C.

faillais

faillez faillent
Imp've

failliraia
or

faudrais
Not

much

used

outside

of inf., past

part.,
also

and

pret.

[hAi, faXlere (through

yh/Z/Ve).] Ai/Y

So

d"faillir.

Faire

faisant
Pr.

(160. C)
do, make
F.

S.

fasse
Ipf.
I.

ferai
O.

faisais *

ferais

[Lat./acerg
part, and

'make':

c,

lost in the

inf., appears

as

s(s)

in

the

pres.

derived
the

forms.]
contre-y
occur

So
but

also

compounds
or

de-, par-,
only

r"-,

rerf^-, satis-, and


past.

surf aire

/or-, mal-

m^faire

in inf. and

part.

il faut

ilfcdlut
Ipf. s.

ilfallut

Pronounce

/"-a:a(16, at,

note

1).

Tron.

fe-zai

161.]
IJj"t. allifre (through f
-otr

VERBS.

d8

I changed
and d

to

before

oons't;

oi of

lacking,

as

usual,

in

./a//ere) f
ut.-cond.,

intercalated.]
Jeins

eindre
feign

feignant
Conjugated
\\\L.e peindre
*

feint

feignis

(which see)..
d intercalated
phrase
sans

[h^t.fingere
'strike*:

inyent

; -ng

(g)n.'}
*

F^rir

only

in

the

cou/)

/"frir

without

striking

blow.'

'fire

[Lat. ferire .] (Jj"t. Jtcere=facere


:

make also
=

d^^on-fire, ') in con-firtf suf-dre

(which see).

Fleurir

cf. 133,

2.

So

re-fleurir.
in

"freindre conjugated

(hsit. Jiringere
\Tk.epeindre

frangere 'break')

en-freindre

'infringe':

(which see).
=

'frir
Ipy.

both (Lat. yerrg) in of-frir^ souf-frivy


'fry* and
: re-frire

which offrivt

see.

Frire

only

past

part.
"

/nf;

pres.

ind.

/m,

^rw, yr?" ;

Jris;

fut.

cond.yrirai(s) throughout.

[li"t. rlgere 'roast.'] f

Fuir^
flee

(159. A)
F.

fuirai
C.

fuirais

fugere (through fugire) [htit,


cf
.

'flee.'

For

the

interchange

of g and

36.]

"

So

also

8*en-/uir, e-fuir. r
like /7e{n(ire

Geindre

'sigh'

is inflected

(which see).
*

[Lat. gemercj
I r
*

with

intercalated

ef.]
id

G^"
on

lie

only

gisant;

ci-git

(for

git)

here

lies,' ci-gisent
s

here

lie

'

tomb-stones

; gi8ons,gisez,gisent

; ci-gisait^

ci-gisent.

sharp,

save

in inf.

{Jj"t. jacere 'lie.']


cf. 133,
'be 3.

air:

[From
only

Grermanic
part.
issw.

word,

akin

to

hateJ]

/""tr

born*:

past

[Lat. ca:-irg.] joins


So

oindre

joignant
Conjugated
like

Joint
(which

joignis
rf^-,

join
peindre

see).

ad-,

con-,

en-,

dis-,

dis-joindre.
^

ui is

diphthong.

94

SECOND

PART.

[161.

[liot. ungere : j
So
also compounds

d intercalated
:

; ng

(^)n.]
en-,

ad-,

con-,

d^,

dis-,

re*-joindre.
/us

Lire

lisant
D.

Ju

Us
lis

(169.
read
F.

1)
Pr.S.

Ipf.

s.

Use

lit
lisons

lusse

lirai
0.

Ipf. I.

lisex lisent

lisais
Imp've

lirais

lis

[Lat. legere
So
also

pick,

read

: s

of lisant^ etc., in analogy

with

disant,

etc.

pr"-lire, re-lire, ^-lire, r^-e'-lire,

Zutre

shine

|
So

luisant

lui

luis
that

\
the

lutsis
past part,

Conjugated
is lui.
"

like con-duire re-luire,


'

(which see), noticing


s

also
*

[Lat.
lie

lucere

shine
mentant

where

it is not

lost.]
mens

Mentir

\
So

menti

mentis

Conjugated

like sentir
*

(which see).
also

[Lat.

mentiri

lie.']

d^-mentir.

161.]
[Lat.
/
=

VERBS.

95

'

m6lere

grind

d inserted

after

/ before

cons't

{moldre) ;

and

M,

or

retained

before

vowel.]
re-moudre.
meurs
mourus

So

also

"'moudre,

re-moudre,

meura

Ipf.
mourusse

8.

meurt
mourons mourez

meurent

Imp've
meurs

[Lat.
voir);
vowel

mifriri

(for mori)
in

accented
as

"u,

unaccented
-rir

ou

(cf

pouby

i dropped

fut.-cond.,

usual,

when

is preceded

(cf. cour^rai, acquer*rai).]


meus
meua

mus

Ipf.
mnsse

8.

meut
mouvons

mouvez

meuvent

Imp*ve
meus

[Lat.

mdvere

move

accented

ew,

unaccented

ou

(cf

pouvoir^

mourir) ;
So

in fut.-cond.] as usual, oi of -otV, lacking De'-mouvoir^ are used pro-mouvoir also ^-mouvoir.
"

only

in inf. and

(the latter) past

part.

n6
: (etre 142)

na/s
naie

naguts
Ipf. 8.

nan

naquisse

naissons naissez naissent


Imp*ve

nais
^

Pronounce

mour-rai(^s),

to

distinguish

from

Ipf.

mou-rais.

96

SECOND

PART.

[161.
113):
old the

[Lat. nascere
; later

(for
naitre

nasci

*be

born':

fomi

naistre,

calated t inters

(the

circumflex

denoting

loss of

");

sc

"

in

naissant

and

deriratives.

Cf.

croitre.']

So

also

re-naitre.

naitre

(h"t. gnoscere) in
nuisant

connaitre,

which
nui

see.

Nutre
hurt

nuts

nutsts

Conjugated
nut.

like

con-dutre

(which see), except


*

that

the

past

part,

is

[Lat.

nd-cere

(through nocire)
otffrant

hurt

'

"

where

not

lost.] offris

Of/rir
offer

qffert

offre

Conjugated

like

couvrtr

through [Lat. of-ferre,

(which see). 'offer.'] of-f(e)r9rey


oint
oina

Oindre
an6int

oignant

oignii

Conjugated

Vik.epeindre

(which see).
ng =ign pr. ind.
or

[Lat.
'hear

ungere:
'

d intercalated;
past part,
oui;

simply
etc.;

n.]
ipf.

*Ouir

only

ouUf

subj.

otitssa,

etc.

[Lat. audire."]
ouvrant

Ouvrir
open

ouvert

ouvre

ouvrU

Conjugated

like
'

couvrir
'

(which see).
changed
but
not

So

also

r-oavrir,

[Lat. aperire
'graze'
ptirt.
=

open

to

v.]
in

*Paitre
past

connaitre;
=

used

the

pret.,

and

rarely

in the

Re-paitre

connaitre.
*

[Lat. pascere

(for pasct

feed

'

113

A).]
parais
parus

Paraitre
appear

paraissant

paru

Conjugated

like

connaitre

(which see).
*

[Vulg.
tercalated, and

Lat.

parescere

(for parere
C*" for

appear
the

') :
of

old

form
sc
=

paraistre,
s8

in

later

paraitre

loss

s) ;

in

paraissant

derived
also
the

forms.]
compounds
ap-,
com-,

So
-paroir Pa
rtir depart

dis-, re-paraitre.
which
see.

(Lat. parere

'appear')

in ap-paroir, parti

partant

pars

partis

161.]
Conjugated
like sentir
*

VERBS.

97

(which see).
"

[Lat. partiri

divide,

separate.']
peint

So

also

re-partir^

d^-partir,

Imp've

peins

[Lat. pingere
a

'

paint

ei; d intercalated

in inf. ; n^

or

(before

vowel) gn."]
So
all verbs in
:

-ndre

in [i.e. with

-aindre

contraindrey

craindre,

plaindre

"

in

-eindre

ceindre

comp.,

feindre,

peindre
a-,

(compounds

of;

rf^-,

re-), -preindre
of
teindre

(in en-), geindre, -freindre (in (in ^-, em-), streindre


-teindre,
:

re-),teindre(and
rat',
:
re-,

compounds
,

or

which

see:

at-,

d.^', "-,

re'-) -treindre verb),


from

(in ^-) ;
poindre
form
in

oindre

joindre (and
All,
save

compounds

cf. the

oindre,
a

(defective).]
-ngere,
treated

craindre
with

are (*?),

derived
as

Latin

in analogy

pingere,

explained

above.

Plaindre
pity

plaignant

plaint

p/aine

plaignis

Conjugated

like peindre
."

[Lat. plangere
a

d intercalated

(which see). ; ng (g)n.']


"

PI

ire
D.

plaisant

plu
S.

plais
plais plait

plus
Ipf. 8.

(159.
please

1)

Pr.

plaise
Ipf.
I.

plusse

F.

plaisons

plairai
C.

plaisais

plaisez plaisent
Imp've

plairais

plais

[Lat. pldcere
lost.

(through

vulg.

Lat.

placifre)
by
a

please

*:

where

not

Its loss in plait also

(= placet) denoted
d"-plaire,
and
have
one

circumflex.]
however
has
no

So

com-plairej
may

taire, which

circumf
this

in tait, but
form

in p. p., tu

(or tu),to

distinguish

from

tu

thou.'

98

SECOND

PART.

[161.
il pleui

Fleuvoir
rain

plewbant pleu^ant
Pr.

plu
s.

it plut
Ipf.

(160. D)
F.

B.

t7 pleuve
Ipf.
I.

ilplut

il pleuvra
C.

il pleuvait

il pleuvrait

[Lat.
vowel

plui^re

(through

vulg.

Lat.

pluBre) :
are

intercalated
usual, in

before

(cf.Lat.
figurative
8ur

plu-vi-um);
use

oi of -oir lacking, plurals also

as

fut.-cond.]
compliments

In

the

3d

found

(e.g.les

pieuvent
indre
*

elle).
'

*Po

dawn

only
a

il point

il poindra
ng=

; poignez,

[Lat. pungere:
pouvant
Pr.

intercalated,

(^)n.]
peux

Pouvoir

pu
S.

(oT puis^)

pus

(160. D)
be

able
F.

pu/'sse
Ipf. I.

pourrai
C.

pouvais

pourrais

[Vulg.
before

Lat.
;

potere
o

(for
=

posse
cu,

be

able

'):
=

t
ou

lost

and
.

intercalated

'

vowel

accented

unaccented
as

(cf
for old
:

mourirf

mouvoir)

in fut.-cond.

oi of -oir

lacking,
in

usual,

and

rr

dr."]
like
peindre

-preindre

(Lat. premere)

"-preindre,

em-preindre

both

(which see).

Chiefly

in questions

(puis-je? etc.) and

with

ne

(je

ne

puis

.),

161.]
*

VERBS.

99

Qu^rir
the

seek,

find

'

out

only

in

inf.

(with

aller, envoyer^

compounds

ac-querir

(which

see), con-qu"rir

venir) ; and (re-conque'rir), en-qu^rir,

in

re-qu^ir.

Re^evoiv vol

(160. D) .D)
ve receive

F.

rai recevrai
C.
/.

pais receyrais

[Lat.
when

re-ctp^re

(through
to

vulg.

Lat.

re-cipere

changed

to

v,

and

e,

accented,

oi

(cf. devoir).']
con-, (^aper-,

So

all compounds

de'-, like

per-cevoir).

Re-pentir
Lat.

(se) 'repent':

conjugated

sentir

(which

see).

l-pentirfrom

paenitere.']
^

R^'Soudre

r4sofvant
Pr.

rho/u

rSsous
re'sous

reso/us
Ipf.

(169. D. 4)
S.

s.

resolve
F.

resolve
Ipf.
I.

r"sout

r"solu88e

r"8olvons r^solvez risolvais

rfyoudrai
C.

r^sdvent rAoudrais
IiDp*ve

r"sous

[hzX.
exc.

re-solvere
or

intercalated
-ou-

in

inf.;

-olv-

-olv-

(before

vowel,

"),
So

also
part.

or -ol- (before u), (but past ab-8oudre

(before consonants).]
m.

part.

ab80U3,

f.

di8-8oudre ab80ute),

(but

past

m.

dissout,

f.

di88oute).
ri
riB ns

Eire
laugh

riant
Pr.

(159. ")
P.

s.

Imp've

Ipf. 8.

rie
Ipf. I.

rit

risse

rirai
C.

riai8

rirais

[Lat. ridere
^

laugh.']

So
f

also
in
sense

sou-rire
'

smile.' changed.'

AUo

r^foiM

(no

.)

of

dissolved,

100

SECOND

PART.

[161.

M-ouvrir

'

'

re-open

ouuriry

which

see.

*Saillir
fut.-cond.
plur.
"

'project' conjugates
is

like
it

as-saillir
occurs
'

(which see), except


in the

that
sing,

the

saillerai^s)
.

But
'

only
it is

3d

persons

and

(In

the

sense
*

of

spout

out

regular).
see

[Lat.

salire

jump/]

For

as-sailltr, tres-sailliTf
SU

the

former.
sus
Ipf.
susae

Savoir

sdchant
Pr.

sais
sai8

(160. D)
know
F.

8.

s.

sache
Ipf. I.

salt
salons

saurai
C.

sayez

savais
sayent

aaurais

Imp've

aache

sachons sachez

[Lat.
sachant,

sapire
etc.,

(through
to

rulg.

Lat.

sSpere)
as

be

*:

wise
to
a

=v;

ch

in

owing
;
"

the

reduction

of pi in sapientusual,

fricative

j (cf

diurnu8=jour)

'Scrire

(Lat. scribere)
conjugated
sentant
Pr. sente

oi of -oir in the compounds

lacking,

in fut.-cond.,
pre-,

and
"o"-,

v=u.']
tran-

circon-, in;
see.

pro-,

scrire, all

like ecrire, which

Sentir

senti
s.

sens
sens

sentis
Ipf.

(159. B)
feel

s.

sent
sentons

sentisse

F.

Ipf. I.

sentirai
C.

sentais

aentez
sentent

sentirais

Imp've
sens

[Lat. sentire
So
also

feel.']
(as-, con-,
pres-,
; res-sentir) and

compounds
r

farther

mentir

(d^-mentir), parti
'fit':
only

u di-partir), (re-,

repsntt'rt servir, sortir


sis;
pr.

(ressartir)

*8eoir

s"ant;

past

part,

ind.

il sied;

fut.-cond.

"Vra(tf). [Lat. sedere


Compounds
prei. ind.

seated.'] : as-seoir (see the verb), sur-seoir (only past surseois, pret. sursis), raS'Seoir (see asseoir).
BBirant
servt

be

part,

sur-sis,

Servir
serve

sets

serms

161.]
Conjugated
like sentir
*

VERBS.

101

(which see).
So
also

[Lat. servire

serve.*]
sorfant

des-servir.

But
sons

as-servir

is regular.
sortts

Sortir
go
out

sorti

Conjugated

like
*

sentir

(which see).
So
also only
res-sortir.

[Lat.

sortiri

go

out.']

Soudre

(Lat. solvere) 'solve':


dis-soudre,
and

the

inf.

"

Also

in

the

compounds

ab-8(mdre,

rS-soudre

(which

last

see). souffris

Souffrir
suffer

Bouffrant

souffert

souffre

Conjugated

like

couvrir

Souloir

[Lat. suffere, through *be accustomed': (Lat. solere)

(which see). su/f(e)rere, *bear.']


only
:

in il soulait.
pres.

Sourdre

(Lat. surgere) 'rise


(Lat.
which
stringere

up,

gush' hi

only

ind. sourd^

sourdent.
both

-streindre peindref
'St
rut re

'press')

a-streindre,

re-streindre,

like

see.

(Lat.

struere

'build')
see.

in

con-struire

iri'Struire, (recon-struire),

all

like

conduire,

which

Suf-fire
(161. D.
suffice
F.

1)

suffirai
0.

suffirais
':

[Lat. suf'fTcere suffice


So
also circoncire

where

not

lost.]
part,

except con-Jire,dicon-Jire,

past

d^confit. confit,
"

Also

(exc. past
suivant.
Pr.

part.

-as).
SUlVt

Suivre

suts
8UIS

SUlVtS

(169. E)
follow

8.

Ipf.

S.

suive
F.

suit

suivisse

Ipf. I.

suivons

suivrai
C.

suivais

suivez
sutvent

smvrais

Imp've
8U18

102

SECOND

PART.

tl61
'

[Vulg.
So
also

Lat.

sequere

(for sequi
poursuivre.
tu

follow

113,

A)
only

qu

r.]
sing,

s'entre-suivref

S*en8uivre

in 3d

and

pi.

Taire
keep

taisant silent

(or tO) see), except


refl.,
'

tais

tU8

Conjugated

like

plaire

(which
Usually

that
'be
*

tait

(3d

sing.

pres.

ind.)

has

no

circumflex.

se

taire silent

silent.'
=

[Lat. tacere

(through

yulg.

L.

tdcifre)be

:c

where

not

lost.

Tenir

(160. B)
hold
F.

tiendrai
C.

tiendrais

[Lat. tenere
fut.-cond. tendre
:
so
e,

: (through tihire)

if accented
=

changed distinguish from

to

I'e or

(pret.);
i

in

though

unaccented,

ie

(to

from

fut.-cond.

of

also

viendrai

of venir to distinguish
"

fut. of

d intercalated.] lost, and So also compounds 'ir d"-y entre-, venir. main-, oh-, re-, sou-tenir'). Also
"

uendre); of (abs-,appar-, con-,

Teindre
tint

teignant

teint

teins

teignis

Conjugated

like peindre
:

(which see).
under

Comp'ds

dAeindre,

reteindre,

[Lat.
=

tingere

cf
in

pingere
at-,

teindre teindre

peindre,

rat-teindre

peindre."] [fr. Lat. (at)tingere']and ;


also teindre
above.

in

^-,

r^

[fr.Lat.
in

Cf. {ex)tinguere'].

treindre

"treindre

(Lat. stringere)'tighten,
trait
S.
trats

bind':

conjugated

like

teindre.
trayant
Pr.

Traire
milk

(pi.trayons etc.)

traie

trairai
C.

Ipf.

I.

Imp've

trayais

trais

trairais

[Lat. trdhere
So
also

draw.']
(abs', di9;
d"-truire,
ex-,
ren-, re-,

compounds

sous-,

at-traire).

"truire

in (Lat. struere)

which

tee.

161.]
ere

VERBS.

103

Vain

vatnquant

vaincu

vaincs

vatnquis

conquer

Regular,

observing
"

that

becomes

qu
"

before

all

vowels,

except

(cf.134, 1).

[Lat. vincere 'conquer/]


vain

So
vaux

also

convaincre.

valus
Ipf. s.

vaux

vaut

valusse

valons valez

valent

[Lat.
-oir

valere
as

be

'

worth

/ changed and

to

before

consonant

; oi

of

lacking,

usual,
venant

in fut.-cond.,
venu

intercalated.]
Yiena "in8

Venir
* '

{etre')

come

Conjugated [Lat. venire


So
p^O'y

like
'come

tenir
'

(which see).
treated like
tenire, cf.
con-,

tenir."]
inter-, par-,

also

compounds
"ou-

contre-^ Icircon-,

de-, discon-,

pr"',

re',rede't

("e ressou'^, sub-, sur-venir"].


vHu

vefs
vets

vitis
Ipf.

8.

etc.
=

vetisse

conj'n

ImpWe
vets

[Lat.
So

'

vestire

clothe

the

loss

of

denoted

by

circumflex.]

also

compounds

re-, (rf^-, sur-vetir).

Vivre

vivant
Pr.

"Sou
8.

VIS

vScua
vis
Ipf. 8.
v^eusse

(169. E)
live

vive
P.
Ipf.
I.

vit

vivans
vivex vivais vivent
Imp'v"

vivrai
C.

vivrais
ift"

104

SECOND

PART.

[161.
before

[Lat. vivere
Lat. ^-Bound
in

live

'

i changed vic-si,

to

(which

represents

the

vixi

viC'tum.']

So

also

re'vivre, sur-vivre.

Voir

voyant
Pr.

(36)
8.

VU

VOIS

VIS

(169. D)
see

VOIS

Ipf.

s.

voie
F.
votes

"Oit
voyons

visse

verrai
C.

voie voyions voyiez

voyez voient
Imp've

verrais

voient vois
Ipf.
I.

voyais

[Lat.
old dr

videre

see

f ut.

verr-ai, with

lacking

oi

as

usual,

and

rr

for

(yedrai).
:

The

distinction

between

voy-,

voi-

is simply

graphic ortho-

cf

36.]
pre'-voir

So

also entre-voir,

(whose

f ut.-cond.,
-",

however,

is pr^ooirai, re-voir.
"

-s)

pour-voir

(but
only

f ut.-cond.
in the

pourvo/raif
past

and

pret.

pourvu^),

d^-

pourvoifj

inf. and

part.

Vouloir

voulant
Pr.

voulu
s.

veux

voulus
Ipf.

(160. D)
wish
F.

veux

s.

veuille
veuilles veuif/e
voulions vouliez

yeut

votdusse

voulons voulez veulent


Imp've

voudrai
C.

voudrais

veuillent
veuille
Ipf.

I.

reunions
yeufllez

voulais

(cf note)
.

NoTB.

"

Usuallj,

the

iraperat.

form
*

is

veuillez 'please.'
'

[Lat.
=

volo
ou;

(through
I lost
d is

viflere =

velle)

wish

accented

eu,

unaccented

before

consonant

; oi of

-otr

lacking,

as

usual,

in

fut.-cond.,

where

intercalated.]

162-164.]

INDECLINABLE

WORDS.

105

IX.

INDECLINABLE

WOBDS.
limited
bene,
ou

[I62t

HISTORY. from
a

"

Of
the

Indeclinables

rather

number

are

direc
tres

derived
trans;
are

Latin
en

(e.g. bien
in;
et

from
et,
.

done

from

tunc,

from

from

ad, by

from

from

from

aut:

majority from jam


ab

formed
encore

later

composition

(cf
enjin
sans
'

assez

from
Fr.
en

ad
and
or

etc.). The satis, jamais


Jin ;
avant

magis,
avec

from aptid

hanc hoc,
a

oram,

from
que,

from

ante,

from

travers,
'

etc.);
*

by

derivation

from
en

other

parts

of speech
prep.,

(cf
'out

chez of
"

at

from

in

casa

in
"

the from

house/

Old
'out

Fr.

chez;

hors,

Uke

fors

'except'

/oris

of

doors/ durant,
An important constructions Latin,

pres.

part.,

'during':
is that
*

etc.).
adverbs
a

formation
like
this

of
in

in
manner

-ment.
'

Adverbial
were

tive ablaalready fused

bona
mente

mente

good
,

used
-ment,
was

in

and

later

(fr. mens)
adjective
about
as

abbreviated
one

to ; and

with

its preceding
are now

feminine

into

word
in

such

adverbial
in

compounds

formed

freely

as,

English,

adverbs

-ly

(= like),-]
1 63.
Indeclinables^
as

inyolving and
words.

no

change might
For

of

form,

are

all

found

directly

in

dictionaries, with
who few

therefore
the

properly

be

dismissed

here

convenience

of
or

students,

however, French

may

desire
at
once

to

save

time
common

in

reading

writing

by

learning
are

the below

most

of the inorder.

decliaables,

these

enumerated

in alphabetical

Adyebbs.
164. Bingle
ainsi
*

adverbs
thus,
so,'

(of
*

place,
then,'
'

time,
asstz
'

manner,

etc.).
"

ailleurs
pretty,'
au"5t

'elsewhere
aucune-

alors

enough,
aujoaravan^

quite,
'

mtnt

'by

no
'

means/
'

au/ourd'Aut to-day/
'

before/
formerly,'
'
'

'also,

as/ auBsitdt
otherwise

immediately,'
; beaucoup
'

autant

as
'

'

much,' well,

autrefois

autrement ;

'

much/

bien

much,'

bientdt

soon

cependant

106

SECOND

PART.

[164-167

'meanwhile/ 'more/

combien dedans
'

age

'as, davan'how'; comme like/ comment much/ 'to'within/ dehors 'outside/ d"ja 'already/ demain morr

*how

derriere devant

behind/

d^sormais

'

henceforth/

dessous
encore

'

under/

dessus

'over/

hort,

'before/ "dor^navant finally/ ensemble 'together/

'henceforth*; ensuite

'still/ enjln 'in 'about/


expr^s

'then/

environ

purposely';
'erer,

fort

'very';

hier

'yesterday*;

tci 'here*;

jadis 'formerly/
'long
mteux

jamais

neyer/ jusque
main{enant
*

'till, until';

la 'there/ longtemps
meme
non

(time)/
'better/
*

ors

'then*;
*

'now/
n"anmoins
'
*

mal
'

'badlj'/
'

'even/
'

oins

less
'

;
'

ne

"

not/

nevertheless/

no/ nuLlement
'

by

no

eans

om

'not/

/?e"

where/ otit yes 'little/ pis 'worse/


'near/
presque
*

par/ois
p/iw

at

times/

partout

everywhere/
pourtant
que

pas

'more/
puis
'

/j/wfdi 'rather/
'then*;

'however/

pres
'

'almost/
sometimes

quand
*

'when/
especially

(for

com6ten) how/
a
*

quelquefois
*

si

'

yes

(used

in reply
sw'

negative especially
'now
. . .

question), soudain(ement) 'suddenly/


; tant
*

souoent
'

'often/
(tantSt

tout

so

much,'

tantdt

by

and

by,

recently

iantdt

quite,'

now'), tard toutefois however,*


'
*

'late,' tdt 'soon/


frcs
*

toujours'always/
too,

towi
'

'wholly,

very/

iro/)

too

'

much

; vite

quickly/

'

volontiers

willingly

'

; ^

there/

[166.]

Besides,
to

most

French

adjectives
form,
or

may

be

changed

to

adverbs
in

by
a

adding
"

-ment

their

feminine 'highly;

to

the

masculine

if ending

vowel.

Ex.

hautement

haughtily;
,

aloud'

(from

doucement

'softly'
76;

(Fr.
so

doux

soft') foUement
etc.);
their
etc.
nt

'foolishly'

'liigh') (Fr. /o/, fem.


(Ft, poli
Ex.

haut

foUe

'foolish':

also

hellemeni,

pdiment

'politely'

etc. 'polite'),

NoTB

1.

"

few

adjectives
in

accent

final

before

-ment.

"

profond^ment,
NoTB
2.
"

pr^dsement,

expressSmentf
-nt

Adjectives
patient
:

change

to

before

-ment.
as
a-m

"

Ex.
:

constant

onstam-ment,

patiem-ment

(-emm

pronounced

19, note

2)

166.

As
or

in

English,

some

adjectives
without
*

are,

in

certain

sense,

used

as
:

dverbs
low,*

adverbial
*

predicates

any adv.

change
*

of

form.
'

Thus

bas

adv.

in

low

voice/ cher
'

dear/
'

dear/

droit
'

straight/ adv.
'
*

straightway
*

s/ exprhs
'

express,'

adv.

purposely,' high,* adv.


'

/bri

aux

false/

adv.

out

of

tune,'

haut

strong/ adv. very/ loudly,' juste just/ adv.


'quick/
adv.

correctly/ sourfain 'sudden/

adv.

'suddenly/

vite

*quick(ly),

ast' 167.
Adverb-phrases
h

(of
*

place,
h h

time,

manner,

etc.).
"

a
'

ban

marchi

'oheap(ly)/
part

jamais
a

forever,'

la

fois

'at

once,'

Venvi

in

emulatioa/

'aside/

peine

'hardly,*

peu

prh

'nearly,

almoft,'

aprda^emain

167-169.]
day
reste

INDECLINABLE

WORDS.

107

'the

after

to-morrow/
*

h present
'the day

'at

present,

now/

au^motru

'at

least,'

au

'besides/ avant-hier
et

before
'

yesterday/

avant
'

pen

'before

long/

ga

la

here

and

there/
'at

ci-apres

hereafter,'

ci-indus

enclosed/

ct-

joifU 'annexed/
'

d*ahord

first/ d* accord
de

'agreed/ d*atlleur8 'besides/


de mime
'

(/

ftoniM heure

in

good

time,

early,'

la
des

'

hence,'

likewise,'

"/6 plu$

'moreover/
'

(fe sutte

'in

succession/
'

lors 'since
'

then/

d*ici 'from
'

here/

d*ordinaire
'at
'

usually/ (/'ou
all/
en

whence,'

c^u mains
the
'

at

least,' ifu reste

however/
'forward/

"/tt "ou" has

attendant
en

'in

meantime,
en
ne coeur

until/ en
haut
. .
.

avanf

below,

down-stairs/
'

yonder,'
'not

la-dessus

upon part ^an"


'

fact/ effet that, thereupon/ 'nowhere/


a

in

aloft, up-stairs,'

/a-6a5
non

/)a"

(etc., cf

169),
sans

plus

either/ nuUe plus tdt 'sooner/


si
'ever
'

par

'by

heart,'

peut-itre

'perhaps

'as

to/ quelque

part

'somewhere/
'

doute
once,'

undoubtedly,'
soit peu
tout

fait
so

yes,

indeed,'
ou
a

sur-le-champ

on

the

spot,
tour

at

tant

little/ tdt
tout

tard Vheure

'sooner
'

or

later/
tout

tour
'

'in

turn/

h coup

suddenly/
'

presently/

de

suite

immediatel

tout

d'un

coup

in

one

stroke.'

168.

Comparison
and aid

of

Adverbs.
degree
moins

"

Adverbs
are

that

can

have

comparative by
the

superlative of plus
and

compared,

like

tives adjec
four

(e.g.fQfiilement
Only
the

^easily,'

phis

facUement^
from
Posit.

le plus

facilement).
viz.
:
"

following

deviate

this

rule,

bien
^^, peu

^well' ('badly'
'

(. poorly

'

'little'
'much'

beaueoup

169.

Negation.

"

With

verb,

the

simple
the

negation
of
two

'not'

is usually
ne,

(cf. 321-338)
placed

expressed personal it, and


/la
.

by

aid
of

words,
or

viz.

before
preceding So
also

the

form
or

the

verb

an

object-pronoun
after
'no

pas

(more
mean

pefnt plus

it.

"

jamais
plus

emphatically) 'never/ ne
.
.

longer'
/le
.

(but
guere

/?a

pas but

'not
"

more'),
Ex,

no

que

'only/

'hardly,

little.'

108

SECOND

PART.

[169-172.
I have

Jen*a%pas.
n^ai
ne

not.
not not
not

Je

pas

(orpoint) parU,
parU.

I have
I have

spoken.
spoken give
to

Je

lui ai pas

him.

Je

ne
ne

le lui donnerai

pas

(or point).

I shall
I
never

it to him.

Je

joue jamais. jov"rai plus.


lui,

play.
not

Je

ne

I shall

play play
play
no

any

more

(=1
ne

shall
not

longer)
any
more

Je

jouerai pas

plus

que

shall than

he. only three dollars.

Je

n'ai

que

trois

dollars.

I have
He
see

II n'Stait guere

arrivi. particulars,
*

had

hardly

arrived.

For

farther

Syntax.

[170.]
more

Without

'

verb,

not

is expressed

by

non

or

non

pas

(non point),

r,

seldom,

by

pcu,

as

described

in the

Syntax.

Prepositions.
171.

Single

prepoaitionB.
'with,*

'
"

apres house
*

aiter*

avant

'before*

(in

'time

or

place'), avec
'since,'
"

chez

*at

(the
dh
'

of),* contre
*

'against,'

dans

*iu,'

epuiB

derriere
en
'

'behind,*

from,

since,
'

devant
towards,'

'before

(a place),
'

urant

during,' except,'
*

in,' entre
'

between,'

envers
*

environ 'by
'

about,'
means

ormis

'

jus^ti^

till, until,' malgr"


outre
'
'

in spite

of,' moyennant

f,' nonohstant
among,'

notwithstanding,'
'

besides,
sana
'

beyond,'
without,'
to,'
sur

par
*

by,'

parmi

pendant
to,'
sous

during,*

pour

for,'

sau/
'on,

save,'

selon
vers

according

'under,'

suivant

'according

upon,'

towards.'

172.
to,'
'

Prepoaition-pfaraBes.
a

"

cause

de de
a

'

on
*

account

of,' b c6t" de \ by,


to,*

ext

force
a

de

'

by

dint

of,' h
unknown

V"gard
to,*

with moins

regard

h, V exception
a

excepted,*
across
au
'

Vinsu

de

"

de
de
'

'

unless,*

travers

de

through, without,*

(without resistance),*u-dedans a
delh
de
*

within,*
au

au

dehors de
"

de

beyond,* de moyen
'

au-dessous
around,'
au

de

'

under,*
'

dessus
of,* de
'on
au

upon,*

u-devant
the

before,*

autour
au

lieu de

instead

milieu
by,'
side,'

de
au en

in

middle

of,*

de

'by

means

of,* aupres

'near,

ravers

de de
'

'through,

across

"p%t

in spite
de
* *

of,' ensuite along,* prls

(an obstacle),' en de after,* faute de


*

dega
*

de

this

for want
'

of,* hors
'

de
as

'

out

f,* le long

de

'

near,*

procke

de

near,*

quant

for,*

is-h-vis de

opposite

to.'

173-176.]

INDECLINABLE

WORDS.

109

Conjunctions.
173.
*

Single
lorsque
'
*

oonJunctionB.
*

"

car

for/ cependant
neither,
'

'

however/
*

done

then/
*

and/

pourtant

when/ however/ puisque


if/

mats
'

but/ ni

nor/

au

since/ guanc?

when/

^rti"

'

or/ pourquoi why/ that/ quoique alth

""

174.

Conjnnction-phraBea.
a
'

"

afin
*

que

*m

order bien que

that/
*

a{n"t

^^ue

'aa

well
*

as/

moin^

9ue
*

unless/
since,
que
'

avant
as soon

que

before,'

although/
*

depuis

que

since/

dh

que

as/ Jttsqu'ace
'

que
that,'

until/ parce
'

que

because,'
sans

pendant
'

while/

pour
tant

que
'

in
as

order

pourvu
que

que
*

provide

que

without,

unless,'

que

long

as,'

tandis

while.'

Intebjeotions.
175.

Ah

'ahI"afc"oh!'6aA*p8hawI'cAti"'hi8t!'"i*fle!'Aa*hal'A"f/aJ
'

(" pronounced
NoTB. good
indeed
:
'
"

sharp)
Many
'

alas

'

hola
brief

hallo

'

'

paix
are

silence used
*

'
"

and

so

on.

words
plague

and
take

phrases la bonne

interjectionally:
well
!
'

bon

peste
!
'

it !

'

heure of
!
'

very

.par
venir
'

exemple
are

etc.

Frequently
*

the
I why

imperatives
!
nonsense

oiler
*

and
!

thus
or

used

allons
hold

(done)

come

aJlez

come

now

Uteris

tenez

! there

! look

'

SYNTAX.

X.

UTTEODUOTOET.

176:

Syntax
their

treats

of

the

combination
and
agreement,

of

words
as

into
as

sentences

interdependence

well

their

relative

position.
The
:

1 77following
a.

leading

syntactical

principles

are

in

French

the

The

subjeot
verb

determines,
:

as
^

in

English,
'

the
aiment

number
'

and

person It also
e.g.

of the

il

aime

he

loves
and

; Us

they

love.'
:

determines

the

number
'

gender
bonnes

of
'

the
they

complement
are

il est hon

'he is good determines, indirect

; elles sont
as

good.' of

b.
the

The

verb

in

English, being

the
in

construction French

object (an
for

case-relation

always, by
the aid
'

except

conjunctive personal
e.g. il aime
^

pronouns,
son

expressed
'

of

: prepositions)

p^re

he
'

loves

his

father
un

U pense
A
son c.

son
'

p^re

he
a

thinks book

of his

father
or

; il donne
^

livre

ph'e

he

gives

to his father,'

his father
sense

book.'

The

adjuncts of
direct
order its

above

words

modify

their

by various

constructions. d. The
the its of
arrangement
come

requires,

as

in

English, verb the with

subject with adjuncts,and


their
*

adjuncts to
the
e.g. Ce

first, then
complement
"

the
or

finally

predicate
hon p^re

object
"

with

adjuncts :
This

aime

tendrement

ses

JoUs en/ants

good

father

loves

dearly

his

pretty

children.'

177-181.]

ARTICLES

AND

PARTITIVE

SIGN.

Ill

e.

The

inverted
clauses

order
when

"

used

especially is
a

in

interrogative

and

optative

the the

subject
like, the
'

pronoun,
after e.g.
come

in

interjected
adverbs
"

phrases requires
you
mort

like
the

dit-il and

and verb:
may

certain

subject to
?
'

follow
venir

Vaimez-vous
'

9 ^do

love
'

her

puisse-t-il

he

; d

peine

fut-il

hardly
The

was

he

dead.'
of syntactical

1 78.
are

peculiarities
in detail

constructions chapters.

in French

described

in the

following

XI.

ARTIOLES

AND
The
not

PAETITIVE
for

SIGU.
of 17th
the various

[179.
observed

HISTORY.
in French

"

rules

the
in

use

articles
and

now

were

yet

fixed
was

the often
use

century,

still less
it is
now

in the

16th.
; and
not

The
the

definite
nice

article

then in the

omitted, the

where

required
were

distinctions
Hence,

of

independent

partitive
centuries,
assure

sign

observed. with
et

in
like

the the

literature

of
:

those

we

frequently liberty

meet

expressions

following

//

vous

et

vie

et

(insx^tidof
de la

la vie et la liberty,
tot
:

196):

Comeille.

"

J*ai De

tendresse
:

(inst. of

tendresse)pour
des yeux the
:

id.

"

Des And

grosses
so

(inst. of

grosses

45)

larmes

lui tomhent

S^vign^.

on.]
Article."
used either
meaning

180.
has

Use
already the

of

Definite
pointed
out

(or Generic)

As

been
'

(40),fe,
nouns

Za, les

are

"

like

English

the

'
"

before
thus

whose

general
or

is individualized for the

and
most

made
no

definite,
occurs

else

"

where
nouns

in English,

part,
so

article

"

before

used

in their
given

generic

(and

far

definite)sense.

Special

rules

are

below.

181.

The
on

Definite
the

Article.
as

"

The

definite

article is used
some cases,

in French,
are

whole,

in
as

English.

Still, in while

nouns

in French
treats

treated

determinate,

the

English
or

language

them

differently
no

(using the
determinant

indefinite
at

article,
Thus:

the

possessive

or adjective,

all,

etc.).

112

SYNTAX,

[182-184.

7%e

Definite Article
Possessives.
possessive
"

with

Common
definite
common

Nouns:

182.

For
of the

The

article
nouns
can

is

used

instead

denoting

parts
as

of
who

adjective with the body), where


is the
owner

cially (espeno

there

be

unders mis-

to

of the

object mentioned.
hands.
memory.
his
in
woir
arm.

"

Ex.
leva
a

Elle
Elle

les mains.

She

raised
has

her

perdu

la mSmoire. le bras.
aux

She
He
yeux.
is this

lost her

// s^est cass4

has had

broken
tears
after
mal de

Elle

avail
"

les lai^mes

She

her

eyes.
d, 'have
a
a

Note.
pain
in.'
"

Quite
Ex.

common

construction

mal
have

J*ai
aux

mal

la

tete

(or

./'m

un

tele) 'I
have

headache.'

J*ai mal
au

mal
bras
is

dents
have
a

(or
sore

J*ai

le mal
"

de

dents) *I

the
etc.

tooth-ache.'
preceded by

J^ai
an

*1

arm.'

Obs. mal
de

'headache'
tete

adjective

usually

expressed

by

(e.g. un

violent

mal

de

tete

etc.).

[183.]
also

The in

definite

article

is used

for
nouns

possessive

tive adjecby
*with^
in
a

descriptive
when
^

phrases
are
*

with English
'

connected
by

preposition,
in
sense

they

in

preceded
is

of
"

having,'

holding

(which

then

omitted

French).
H
parait livre II
vint^
a

Ex,

toujours le (or un)


la main. le parapluie
so^is

He

always

appears

with

his

(ora)
under

book
le
He
came

in his hand.

with
arm.

his umbrella

bras. Le
roi trdne,

his
4tait
assis sceptre
sur

son

The

king

was

seated his

on

his
in

le

d,

la

throne
his

with

sceptre

main.

hand. for

[184.]

The

definite

article

is commonly

used
nouns

possessive
some

adjective also
constituent

in descriptiye
or

phrases
of
an
an

with

denoting they
are

part and

quality

when object,

governed

by
then

avoir

determined

by
the

adjective or
"

participle

(which

regularly

follows

noun).

Ex.

184-187.]
la tMe le bras
a

ARTICLES

AND

PARTITIVE

SfGN.

113

II

a
a

grosse.

He

has
arm

large

head.

cassS.

His

is broken.
a

Elle

r esprit p4nitrant.
soeur

She
petite,

has

penetrating
has
a

mind. mouth,

Voire
le

fa bouche
et

Your

sister

small

teint

beau

les

yeux

beautiful
eyes.

complexion,

and

blue

bleus.
lis out

r esprit
a

fatigu4,
lisse.

Their
The This

minds beech

are

tired.
a
a

Le

hMre
couteau

I'Scarce
a

has

smooth dull

bark.
edge.

Ce

le

tranchant

knife

has

4mouss4.
Note 1.

"

The
even

noun

denoting referring
number.
':
"

the
to

constituent several

part

or

quality

is put

in

the them

singular would
hare
2.
-^

when

objects,
betes
ont

provided
tete

each
*

of

require

that

Ex.
ex.
a une

Ges

la

longue

These

animals Note

long

heads

and

cf.

6 above.
grosse
tete

Constructions
the thing

like

il

etc.

are

also

allowable,
the

especially
thought.

when

itself rather

than

its quality

is the

object of

185.

The

definite

article

is used
'

before
'

nouns
or
*

considered
'

distributively

(where

in English
the
case

each/
before

every/
names

may

be and

used).
measure

This
; and
"

is especially
also

of weight

before

designations

of time,

unless

preceded

by par. La

Ex.
sous

viande livre.

coUte

vingt

la

The

meat

costs

twenty

sous

pound.
cinq dollars

Tai
H
H

pay4
six
me

le bariL

I have He

paid

five dollars
an

barrel. ell.
Thurs-

perd
vient

centimes
voir

Paune,

loses
comes

six centimes
to
see

le jeudi

(les

He

me

each

jeudis)
.

day
vient

or

on

Thursdays. six times


a

[But
jour,

II

six

fois

par

He

comes

(every)

day.]
The
Ex.

1 86.
parts.
"

definite

article

is used

before

names

of

fractional

La moiti4

de Varmee

One

half

of

the

army.

114

SYNTAX.

[187-190.
before
noun

187,

The

definite
when
when Ex.
Ney
a

article

is used
a

names

of

titles and
direct

professions

followed preceded

by

proper
monsieur^

(except in
madame^
or

address),or
"

by

mademoiselle

Le marichal
pereur,

visUS

Vem-

Marshal emperor.

Ney

has

called

on

the

Monsieur

le

comte

n'est

pas

The

count

is not

at home.

cliez lui.

198.
cannot

The

definite

article
be

is used under

in various anj

idiomatic
rules.
!
"

expressions
"x.

that

conveniently
!

brought

definite welcome
you
not
one

Sotfez le bienvenu
Je
//
vous

[Be]

souhaite
pas
au

le

bonjour,

I bid
He

good-day.
a

n'a

le

sou.

has

farthing. for help.

On

crie

secours.

Some
He

cries

// demanda
Je
n'en
at

raumSne.
pas
au

asked
no

alms.
time
a

le temps. hasard.

I have I said

for

it.

Je Vai

dit

it at

venture.

77ie

Definite Article
in
nouns

with

Proper

Nouns:

1 89before
as seen

Except

direct
that

address,
are

the

definite by
an

article

is used

all proper below,


Ex.

determined
cases

adjunct (even,
omits the

where

in

similar

English

article).

"

La

vie du

grand
du de

Corneille,
si^de.

The
Paris

life of the
of the

great

Corneille.
century.

Le
Le

Paris

quinzi^me

fifteenth

Cinna
Note.
"

Corneille.
names

Corneille's
preceded
and

Cinna.
the

Proper

by

saint

take

definite
"

article

only saint

when
*

denoting
it
was

saints'

days,

it is then

written

Saint-.

Ex.

C*^ait

Jean

Saint

John';

La

(Jetede understood) Saint- Jean


definite being article
as

'mid-summer.'

[190.]
thus
a.

Exceptionally the

the

occurs
:

before

names

of persons

not

determined,
names

rules

follows
take

Personal

denoting
are

plurality

the
the

plural

of
only

the when

definite ring refer-

article, while
to

they

themselves
or

usually dynasties:

in

plural

illustrious
*

families
Bourbons.'

e.g.

Les

Duval

'The

DuvaU';

L$9 Bourbons

The

190-192.]
b.

AETICLBaS

AND

PARTITIVE

SIGN.

115

Names

of

illustrious
:

individuals Montesquieu^
have

may

be

construed
ont
our

with

the

definite

article
*

in plural

e.g. Les
a

les Bousseau illustrated


and
the

illustr" notre literature.'


or :

litt^ra-

ture
c.

A A

Montesquieu,

Bousseau
famous

few

names

of

Italians

of

celebrated article

well-known
e.g. Le

persons,

especially

actresses,

always La
way
as

take

definite

Tasse

'Tasso';

le Corr"ge
names
or,

'Corregio';
used
by

Patti;
of

La

Brinvilliers.
for
or

d. Personal real
owners,

comparison

other works

persons

than take
or
are

the
the

vicariously, both article


:

titles
noun

of

books

of
in

art,

definite
as

article,
case

and

being

construed
'

singular

plural

the

requires

e.g. Les

Alexandres
read
T.'
or

sont

rares

Alexanders
ou

rare';
sont

J*ai

lu Je T"l"maque
*

*I

have

Les

Raphaels
are

/es

Titiens

bien pr^cieux

(Paintings by)
article

Raphael

Titian

very

precious.*

191names

The of

definite

is generally

(cf. 192)
"

used

with

extended

geographical
or etc.)

features
islands, of
from

such

as

countries
seas,

(states,rovinces, p
and

large
names

mountains, small

rivers,

lakes

"

but

not

before

islands, chiefly
islands,

cities and in using

places.

French

then
names

differs
of

English and

the

article

before without
est grande. est

countries
"

and

before

mountains

exception.

Ex.

La

Rusde

Russia
au

is great. is bounded
the
on

La France
par

bomie
et

midi

France

the
the

south
Med-

/es Pyr^n^es

la M^di-

by

Pyrenees

and

terran4e.
Navarre
est
une

iterranean.
province,
tie.

La

Navarre Sicily
The

is is
a

province. island.
a

La

Sidle

est
est

une

grande

large is
a

Le Oange

VAsie, unfleuve de
une

Ganges
is

river

in Asia.
in Syria.

Le Liban

est

montagne

de

Lebanon

mountain

/a Syrie.

[192.]
article

Exception

1.

"

In

the

following
names

cases

the

definite
in
names

is omitted

before la

feminine
and
a

of less
no

countries

the of

singular
remote
a.

(save

Chine

few

common

countries),provided
Always
to
*

they
to'

have for

adjnncts:
d, before

after

en

4n,
in
a

(used
way
en

dans^

such
en

feminines France be

denote

general

the
^

where) :
to

e.g. itre

in France,'

passer

France

go

F.'

116

SYNTAX.

[192.
'

b.

After
F.' ;
or

de in
in

sense

of
of
^

from
'

e.g. venir

de

France
an

come

from

sense

of

when

it introduces

attributive

genitive

of

distinction

(=
by
an

quality),wMcli

may

be

rendered
de de

without king

ambiguity
of wine.'
is not

^the

F.'

(=

^the

adjective: e.g. le roi French king'); du vin

France France

French
Usage
article
SL

quite de
J

settled

with

regard
however,

to

the
to

retention

or

omission rule
:

of de

the

after

f
.*

It is safe,
or

follow

this

Use

la in

possessive

partitive,

le midi
of

de la F.
title
:

la devastation

de la France ; genitive [e.g.le pouvoir objective distinction de la F."]. Use de in a genitive of

[as

le roi (Vambassadeur
apposition:

etc.)
F.;

de

F.

of origin
de

du

vin de

F. ; of

description

or

histoire de

le royaume

F.'].

Examples
demeure
en

to

192

a.

Allemagne.

He

lives

in Germany.

[But

II

demeure

dans

PAlle-

He

lives

in

Southern

Grer-

TMiLgne
va

mMdionale,

many.]
He
goes
to

II

en

AmMque,
va aux

America.
in (pi. French),

[But

II

Indes,

au

He

goes

to India

Br^sil,

aux

Eta^ts-Unis,

etc.

Brazil,

the

United

States,

etc.]

b.
est
venw

de France,
venu

He
Mexique

has

come

from from

France.

[But
or mon

II est

du

He

has
from

come

Mexico

or

de la France
retour

miridionale,

Southern
return

France.]
from Italy.
he

d'ltalie,
il
se

On
r^-

my

Chass4

d^Angleterre
en

Banished
to

from

England

fled

fugia

AmMque.

America.
from

[But

C?iass4 de
aux

la Ohin"

il

se

Driven

China

he

fled

to

refugia
royaume
roi de

Indes.

India.]
The

Le

d'Fspagne,
France.

kingdom
king
queen

of Spain.

Le

The
The The

of France.

La

reinede

la Gfrande-Bretagne. de Prusse.
est excellent,

of Great

Britain.

L'ambassadeur

ambassador
iron cloth.

of Prussia.

Le

fer de SuMe
drap

Swedish

is excellent.

Du

d^Angleterre,

English

192-195.]
Ua

ARTICLES

AND

PARTITIVE

SIGN.

117

mille
paix

d'Allemagne. de
Westphalie,

German treaty French


:

mile.

La Les

The The Compare

of Westphalia. confines.

limites

de la France,

farther

L^amhassadeur

de

France,

Un

marchand

frangais.

The
Le roi

French

ambassador. The
king

French

merchant.

de France.

Vempereur
emperor

de

la

Chine,

The

of France.

of China.

Lefer de JSuMe,

Swedish
in

iron

Le

fer de

la

Su^de.

The

iron

iron

found

L'histoire

de

France,
or

S.). (The)
The

all the

iron) of
la

Sweden.
The

UMstoire French

de

France,

French

history
of France.

his-

history from
Rare Fr.

(as

distin-

tory

guished

geography

etc.).
"

expression.

Varmie
of
La

d^Egypte,
Egypt

The

army

Varm^

de VEgypte,

The

army
to

(=

sent

into

E.).
The La

of Egypt

(=

belonging

E.).
The

r^uhlique de
Venetian

Venise.

r^publique franga/se.
French republic.
derived article.

republic.
2.
"

[193.]
of cities Hanovre,

Exception
as

a.

Seyeral

names

of countries
not

from

names

(such

Naples,

Bade

etc.)
have

do

take

the

Others

(like

Brandebourg
names

etc.) require
of places

it.
the definite origin

b. Certain

article
is

as

part

of that
Z^

name

itself

(often

because

its

appellative

still

felt).
'

E.g.

Havre
Haye
'.

('the Haven') (*the


Enclosure

'Havre*;
*

La

Rochelle
'

(*the Rock')
Caire
*

*Rochelle';
; La

La
*

') (the) Hague


varies
same as

; Le
to

Cairo

Mecque

Mecca being

[194.]
generally

Usage
the

with
with

regard
names

names

of rivers,
:

the

principle

of

countries

e.g.

Je

hois
*

de

I'eau
water

de
of

Seine
the

I drink

Seine

water.*

L*eau
vins du

de la Seine
Rhin
*

est

bourbeuse

The

Seine

is muddy.'
*

Les
river.'

(the)

Rhine

wines.'

Le

Jleuve du

Mississippi

the

M.

Exercise

(end

of the

book).
"

195.

The

Generic
requires in
^

Article
the

English,
all
nouns

generic
sense,

40, French, un(ef. like note). (= definite) article before i.e. in such understood
a

used
^all,'

generic
may

way

that

^in

general,'

every,'

be

with

them

(e.g

118

SYNTAX.

19a (;i95,

amour

ment

du

cceur

Love
est

"

i.e. love
'

in
"

general i.e. every

"

comes man

from

the

heart.'

Lhomme
oiseaux
out

mortel
ailes

Man

"

is mortal.'
have In the

Les

des

Birds

"

i.e.

as

genus

wings').
singular^
are

abstract
apt

or

collective
thus

nonns

and with

nouns

of

material

especially in the

to be

construed
may

the

definite
"

article, while

plural

any

noun

be

so

construed.

Ex.

Le vice est odieux.


et

Vice
sont
maux.

is odious. and
vanity
evils.
are

Uorgueil
source

la
Men

vanM
des

la

Pride

the

source

de

of many

La

sodit^
est
un

vivra

toujours.
pricieux.
hien. f
belle saison.
d

Society Gold
Blue Do

will is
a

always

live. metal.
to

Uor

wAtaX
sied

precious

Le bleu

vous

is becoming
you

you.

Aimez-votis

le

caf^
une

like
is
a

coffee

?
season.

Le printemps

est

Spring

beautiful

Les

enfants
inches
ne

aiment donnent

jouer.
pas
tou-

Children
Rich give.

like to play.
people
do
not

Les

always

jours,

[196.]

Names

of

languages
article
after

require
en, or

(a)
when Ex.

le when

treated
as

as

nouns

; but

(b)no
ex. (cf.

treated

adverbs

SiiteT parler

under

b.

below).
a.

"

apprend

le fran^ais, le frangais f
bien
un

He

learns
you

French.
French

SaveZ'Vous

Do
He

know

? well.

II parle

le
peu

frangais.
le frangais.

speaks

French
a

Je parle

I speak

French

little.

b.
parle

fran"pxs.

He

speaks
manner

French of the

^in (i.e. French


'

the
:

cf

Lat.
cela
en

latine

loquitur).
think

Dites

frangais.
en

Say
pour

that speak

in French.

faut
parler

penser

frangais

To

French

we

must

frangais.
Exercise

in French.
II.

197,198.]

ARTICLES

AND

PARTITIVE

SIGN.

119

Use

of

the

Indefinite

Article.

197-

The It

indefinite
is to

article

is used, however,

on

the

whole,

as

in

English.

be

observed,
an

that

before

abstract

nouns

determined in French
parti
mature
"

by
even
un

adjective, un
if omitted
mUr
examen

(une)
English Take

is generally

expres

in
'

Ne (e.g.
decision

prenez

voire

qu'apr^s

your

only

after

consideration
With
tout,
un

').
tout
un
*

Note.
About

follows:

monde

whole

world.'

the

omission

of the

indefinite

article

in French,

of. 203

etc.

Use

of

the

Partitive

Sign

(cf.43).
de

198.

The
and

Dependent

Partitive

Sign

is used

after in
44.

nouns

adverbs
by
'

of quantity
the

as (size etc.),

described the

It is followed
'

article

(du, de
no

la,

des) after

adverb
noun

bien

much,

many
after

(provided
in

adjective precedes
(laplupart,
when it.
"

the

limited) ;

superlative
and,
as

expressions

le plus
noun

grand

nombre^

; etc.)

also

English,
following
I have

the

limited

is determined

by

other

words

Ex.

J'ai

acJieti

une

quantity

de

bought

quantity

of

livres.

books.
curieux

Une

foule de

le

sui-

crowd

of

curious

people

followed

vaient

him.
un

Donnez-moi
pain,

morceau

de

Give

me

piece

of bread.

tPai acheU Je n!ai pas

heaucoup
assez

de

livres,

I have

bought
not

many

books.
enough.

de fleurs,
a

I have

flowers
man

Ce

jeune

homme que

plus

de

This

young

has
than

more

ac

connaissances

d^amis.
liwes. gens. nombre

quaintances
I have

friends. books.

Tai
But

achetS
Bien

bien

des

bought
brave

many

de braves
un

Many
He

people.
a

II connalt

grand

knows the fables

great of Esop.

number

of

des

fables d^Esope,

120

SYNTAX.

[1^8,199.
of quantity
autant
are:
'as
assez

Note in

1.

"

The

most

common

adverbs

(never, as
as

English,

placed

after

its

noun)
'much,
'

'enough/
many'

much,

many,'

beaucoup 'how
trop
'

'much,

many/
moins
too

bien

(requiring
tant
'so

def.

art.), comhien
so

much?'
too

'less/ joeu
many/

little/ /)/us 'more/


'

much,

many,'
'
'

much,

trop peu

too

little, too

few,*

la

plupart

most

(requiring def. art.).


Note expression
2.
"

De

is

sort

of

pseudo-partitive
or

connecting

preceding

of

number,
a

quantity,

measure

(negatives
e.g.
'

and

indefinites

inclusive) with
tu"s
'

following
soldiers

predicative killed
'

determinant:
un

mille soldats
one

de
'

thousand

; pas
'

de

debarqu" bon
'

not

landed
'

quelque

chose

de

bon

'

something
?
*

good is there

rien

de

nothing
enough
'

good
?
am
'

; y a-t-il

personne
'not
so

d'assez
soon.'

imprudent So

any
like

one
:

unwise

pas

de

sitot

also in expressions

suis-je
'who

de trop?
is the

I too

many?'
or

qui est le plus grand

de

C"sar

ou

de Napole'onf

greater

C.

N.?'

199.
Article by
nouns
noun a
:

The

Independent
"

Partitive
partitive

Sign sign,

(or
unless
or

Partitive

45).
nouns

The de

independent

excluded

preceding and

(46), is
of

used
in

before
the

abstract
and

collective
before
the any

material
when
an nouns

singular,
portion

in

the

plural,
by

undefined

of

entire

thing

designated partitive
the

these
as

is contemplated. described

This
a.

sign,

already

(45),is
a

de

alone;

when

partitive
a

noun

is determined

by

preceding
the

tive; adject.e.

and
noun

b. when than that

preceding

negation
or

affects of

partitive
noun,

rather

the
noun

verb

modifier unmodified

that

generally

when

is the

accusative

object

of

negative
de with

verb.
Examples
:

the

article

de alone

du

courage.

He

has

II

n'a

point

de

courage.

He

courage.

has
vin.

no^'courage.

J'ai

du

I have

(some)
de Peau
red

JTai

de

hon

vin,

I have

(some)

wine.

good
vin

wine.
belles

J^ai

du

rouge
I

et

T aide

jieursetd^excellents
have

fratche.
wine and

have

some

fruits,
flowers

(some)
de livres.

fine

fresh

yater.

and
n^ai

excellent
pas

fruit. No,

AveZ'Vous
you
some

des

livresf

Have

Non, ?

je

(or any)

books

I have

no'^books.

199.]

ARTICLES

AND

PARtlTIVB

SIGN.

121

Dans

cette

montagne
cuivre
et

il y

du

II

s'expose d

d, de

graves

erreurs^
en

fer^ du
There

de

Por.
and

d'^tranges
ainsi.

m4comptes^
He

is iron,

copper,

jugeant
to

is

liable

gold

in this

mountain.

make

serious
errors,

mistakes, in

strange

judging

thus.

Je

neferaipas
indiscr^tes

des

remarques

Je I
remarks

ne

ferai

pas

de
shall

remarques

Id-dessus.

Id'dessus.

I
on

make

?io'"

shall

not

make
on

heedless

remarks

the

subject.

the

subject
will

(though
be

some

remarks

made).
pas

Je

n^ai

des

sentiments
not

si

Cet

homme

n^a

gu^re
man

de

ments. senti-

bas.

I have

such

base

This

hardly

feelings.
donnez

has

any rtCa
du

feelings.

Ne

jamais des

conseils de suivre,

II

ne

jamais
tout.

donn4
He

de

conseils

quHl

soit dangereiLx

has
at

never

Never may

give

advice

which

it

given

me

any

advice

all.

be dangerous
n'ama^se

to follow.

L'avare
que

des
The

trSsors
miser for himself

Le

prodigue

n^accumvle

jamais

pour

lui.
treasures

de ricJiesses.
never
amasses

The

spendthrift

heaps

up
alone.

riches.

Ceci n^est
cuivre.

pas

de Por^

c'est

du

contredit ion.

sans

avoir

d'opinwithout

This

is^'not

gold,

He

contradicts

it is copper.
Note
1.
"

having
the partitive
in
*

any^opinion.
a

If

noun or

forms

with

preceding definite

adjective
article.
sons
*
"

compound,
a

whether He petits-Jils

form
has

idea,
'

it takes

the

Ex.

//

des

grand-sons shown good

(but

de

petits

Jils

little

'). II

montr"

du

bon

sens

He

has

sense.'

De

la bonne

foi

honesty.'

Des

jeunes gens
In popular the
2. rather
"

'young

people.'

style,
noun

du,

de

la, des
bon

are

freely

used biere,

whenever

an

adjective
article

precedes Note

(e.g.du

vin, de la bonne

etc.).
de
a

In
an

negative-interrogative
appeal with

sentences,

with real

the

note de-

implied

affirmation

than

question,

which

122

SYNTAX.

[199-201.
de
?

is expressed

hy

de alone.
*

"

Ex. you

N^avez
not
*

vous

pas

la sant", What
1
*

des
more

amis do

que

vousfaut-il
need
?

de

plus ?
vous

Have

health,

friends
no

you

N^avez
3.
*
"

pas
an

d'argent f
use

Have

you

money sign,

Note
to

By

extended

of the
the

partitive

it sometimes
partitive
or an

serves

denote

the

character

of/ and
rendered

like ; and
an

the

whole
noun

sion expres"

is then
Ex.

often

best

by

abstract

adjective.
it became
tout

Quand

il
to

afallu
show

montrer

de /'hommef
they

Us

se

sont

sauv"s
est

'When

necessary
*

manliness,

fled.'

Ce

latin

du

Cic^ron

pur

This

is pure

Ciceronian

Latin/
sometimes
verge
on

Similar

constructions

being

pure

genitives

of

acteris char-

[200.]
construed

If in
as

partitive

expression it is used
be by

an

adjective
but

is used

as

noun,

it is

such.
as

If

alone,
noun

with
were

the

noun

understood, unless,
the indeed, is

it is construed

it would

if the

expressed,
case
a

that

noun

be

represented by
are

the
"

particle

en,

in which

adjective
riches
du
et et

always

preceded
*

de alone. rich
and

Ex.
poor

Dans
people

cette

ville il y
town.'
a

des
J*ai
vin,

des

pauvres
et
*

There 'I

in this

vin

Uanc

du

rouge
has good

have
wine,
et

white

wine

and

red.*

//

de

bon

d'adultM
en a

He

and

adulterated.'

Ces

Jleurs

sont

belles ; il y beautiful;

de
are

rougeSt
red,
some

de

jaunes
are

de
and

blanches
some

These

flowers

are

some

yellow

white.'

[201.]
de

It

has

already

been
are

noted

(46)

that by

the
a

partitive

and

the

following
with,

article by

both

excluded

preceding

de

of, from,

').
"

Ex.

Varaignie

viCde

mouches

The

spider

lives

on

flies.

(not ^de
Je
parle^de
bons

des'^mondhes).
bons
livres

eCde

I speak

of good

books

and

good

amis.

friends.

On

le combloTde

bienfaits.

He

was

overwhelmed

with

nesses. kind-

Aucun

mortel

n^est

exempt

de

No

mortal

is free

from

faults.

d4fants,
II
a a

besoiifCd^ argent.

He

is in need

of money.

II

soif^de
un

sang.
marbre.
Exercise

He

is blood-thirsty.
a

Voild

Palais'^ de

Behold,
III.

marble

palace.

202,203.]

ARTICLES

AND

PARTITIVE

SIGN.

123

Repetition

op

Articles
and

and

Partitive
must

Sign. be

202.

The each
every

articles
noun

the

partitive

sign
a

repeated

before

or

adjective
"

denoting

different

object^and

before

superlative.

Cf

Repeated:

Not

Repeated:
ou

Le

gargon

et

Phomme,
man.

The

La

Gatde
France

France.

Gaul

or

boy

and

the
et

(synonymous).
et

Les

grands
great

hs
and

petits

4tats.

Les

grands
great

puissants

itats.
states.

The
states.
Ex.

the

small

The

and

powerful

for superlatives,

under

229.

Omission

of

Articles.

203.

The

articles

(the

partitive

included)

are

omitted

in

numerous

phrases,
or

corresponding peculiar
to

to similarly

construed

phrases

in English,
This

wholly
occurs

French.
:
"

omission the
noun

especially
a

a.

in certain verb,
as

set expressions
in avoir

where

forms

phrase

with

the

faim

froidy etc.) ^be or (soif, beau temps (froid^chavd,


to

feel hungry
'

etc.)
with
a

be

faire (thirsty,old,' etc.), c warm (cold,fine,' etc. with


as

reference

weather), or
A

preposition,'
etc.
"

in d cheval
when the
or

'on

horseback,'

dessein

'

on

purpose,'
what
a

b.
or

noun

explains what

predicatively
a

person
"

is

is made,

apposinouns,

tively
where

thing
no

or

person

is ;

c.

before
used.

suocessive

in English

article

would

be

(For

details

see

below,

204)
faim

"

Ex.
a.

J'ai

(soifyckaudyfroid), I

am

hungry
"

(thirsty,warm,
*

cold);
etc.

lit,

I have

hunger

'

i/'a* mal

d (a

tiie

(aux

yeux^

I have
sore

headache
"

(soreeyes,
lit, 'I

auhras).

arm);
in
'

have

pain

etc.

1 24

SYNTAX.

[203, 204.
It is fine weather

II

fait

beau

temps

(froid^

(cold,warm)

chaud) aujourd^hui.
attention.

to-day.
Pay

Faites

attention.
care

Prenez

garde

quHl

ne

tombe.

Take
He He

he

does

not

fall.

II est d cheval. II V
a

is

on

horseback. done
it
on

fait

d (tessein.

has

purpose.

b.
H n
est

Francais.
"

He
He

is
was

Frenchman.
made minister.

fat fait ministre.


lisons

Nou^

Athalie^

tragedie

We

are

reading by

Athalie,

trade

Marine.
c.

gedy

Racine.

Csperancey
ce

courage
nous

dest tout
,

Hope, need. He

courage,

that

is all

we

quHl

faut
ni mire.

II

n^a

ni pdre

has mother.

neither

father

nor

Nothing

short with

of extensive practice
as

observation
of

can

make

the student
The

familiar

the

omitting
are,

articles.
however,

details

of the
Articles
many

rule,
are

stated
:

above,

given

chief below

[204.]
A. In

omitted

set

phrases abstract
*

and
nouns

brief

or

elliptical
by
*

ezpressions,

as

:
*

1. Before
'

certain avoir

governed soin

avoir

(avoirfaim
avoir

etc.
*

hungry mind,

etc.,

raison
so
*

be

right/ avoir

take *pay

care,'

envie

hare

desire,'

and

on),

fat're

(Jaire attention
etc.),prendre

'BC"Te/faire
prendre

piti^
*

arouse

pity,'

peur attention,'y"ztre 'take care,' (prendre garde

patience gr^es
'return

have

patience,*

etc.)
,

rendre
some

(rendre justice
other
verbs.

do

justice,

rendre
2.

thanks,*
or

etc.),and
qualifying

In

many

descriptive
OKec,
*

phrases

consisting
:
'

of

preposition
*on

(especially",
a
*

de,

en,

sans,
a

par)
de
year,

and

noun

e.g.

cheval

back,* horseavec

dessein
with

on

purpose,'
en

pretentions
cceur
"

(a man)
as a
sans

with

pretentions/
man,'
sans

plaisir
*

pleasure,'
an

homme
the

courageous
mot

peur

without

fear/ par
condensed

*by

year/
as

dire 'without
of
books,

word.*

3. In

phrases proverbial

generally,
expressions,
*

in
:

titles

addresses,
*

advertisements,
'

etc.

e.g.

chapitre
'

second
; Maison
'

second
a

chapter
*

Contes
'

d*un grand-pere
; //
*

Tales
*

of He

grand-father
lives
on

louer

House

for

rent

loge

rue

Richelieu
is better

R.

street

Contente-

ment

passe

richesse

Contentment

than

riches.'

204,205.]
B.
1.

NOUNS.

125

Often
Before
or

before
a

predicate
noun

or

appositioiial
in
a

noun,

viz. way

predicate

qualifying
what

general

personal

subject

object,
noun

designating

it is, becomes,

looks

like
c'e"^,

(i.e. after
ce

etre,

devenir;
the

naitre, mourir; is determined

paraitre^ by
other
'

etc.),
words.
are

but
"

never

after

sont,
*

or

when

Ex.

II

est

Am^rlcain

He

is
est

an

American.'
*

lis
brother of

sont

anglais
a

They

English(men).'
devint
d*konneur
died
But
are
a

Son

frere
*

m"decin

His

is

physician.'

David
homme
'He
"

roi
*

d^IsraSl

Darid him
vent
se

became
man

king

Israel.'

Je le r"p\Uais
mounU

I considered

of

honor.'
*

II
wishes
sont

chr^ien
soldier.'

Christian.'
un

//
*

faire soldat
des
to

He

to

turn

C^est

Am^ricain

It is

an

American.'

Ce
marchands
the

des
qui

Anglais
a

*They

Englishmen.' gentlemen
are

Ces

messieurs

sont

vont sont

la

foire
*

"

These

merchants

going
2.

fair'
an

(but

marchands
noun,

are

merchants.').
used simply
poete
to

Before
out

appositional
may
not
:

when
"

describe
*

or
a

point

what poet.'
or
*

be

known.
^

Ex. poete

Horace^
*

cdehre

H.,

celebrated
poet'

But
H.,

Horace
poet

le cdebre

H.,

(the well known)


the

brated cele-

the

(as distinguished
in
nif
a.'

from

painter).'
or

3.

Before
or or

nouns

enumerated by
aana,
'never

rapid

succession,
the

used

ically, antithetalso
tons

preceded
by

soit, when
"

article

is omitted

in

English,
"

jamais

Ex. nuit,
"

Soldats^
II
soit
est

citoyens, officiers,
argent.

le
ne

suivirent,

(Eil pour

ceil. Jour Soit

et

sans

La

nature

fait ni

princes roi

ni seigneurs. aim^.

paresse,

il Jaiblesse,

n*apprend

rien.

"

Jamais

nefut plus

Exercise

IV.

XII.

iroTiErs.
HISTORY.
the
use

[205.
the

"

As

the

Latin
to denote

case-forms

gradually

disappeared
of the forms
that
noun

in

French,

of prepositions
became of
the
more

all individual

relations and this


use

in

sentence

and

more

frequent,
It
may

an

important
use

part

French

Syntax.

be

noticed

here that
et

the
to
mer-

actual

of
the

prepositions

in several
:

instances

varies

from

adhered

even

in

17th

century
; Se

e.g.

La

foi du

(for aw)
une

Messie
douce

de

ses

veiUes
Je
me

(Bossuet)
laissais
a

laisser
a

flattera (for par)


cet

esp^rance
; Et

(id.) ;
le peuple

siduire

(for par)
Ve'gard

aimable
tyrans

guide

(Racine)

in"gal
freedom

rendroit
of choice

des

(for a

des)

(Comeille).

Even

yet

some

is in this respect

allowed.]

126

SYNTAX.

[206-208.
As in

206.
noun c.

Nouns
has
no

without

Preposition.
when

"

English, cate, prediing agree-

the

preposition,

it is

direct
the

with Le

object,and d. English) when

sometimes
it is used The

subject,b. in (not then always


a.
"

adverbially.
comes.

Ex.

a.

phre
mon

vient.

father

b.

C'est
Je
H

phre.
son

It is my
I
see

father.

c.

vois

phne,
ce
ce

his

father.
come

d.

viendra vendu

soir.
cheval cinq

He
He

will has

this this

evening. horse
to
me

Tl trCa
cents

sold

francs.

for 500

francs.

And

of. 184-5.
The predicate
or noun

207.

may
the of

refer

either

a.

to

the

subject

(subjectcomplement),
latter
occurs

b. to verbs

object (objectcomplement).
making,

The

after the

electing

or

declaring,

considering,

and

like.
It is my He
bons

a.

C'est

mon

p'bre.

father. born poet. good friends.

II est n4 pohte.

is

Nous

noiLS

quittdmes

We

parted

amis.

b.

Onlejit genSra/.
Le
roi Va
m

He

was

made has

general.

nomm^i

mi nisi

re*

The

king

appointed

him

to

be
Le s4nat
de

minister.
declared enemy. him

le dSclara

ennemi

The

senate

him

his

la patrie,
mon

country's

Je
Note.

Vestime
"

ami.
of making,
word.
"

I consider
declaring,
Ex.

(tobe) my
or
comme

friend.
is often
*

After
the

verbs
predicate

etc., pour

used

before
him
as

lis le choisirent

pour

g"n"ral
*

They

chose

for

general.'

Jt

le consid^rais

(comme)

mon

ami

considered

him

friend

of mine.'

208.

Transitive these
are

verbs

admit

two

or

more

direct

objects
Indirect
can
never

when

coordinated. governed

Otherwise
by
'to'
*

only

one.

object-nouns are be omitted (as


geographic

preposition,
in

which
"

sometimes
mon

English).
my
my

Ex. child

enseigne

la

enfant
mon
'

He

teaches

geography.'

Je donne

1$ livre d

ami

I give

friend

the

book.'

208,

209.]
1.

NOUNS.

127

Note

"

Faire

forms
a

with

following
personal

infinitive

causative is
no

verb-phrase
direct
an

requiring

direct
le

object, if
him lire le livre;

there

other

object {Je
i.e.
^

fais

lire

'

I make

read Je
^

');

otherwise

indirect,
d /'enfant
the

dat.

{Je lui fais


him

faiflire
make
the

le livre

make
"

read
laisser

the

book

'

child

read

book').
"

Also
Ex.

and

verbs

of

perception

may

be

so

construed.

Je le ferai venir.
ce

Je ferai venir

I shall make

him

come.

I shall

gargon,
ce ce

make
remade; remMe

this

boy him

come.

Je lui ferais prendre Je

I shall make

take make

this remedy the

ferais

prendre

; I shall

child

et I'enfanf.

take
Faites

this him recite

remedy. repeat; his


have Have

Faites-le
sa

r4pSter;

r4p4ter

Make boy

this

legon

ce

gargon.
ont

lesson. caused
most

Les
aux

FranQais
autre

fait

adopter

The

French

other of their

peuples

la plupart

people
customs.

to adopt

de

leurs

usages.
voir
mes

J'ai

fait (or laissf)


d
ces

I have

shown

my

books

to these

livres

enfants.
que

children.
verser

Les

larmes

fai
d

vu

The

tears

I have

seen

this
me.

girl

d cette

Jillem^on
dire

toucM.

shed
I

have heard he

touched
my
come.

J^ai
mon

entendu

(or par)

have that

brother

say

frhre quHl
2.
"

viendra.
in phrases

will

Note
the

Observe

like Je les lui ferai voir etc. the

position

of

both

object-pronouns

before

faire.

Exercise

V.

209a noun

Nouns
not

with

Preposition.
in

"

Since

all

relations
must

of

described
aid

the

preceding
the

(206-8)
right
use

be
is,

expressed
course,

by

the

of prepositions, A

of

these

of

of much

importance.
use
"

brief

account

of the

principal and

laws aid

for that
of
a

to

be
"

supplemented
is given

by
below.

observation

the

good

dictionary

128

SYNTAX.

[210, 211.
this is
noun

210.

De.

"

The

original
its later

meaning
uses.

of
It

preposition
with the

'from/
"

whence
a. an

all

forms

either:

attributive
another
noun,

phrase
or

(denoting possession,
portion),or
origin,
"

q^icdity,

hind,

name

of

b.
cause,

an

adverbial

phrase

(denoting place
corresponds

or

time
to

whence,

means,

etc.)
's
or

It generally

the
or

English

possessive

ending

the

preposition
action,
cf.

'of,' 'from,' which,


Ex.

'by'
when

(denoting con(lition rather


physical,
is expressed by

than

especially

par:

215)."

a.

Le

livre de

laJiUe,
ma

The
My

girl'" book. mother's

La

bont4

de

m^re,

kindness

(The

kindness

of my
Paris.
on

mother).

Une

table d^ acajou.
ville de

table
city

of mahogany.

La

Paris,

The The

of

Le

voyage

du

Bhin.

journey
dozen

the

Rhine

(Rhine journey).
douzaine

Une

d^oefs.

eggs.

b.

II vient

de
du

Paris.
quinzi^me
est

He si^cle.
bon.

comes

from from
iron died
the

Paris.
15th century.

Un
Le

livre

book

fer de SuMe

Swedish
He has

is good

(192, b).

It est mort II
est

de faim.
bien
aise

o/
glad

hunger.

de

votre

He

is very

o/your
by by
a

arrival

arriv4e.

II est respect^

de tons,
un

He chien.

is respected
was

everybody.

[But

II

fut trouv4par

He

found

dog.]

[211.]
*

De
*

is often
or

used
'

where
or no

English

requires
at

some

other
.

preposition it is

than

of/

from/

by/

preposition
those

all.

Thus

used
has
'

"

a.

Where,
account

in relations
*

similar
'

to

described
etc.
"

above,
a

English sign

for

(on
c.

of)/ with/ *in/


the
*

about/
'

b. As
nam^s

partitive

(34-37).
kind.

"

To

express

by

how

much

before

of measure

of an^

211. T

NOUNS.

129

or

age

; and

before

the

name

of

musical
*in.'
"

instrument
e.

after

jouer
of
ou.

play.'
ison compar"

"

d.

After
that

superlatives

for

English

Often
are

before

terms

follow
servir,

an

interrogative

verb
"

and

connected
abuseTf

by

f. For

as

after

trailer ,
also

qualifier.
approcher
son

g.

After

proche

and

approcher
names

(or

s'approcher,

but

without

de, especially

before

of

persons), changer (followed by an


several

(when
abstract
verbs
se

jouir,juger, redoubler omitted), 'use' (user 'wear/ without and noun), user (fe),
are
*

etc. is

decider,

reflexive
'

that

rendered

as
se

transitives
'

in

English
etc.
"

e.g.

s*apercevoir

perceive/
de

d^r

distrust/

douter

suspect/

Ex.

a.

Je le punis

safaute.
de lassitude.

I punish

him

/or

his fault.
more

Je

n'en

puis

plus

can

do

nothing

ybr (on

account

of)
II ^ait
arm^

weariness. armed

d^un de

fusil. hienfaits.

He

was

with

gun.
me

II

m*a

comU"

He

has

overwhelmed

with

nesses. kind-

II agit de bonne Cela


depend

foi.
vous

He That

acts

in good
on

faith.
you.

de

depends

(Lat.
J'ai

de-pendere

*ha.ng

from *).
I have
some

b. J'ai

du pain.
heaucoup
est
or

bread.

d^ argent.
haul

I have

much

money.

c.

Ce clocher
pieds
;

de

deux

cents

This
a

steeple

is two

hundred

feet high.

Ce

clocher
hauteur

deux de

cents

pieds

de

(or
plus

haut).
que

Vous

etes

grand

moi

de

Tou

are

two

inches

taller

than

I.

deux

pouces.

II est ag" Le
prix

de de

trots
ce

ans.

He

is three

years

old. is five dollars.

livre

estde

cinq

The

price

of this book

dollars.
Ma
montre
avance

(retardedde

My

watch

is four

minutes

fast

(slow).

quatre

minutes.

tPai

un

dollar

de trop.

I have

one

dollar

too
as

much.

Iljoue
213,
d.

du

violon

(cf.au
belle

hillard

He

plays
violin.

(on,

if

*from')

the

a).
la plus

Elle

est

fillede

la

She

is the

finest girl in the

city.

ville.
e.

Qui fut le plus


d* Alexandre,

grand

homme,
ou

Who

was

the

greatest
or

man,

der, Alexan?

de

C"sar

de

Caesar

Napoleon

Napd^on

130

SYNTAX.

[211-213.
He

f. //

me

servira

de guide,

shall

serve

me
as

as

guide. prince.

Je

l*ai traits de prince. Vai traits


en

I treated
I treated

him him

(called him)
a

[Je
// g.

prine.

like
the

prince.]
city.

de (^s')approcha

la ville

He

approached

(JI
II
a

approcha

la

ville),
He

change

d^ opinion. d^habits.

has
must

changed change his

his mind. clothes. favor.

Ilfaut
Je II Je

changer
sa

We
I He

jouis de
redouhla
me

faveur.
efforts.
du
piege
que

enjoy

(her)

d^

redoubled

his efforts.

auis

apergu

perceived
for
me.

the

snare

they

had

laid

Von
Je
me

m'avait

tendu.

doutais

de

sa

trahison.

suspectefl his

treason.

212.
^

Jl.
"

The

principal
its other

meaning
uses.

of
It

the forms

preposition
with

d, is
noun

to/

or
:

'

at/
"

whence the

the

either
b.
an

a.

indirect

(personal or
(denoting

personified)object or
position,
to
'

"

adverbial

phrase

direction,

aim,

pose^ pur-

addition^'^tQ,).
'

Generally
'

it corresponds
to
'

the

English

fo/

till,^' at,'
names

or

'

in

when

equivalent
etc.

at

(i.e. generally

before

of cities, towns,

"

Ex.

a.

Je

donnerai
soeur.

ce

livre

ma

shall
sister.

give

this

book

to

my

II

promts de

sa

m^re

de

He

has
to

promised his

his (to) conduct.

mother

changer
II est enclin

conduite,

change

it Vivrognerie,

He

is inclined

to drunkenness.

b.
II ira demain
II est
a
a

Pans.
la
au

He He

is going

to Paris

to-morrow.

Paris

(a

maison).
pouvoir,
a

is in Paris
man

(at home).
to power.

Get homme
II
sait

aspire

This
la

aspires
how
wiOi

oilier

la

douceur

He

knows gentleness

to

combine

gravitS.

dignity.

[213.]
'

A
*

is often
or

used

where
at

English

requires

other

prepositions

than

to/

'

at/

in/

no

preposition

all.

Thus

"

a.

In

descriptive

phrae^n

213,

214.]
manner
or

NOUNS.

131

denoting

instrument, 'pain/
"

purpose
c.

or

(with le)
etre
a
*

ingredient,
to.'
"

etc.

"

b. After

ma/
a

denoting
noun

In

the

phrase after

belong
verbs

d. To
if be

form

with

the
a

indirect

object
noon
or

certain

which,

resolved followed
*

into

verb
to,' or
*
=

and
which

adjective,
usually take
;
a

would
dative
*

naturally

by

in Latin

object (e.g.
harm
; or
' =

conseiller harm,'
meaning

advise

give

advice,'
renoncer

promettrey
,

r"pondre

nuire

do

jo/airg, satisfaire; oh"ir,


implies
a

r"sister ; penser, from

ressemhler
tlie

whose'

separation

of

something

indirect

object
^chopper of

(acheter,arracher,
"

enlever, dter, ravir^


also
"

^outirer,emprunter^
in
certain
uses,

demander^
de
instead

all except
e.

demander
note

allowing,

a).

"

Cf. 186,
a

1.

Ex.

a.

II

vient

cheval.
voix,

He
He He

comes

on

horseback.
a "

II parle
II peche II

h haute

speaks

in with

loud Une

voice.

d la ligne.
au

fishes plays

(angles).

joue
211,

hiliard

(cf
.

du

violon

He

billiards.

//

c). Vafait h
homme
chambre

dessein.

He

has
man

done
with

it

on

purpose. hair.

Un Une

h cheveux
a

hlancs.

A
A A

white

coucher.

bedroom. steam-engine.
soup.
the

line machine De
b. J*ai

h vapeur.
au

la soupe
mal mal

lait.
tete.

Milk
I have He This
I
am

h la
aux

headache.

II
d.
e.

dents.
moi,
mere.

has

toothache. belongs
to
me.

Ce livre
Je pense
J*oh"irai

est a
a

book

ma

thinking
obey

of my
your

mother.

vos

conseils.
son

I shall
He
has

advice.

II

promis

pere

de changer

promised

his father

to

change

de condmte.
J*ai

his conduct.

achetif

ce

livre d

mon

frere.

have
brother.

bought

this

book

of

my

N*arrachez
mere.

pas

cet

en/ant
francs
a

sa

Do

not

tear

this child

from

its mother.

J*ai

emprunt"

mille

mon

I have

borrowed

1000

francs

/row

my

ami.

friend.

214by
or

Dans^

en
noun

^in,

into/
noun

etc.

"

Dans,

being by
an

always

followed

defined

a (i.e.

preceded
more
noun,

article, pronoun,
than
often
en,

numeral)

denotes
by
a

location defined

definitely
and

whicb

is

rarely followed

which

introduces

132

SYNTAX.

[214.
form,

an

adverbial

phrase
of

of

manner,

means,

etc.
"

'In

the

year

(or month)
Is

is usually

expressed
Le

by

en,

Ex.

II est dans He is in

(orau) magasin. (or at) the store.


guerre. In

hU wheat

est

en

magoMn.

The

is stored. de guerre.

Dans
the

la

demise
war.

"/i temps
war.

In

time

of

last

Lea
mer.

poissons

vivent

dans
in

la
the

Les

vaisseaux

sont
are

en

pleine
sea.

mer.

Fishes

live

The

ships

in open

ocean.

II demeure

dans

rAllemagrie
He

demeure

en

Allemagne.

He

mMdionale.

lives

in

lives

in Germany.

Southern Phiver

Germany
de 1880.

192). (cf.
In

Dans

the

En

4t4;

en

juin.

In

summer;

winter

of 1880.

in June.
au

(But, by
^

exception,

printemps
en

In

spring.')
il agit
en

est

dans

una

situation

dangeous danger-

n'agit pas
Jionn^te
act

secret^

reuse.

He

is in

homme.
secret,
man.

He he
acts

does

not
an

situation.

in

like

honest

Dans
this

(or en)
moment.

ce

moment.

At

En

mil

huit

cent

quinze.

In

1815.

Note
*

1.
a

"

With
'

reference
to

to

location,

'

cfans
en

in

'

points

directly
situation

to
or

the

inside,
"

in, at

simply

the

wherCf
*

and
he

to

general
'

condition

Cf.
; il
est

il est dans
au

le magasin
*

is in

the
or
*

store at

inside (i.e.

it
*

some-

where)
the
the
'

magasin
en

he

is in the
*

store/
la

the

store/
Dans
;
en

or

near
'

'

store
a

; le bU

est

magasin
town
'

the

wheat
to
a

is stored.'

la

ville

in

city/
=

la

ville 'in
.

(as

opposed

campagne)
means
*

ville 'in town

gone

out)
2.
'
"

Note
en

With
in the

reference
'

to

time, they

dans
are

in

by

the without

end

of,'

and

in

course

of

; but

sometioies

used

much

distinction.

"

Ex.

Je pars

dans
le

deux

heures. deux heures.

I leave
I haye A week

in two crossed

hours
over

(from now).
in two

Tax

fait

trajeten

hours.

D*aujourd*huien

huit

(en quinze).

(A fortnight)hence.

215.
or

Par
units
passive
an

'through, of
time
;

by,
or,

per.'

"

This

preposition
with

refers
de^ to

to

motion,
or

tion, duramotive.

interchangeably

manner

After

verbs,

it is used,
or

instead

of
"

de,
Ex.

especially

when

the

verb

expresses

external la ville.

physical

action.
He

//

pass^par
id

has

passed

through

the

city.

Venezpar
a

(par la).
semaine.

Come She
He
ou

this
gets has

way

(that way).
dollars
it for
a

EUe

trois

dollars par
crainte.

three

week.

//

I'afaitpar
a

done

fear.
that

//

obtenu

cela par

force

par

He

has skill.

obtained

by

force

or

adresse,
maltrait"
est

Ilfut

par

les scldats.

He

was

maltreated
is

by
by

the the

soldiers.
waters

L*"gypte
Nil,

haign"e

par

les

eaux

du

Egypt

watered

of

the

Nile.
was

L*Am"iquefut
tophe

difcouverte par

Chris-

America

discovered

by

Chris-

Cdomb.

topher

Columbus.

216.

With
here
:

regard

to

the

remaining

prepositions

it will be

sufficient to

notice
a.

Of

those

which
to

denote
time
or

position place,
and

avant

refers
others

almost

exclusively

to

time

alone,

aprhs

the

(devan'tj fiors, etc.)to

place
b.
c.

(or condition) alone.


Ayec Chez
means
*
'

with
among,

in company
at
*

with.*
'

with,

the
our

house
house

of
'

often
or
*

refers
'

to
;

one's

home

or

country

(e.g. chez
the

nous

at

with

us

chez

les Bomains

'among d.

Romans,' usually
to

etc.).
refers
several
to

Entre

two

objects (or

to

several

when

mutuality

is

expressed), parmi
e.

objects.
without Implied

tracers

denotes

'through'

implied
resistance.

resistance,

but

au

tracers

de,

'through'

with

an

This

distinction

is

obsolescent. f. Vers
expresses

physical,

but

envers

moral

direction

or

relation.

217.

Repetition
before
; but
as

of

Prepositions."/?",
noun

a,

and

en

must

be

repeated determine

each

whose

relation

in

the

sentence

they

the

other
"

prepositions
Ex.

may

be

repeated

or

omitted
mountt

much
convert

in English.

de

gloire

et

He

died
wounds.

covered

with

glory

and

de blessures,

134

SYNTAX.

[217-219.
owed
and conqueror.

n
a

dtU la

la

vie

la cUmence
du

et

He

his

life to

the

ency clemof the

magnaiiimM

vain-

magnanimity

queur.

C^est
en

un

excellent
en

travailleur
et en et
or.

He

is

an

excellent silver, and ruined

worker
gold.

in

cuivre,

argent
les
ruses

copper,
He
was

II

p6ri

par

les

by

the

strategy

de artifices

ses

ennemis,

and
de
ses

artifice of his through


and

enemies.
the

11

p4ri

par

la haine

He of

perished his

hatred

ennemis
ses

et par

la IdcheU

de

enemies
of his

the

cowardice

amis.
Exercise
VI.

friends.

XIII.

ADJE0TIVE8.

[218.
not

HISTORY.
altogether

"

The
same

construction
two

of

adjectives, like
ago that

that

of
Thus,

nouns,

was

the

centuries

it is

now.

they
nouns

were

then

generally
nu

made
agreed

to

agree

with

the

last

only

of

several
note

feu

and

always

with

the
took

noun a

qualified different with

(cf.219

2);
the the

the
one

complement

of

an

adjective
position
now
:

often

preposition

from
to

now

required;
much

the
than

of
and

the
so

adjective

reference

noun

was

freer

on.]
of

Agreement

Adjectives.
one

219.

Adjectives
and

qualifying

word

agree

with

it

in

gender

number.
The The
et

Le

bon

garqon.

good

boy.
girls.

Les

bonnes
garQon

fides,
est

good boy
also

Le

bon

les

files

The
are

is good, good.

and

the

girls

sant

aussi

bonnes,

Je

suis

bon
to

(or bonne
gender

ing accord-

am

good.

the

oije).
or

Vous

ites

bon

(or bonne,
:

You

are

good.

bons,

bonnes

100,

note

2).

219,

220.]
bas

ADJECTIVES.

lS5

Des

de so/e
de
soie

blanche.

Stockings

of

white

silk.

Des

bas

blancs

White

silk-s tockings.

220.
word they
are

Adjectives
treated
or

qualifying

in

English

by

more
as

than
in

one

somewhat

differently
words.

according

French

precede

follow

those

1. If they before

precede
agreeing
et la

the
with

words

they

qualify,
and

they

are

repeated
Ex.

each,

it in gender

number.

"

Le

bon gargoii
2.

bonne

file.
the

The

good

boy

and
as

girl.

If

they

follow
are

nouns

(whether
the

attributes
:

or

predicates) they a. Adjectives


equivalent
to

subject
denoting
in

to

following

rules

qualifying

nouns

connected

by

ei

(or by
with

ow,

if

et)and
being

distinct plural.
differ,
noun

agree objects,

them

all collectively,
nouns

the these
masc.

Their
the

gender

is that is
in

of the

the

qualified.

If

adjective
is placed
feminine of the

masculine its

(and

then

the

usually distinct

nearest

the when adjective, b. Adjectives qualifying

latter

has

form).
preceding

logically
by
one
ou
*

only
or,'
or

one

words
or

(thesebeing
emphasis,
in gender
to.
:
"

separated

being
placed

synonymous),
in
gradation, words of the

by

the

last

of

nouns

agree

and

number

with

the

nearest

one

referred Examples

a.

Lep^re

et la m^re

sont

bans.

The

father

and

the

mother

are

good.
la langue
et la litt^ra-

J'^tudie
ture

study

the

French

language

franfa/ses.
et
un

and
courage
et
une

literature.
prudence

Une

prudence

An

astonishing
courage.

and

than (better

Un

c.

p.)
ou

Stonnanis.
Us
86

nourissent

de

chair

They

live

on

raw

flesh
ou
="

or

fish

de

poisson

crua.

on (i.e.

both,

et).

136

SYNTAX.

[^26.

b.

Un

courage
etonnante
.

ou

une

pTvdence

An

astonishing
courage.

prudence

or

On
un

ne

sait

pas
ou

encore
une

si

c'est

It

is not
man or

yet
woman

known

if it is

homme

femme

drowned.

noyee.
vie
une

Sa

n^est

qu!un

travail

et
;

His

life is but

continual

labor,

occupation

continuelle

continual

occupation.

[o^qu^un travail^ (gw')une


Le

etc.]
The
sword,

fer^

le bandeau^

la

flamme
.

the bandage,

the

fire

est tovie
Note 1.

pr^te
"

(poetic)
like
*

is all ready.
The

Expressions
by

French
et

and

German
or

languages La langue

'

may

be

rendered

either

Les

lanffues

frangaise

allemande,

fran^aist

et

la langue
Note
2.

allemande.
"

Ci-inclua
followed preceded
trouverez

'inclosed,'
by by the the

'

ci-jofnt
definite
article.
"

annexed feu

are
*

invariable, late,'

except

when
when
vous

article ; also
Ex.

defunct,

except

definite

Ci'inclua
contrat.

la copie

du

Inclosed
contract.

you

will

find

copy

of

the

Vous

trouverez

ci-inclus

copie

du

You

will
contract.

find

inclosed

copy

of

the

contrat.
vous

Je

envoie

ci-incluse

la copie

du

I send
'

you

inclosed

the

copy

of

the

contrat.

contract.

Feu

la reine
Note 3.
'
"

(or
An

La

feue

retne).
following
or

The

late

queen.

(like)

agrees
to

with

adjective air (masc.)


one or

avoir the

Vair

'have

the

aspect,

look
as

with
"

noun-subject,

according

it

is applicable

the

the

other.

Ex.
This This

Cette peinture
Cette soupe
a
a

Vair gai.

painting
soup looks

looks
as

cheerful.
if it
were

Vair
content

bonne.

good.

Elle

Vair

(or

contente

She

looks

satisfied.

d'etre Note

contente^.
4.
"

Demi

'half/
*

nu

'bare,'

and

the

participial

adjectives

attendu
yu
noun.

'considering,'
seen,'

excepts

'excepted,'
'

passe
inflected

'past,' only
to

suppose'

'supposed,'
their

'

/ compris
the
are noun

inclusive
and

are
nu

when
a

following hyphen

Before

demi
as

are

joined
"

it with
:

(63. B),

the

others

treated

if prepositions.

Compare

220,

221.]

ADJECTIVES.

13?

Uninflectbd

Inflected

Une

demi-Uvre.
et

half-pound. Bareheaded and

Une Tete

livre et dem/'e. A pound


nue

and

half.

Hu-tHe

nu-pieds.

et

pieds

nua.

Bare

head

and

barefoot.

bare

feet.

Excepte
ladies.

les

dames.

Except

the

Les

dames excepted.

exceptSea.

The

ladies

Aftendu
the

les "v"nemenis.
eyents.

Considering

Des

e'v^ements

attendua.

Expected

events.

Note
"

6.

"

Adjectives

used

as

adverbial 'How
sweet

predicates
these

(166)
flowers

are

invariable.
'

Ex.

Que cesjieurssentent

bon!

smell!

Exercise

VII.

Place

op

Attributive
the

Adjectives.

221.
its
noun,
:

The

place

of

attributive optional,

adjective before or
is yet in the main
more

after
mined deteror

though
a.

largely

by

the

emphasis

of the

adjective;
Thus when which
:

b. by

less

fixed nsage
a.

for certain

adjectives.
the
a noun

The

adjective precedes
by that
noun
or

it attributes
we

to

the

object
it, and white

denoted

quality

naturally

(by
with 'the
'

necessity,

compliment,
as
'

general

understanding) associate
:

which
snow

such

is unemphatic
have
no

e.g. la blanche
; color)
noun

neige
tyran

(itcould
But

other

le cruel

the

cruel
to

tyrant.'

it is placed

after its
noun a

when

it attributes

the

object denoted
to
rose

by
matter

that
of

quality
is

which,

as

not

belonging
e.g.
un

it

as

course, rose'

(so far)
be

emphatic:
red

la homme

blanche
cruel
'a

'the
cruel

white
man.'

(it might

etc.)
a

b.

Some

adjectives by
either before
noun
:

fixed
after

usage

ordinarily
noun,

have

fixed

position,

or

their

viz.

before

their

1. beau^

joli; bon,
gros;
sot;

meiUeur;
"

mauvaiSf

pire; in
a

jeune,
certain

vieux
sense,

(may
as
noun

follow);

2.

some

others

described

122,

list.

after

their

in (chiefly

virtue

of

the

main

rule) :

1. ad-

1S8

SITKTAX.

C221

jectives denoting
title,
catholiquey
or

shape

or

color

those
"

derived
2. past

(may precede), nationality, religi from names f (e.g.rangais^ proper (aim4, etc.);
"

etc.);

participles
"

3.

nouns

used

as

adjectives (trompeur^ etc.);


Examples
to

4.

cf. 122,
:

list.

221
The

The

Adjective

before

Adjective
un

after:

Le

vertueux

CcUon,

The

tuous vir-

VoiUi
There
man.

homme

ventueux.
a

Cato.

you

have

virtuous

Un

doux
perfume.

parfum.

sweet

Une

odeur

douce.

sweet

odor.
main

La

puissante
cule.

d'Her-

Une

mmn

puissante.

ful power-

The

mighty

hand

of

hand.

Hercules.
Lea

fameuses

pyramides

C^itait
was

une

place

fameuse
place.

That
.

d'Egypte, pyramids Le

The of E.

famous

famous

matheureux
The of

homme
man

p6rit.

C^est
He

un

homme
an

ma/heureux.
man.

unhappy

(spoken

is

unhappy

before) perished.
fr^e
est
un

Mon
My

ban
a

gargon.

J'ai

ac?iet4

une a

table

ronde.
table.
cloth.

brother
drap.
une

is

good

boy. Du
I

have
drap

bought

round Blue

De

beau
connais

Fine

cloth.

bleu.
un

Je

jeune
girl.

JUle,

Je connais
I know

marchand

anglais.
merchant.
I

know Je

a
un

young

an

English

v(H8
see a un

petit

ruisseau,

J'^udie
study

la langue

fran^aise.
language.

little brook.

the

French

(Test
is

vieux

domestique.

It

O'est
an

un

dome^ique
servant.

agi.

It is

an
mon

old servant.

aged
une a

II est

meilleur
best
1.
"

ami.

He

C^est
is

noMon

chritienne.
nation.
of euphony
or

It

is my
Note
long

friend.
Rule
a.

Christian
the

is often

contravened

by after

requirements
nouns,

adjectives being
educated
taste

preferably
can

placed

short
case.

short

before

The

alone

decide

in each

221,

222.]
2.

ADJECTIVES.

139

Note exclamation its


noun

"

In

the

speaker's

mind,
I

an

adjective
to

used

in

address

or

(mon honore
a

confrere
naturally

Quel charmant
belongs it.

en/ant!)
Hence

attributes

to

quality

which
noun.

such

adjectives
than the and

usually
Note

precede

their

3.

"

If

the

monosyllabic superlat.

adverbs
tres,

adjective bien, fort, plus


trop,
or
st,

is

determined

by
:

other
i.e. the the

words

(or

le plus

comparat.
"

signs),
Bavant
man.

they

always

follow

noun.

Compare
This
truly

Ce tr^8

homme.

This

very

Cet homme
good
man.

vraiment

bon.

learned

Le plus

beau

livre que I have


or a

fate
seen.

vu.

The

Ce

sont

des
are

personnes trustworthy

dignee

de

foi.

finest book

They gar^on
s/

persons.
or
une

Un

$1

ton So

gargon, good

Un

Une

tres

jeune A

filUy

fiUe

trbs

bon.

boy.

jeune.
that
can

very

young

girl.

"

[222.] Adjectives
sense,

be

used

in
the

literal

as

well

as

metaphorical
because

generally

precede

noun

in the
to
:

latter,
noun
a

in

the

speaker's

mind

it attributes
of it.

that

quality

naturally
Before

characteristic
:

Thus

After

Un Un

noir chagrin

A dark
.

grief.

Un

habit
homme
man.

noir,

black
A

coat.

aweugfe
love.

amour,

blind

Un

aveugle.

blind

Une

Hroite

amitU,

close

Un

chemin

etroit.

narrow

friendship.
In many
as

road.

virtue,

chiefly, have
or

of
a

this
more

principle
or

"

disturbed

in

part

"

adjectives
precede
of

less
noun.

varied
Among
the

sense,

according whose
may

they

follow

their

those

difference
be mentioned

meaning
here
:

is not

self-evident,

following

Before
ancien

After
old

former

(cf.note)

brave
certain

honest
certain

(cf note) (indefinite)


.

brave
sure

cher dernier

beloved last

expensive
.

(cf note)

just

past

diff"ent\
divert

various

unlike

140

SYNTAX.

[222,223.

Note.

"

Even
or

some

of these the
noun

adjectives
according belongs de
ces

may
as

in
they
or

one

of their
to
un

meanings

be

placed

before
by

after

attribute
:

it

quality guerrier

which

general warrior';

understanding ai/ez piti^


women.'

to

it

not

e.g.

brave
pity

*a

brave

pauvres

femmes

'have

on

these

poor

indigent)
Two

223.

or

more

adjectives qualifyixig
the
as

one

noun

are

arranged

according only
that
one

to

preceding
may

rules.

It

is
et

to

be

serve obthe

such of

be

connected
have that

by

follow
; and

noun,

if any

them

should
more

position
"

that

of three

adjectives rarely

than
A

one

precedes.
little girl.

Ex.

Une
Uh

joliepetite file.
grand
grande
action

pretty great large

g4n4ral
et

anglais,

A A A A

English

general.

Une Uhe
Une
et

belle maison.

(and)

beautiful

house.

belle et courageuse.
maison

fine, courageous grand,

action.

grande delabrSe*

antique

old

and

dilapidated

house.
Exercise VIII.

(In
'

nouvel
habit

habit
*

another
coat

coat';

un

habit

nouveau

*a

new-fashioned

coat

tin

neuf

fresh

from

the

tailor/

224-227.]

ADJECTIVES.

141

Comparison.

224.
rendered

The
by
'

Positive. aussi

"

'As

(so)

...

as'

is

in
.
.

French
.

(in

negative
by
no

clauses

usually

si)

que,
by

but

'

as

alone,
"

preceded

other

comparative

particle,

com

me,

Ex.
riche

n H

est

aussi
pas moi.

que

moi.

He riche He

is

as

rich
so

as

I.
as

n'est

si

{aussi)

is not

rich

I.

que

II est riche

comme

un

Crhus,

He

is rich

as

Croesus.

226.
que

The

Comparative.
there only
a

"

The

English

'than'

is rendered

by

whenever
when
"

is

real

comparison
or

(but
number

by

de

before
to

numerals

greater

smaller

is

be

denoted).
EUe
est plus

Ex. belle que


sa soeur.

She A

is prettier
eats

than
more

her
than

sister.
three

Un

glouton

mange

plus

que

glutton
men.

trois hommes.

II

mang4

plus

de

trois

He

has apples.

eaten

more

than

three

pommes,

[226.]

The

English
by

the

more

(or less)
.

the

more

(or less)
at

'

is in

French

rendered

plus

(motns)
while

p/us

(moins) placed
follows
et plus
"

the
verb.

head

of

each

correlated
the

proposition,

the

adjective
bj
one

the

times Some-

concluding

proposition
contains

is introduced
more

(motns),especially
Ex.
one

if the

prior
on

proposition
content
t

than

clause.

Plus

est

plus

on

est

The

more

contented
one

is, the

hap-

heureux.
V^criture
est

pier

is. the writing, the


more

Plus

noire,

plus

elle est

The

blacker

lisihle.
tu
es

legible

it is.

Moins
sauras,

diligent,

moins

tu

The
you

less

diligent

you

are,

the

less

will know.
higher
we

lus

on

s*"leve,
et

plus
on

Vhorizon s'apergoit

The

rise,
the

the
more

more

our

s*agrandit, de
son

plus

horizon perceive

widens,
our

do

we

n"ant,

insignificance.
a

[227.]

For

the

expletive

use

of

tie

in the second

propositiop

of

comparat

sentence,

cf. negations,

142

SYNTAX.

[228-230.
instead
not

[228.]
a

Davantage
or

'

more
a

is used,
noun

optionally

of plusy at
directly
must

the

end

of

sentence,

before
peu,
or

which

it does

determine.
be used.

After
Ex.

/", beaucoup,

on

ne

peut, however,

ptus

always

Cela

me

plait

bien

dwfantage

That

pleases

me

very

much

more.

(or bien plus)Cela


not
me

plait

beaucoup

plus

(but
il Pest

That

pleases

me

much

more.

davantage).
content

II

est

de Vencre,

mats

He

is satisfied
much
more

with
so

the

ink,
the

but

he

is

bien davQ/itage

(orplus)

du papier.

with

paper.

229.
noun

The
they

Superlative.
are

"

If

several

superlatives
or

qualify

one

repeated

with before
it. He
"

article
their
Ex.

posseBsive
but

(as the
with

case

may

be)

when

placed
they
et

noun,

the

article alone
II
est

when

follow

le plus

cher
que

le plus

is the dearest ful friend

and

most

f aith-

fidlble ami
II
est
mon

je

poss^de,
et
mon

I have.

plus

cher

He

is

my

dearest friend. active in the


most

and

most

plus

fiddle ami. le plus


du

faithful actif et
monde,

CPest VJiomms
le plus

He

is tlie most
ageous
man

and world.

cour-

courageux
serviteur

C^est

mon

le actif.

plus

He

is

my

faithful

and

fiddle et le plus
Note
no

active
ce

servant.
.

1.

"

After

the
"

expression

qui
vu

(que)
de

(/e, the

superlative
ce

has

definite

article. I have

Ex.
seen

Ce

que

fai

plus

beau,

c*est

paysage

The

finest thing
2.
"

is this landscape.'

NoTB

The
an

absolute adverb

superlative

is in French

for
of

the

most

part

expressed

by
"

(tres, forty bien,


*

etc.),
A
most

instead

le plus etc.
country.'

(but

cf.

230).

Ex.

Unfort (tres)beau
predicate
le moins

pays

beautiful

[230.]

When
and

superlatives
are

qualify
adverbs,

noun
as

compared
such
est

with

itself, le plus
:

in Erench comparison,
'

and

Invariable.
la

Compare
This

a.

Superlative
is the

of

Ceite

montagne

plus
it is

haute
com-

"

mountain
"

highest

(of

the

mountains

with

which
est

pared
haute
':

b.

Superlative
mountain

absolute, is highest'

Cest

id que

la montagne
in the
utmost

le plus degree

'It is here

the
que

*high [i.e.
*

cf.

C*est
the

id

la ville est

le

mieux

fortifi"eIt is here

the

city is best

(adv. =;

"t

best)

fortified

'].

231-234.]

NUMERALS.

143

231.
used
as

Adjectives
nouns

used

as

Nouns.
persons

"

As
or

in

English,

adjectires
They
are

are

often
always

to

designate

things.
other
an

then
"

accompanied

by

the
se

definite
un

article

or

some

determinant.

Ex.
thinks he

MaifU

ignorant

croit

g"nie.

Many
is
a

ignorant

person

genius. should

Les

riches
et

doivent

aider

fes pauvres

The

rich

aid

the

poor

and

the

les mallieureux.

unfortunate. Prefer
The the

Fr"firez l*irtilea I'agreable.


La

useful

to
rose.

the

agreeable.

yiei/fe
Note.
"

se

leva.
As

old

woman

neuter

nouns

are

used

(instead
and

of

adjectiyes)
'

the

adverbs

le mains and
can

and
"

le plus,
Ex.

and

also

mieux
que que
vous

pis^ interchangeably

with
is the
better

meilleur
least
you

pire. do.'
on

C'est le mains
a

puissiez
*

faire
*

That

II iCy
n'a

rien de mieux
a

cela
est

There
se

is nothing

than

that.'
to

Quand
say,

rien

dire, le mieux
is to
be

de

taire

When

one

has

nothing

the

best

thing

silent.'

Exercise

IX.

XIV.

inTMEBALS.

[232.

HISTORY.
added
parts et

"

In of
a

the

ancient

language numerical

et was

generally
e.g.

used

to

combine
et

complex
use

expression:

l*an trois

cents

vingt

neuf.

The

of
into

cardinals
the being
'

instead

of

ordinals the

(90)

is

solecism,

gradually
usage,

introduced brevity

language
the
'

since obvious

17th

century

by

popular

of
'

form
10

motive.

Compare

English

expressions

like

March

for

March

10th,'

etc.]

233.

The

use

of

cardinals

instead

of

ordinals

(from
names

^two'

to inclusiye)

designate

the

day

of the

month, chapters^

after

of been

sovereigns,

and

in (optionally)

quoting

etc.^ has

already
234. of
months
*

noticed
Fractions they year and

under
a

90.

of

year

are

usually

designated
mois

by
a

naming

the

number
et

contain.
a

Thus:

Six

*half

year.'

Un

an

trois

mois

quarter.'

144

SYNTAX.

[235-23a
by

235.
'

'A

fortnight'
'

is generally

expressed
the

quinze before

Jours
the

'fifteen

days

(as

'

week

by

hutt

jours),because

day

first full day

is included.

236-

The

time
:
*

of day

is expressed

as

the

following

examples

will illustrate
deux
un

heures
^

two

o'clock/
'

deiix

heures
devx

et quart

(or et

un

quart,
em., (f

or

quart)
with
heures
minutes

quarter

past

two/'

heures heures
to

et demie

agreeing
trois

heure)
moins
'

half
un

past

two/
a

deu^x

et trois

quarts

or

quart

quarter

three/
trots

cfeua; heures
moins
'

et vingt

twenty

minutes

past

two/
three.'

heures
midi

douze
'

minutes

'

twelve
*

minutes

before

But

twelve,

noon

and
Observe

minuit
also
vers

midnight.'
Us

deux

heures
une

towards
*

two

o'clock,*
one

and,

by

analogy,

vers

les

unes

heure

(better vers
also the

heure)
following

towards

o'clock.'
:

237.

Observe

idioms

Quel jour
or

du

mois

(or Quel quanti^me)


aujourd'hui
avons

avons-nous

(or
the
il

sommes-nous,

est-ce)
'

9
nous

What
sommes,

day

of
or

month

is it

? (to-day)

Nous

(or
9
'

Quelle
avez-vous

heure
^

est-il 9

What
are

est) le treize ^It time (o'clock)is it ?


?
'

is
'

the

13th.'
dge
et

Quel

How
twelve

old

you

J^ai

douze

ans a

demi)
Note.
'

am

years

(twelve years
as
*

and

(douze ans halJQ old.'


*

*
"

One

'

in such

expressions The

an

other pronoun

one,*
*

that
'

'

one/
on

good

one

is not

rendered

in French.

indef.

one

is

(112).

Exercise

X.

XV.

PEONOUNS.

[238.
the

HISTORY.

"

Various
now

rules
had

for
not

the
yet

use

and

construction in the

of

pronouns centuries.

observed

been

formulated literature such

16th

and

17th
as

Thus

we

find

in the

classical

peculiar^

ities

the

following:

238-240.]
The

PBONOUNS.

145

personal

subject
tirant

and

Latin

(e.g.Et

le bracelet,
popular second
were

often omitted object-pronoun were lui jeta,for /'/ fe lui jeta : Amyot),

as
a
ne

in

usage

still suryiying
pas

in the

idiom

(e.g.Faut

pas

/aire
me

cela, for
and
-mot,

//

faut

etc.).
"

With
verb,

affirmative
used
instead

imperative,
of
a

tu,

placed
-tot,
even

before
in the

the

suffixed
et

18th
sutvez

century

(e.g.Quittezcette
et me

chimere
:

m'cUmez:
"

Comeille.

Solof
the

dats,
an

leurs pas

r"pondez
was

d'eux

Voltaire).
by
f
a

The

subject-noun
put

interrogative
A (e.g.
"

clause

not

represented

pronoun

after

yerb

quel propos
and

le soleil ckasse
freely used

la
for

nutt

for chasse-t-il la nuit f Maland for


a

herbe).
now

"n

were

persons,
a

sot

was

used

where
-"

lui is required
personal pronoun
etes

(e.g.Idom^^e,
referring
to
an
ne

revenant

sot,

effe:

Malherbe).
agree

gender

(yous
qui,

et satisfaite, Je

to made adjective was la suis pas: Comeille).

with

it in

"

The be

ative interrogused
f

and
to

the things,

relative
contrary

qui
to

after

prepositions,

could

with
c*est
was

reference
plumage: placed

272, 276, b
a

Qui fait (e.g.


cede:

Poiseau
"

le

La

Fontaine; before
And

Un
or

prix
after

qui
its

tout

Racine).
que

Meme vieillard

indifferently
vertu

noun

Sais-tu (e.g.

ce

fut

la

meme

f).
"

so

on.]
indicated
by

239.
generally verbs,
'

Though represent whole

the

pronouns
nouns,

"

as

the
to
ne

name

"

they
"

sometimes
Elle
11
ne

refer

adjectives
le suis
comme

or

sentences.

Ex.

est

beUe^je
pas
was

pas

She

is pretty,

am

(it) not.^
does
pas
*

travaiUe
as

il fe

faisavt autrefois ' He


riche^

not

work

he

wont.'

II

est

je

ne

le savais

He

is rich, I did

not

know

it.'

C^est

4tonnant

^That

is astonishing.'
verbs is expletive.

// in impersonal

Pebsonal

Pronouns.

(Review
240.
Pronouns.
difference form,

carefully

100-5.)
Disjunctive
noticed that,

Use
"

of

Conjunctive
It has

or

Personal
owing have
a

been

already
the
personal
are

to

of accent-stress,

pronouns

ent differ-

according

as

they

or oonjunctive(proclitic),

dis*

jonotiye (independent).

146

SYNTAX.

[241,242.

[241.] The
a.

oonjunctive
when
the

form

is used

Ordinarily
the

pronoun

is in

immediate
parle;

connection

with

verb

(forexceptions
it is separated
or
ne

cf. 242,

a) : e.g,je
verb only
le dira,

parle4-i/f
con-

b. When

from
e.g.
on

the
me

by
ne

another
parle
pas;

junc

pronoun
le dit pas.

il

il

ne

[242.]
a.

The

disjunctiveform
connection

is used

In

immediate

with
to

the
a

verb
person
'

only

when

the

pronoun

is in

predicate

referring

when

it is in apposition
with
et
a

je (e.g.

parle,

moi
a

(e.g. c^est mot) ; it '); when speak


af,
me,

is connected

preceding

word

by
moif

etc.

(e.g.elle
an

lui sont

ici) ;

and

conjunction as toi (instead of


en,

ou^

te)

with
;

affirmative

imperative,

except

before

^coiUez(e.g.

moi

dis-moi;
the than
son

donnez-m'en).
pronoun
a

b. When
word

is separated

from
or

the
ne

verb

by
pense

any
A

other

foi;

lui et

conjunctive pronoun fr^e sont id) ; and when


9 Moi;

je (e.g.

the

verb

is understood

Qui (e.g.

parle

etc.).
Compare

(241-242)
a.

Conjunctive
est
venu.

Disjunctivb

//

He

has

come.

C^est
eux.

lui.

It

is he.

Ce

sont

It is they.

Est'il
me

venu

Has
mats

he
on

come ne
me,

II le fera, lui.

He

will do
He

it.
and

On

voit,

la
but

EUe she

et

lui sont

partis.

voitpas.

They
not
see

see

have

departed

(gone).

they

do

her.

AimeZ'le.

Love

him.
Tell

Aimez-moi.
me.

Love Tell
.

me.

DiteS'le-moi.

it to

Dites-le-moi
b.

it to

me.

//

ne

viendra
come.

pas.

He

will

Lui

et

son

fr^re

viendront.

He

not

and

his brother
et

will

come.

la vois,

see

her.

Moi
and

lui,
he
see

nous

la voyons.

her.

242,

243.]
le lui
donnerai.

PRONOUNS.

147

Je

shall

Je

le donnerat

d lui et d, elle.

give

it to him.
pas.

shall give He

it to him
nous.

and

to her.
court

//

ne

fe la montrera
not

On

parte
eux

de

On
They
to

d,

will
you.

show

her

(it) to
I

(d,eJles).
us.

speak them.
They

of
en

They
seront

run

Je

lui
speak

parlerai,

shall

Eux

seula

exempts.

to

him

about

it.

alone

will

be

exempt.

Quivientf
He.

Lui,

Who

is coming?

NoTB.
its

"

When

subject-pronoun
as
an

is emphasized,

it is often the

repeated
"

in

disjunctive form,
Je

appositive,
*

before
do it.'
etc.,

or

after

verb.

Ex.

Mo/

je le/eraior
Sometimes,
3d Ex.
person

le/erai, moi
as

I shall

in

antithetical
by way

clauses,

the

disjunctiye
of the
think

form

of

the
"

is used pensez

alone,

of emphasis,
autrement
was

instead
*

conjunctiye.
but

Vous

ainsi,

mats

lui pense
*

You

so,

he thinks

differently.*

Lui n*y "tait pas

He

not

there.'

[243.]
d with

The

Dative
by
the

(Ho'-)

Relation.
form
toi,

"

The

dative
te,

relation by and simple


'tell
to

is expressed the

conjunctive form d, disjunctive (A moi,


most

(me,

or etc.),

etc.). French
use

English,
or

though

often form,

accordant

in the

of

the

the
'

prepositional
d Im
*

frequently
to

differ
:

(cf.lui
'

dire

hiTTi

; courir

hasten
*

him

'

but

lui parler

speak

him' The

; lui appartenir

belong

to him

').
special
cases

general is in

principle
French
to

(modified in
use

by
only

settled when is yet is

usage)
the

the
to, as

prepositional

form
a

prepositional

value
d,
'

of

expressing
when
d

direction, dative-pronoun
'

felt

(e.g.courir
to h6r ; ' but

hasten
le donne

to

or '),

the
elle

emphasized
not

je (e.g. je

lui, pas
'

I give
no

it to him

le lui donne

I give

it to him,'

distinction

being

involved).
the following

Hence
The
a.

special

rules
:

prepositional

dative-form of motion
and
a

is used

After

verbs

few

others

(as penser,

songer;

accotOumer,

148

SYNTAX.

[243.
hastened
to

renoncer,

etc.):
*

e.g. // counU

moi

He

me.'

Jl pense

{songe)

die

He

thinks

(dreams)
belong
the
*

of her.' also and


recourse
some

Note
etc.,
a

1.

"

Here

phrases

like avoir blend Notice

recours,

/aire
one

attention,
:

in which
a

verb has

its complement
to
me.'
"

into

idea

e.g.
a

//

recours

moi

He

also the

idiom

etre

belong

to.*

NoTB
form In

2.
:

"

Venir when
e.g. //
cases
a

not
une

strictly id"e
*

yerb idea

of
occurs

motion
to

takes
me.'

the

conjunc-

tiye

me

vient

An

b.

all

of

emphatic

distinction
*

(even
this book

when

only
not

implied)
to him
'

e.g.

J*offrece
lui
c.

livre

elle (^pas a
'

lui)

offer

to her,

; but

Je

ce ojffre

livre
the

I offer him

(her)
is
me,

this book.'
te,
a

When
or

direct
:
*

object
vous

se,

nous,
*

or

vous,

whether
you
*

used
her
on
'

re-

flexively

not

e.g. Je

pr"sente him
to

elle

I introduce

to

(but
her.'
by
a

Je

le lui prifsente
d.

I introduce of
:

her

').
when
a

Je

me

fie a

elle

I rely

As

matter
occur

course

(242, a)
a

two
*

datives
to

connected him and


to

conjunction

e.g. Je park

lui et

elle

I speak

her.'

Compare
Conjunct.
Dative
:

Disjunct.

Dative:

II

lui
sends
"Ous

envoie

les

livres.

He

court

droit

d lui

him

(her) the

books. I shall

hastens

straight
recours recourse
a

He (cfc elle). to him (her).


I shall

Je

le donnerai, it to you.

J^aurai
have

"Ous,

give

to

you.

Je

lui parte.

I speak

to

him

Je pense
of him

(her).
leur
them

(d, elle). (her).


a

lui

I think

Je

offreun
a

livre.

I offer

Je

songe

eux

(d elles).
lui

book.
This

think

of
est

them.
a

Ce livre lui appartient.


book belongs
dit
to

Ce

livre

(a, note
to

1).

him.
viendra.

This

book

belongs
a

him.

On

lui
They
coming.

qu'elle

On
is

fait
They

attention

elle

(A lui).

tell

her

(him)

she

notice

her

(him).

Sa

fortune lui
phre.

venait

de
got

son

II

vint
came

droit

lui

He

(she)
from

his

straight

(d elle). He him to (to

(her)fortune
father.

his

(her)

her).

243,

244.]
donne
me

PRONOUNS.

149

Jl

me

de

V argent.

He

II donne
d
me

de

V argent
He
to

i moi
money

(pas
to

gives

money.

toi). (not
d
me

gives

you).
et

m'ob4iU,

He

obeys

me.

II

ob4it obeys

moi
and

"0U8.

He

you,
d, vous.
to

Je

"Ous

la prisenteraL

I shall

Je

me

prisenterai
myself

I shall
you.

introduce
11 le lui has
a

her

to you.

introduce
He
II
nous a

recommand^. him

recommand4

it lui.
us

He

recommended

to

has

recommended

to

him.

him

(her).
I

Je

le lui prhentai,

duced intro-

II

se

pr4senta

elle.

He

duced intro-

him

to

her. livre. with


I

himself

to her.
eux

Je

leur
shall

offriraice
present

Ce

liv7'e

sera

offerta
book
and

(pas
be

them

elle).
etc.

This

will
not

sente pre-

this book.

to them

to her.

244for that

The
use

Use
of the

of

en,

/,

"

In

applying it must
are
one are

above

rules

the
the

personal
of

pronouns,

be

remembered
especially

indirect

cases

the

3d

persons

often,
of
as

when
en

referring

to

things, by
an

supplanted
The
are

by

the

particles
:

and/
a.

(101),or

adverb.

rules

follows
used
for

The

conjonctiyes lui and leur (or personified things), often


relations
la
to

preferably
for animals

sons per-

also

and

plants.
e.g. J'ai

In

other

they

are

regularly
^1

replaced have
the

by

le livre,

feuille y
it.'

appartient

book,

the

leaf

belongs b. The

difljimctiyes with
lui

de

or

can

refer

only

to

persons

(or
en

personified
de

(=

things),being etc.) and jr (=


and
more

replaced
d
lui

in

other

relations
no

by

etc.).

Where

ambiguity
for persons, avoid
pens,
^

would

arise,

en

rarely

y may

be used
sense,

also
or

especially
"

plurals
Ex.

of

an

indeterminate
prenez-en
voire

to
are

repetition
take

VoUd,
of

des plumes,

'There

some

take Qit.
word, 'How

them).'
on

J^ai

parole,
avez-vom

your

I rely

it.'

Combien
have

je my fie I de frh^esf
three.'

have
J^en

ai trois

many

brothers

you?

I have

150

SYNTAX.

[244.
than
de

c.

The

disjimctiyeswith
allowed
to

other
any

prepositions
are

and

d,,

though

refer

to

noun,

preferably

used in

only

for

persons
by

(or
some

personified

things),
or \_soiis sur

being
lui
so
some
'

replaced by

other
or

relations

adverb
lui by

(la')dessous
by
a

(/a')dessus; apr^s
of

derribre,
to,
or

and by

on], or
other

tion repetie.g.

the

noun

referred
mets

device:

Voild, la tabhy
book
on

le livre

Idr-dessus

There

is the

table, put

the

it.'

Compare
Refersing
to

Persons:

a. a.

Referring

to

Things:

Jl

4crit, et

je lui r^onds.
and
I

Tai I

regu

sa

lettre^

^^fy
his

r^ponds,

He
answer

has

written, him.

have

received
answer

letter,

and

it. donnez-/
eosamiyiez-

Vofld, les
vos

enfants^ donnez-leur
There give
are

Voildf
votre

les

documents,

soins.

the
your

attention

(or

children,
care.

them

les)
.

There

are

the documents,
attention.
s^ches,
donnez-

give
Les

them

your
sont

Les

files ont soif^ donnez-leur


Veau.
give The girls
are

plantes

de

leur
The
water

(or donnez-f)
plants
are

de

Veau. them

thirsty,

them

water.

dry, give

(also,arrosez4es).
ne

b.

Cet

homme
pas

ne

vaut

rien^

ne

Ce

cheval

vaut

rien,

n*en

parlez
man

de

lui. for

This

parlez

pas. do

This
not

horse

is of

is
not

good

nothing,

worthless, it.
II

speak

do

speak
de
sa a

of him.
m^re,
et il pense

II parle

parle
pense

de

sa

maison,

et

il y

toujours
pense

elle

et (rarely

il/

toujours.
and

He
he

speaks
is always

toujours). He
mother,

speaks

of his house,

of

his

and

he

always

thinking

of it.

thinks Laissez
besoin
oiler

of her.
les

garqons^fai
Let the

Laissez Leave
them.

les livres, the

j^en

ai besoin.

d'eux.

boys

books,

need

go, I need

them.

244-247.]
// aime les

PRONOUNS.

161

enfants,

et U en

est

II

aime

les

tableaux,

et

en

aim4

(or il est
loves

airnA

d'eux).
(or
the

achate

toujours.
and he

He

loves

He

children he

pictures,
some

always

buys

children),and
by
Plus plus

is loved

(lit of them).
je m'/
I rely

them.
on
on

connatt

son

monde,

C'est
It

sa

parole,

et

fie.
on

s^y
know

entend.

The
the

is his

word,

and

better better
to treat

we we

people,

it.

understand
them.

how

c.

tomba^ He

etje tombai
I

sous

lui.
under

La

table tomba,
sous.

etje
table

tombai

desI

fell, and

fell

The

fell, and

him.

fell under
mon

it.
avec

C^est

ami,

et

"est

avec

J'ai

un

lui que
my

je

suis

venu.

It is

canif
coupL
and

canif, et "est (avec lui) que


I

ce

je Vai

friend,
I have

and
come.

it is with

have

penknife,

him

it is with
cut

this

penknife

I have

it.

Further

remarks

about

the

use

of the

personal
Je

pronouns

245.

Je
...

is used

for

moi

in

the

old-style

expression

soussigni

(sous

sign"e)
246.

'I, the

undersigned.'

Nous

is often

used The plural,


,

for

je

in

official documents,
as

and
when

bj

authors
to

speaking

of themselves.
put in
.

verb but
avons

is then,

after words

vous

referring
"

one

person,

the
.
.

modifying

in the
. .

singular.
.

Ex.

Nous

content

soussign^{e) (e).
Tu

nous

ordonntf

et

ordonnons

Nous

sommes

247.

(toi) and
by
vous

"Ous.

"

A
as

stranger

or
'

an

acquaintance

is
Tu

addressed in

in French,
an

by

you
or

in
near

English.
relation;
or

is
and

used

addressing
especially

intimate
by

friend
and

also often,

Protestants

in

poetry

exalted

prose,

in addressing

the

Almighty.

15^
[248.]
anger.

StTNTAX.

[24^260.
express
to

Tu

is

sometimes

used tutoyer

to

superioritj,
the
or

contempt,
'

or'

Observe
a

the

verb

equivalent

old

English

to

thou/

i.e. to call

person

thou, whether

in familiarity

contempt.

[249.]
But
on

Vous

always
as

requires
as

the gender

verb

to

be

in

the

plural
depends bon

the

number

well

the

of its modifiers
"

its implied
"

number
or

and
^

gender.
are

Ex.

Vous

ites

(or

bonne;

bons

bonnes)
Persons
3d
person

You

good.'

260.
pronouns
a. nouns

The

3d

(iljlle, etc.). e
"

For

the be

use

of the
:

of the

the

following

should
only

observed determinate
they

The

declinable

forms
as

can

represent with

(or adjectives used


gender and

nouns),
Voyez-vovs
f
to

which

agree

in

number

e.g.

le gargon

(la JiUe, les

arbres) f
Note.
"

Oui, je le
A

{la^les) vols
peculiar

construction
la, lessis
nouns
:

French

is the

use

of
^tre

the
to

object-forms le,
represent
^

conjunctiye
e.g.
am

predicates
sa

after

definite his

Etes-vous her (lit,


=

m^re

Je

la

suis

Are

you

mother?
the
or

his

mother,
as

that

person)

If, however,
a
or

noun

is referred than
:

to rather
a

connoting
person

certain

quality the you

condition

as

naming

definite

thing,
'Are

invariable
a

le is used
I
am

e.g. Etes-vous
=

rn^re 9 Je

le

suis

mother?

(litit

mother).'
to

b.
an

The

invariable
*

/e,^ often

equivalent

English
:

'so'

or

expletive

it,' represents

participles,
:

verb-phrases
est

adjectives(or nouns (like rendre grdces


il Pest
me
'

note

above),
he

etc.),and
is good,
come,

sentences

e.g. Elle
.'

bonne, sHl

aussi
^

She
will

also

(is good)
me

II viendra^

le dit

He

if he

tells

so.'

c.

"/f, /
owing

are

to

be

rendered

in

various
use

ways
to

according
connect two

to

the

context,

and,
are

to
to

their

frequent

expletive

thoughts,
at

they

often

be

left untranslated
e.g.
en

(the reference
*have
*

being

also

times
on

dimmed it';
s'en
a

and

alter
"have

unclear): (149) 'go


a

avoir
e/i

some';
a

s*/
*be

Jier

'depend

off

';

etre

be

at

point/

reduced

(to)'; en

vouloir

grudge

against';

/ etre

'comprehend';

il y

va

de *it concerns';

etc.

2500

^ROl^OUNS.

163

Compare
la, Us) (le,
:

Connaissez^ous
/a connais.
this
A

cette

JUle f

Je

(le invar., en) : Est-elle bonne i Elle Pest {V for

Do I know
la

you

know
her.
de
ce

le).

Is she

good?

She

is.

girl ?

EteS'VOus
peuple f

reine

Etes-vous suisf

reine

Oui,
a

je
queen?

le

Je
queen
am.

la suis.
of this

Are

Are I
am

you

you ?

the
I

ple peo-

Yes,

(i.e.I
implied by

have

the
word

qualities

the

qv"en),
Id, vos
8ont.

Sont-ce

livres f

Oui,

ce

Sont-Us
sont

mcUadesf
Are
are

Oui,
sick?

ils le

lea
books
vous

Are Yes,

those

your

they

Yes,

they

are.

they
quoi"

(so).
la plume,
quoique
pas,

Je

donne
vous
ne

la plume,
me

Je

vous
vous

donne
ne

que pas,

la demandiez
you the
not

le demandiez
the

give

pen,

give
you

you

pen,
me

although
to

although
me

you
it.
m'a

do

ask

do

not

ask

do

so.

for

L'enfant

demand^
et

ces)
asked

livres,

(ses, V enfant m^a je les lui ai et je lui


les

demand^
en

des livres,

ai

donnL
me

The

donnas.
me

The for

child

has

child and him.

has
I

asked

for books,
some

the
and

(his,
I

have

given

to

these)
given
vous

books,
to
aurez

have

them

him.
des

Qaand
les,

nouvelsavoir.
news,

II est plus

fort

que

je
than

ne

le suis.
I
am.

faiteS'les-mxyi
you
me

He

is stronger

When
let
a

shall have them.

know
une

trouv^

femme

commie

trouv4

une

femme
the He

comme

it

la

(referring to femme)
He kind
seen

le

to (referring

preceding
has

disirait.

found
he

man wo-

d4sirait. clause)
a woman, as

found

of the
Note.
"

desired.
the

he
the

desired
3d

(todo).
is

As

above, whether

objective
English

form

of

person
'so,'

in
are

French
or

expressed,
not.

the

equivalents

('it/

etc.)

used

164

SYNTAX.

[251,252.
As way
in English,

[261.] //
with

as

impersonal
verbs

impersonal

subject occurs (il tonne etc.).


"

"

a.

b. By

pation of anticiallow
une

(as
logical
'There

in English
to

the

expletive

there,

it'),to
me

the idAe

subject
occurs

follow
me
an

the

verb
II
aura

(e.g.H
se

vient
vienne

to

idea.'
II y

pent
un

quHl hal
'

*It

is
a

possible

that
c.

he

may
Hre

come.'

There

will be

ball).'
"

With

cf

252.
.

262.
both used

// OR

ce

WITH

6ire,
with

"

// 4t'
Both

and may

ce

Hhat, then

it'

are

impersonally

Hre.

refer

to

following

subject
from it

or

separated pronoun

by
est

though ce only subject^jlause, a noun (modified or predicate bon


*It

when

not),
study.'

or

[e.g.//
qui *It is

d^^tudier
is the
man

'It

is

good

to

C^est Vhomme
parle

parle

who
"

speaks.'
ce
or

C^est
refer

lui qui
a

to

preceding
le

speaks']. expressed subject(-clause),


bon.

he

who

Only

can

understood good,' viz.

[e.g.EUe

fait,

c'est

C'est
or

bon

'that

is

something

already

spoken

of

had

in

mind].

Compare
il :

:
ce

// est bon
It

de

savoir
to

se

taire.

II

sait

se

taire,

c'est

bon.

He

is good

be

able

to

be

knows is good.

how

to

be

silent, that

silent.
sera

//

agr4able
vacanes

de
ici.
to

passer

C'est
pas

magnifquey
la guerre.

mats

ce

n'est

les

It will
our

It is magnifiwar

be

pleasant

spend

cent,

but

is not

some(viz.

holidays

here.
de bien

thing

already

referred

to).
It

// est

d' importance

C est
is

une
an

affaireimportance.
important

parler.

It is of importance
to speak

business.

important)
d^un bon
ses

well.
bien

// est

p^re

de

(Test
ces

mon

bon

p^re

qui

4lev4 good

Clever

enfants.
a

It
to

enfants.
who

It is my

belongs
bring
up

to

good

father

father

has

educated

these

his

children

well.

children.

252,

268.]

PRONOUNS.

166

// est d iU"irer
It
is

qu'il

vienne.

ffest
he

un

pesant
un

fardeau
grand

{que)
to have

desirable
come.

that

d^ avoir

mirite.

should

It is
a

heavy

burden

great

distinction.

// est Apropos
cette

qu'elle

fasse
It is

C^est elle qui


mission.

fera

cette

com'

commission.

It is she

that

will

proper

that

she

should

dp

do

this

errand.

this

errand.

/fest huit heuresy


It

if est tard.
o'clock, it
is

II

est

huit

heureSy

c'est

trop

is

eight

tard.

It

is

eight

o'clock;
late.

late.

that
de

(=8

o'cl.)
qui

is too

1/ 4tait temps
was

partir.

It

C^est dix
de

heures

viennent

time

for

departing.

sonner.

It is ten

o'clock

that
NoTB
1.
ce
"

has
"t"f

just struck.
c'eut

Usage
n'est.
more

requires

il est hesoin ;
both

c*a

"t"f

sera-ce,
occur

fut-ce,

Jut-ce,81
latter

Parenthetically

// est

vrai

and

"est vrai

(the

being
2.
"

emphatic).
popular
; and

NoTB

In

usage
even

c^est

occurs

freely
style
c^est

before
is used

adjectiyes, where
before
ne

should

be

used

in

literary
: etc.)

words

of
que

emotion

(heureux, triste, dormant,


et

e.g. C*e8t bien triste de

voir

le del
chinois.

Veau.

Otait

craindre

que

la

Californie

ne

devint

pays

263.
as

The

Reflexives
and
except

se

and

soi.
gender and

"

Se is used
or

reflexively
"

accusative used
or

dative,

any

number. reference general

Soi

is

rarely

in

the of
or.

singular in
an

with
or

to persons

things

spoken

indefinite
m^me,

way,

lui

(elle)eux

(eUes),with
other

without

being
"

usually
Ex.

tuted substi-

for it when
n
se

objects are
He

intended.

se

f (ace.)rappe. lepromet. (dat.)


doit
rarement

strikes promises

himself.
it to himself.

He
parler
de

On

One

should

rarely

speak

of

soi.

himself.
pense

Chacun
Le
vice

d soi. de soi.

Every

one

thinks

of himself.

est odieux

Vice

is odious

in itself.

156

SYNTAX.

[253-256.
kindness brings
it. has
its

Uh

bienfait parte
en

sa

ricom-

own

re-

penae

so/.
a

ward
sur

with

Mbnfr^e
Tes

de V argent
ne

lui.
de

My
Your

brother

money. do
not

fr^res

font
eux

point

brothers

reflect

reflexionssur
Les
chases
ne

(-m"me").
en

about
Things igipure

themselves.
are

sant

elles-

neither in

pure

nor

memes

ni pures

ni impures,
of the

themselves.

264.
chief

Position
for

Conjunctive
of the

Pronouns.

"

The
where

rules

the
to

position

conjunctive pronouns,
given already under

it is peculiar 102,
to which

French,
learner
are

have

been

rule

the

is referred.

Farther

details The
same

given
of

below.
the

256.
part except
a.

position
as

subject-prononn
:

is for verb

the

most

the

in English
cases

; i.e. it precedes

the

(Jl parle)
by
est-ce

in the
In

following

interrogative
or

sentences,

unless
f

introduced

que:

e.g. Farle-t-ilf

Est-ce

qu^il parU like


words
dit-U,

b. In by

interjected phrases
all
or

and
:

the
e.g.
"

like, Je

if

preceded

part

of

the

quoted

viendrai/^
introduced

dit-il,
c.

After
:

an

immediate

subjunctive of
when
the

desire

not

by

que

e.g. Puisse-t-il venir.


or

d. More

less

optionally
or

sentence

is introduced

by

certain
se

adverbs

adverbial
pareil.

phrases
A peine
vous

(cf.416,
fut-il entr4.
^tre utile.

b) :
En

e.g.

/lussi

regardait'il

sans

"a/n

Va-t-il essayS,

Peut-etre

pourrai-je
must

266.
other

The
verb

object-pronoun
than
the
one on v.

not

be

placed

before

any

which

it depends.
est

Hence

Je viens
U

la demander
savair
en

(not Je
proffter
II lui faut

la

d.).
en
^

L' occasion
nor

favorable^
en
^

faut
And

(not ');
but

il

fauij
must

il

faut
' '

s.

p.).

compare
for him

parler B

He

speak

Qit. It
It

is necessary
to

to
to

speak

favJt lui papier

is necessary

speak

him.'

256-258.]
Note

PRONOUNS.

157

1.

"

Usually

successive

verbs

object-pronounsprecede the an infinitive) (the second when


laisser^

first of

two

it is transitive
e.g. Je

(esp'lyfaire^
le
*"

entendre^

ouXr,

voir^

: aentir)

ferai

venir

I shall him

make

him
see

come.'

Je fes lui ai laiss^ voir


If it is
an

I have

allowed
the

(her) to
of when

them.'

aflirmative
venir

imperative,
for

pronoun,

course,

follows: second
:

Faitea-le is
se
a

"'send
each him

him.'

Only by

the

verb

reflexive,
*

verb rise.'
2.
"

is preceded

pronoun

Je

le vois

lever

see

Note verj
common

Forms

likeje earlier

/e viens demander
language.

(ioBtead of

je viens

le

are rf.)

in the

Exercise

XI.

POSSESSIVES.

(Review
257.
The Possessives

carefully

106.)
and
number with

agree

in gender

the

object possessed.
H
aime
et son'^fils sa^JUle, fitset le slen^ maJiUe

He
et

loves his
son

son

and his

his daughter.

Mon

My

and

(hers), my

la sienne.
L'arbre
Note.
article Fermez
a

daughter
ses

and
has
be

his

(hers).

perdu
That
no

feuillea.
possessive

The

tree

lost its leaves.


replaced
by

"

the

adjective may
can

the

definite

where

misunderstanding

arise

(as in
:

Elle

perdu

la metnolre}

la bouche,

etc.)has
of

already

been

noticed

182-4.

268.

Use
is often

lui etc.
by

for
an

son

etc.

"

The

possessive

adjec

replaced

indirect

object-pronoimput
of the
my

before

the

verb,
me

especially
coupi

in speaking

of parts

body.

"

Ex.

Je
n

suis

le doigt.

I have
He

cut

finger.
his of the
arm.

s^est

ccLssi le bras.
des

has

broken

VMat
toum6

grandeurs

leur

The

splendor
turned

grand

things

la tite,

their

head.

168

SYNTAX.

[259-261.
f/i 'thereof
a
'
=

269.

Use

of

en

for
son^

son^leur. leur

"

4ts, their'

is ordinarily

used
a

for

with

direct
reference

larly object (lessreguto


a a

also with

with subject of ^tre) denoting the


a

noun

of
En

preceding
placed

clause

thing and

or,

rarely,
noun

being.
the

is

then

before would

verb,

its

has
were

definite

article

(as it

in English

if 'thereof

used).

Compare
en:

:
son

(leur)!

Qitand
il

on

est
en
we

dans suivre

un

pays^

Cette
mire

terre

faut

V usage.
a

la

magnifque, fadfertilityde son sol.


est

When
we

are

in

country,

This

land the

is magnificent, fertility

I admire

must

follow

its customs.

of

its soil.
vUle
admir?

J^aime
Vodeur

cettefleur (cesjleurs), Vous


en

rappelez-vous promenades

cette
sont

est

tr^s bonne,

Ses

I like this flower, odor

its

(their)

ables.

Do
Its

you

remember
walks

that
are

is very

good.

city?

public

admirable.

Charles- Quint passa


nitres moines, brasser

ses

der-

Ma

vie

est

rude,

et

ses

asp4-

ann^es
mais

parmi
sans

les
em-

ritSs

(not subj.
My

of

^e)
me.

me

en

blessent.

life is hard, wounds

and

la

vie.

Charles
among

its bitterness

passed

his last years


but

the monks,

without mode

embracing

their

of life.

260.
used

After

ckacun

referring though
"

to

word

in
common

the

plural,
with
a

son

and

leiir may

be

indifferently,
a

leur is

more

direct

object
lis

and

son

after

preposition.
son

Ex.

lis gagnhrent

chacun

leur

place.

parlerent

chacun

de

mcdheur.

261.

The

possessive

adjectives are
each
noun
or

repeated

(likethe
denoting

definite
a

article:

202)

before

adjective

different

object, and
Ex,

always

before

superlatives

(cf

229)."

261-265.]

PRONOUNS.

169

Taime

mon

p^re

et ma

mdre,

love mother.

my

father

and

(my)

Mas

chers
Mon

it bons

parents.
is

My

dear

good

parents.
in

262.

(maf
names

mes)
of
near

in

French
:

commonly e.g.

used
mon

address,

especially

before

relatives also
the

Bonjour,
monsieur

pere

(jnes en/ants).
do

Out,

mon

general.

Hence

words unless sorti.

(^monsieur), madame
defined,
est

(ma-(/.), mademoiselle
definite article

(ma-d.), which,
est

farther

not

take

the

(e.g.Monsieur
le

Madame

mcUade),

263.
But
a

Le
in

mien^
phrases
are

tien,
like
'

etc.

are

used meaning

for
*

'mine/
belongs
Ex.
^

'thine/
to

etc.
a

is

mine/
used

me/

mof,

toi, etc.
'His book

commonly mine.'

instead.
est
ce

"

Son

livre et
vous

le mien

and
'

qui

livre

est-il d, ?

Oui^
mine.'
Note

il est d, moi

Whose

is this

book,

is it yours

Yes,

it is

1.

"

The
;
"

English
un

phrase
mes

friend

'

of mine

has

no

literal rendering

in French Note
2.

use

de

amis

(or

cf. note
used
est

2).
in
a

Mien

etc.

are

exceptionally
but usually mien

predicate
or
un as

without
an
mes

the

article

(e.g. Ce
familiar

livre est
or

mien:
style

moi)

attribute amis, cf
.

(e.g.in
note

jocose

Un

ami

usually

de

1).
Demonstratives.

(Review
264used The
a

carefully

107.)
the
one

adjective form
noun,

ce

(cette^ is ces)
or

generally

before
"

to

which

-ci

-Id, may

be

affixed, according

to 107.

Ex.

Ce gargon

n^est

pas
de
ce

diligent. gar^n-ct,

This

boy

is not
speak girl.

diligent. of thi
s

Je neparlepas
mats de
cetfe

I do not

boy,

but

JUle-Iit.

of that

266something

The

pronominal
explained by

form

ce,

referring
or or

impersonally
already

to

what

follows

stated,

is que

used:

"

a.

With

relative

pronoun

the

conjunction

160

SYNTAX.

[265,266.
dont

(oe qui,
which';
tenses,

que
ce

*tliat
que

which/
fact

'what/
"

ce

'that

of

or

about

'the

unless

U be

that'). (252). required


"

b.

With

^tre in its various

Ex.

Ce qvi

est vrai

est beau.

That

which

(what)

is true

is

beautiful.

VoUd

ce

qui

m^konne.
dites est vrai. la
ce

That

is what you
was
we

astonishes is true. very thing agreed. your

me.

Ce

que

vous

What
nous

say

C^itait

bien

dont

That

the

about

kions
Cela

convenus.

which
ce

were

vient

de
trop.

que

vous

That
too

comes

from

working

travaillez

much.

C^est

une

affaireimportante.
Etc., cf
.

It is
ex.

an

important
262.

business.

under
sent,

Note.

"

About

the

use

of

ce

etc., for c^est, etc., cf. 300.

[266.]
pronoun
a.

Ce

is in

French

often

used

with

Mre

when

there

is

no

in English, for emphasis

viz.
the

When

logical
after
^tre

an

expletive
une

que)

is placed

subject (then preceded Ex. (cf.360).


"

by

C*est

belle ville que

Paris

Paris

is

beautiful

city.

for (Gallicism,
Paris
une

the
une

less emphatic belle

est

ville),
A
woman

C^est

charmante

chose

is

charming

thing.

qi/une
b. When

femme.
the
or

predicate

complement
to

precedes
a

and

the
"

subject
Ex.

follows La

^tre ;

simply
d^un

repeat

preceding

subject.
of
a

premiere
arque

qualiU
la

mon-

The

first quality

monarch

"est
importe

fermetL
c'est

is firmness.
What

Oe

qui
de

d Vhomme
ses

is of consequence

to

man

remplir

devoirs.

is to fulfil his duties.

266-269.]
Ce

PBONOUNS.

161

qui
lui
en

Vafflige^ c^est
voulez,
c'est

que

vous

What

grieves
with

Mm him.

is your

being

angry
de

Le

temps,

Vargent, Etc.,
cf.
ex.

Time
under
the

is money. 252.
que

Note. when
c^est

"

In

elliptical
omitted

expressions
:

expletive homme

of
ce

a.

is used
*

even

(etc.)is
!
'

e.g.

Un

singulier

que

roi

singular

man,

this king

[267.]

Exceptionally,
by
etre,

ce

is used

with

sembler after
a

(in

ce

me

semble),
"

devoir

or

pouvoir
me

followed

dire, venire
lui.

and

preposition.
etre

Ex.
ce,

G*est lui,
suis
voire

ce

semble,

Ce

doit etre

Ce pourrait

bien

lui.

Sur

je

serviteur.

[268.] Ceci
pointed
question,
est

and
to

cefa
by

(or fa) are


the

used
or

with
a

reference
or

to

something

speaker,
are

to

sentence
-ce

idea.
Id,.
"

In
Ex.

with

Mre^

they

divided This
me.

into
is

ci and

-ce

Ceci
pour

pour
moi.
me

v(ms;

cela

est

for

you;

that

is

for

Ce/a

ne

plait pas.
impossible.

That
That

does

not

please
to

me. me.

Ce/a

m*est
a

is impossible

Qui

dit cela

f
opinion

Who
?

has

said

that

Est-ce

Ih votre
ci
vos

Is that

your

opinion books

?
?

Sont-ce

livres 9

Are

these

your

269.
the

Ce/ui

c (celle^euxj

celles)^that
necessarily

one^

(often

^he')
by
an

is

dependent

pronoun, following

determined
clause
"

immediately

(a)

relative

or

(b)

tional preposi-

a (especially possessive)phrase.
a

Ex.

Celui qui
qui

est content

est heureux. verront.

He

who

is content
who

is happy.
see.

Ceux

vivront
nous

Those
la

live

shall
we

Ce/h
mort,

dont

pleurons

She

whose

death

mourn.

nHy
sHre

pas

de

v4rit4
que
tous

plus les

There
than

is

no

truth
all
men

more

certain die.

que

celle
doivent

that

must

hommes

mourir.

162

SYNTAX.

[269, 270.

Monfls
ma

et

celui de
de

mon

frh'e^

My

son

and

my and

brother's,
my
and

my

file et cells
robe
de satin

monfr^re.
et

daughter
The
one.

brother's.
the
velvet

La

cells

de

satin

di-ess

velours,

VoUd,
votre

vos

lettres et csliss pour

There

are

your

letters

and

your

scaur.

sister's.
sevl

Je

iCai qv!un
d'etre
Note
used
one,

d^sir^

cslui

have being

only

one

desire,

that

of

heureux.
1. If
the

happy.
in value peut

"

relative
.*

clause

is parenthetic
coute

celui-ci, celui-la
est

are

for

celui

(270)

e.g.
a

Celui-ci, qui

de

chose,

excellent

This

which

costs

but

trifle, is excellent.'
though

Note

2.

"

Celui is also used,


expressions meilleurs
est

less frequently
be

(and
into
a

not

elegantly),
clause
:

before

adjective

that
que
ceux

could

changed
a

relative

e.g.

Ces

livres sont

donnas

M.

A.

Cette histoire, ainsi que

celles purement Note 3.


"

morales,
Sometimes

bonne

h lire.
etc.,

celui

may

be

omitted.

"

Ex.

Ces

sentiments

sont

(ceux) d'un bon p^re.

270.

Cslui'Ci
used:
more
"

and

cslui-ld.

are

the

independent

pronouns,
near

being

a.

topointout
-,

distinct
to

objects as
back
to

{celuithings
"

cl) or

remote

as

^the

latter'
to
"

or (celui-ldb) 'the (celui-ci), a

refer

two

former'
does
not

(celui-ld,) ;
immediately

b.

as

antecedent

relative
Ex.

which

follow

(269. 1).
deux
est
est

Ce

sont

beaux par par

tableaux;

Those

are

two
one

beautiful
is by

paintings

cslul'Ci cslui-la VouleZ'Vous IHf


sommeil travail
;

Bapha^l^
Murillo.
ou

; this

Eaphael,

that

(one is) by
have

Murillo.
or

csux-ci

csux-

Will

you

these

those

Le

est

doux
-ci

apr^s ^puise
nos

le

Sweet

is sleep exhausts

after
our

labor

; the

celui

latter
the

strength,
it.

forces, celui -Id


est

les ripare,

former

repairs

b
heureux
qui
est

Celui'ld
content.

He

is happy

who

is content.

270-272.]
Celui

PRONOUNS.

163

[But

qui

est

cordent

est

He

who

is content

is

happy.]

heureux:

cf. 269.
Exercise

XII.

Interrogatives.

(Review 27 1
The
.

108.)
separated
as

noun

by

adjective quel (which may be lequel are, ^tre) and the pronoun
used
in
^

from

its

the

English

terr in-

both
?

direct

and

indirect
the
to.
"

questions.
question Ex.
to

Lequel
or

(like Engl.
certain
ones

which
of f

') always
Which

limits

one

several

objects referred

Quel livre
ne

avez-vous

(what) book
hour is your

do you

have?

Je

sais

quels
heure

livres

il

a.

Idonotknowwhichbookshehas.
?
At

quelle
est

viendrez-vous
avis

what

shall

you
?

come

Que/

votre

What

opinion

Lequel
plaXt

de

ces

tableaux
f

vous

Whichof
you

these
most

paintings

pleases

le mieux

?
out

Examinons
a

lequel
le plus

devosil^ves

Let

us

find has

who

of

your

fait

de progr^s.

pupils
progress.

made

the

greatest

Laquelle
vous

de ?

ces

fleurs

est

d,

Which
you^s

of

these

flowers

is

?
ones

Lesquels
de

avez-vous
ces

choisis

Which Which
speak

have these

you

chosen

Ouquel
vous

garqons

parlez-

of

boys

do

you

9
de la
ces

of ?

Auxquelles
nez vov^

fleurs
?

don-

Which
prefer
to

of
?

these

flowers

do

you

pr4f4rence

Note.

"

Quel also
I
*

corresponds
a

the
1
'

exclamatory

'

what
*

(a)

Quel
!'

beau

tableau

What

beautiful

picture

Quelle
and

hont"t

What

goodness

272.
reference

Qui is used
to

in both
as

direct

indirect

questions,
of

with

persons,

subject or object.

Instead

quiy the

164

SYNTAX.

[272-274

redundant

phrase
often

qui
used^

esi-ce

qui

(subject) or
when
no noun

qui

est-ce

que
the

(object)is
"

especially

follows

verb.

Ex.
esi-ce

Qui (or Qui


celaf

qui)
f

fait

Who

has

done

that

Qui

chercheZ'VOua

(or Qui
f)

Whom

do

you

seek?

esf'Ce
est
ce

que

vous

chercTiez

Qui

gar^on

f f
a

Who

is this

boy
you who

Ji qui
Je
ne

pensez'vous
sais

Of

whom

do
know

think?
has

qui

dit cela.
a

I do not

said in

that.

273.
questions.

Que

'what/
Instead

conjunctive,
que^

is used

only

direct

of

the

redundant

phrase

qu'esi-ce
is often

qui
used,

(subject) or
the
former

qu'est-ce
regularly other
than

que
when

(object or
the

predicate) interrogative (Eng.


verbs.
"

what

T)

is the

subject of
dites

impersonal

Ex.

Que

diteS'Vousf
vous ce

que

(or Qu'est-ce f)
Qu'est-

What

do

you

say?

Qiiest
ce

(or usually

What

is it

? (that)

que

c'esi
vous

9)
4tonne
9
language,
c*est
^tonne

Qu^est'Ce qui
Note

What
qu'est-ce

astonishes
qui

you

?
farther
"

1.

"

In

colloquial

(or que)
or

is often

extended

to

qu'est-ce
c'est

que
vous

qui
f

(or
What

que

with

without jou
?

verb).
?

"x.
cest

Qu'est-ce que

qui does

astonishes
c'est

Qu*est-ce que
What

qu'il veut f What


?

he

wish

Qu'est que

que

Vavenir

is the

future

Qu'est'Ceque
2.
"

c'est

qtte cela

(or fa)?
*

What

is that? by
ce

Note

In indirect
Je
ne

'

questions

what

is expressed

qui

or

ce

que

(265).

"

Ex.

sais

pas

ce

qui

Vcfflige'I

do

not

know

what

pains

him.'

274.

Quoi ^what,'
preposition

disjunctive,
can

is used

after

prepositions.
or

Without

it

occur

only

in

exclamation

rogatio interEx.

when

the

verb

is omitted What

; and
are are more

after you
you

savoir.

"

A quoi pensez-vous9

thinking

of? of?

De

quoi parlez^ott89
plus

What
9

speaking

Quoi de

beau

What

beautiful?

274-276.]
Jl cherche
danc H

PROKOTTNS.

165

quelque

chose.

Quo/

He

is

looking is it ?

for

something.

What

cherche^
275.

je

ne

sais

quo/.
or

He
forming

is seeking,
indefinites

I don't know
cf. 287.

what.

About

quel, qui,

quoi

with

que

Relative

Pronouns.

(Review
276.
different
a.

109-11.)
Pronouns.
"

Use

of

the

Relative
is

The

use

of the
:

relative

pronouns

subject to
and
que
are

the

following used
to
an

rules
when

Without
can

preposition

gut

always
reference

no

ambiguity

arise, i.e. generally


noun.

with

diately immeserves

preceding
to

Lequel

(laquelle, simply etc.)


gender,
Ex.
or
"

avoid
more

ambiguity
remote

by

distinguishing
noun.

referring

to

the V

antecedent
et

enfant qui fai vu.


vUles

est matade^

que

The

child

who
seen.

is sick, and

whom

I have
ont

Les

qui

4t4 pilUes,

The

cities that

have

been

dered. plun-

EUe

un

ruharCde^soie

qui

She

has

silk-ribbon

that

is

est Men

beau.
curi

very

pretty.

La

fille du
meure

laquelle
est

de-

The

vicar's

daughter, by,
is ill.
son

who

is

icipr^Sf

malade,

living

near

Le

ais du
vu

nMecin,

lequel

fai

The
saw

physician's yesterday.
to

whom

hier.
a

b. After
to

preposition

qui

refers

persons,
The

and

lequel
tional preposi-

usually

things
de

(less often
qui, duquel,

also

phrases replaced
often
un

and

persons). {dans auquel


and

lequel
c.

often

by

doni

and

oil

(cf. Ill,

etc.)are by below)
"

oh

less

in ordinary

style

than
It is

in classical
a

writers.

"

Ex.

C^est
often

ami

de

qui
parle.

(less
duquel

friend

of whom

I speak.

duquel) je
doni

Voild, Vami
or

(or

There

is

the

friend

of whom

de

qui) je

parle.

speak.

166

SYNtAX.

[276
house
I live.

La

maison

dans
demeure.

laquelle

(or
pour
est

The

in which

(or where)
he works

ou) je
Sa
m^re

pour
il

qui

(or

His

mother and

for whom infirm.

/aquelle)
vieille
ei

travaille^

is old

injirme.
oil
aux

Les

honneurs

(or,

more
vous

The

honors

to which

you

aspire.

commonly,
aspirez.

quels)

La

douleur

oil je suis plong4.

The

grief

into

which

am

La But

maison

d'ou
maison

il sort.

plunged. The house


The house

from

which
=

he

comes.

La

dont

il sort.

family)

from

which
c.
^

he

descends.

Whose

(of which)'
by
case

is

rendered
laquelle

by

dont;
The

or,

after

preposition, either by the

duquel
what

(de

etc.).

construction
'
'

is in

it would

be

in English

if

whose that
is

were

rendered

'of

whom

(which),'observing
and thus,
noun.
"

always
'

dont

heads

relative
from

clause,

unlike
Ex.

whose,'

often

separated

its governing

Vhomme
mort, est

dont
ici. voir

le

frh-e

est

The

man

whose

brother

is dead

is here.
Vhomme

Je

voudrais
vous

dont

should whose
much.

like honesty

to

see

the

man so

vantez

taut

la prohiti.

you

praise

Je

vais
vous

trouver
m^avez

V agent donn4

dont

am

going

to

find you whose

the
gave

agent
me.

Padresse.

whose
le

address

L^ennui
travail

est

tin

mat

dont

Ennui

is

an

evil

cure

is

est

le remMe.

work.

Uhomrtie
vous

A parlez.

enfant
le
venu.

duquel

The

man

to

whose

child

you

speak.

La

femme
laquelle
lois d

avec

fls

de

The

woman
come.

with

whose

son

je

suis

have desThe
we

Les

la protection
nous

laws

to

whose
our

protection

quelles
bonheur.

c"njions notre

intrust

happiness.

277-280.]
[277.]
'

PRONOUNS.

167

Elliptically

qui
who,'

is used
or

as

an

indefiuite of
ce

pronoun

in the

sense

of

whoever, Ex.
ne

(any)

one

instead

qui, and

it is then

inyariable.

"

Qui

dit rien

consent.

He

who

says I love,

nothing
I love

consents.

Qui (or Cdui


bien.

que) faime, je
de

Vaime

Whom

well.

On

ne

peut

rien

exiger

qui

n'a

Nothing
has

can

be

exacted

from

one

who

rien.

nothing. shall
never
never

Voila

qui

(or

ce

qui)

n*arrivera

That

happen

Behold (/tY.

jamais.

what
is exceptionally

shall

happen).
adjective. d^tte.
"

[278.] Lequel
regu
cent

used

as

pronominal

Ex.

J*ai

dollars, de laquelle

sommeje

vous

paierai

ma

279.

Quo/
as

is
ce,

an

indefinite
chose,

relative
voildi, void,

referring
and

to

some

such

antecedent

rien,

is used

only

with

preposition.
a

"

Ex.

7Z n'y plus

rien

sur

quoi

Von

ait

There

is nothing

on

which

more

^crit.

has
il s^agit.

been
is

written.
the

Voild,

de

quoi

That

what

question

is

about.
peux
il pense.
avons

Je

deviner

{ce)

quoi

can

guess
of.

what

he

is think-

ing

Nous
so

de quoi
with
means
an

vivre

(and
to

We

have

the

means
our

of
means

living
of
sub-

on

iniinitive
or

(We

have

express

cause).
^what'
a

sistence).
(=
^that

280.

The

English
ce

which')

is in

French

rendered

by

and

relative

pronoun

(265).
"

Ex.

Ce

qui
que

est vrai
vous

est beau.
est

What What
c^est

is true you
I say

is beautiful. is true.

Ce

dites
me

vrai.

Ce

donf
votre

je

plains,
*

What

complain

of

is

your

inattention.
de

inattention.
sont

Les
ce
se

biens
h

la

fortune

The
we

gifts
must

of

fortune

are

what

quoi

il

faut

le moins

least

of

all

rely

fier.

upon.

168

SYNTAX.

[281-283.
follow
sentence

281
nearly
cannot

The
.

Relative

pronoun of

should
the
"

its antecedent permits,


and

as

as

the

construction
as

it

be
ma

omitted^
table
un

in English.

Ex.
a

Tai
est
sur

sur

livr e^qui
un

I have

book

on

my

table

which

ct toi
ma

(not J^ai
table

livre d

is thine.
.

qui

est

Oil

est

le

papier^que

toi) fax

Where

is the

paper

(which)

achet^^

bought?

VoiVi

le livre^dont

je parle.
Exercise

There
XIII.

is the

book

I speak

of.

Indefinite

Pronouns.
Rules there given,
not

(Review
282.
partitive Avez-vovs
Have money

carefully

112.

repeated.)
than
a

Que/que
sign

(quelques)
may
f

'

some

is

more

restrictive
'

the
few.' Have

(45),and

often

be

rendered de

little,
f

quelqi/ argent
you
?

Avez-vous you

Pargent

(some)

little

any

money?

AveZ'VOv^
Have pens?

que/ques
you
a

plumes

Avez-vous
you
pens?

des

plumes

Have

few

(some)
femmes
A

"

Que/ques
se

hommes
sur

et des

few show

men,

and

some
on

women

montrent
"

le
word
"

mur.

themselves

the
*

wall.
some,

Note.
'

With

of quantity Ex.

(especiallya numeral)
am
*

quelque

about

is invariable.
*

Quelque cinquante

Some

fifty years.'

que Quel-

peu

Some

little.'

283.

Que/que
'whatever'
or

(qui or) que


or

form

pronominal
the

phrases word
variable,
an

meaning
a

'h(jwever.'
quelque
'

If
an

intervening

is

noun

noun-phrase,

is
'

adjective and
it is
"

the

meaning

being
the

then

whatever

otherwise

adverb

and

invariable,

meaning

being

then

'however.'

Ex.

28^-287.]
Que/que
tende.^

PRONOUNS.

169

malkeur

qui

m'at-

Whatever

misfortune
me.

may

await Whatever
Whatever have.
riches

Quefques richesses quHlposs^de, beaux Que/ques talents quHl


ait,

riches fine

he may

possess. he may

talents

Que/que

quails soient.
se

However

rich

they
one

may

be. resist.
is de

Que/que fort qu^on


284.
feminine
beau he
'

(Ufende,
*

However

stoutly
but
"

may

Que/que

chose
in

something' chose
que

is masculine,

chose

'thing'

(even
have

quelque

'whatever').
chose
*

Ex.

Que/que
'

chose
Whatever

Something

beautiful.'

Que/que

qu*il ait

faite (f .)

may

done.'

Une

belle chose

beautiful

thing.'

285.
follows Ex.
sort

Quelconque
the
noun
un

whatever/
it qualifies.

which

is used
ne

for

both

persons

and

things,
"

With

it is rarely

used

in the

plural.
me
some
vous

Donnez-moi

livre quelconque
of
a

{des livres qudconques) 'Give


a

(any kind)
*

book.'

// n'y

raison
can

quelconque oblige
you

qui

puisse

oUiger 286.
singular. ought

There

is

no

reason

whatever
'

that

to it.'

Quiconque
"

whoever

is rarely

used
etre
sera

except

for

persons

and

in the

Ex.

Quiconque est

riche

doit
ment

bienfaisant'Whoever
'

is rich

to

be

beneficent.'

Quiconque

punt

Whoever

lies shall

be

punished.'

287.
qv"

The

relatives

qui, que/,

quoi,
phrases.
'

ou

form

with

ing follow-

indefinite
*

pronominal and

Qui
'

que

'whoever/
reference

que/
to
no

que

whatever/
Ou
vous

quoi
then
'

que
used

whatever
as

(with

definite
6tre,

object)are
que
means

predicate
"

complements

with

wherever.'

Ex. you

Qui
que

que

soyez,

que//e
j

Whoever
may

may

be, whatever
and

soit votre

reputation

et

be

your
you

reputation, do.
case

quoi

que
en

vous

fassiez.

whatever

Quoi qu'il
Oil que
mort

soit.

Whatever
vous

the you

may
you

be.
are

vous

soyez,
moi.

Ues

Wherever
for
me.

be

dead

pour

Qudque

qui

or

que,

unlike

tout

que, always

requires

the

subjunc

(330).

170

SYNTAX.

[287-290.
used
the

Note.
one soever,*

"

The
*

same

phrases

are

also

with
like.
"

ce

soil in the

sense

'

of

any
ce

anything
not
*

whatever/
any
one

and

Ex.
at

// n*y avail qui que


//
ne

"oi"*

There
ce

was

soever

(anybody
himself with

all).'

s*occupe

de

quoi que 288.


a

soil

He

does

not

busy

anything

whatever.*

On

(about

which

cf. 112. and


a

3)

may

apply

to

particular

person

or

to

distinct
number
"

body

of persons,
the
noun

following

adjective then
the verb
verb

agrees

in gender
in
"

and

with

referred

to ; but

is invariably

the Ex. is

singular.
voire

On
ma

must

be

repeated
eat

before
At

each

whose
my

subject

it is.

age,

on filler

curieuse

your

age,

daughter,

one

(f.).
est

inquisitive.
"gaux,

Ici ron

pi.

(colloquial).
on

Here

people is happy

are

equal. he
is contented.

On

est

heureux

quand

est

content.

One

when

289.

Jluirui\ which
after

can

refer

only

to

persons,
as

is

rarely

used

except

prepositions by
un

(it being
pi. les autres,

supplied,
Wautres fun
do

and

direct
V0U8

object,
pas

autre,

subject 'others').
people.

Ne

moquez
le

d'autruL

Do

not

make will
are

of other

D'auires

feront.
rien,
quelque

Others

that.

290.
to

Personne,
quelqu'un,

and

aucun

the

negative being

correlsr ever when-

tives

choae^

and

qv^lque^
or

used

the
manner

action

of

the

verb

(expressed
or

understood)
"

is in

some

denied, personnel

forbidden,

uncertain.
not

Ex.

Je

ne

connais

I do
no

know

any

one

(I know
for God.
of

one).
is impossible
not

Rien
ne

n^est

impossible
aucun

d, Dieu.
de
vos

Nothing
I do

Je

desire

wish

any

your

livres,
out
e

books.
que personne
de
vienne,

Jed

I doubt
I forbid Is

whether
him
to

anybody
say

comes.

Je
T

lui

defends
aucun

rien

dire.

anything. who

a-t-il

{personne)
f
payer

there
it ?

anybody

believes

qui
est
Sonne

le croie
parti

sans

per-

He

left without

paying

anybody

(sans
miettx

rien
que

payer).
personne

(without
I know

paying

anything).
than

Je

le sais

it better

anybody.

(ne

le sait

understood).

290-292.]

PRONOUNS.

171

Q^i

le salt

Personne.
9
A

Who

knows
are

it ?
you

Nobody.
of?

qiLoi pensez-voua

rien.

What

thinking

Of

nothing.

Je

The

veux

rien

dire.

I will
mean

say

nothing

(or I

do

not

anything).
pronouns,
is masculine

Notice

that personne,
while
the
noun

like all the


*

other
person

uninflected
'

singular,

personne

is feminine.

291.

MuL
but
The

"

The

adjective
used
nul

is inflected
as

in

masculine

and
in the

feminine,
plural.

it is rarely

an

indirect

object or
is by

pronoun
negative
ne.
"

is

always

masculine its verb

singular.
analogy

Although

itself with
revenu.

(Lat. nvMus)
No
one

construed
n^est
n^en

Ex.
has
no

Hul

returned. knowledge
of it.

Je

ai nulls

connaissance.

I have

292.

Tout

{toute; pi.

tous^

toutes),
"

a.

The
=

adjective tout
all

is distributive

(sing, 'every,
by
no

any,'
or

pi.

'all

kinds
an

of)
article

when

accompanied
pronoun
tout

article

pronoun.

With
all
"

or

it is
means

collective
'

('the

whole,
"

the').

b. The

pronoun

everything,
Conjunctive

all.'

Ex.

Directly

preceding

Followed
son

by

an

article

or

pronoun

Tout
pays.

homme

doit
man

aimer

Toute
whole

la maison
house

ftitbriUSe,
was

The

Every his

should

burnt,

love

country.
a son

Toute

chose

temps.

J^y

resterai

toute

une

ann6e,
a

Everything

has

its time.

shall

remain

there

whole

year.

Toutes
bonnes

v4rit4s

ne

sont

pas

Tous
All

les
men

homm"s
are

sont

mortels.

d, dire.

It

is

not

mortal.

well

to tell all truths.

Tout
Every

enfant
child

aime

le

jeu.

Tous
le

mes

(ces) enfants
All
my

aim^nt

likes

playing.

jeu.
like

(these) children

playing.

172

SYNTAX.

[292, 293.

DiSJUNCTITE

Tout

depend

de

VHucation.

Everything tion.

depends

on

educa-

Je

lea connais
tout dit.

tous

(a

aa),
the

I know I have

them

all.
all.
*

MTai
Note Parts
Note
en

said
city

1.

"

Tout
*

before Paris
as

name

of

means

all/

"

Ex.

Tout

park
2.
"

All

speaks
adverb

of it.'
means

Tout
preserve

'wholly, of
t
as

entirely,

quite.'

By

an

anomaly

(to
f

the
a

utterance

before

vowels)
with
a

it is inflected
consonant

toute

before (toutes)
.

feminine
bonne
y

adjective
"

beginning

(cf

toulT^tonn^ef

toute

f
.

Ex. toute

EUe

en

fat

tout

"onn"e

(or

She

was

quite

astonished

at

it.

surprise^.
sont

Files

tout

inconsolables

(or

They

are

quite

disconsolate.

toutes

d"8ol"es^,
tout
a
a

II parlait

Jierement.
son

He

spoke

quite

proudly. devoted
to

EUe

est tout

devoir

She
I
'

is wholly

her

duty.

Je

suis tout Note


as

vous.

am

wholly
tout

yours. being here


bonne
as

3.

"

Tout
. .
.
"

que

means

however/

an

adverb,

treated

above.

Ex.

Tout

bon

qu*il est^ Toute

(but

Toute

qu*elle gu'elle

est)
est

'However
*

good
much

he

(or she)
a woman

is.' she

femme

(used

adj.)

However

of

is.'

293.

Tef

such'
and
'

takes
it does

the
not

indefinite
prevent
the

article
use

before
the

it, instead
partitive

of

after, It may
specified

as

in English,
'

of

de.
not

mean

so-and-so,'
it may
'

such-and-such,'
mean
'

being
one,'

used Tel
.

instead
. ,

of

word

;
.

or

many
.
.

and

tel corresponds

to

'

one

another
son

or

as

so.'

Tef est

devoir.
me
rares.

Such

is his

duty. pleases
are
rare.

Une

telle conduite

plait.

Such

conduct

me.

De

tela amis
me

sont

Such
He Mr.

friends
owes

//

doit telle
un

somme.

me
a

such-and-such
one.

sum.

Monsieur
Tel rit demain,

tel. qui

such
a

aujourd'hui

pleurera

Many
cry

one

laughs

to-day

who

will

to-morrow.

Tout
. .

que

(unlike

qudque

que

330)

does

not

generally

require

the

subjunctive.

)2fi3,294.]

PBONOUNS.

178

Tel rit, te/ pleure. Te/ maitre,


tel valet..

One
As

laughs,
the
master,

another
so

cries.

master,

the

servant

(Like

like

man).
the
or

294.

Uun
refer

Pauire
to

(requiring
in gender

se

before

verb)
Ex. love

^each

other/

antecedent
agree

objects, expressed
and
These

understood,

with

which

they

number.
two

"

Ces deux
Pauire.

fiUes s^aiment
doivent

Puns

girls

each

other.
s'aimer

Les

chrkiens
uns

Christians
another.

should

love

one

/es
In

les autres.
same

the

way

are

used

also:

Pun

de

(d etc.)P
'

autre

^of

(to etc.) each


either the
the the
one

other/
or

Pun

ei

P autre

'both/ Pun

ou

P autre
the
one

the

other/ ni Pun
Vun
et V autre

ni P autre
the
noun

neither

nor

other.' verb

After

is in the
Vun
as

singular, the

but

usually
the

in the
or
or

plural plural

; after

ni

ni

V autre

verb

is in

singular
one

according

the

predicate
to.
"

is
Ex.

applicable

to

only

both

of the They

objects referred
speak of
one

Hsparlent

Pun
des

de P autre.
4gards

another.

On

se

doit

/es

uns

We

should

be
one

considerate another. him.

aux

autres. et

towards
gargon
le

Vun

Pautre

Both

boys

followed

suivaient. et Pautre
et
se

Vun

sont

tromp^s.
se

Both

are

mistaken. and

Ijucr^ce tu^s
elles

Cl^opdire
et
se

sont

Lucretia killed did


not

Cleopatra
but
other.

both they

Pune
ne

Pautre,
pas

mats

themselves, kill each

sont

tv^es

Pune
ou

Pautre. Pautre

Vune

lefera.

Either

the

one

or

the

other

shall

(will) do
is my

it.

Mi

Pune
w^re.

ni

Pautre

n^est

ma

Neither

mother.

Hi Pun

ni Pautre

ne

viendront.
Exercise

Neither
XIV.

will

come.

174

SYNTAX.

[295-297.

XVI.

YEEBS.

[295.
some

HISTORY. in
the

"

The

construction

of

the

rerb

has
and last

been

subject
of
etre

to

yariation
century,

past

centuries.
was

Thus,
to

in the

16th
the

beginning only
ya
ce

of the
two
or

17th
more

Terb

allowed

agree

with
et
a

coordinated
; in the

subjects
17th,
etre
eux

(e.g. Leurs
usually
qui
en

maisons with

lew

ville

d"serte.
not

Bossuet)

agrees

preceding
M""

and

with

its predicate in the

(e.g. Cesf
and 18th,

demeurent
even

d^accord.
a

de
to

S^vigne)
two
nouns

17th
in the

exceptionally
even

yet,
noun

verb

referring

is put first

plural,
comte

when
avec

the

second

is subordinated sortis used


not

to

the

(e.g.
"

Le
In

Piper

quelques
the

Sta/ent officiers
is found
even

du

camp.
st,

Voltaire).
and
a

the

17th

century,

conditional

after

dependent d*un (aSi


sur

future
sang
en

after

leading
main

future

when

logically

required drai mode

trop

vil
^at

ta

seratt
sera.

tremp"e.

Racine).
The
the

{Je

revieu"

voir
has

le soir

quel
many

elle

Moli^re).
under
the
used both

distinction

of
:

undergone
the

changes

(cf. further
supplying
more

subjunctive
infinitive
and

319), and
gerund
or

infinitive,
was

originally
once

Latin
than

gerundive,

much

freely

it is

now.]

Agreement

of

Verb

and

Subject.
its
"

296.
or

A
its

verb

agrees

in number

and

person

with

subject^
Ex.

with

subjectscollectively
viendra.

(ifthus
My My

considered).
will
will
come. come.

Monfr^re

brother brothers
shall

Mes

frh-es viendroni.
wiendrons*

Nous

We
soeur

come.

Mon

fr^re

et

ma

wien-

My
come.

brother

and

sister

will

droni,
Note. singular
After
e.g. Vun

"

Vun

et

V autre
est

the
hoii^

predicate
or

may
bons,

be

in

the

et Vautre

soni

[297.]
"

Agreement
The verb

with

One
in French

Alone
"

of

Several
main
as

jects. Subalso in

agrees

in

the

297.]

VERBS.

175

English

"

with

one

alone
one

of several
or

a. subjects,

when

its action
of them

really

affects

only

of them,

b. when
Thus,

it affects on^

more a.

emphatically
It agrees
are

than
one

the

others.

with

of several
ou
'or'

subjects (the nearest),when


or

they

connected action
cannot
sceur

by

ni

'neither,'

provided
"

the
Mon

verbal

affect
'

all the My

subjects alike.
or mon

Ex.

fr^re

ou

ma

wiendra
Vun
ni

brother
n'est

my

sister
'

(not both)
is my

will

come.'

Ni

V autre

p^re
ou

Neither

father'

(only one
'Vice
ma soeur

could
or ne

be).
"

But

Le

vice

la vertu

font
Ni
nor

des
mon

revolutions

virtue

(both) cause
'Neither
stay

revolutions.'
my away: brother

fr^re

ni

wiendroni
will

my

sister

will
after

come'

both (i.e.

hence

usually

plural

nouns

combined

by

ni).
so

NoTB.

"

The

above
occur.

principle
As
a

is not general

strictlj
the

obserred,

but

that

occasional

deviations

rule,

singular different

is preferred
usage
*

after

ou

and

the plural
the
one

after ni.
is in the

Observe
singular
is
a

the

somewhat
* *

in English,
"

when

verb

after
or

or/
a

either

"

or/
noun.

neither

nor/

unless

of the

subjects

plural

collective

"

b.

The

verb
except

agrees when

with
that

one

only

of

several

subjects (the
1. when
honneur

nearest,
are

is of

subordinate
parole^
mon

value) :

they

placed
'

in

gradation
my
mattre
come

(ma
demands

le
are

demande,

My

word,

honor
et

it ') 2. when ;
viendra

they

synonymoiu
protector

{Mon
will
comm", noun mxi

protecteur

'My

master

and

');
que^
nouns

3. when
aussi

they
bien

are

connected

by

particle

like

ainsi
or

que^

etc. subordinating

the

following
bien que

under
viendra

the 'My

preceding
brother,
as

(Mon fr^re^
well
as

aussi

soeur,

my

sister, will

come').
Farther Examples
a.

to

297

Le

vice
ou

ou

la vertu V autre

friomphera.

Vice

or
or

virtue the

must

triumph.
write.

Vun

icrtra.

One

other

will

176

SYNTAX.

[297-200.
Luck made
have

Le

bonheur pu

ou

la t4m4nt4

ont

or

rashness

may

faire

des

hSros,
ne

heroes.
will
my marry her.
nor

Ni

Vun
mon

ni V autre p^re ni

Vepousera.
rn^re
ne

Neither Neither mother

Ni

ma

father
come.

my

viendroni.
b.

will

Une
un

seule

parole^

un

sourire^

single

word,

smile,

look

regard courage^

suffit.
son

is sufficient.
mtr4pidit4

Son
nous

His

courage,

his
us.

intrepidity

efonne. le bien^
^

astonishes
la vie,
tout

Le

temps

Time,

property,
to
one's

life, everything
country.

est

d la patrie. bataille,
ne
comme

belongs
tant

Cette

This

battle, like

so

many

others,

d^autres,

d6cida
que

Hen.

decided
de
son

nothing.
as

La

vertu,

ainsi

(or
a

Virtue,
has

well

as

knowledge,

m^me

que)

le savoir,

its value.

prix.

[298.] 3d), they


which
were.
"

Should
are

the

subjects
summed
agrees
;

be
by

of
one

different
personal

persons

2d, (1st, with if they

either then

up
or

pronoun,
as

the

verb

the

verb

is construed

Ex.

Ma

sceur

et
vous

moi voir.

(nous)

vien-

My
see

sister
you.

and

will

come

to

drons
Vous
Ni

et lui 6tes

contents.

You
venus.

and

he
he

are
nor

satisfied.
you
come. came.

toi ni lui, vous


ou

n'^tes

Neither
You
or

Vou^

lui

viendrez.

he

will

[299.]
lective
expressed

Agreement
in
or

with

Collectives.
determined verb
the

"

a.
a

After

col-

noun

the

singular,
the

by

plural

noun,

understood,

is treated

in French, if the

in the
of

main,

as

in English,
is had

being

in

singular
in the

unity
"

the

collection

in view,

otherwise

plural.

Ex.

299,

300.]

VERBS.

177

The

verb

in the

siDgular

La

foule
grande.

d'enfants

6faif

The

crowd
great.

of

children

was

Varm4e ditruUe.

des

infidMes
troupes

fut

The

army

of

infidels

was

de-

stroyed.
des

La
de

moitiS
mis^re.

perif

One

half

of the

troops

perished

of want.
de traits obscure/
f

Une

nu4e

cloud air.

of

arrows

darkened

the

Vair.

The

verb
s

in the

plural

"

Une

foule

enfant
de

crowd

of children

were

there.

etaieni.
Un
grand nomhre
de

soldats
un

great

number
of
want,

of soldiers
a

pernum-

perireni
nomhre

mis^re, soldats

petit

ished

small

(de

under-

ber

escaped.

stood) se
Cette
esp^ce
que "i"ent

sauYsreni,
de
dix

chiens
ans.

ne

This
ten

species years.

of

dogs

live

only

b.

Adverbs
genitive
"

of

Quantity
must,

la (beaticoup,
as

plupart^

etc.)
have

followed
a

by

plural

also

in

English,

plural

verb.

Ex.
d'hommes des
hommes

Beaucoup

y sonf. soni

Many
Most

persons
men

are

there.

Laplupart

are

selfish.

int6ress4s.
La
Le
plupart

le cro/ent

Most la pludu

people
senate

believe
were

it. sing,

sSnat
part

^ait

partagS,
en

The

(note
a

in

efa/ent

faveur

Fr.) divided
in favor

majority were
bill.

projet.
300
with

of the

After
"

ce

as

impersonal predicate
"

the

following
3d

subject of (expressed

etre,
or

this verb

agrees
if it

understood),

is of the

person.

Ex.

178

SYNTAX.

[300-303.

Ce sont
sonf

mes
eux.

enfant

a.

It is my

children.

Ce

It is they. pommesf
ce

Sont-ce

Id, vos
que

Are
les

those
must

your

apples mine.

II

faut
miennes.

soieni

They

be

But:

"

C^est

moi;

c^est

nous;

"est

It is I;

it is we;

it is you.

Note.

"

When
to
ce

the
sont.
"

predicate
Ex.

is

followed

by
que

the
vous

relative
aimez
f

que,

c^est

is

preferred

Eat-ce

les Anglais

301.

After

the
"

relative
Ex.

qui

the

verb

agrees

with

the

immediate

antecedent

of qui.

C'est moi C*est


Vous
nous

qui Vat

dit.

It is I who
It is You
we
are

has

said

it.

qui souffrona. le seul qui le aache.

that

suffer.
only
am one

etes

the I

that

knows

it.
spoke

Je crois que

je
de

suis

le premier

qui

I believe of it.

the

first that

ait parl"

cela,

302.

After

noua,

voua,

and

on,

the
but Ex.

verb the

is construed predicate

according
noun

to

the

grammatical
to

value their

of

these

words,
"

or

adjective

according

implied

sense.

Vous
On
se

etea

bonne,

ma

mere.

You

are

good,

my
each

mother.

touchait
pour

la main,

et

Von

etait

They
were

grasped

others

hands

and

amfa

la vie.

friends

for life.

Exercise

XV.

Use

of

Modes
The

and

Tenses.

303.
so

Indicative.
universal
as

"

indicative being
on

mode
often

is not

in French
by
use

of

use

as

in English,

supplied
In
for

the

subjunctive

described
French

farther

(320 etc.).
though

the the

of

indicative

tenses,

and

English,

most

303,

304.]
agreeing,

VERBS.

179

part

also

not

unfrequently

differ.

Special

rules

are

given

below.

304.
a.

The

Simple
to

Present.
express

"

This

tense

is used:
state
or

As

in English,

purely
as

present
as

action
and
am

and

it represents
forms do

the
of the

indefinite

well

the

progressive
^

emphatic
loving,
La

English

present

faime (e.g.

I love,

love

').
"

Ex.

superstition CLCcidents.

cause

mille

Superstition
calamities.

causes

thousand

Scrit
b.

une

Uttre.

He

is writing
to express

(writes)a
present
combien

letter.

Unlike

the

present
from f

in English,
the
^

state

or

action

continued
en

past

(cf.Depuis
have

de

temps

etes-voVrS

Amirique
person

How

long

you but

been

in America
de

'

when
awez'vous

the

asked A.
f when

is yet

there; is
He
no

Combien

temps

ete

en

he

longer
ha^

there).
"

Ex.

est

ici depuis

une

semaine

been

here

for

week.

(or 21
est

une

semaine

quHl

ici).
quand
de
en

Depuis

Vaimez-vous
temps y

f
a-t-il

How How

long

have has

you

loved

her ?
in

Combien

long
?

she

been

qu^elle est

France

f He

France
has

Depuis

trente

hivers

il languit.

languished

these

thirty

years.
c.

To

express
as

future

state
"

or

action

after

si

if

(not after

'

si

whether

cf.

311),

also

in English.

Ex.

8*il vient,
d.
as

je
also
"

lui parlerai.
in English,

If he

comes,

I shall

speak

to

him.

As

often
Ex.

rhetorically,

to express

past

state

or

action

present.

La

nuit C^sar

approche,
se

Vinstant

arrt"9f

Night

draws

nigh,

the

moment

comes

presente.

Cesar
of past

presents

himself

(narratior

eyents).

180

SYNTAX,

[304,305.
future
in
to

e.

Exceptionally
certainty dans
une

(as
or

also

in

English) for
"

main

clauses

express

immediateness.

Ex.
I depart in be hour. in
a

Je pars

heure.

an

Je

8ui8

de retour

dans

un

moment,

I shall

back

moment.

305.

The

Compound
used:
a
"

Present
a.

(
not

Perfect)."
of
the

This

tense

is regularly

Where
of

the time

action yet
"

verb

is completed hour,
state

within day, action of

division this

past b.

(as

this

this

this
of

year, the
a or

century,

; etc.)

Where
a

the

or

verb,

though way,
an

completed without

in

past
to

period, attending

is

spoken

in

general with

reference
to

circumstances,

implied

reference

its consequence

in the In

present. familiar without


2d

discourse any

the

compound
to
a

present
past,

is used

quite
with

freely

reference

present

especially

the

1st and

persons.
a.

Mon

fr^re a Scrit aujourd^hui.


arrivA
at
a ce

My
He

brother
came

has

written

to-day.

II est lui
et il

matin.

this

morning.
to

Je

parle

(cette semaine),
de
venir.

have

spoken
and

him

(this
to

promis

week),
come,

he

promised

b.
a

Dieu
Colomb

oree
a

le monde,

God

created

the

world.
America.

decouvert
a

VAnnirique,
la m^e
des

Columbus Greece
was

discovered
the
mother

La

Ghr^ce
beaux
vu

ate

of

the

arts.

fine arts.
a
un

Je Vai

il y

an,

I
que I

saw

him

year

ago.

i/'fl/

recu

hier

la

lettre

received which

yesterday
you
wrote

the
me

letter

vousm'avez^critelasemaine
demi^re,
Note.

last

week.
Exceptionally the Ex.

"

compound

present

is used
un

for
*

the

compound
I

future

(cf. 304.
finished
in

e).
a

"

Attendez,

J*aifini dans

TOOwi"nf

Wait,

(shall)

have

moment.'

306.]
306.
Preterit,
a

VERBS.

181

The
"

Simple
These
past
state
or

and
are
or

Compound
past
as on

Imperfect
tenses.

and
imperfect

both
action
going The

The
as (i.e.

describes

nnfinislied
when

existing,

continuous,

habitual,

something

else past

occurs)

at the

time

thought
in

of.

preterit

relates

occurrence

as

complete from

itself, and

without

reference

to

the

condition

arising

it.
Imperfect
:
"

II etaii
ans.

nigociant

pendant

dix

He

was

merchant

during

ten

years.

Des la

flambeaux
saUe,
mais
tous

eclairaieni
Us

Torches

lighted
were

the

hall, all
where

but

efaient
d,VextriVestrade

they
at

nearly
end,
was

placed

presque

places

the

other

the

mit4,
des

oh

s'elevait

judges' bench
When took
I
was

erected.

juges.

Lorsqfie

feta/s
souvent

PaHs^
chez M.

je
B.

was

in supper

Paris,
at

often
B's. she

soupa/s pensais
arriva.

my

Mr.

Je

elle lorsqu^eUe

thinking

of her

when

arrived.

Tawais

dejeund

quand

vous

had

breakfasted

when

you

entrdtes,

entered.
quand

eta/f
arriv^.

parti

je

suis

He

left when

I arrived.

Preterit

"

Le

roi

guitta
une

son

vaisseau

et

The
went

king
on

left
board

his

vessel of
a

'and

monfa

frigate

plus

smaller

Ugh'e,

craft

(frigate).
descended
and it.
as was

Louvet

descendii

de la tHhune,

Louvet

from
Eobespierre

the

et Robespierre

y monta.

tribune, mounted

D^s

quHl

fut

entre,

on

ferma

As

soon

he

had

entered,

the

la porte,
peine
me

door

closed.
had
I

fus-je le"6

quHl

Scarcely entered.

risen

when

he

enira.

182

SYKTAX.

[306-308.
preterit
were
:
"

Both

imperfect

and

Nous

efions

(assts) d
Men
sa

table

We
he

(seated)at
was

table when

lorsquHl

arriva. efa/t
il perdit

arrived.
friend

Mon
quand

ami

jeune
rn^re.

My

very mother. which

young

when

he

lost his

Le

vaisseau de cent

quHl

monta de

eiaii
canon.

The had The

vessel 120 accused

he

boarded

vingt pieces

cannon.

Les

accus^
lis Us

avaieni
n'en

des

d^fenplus.

had
; they

been
no

having

seurs^

eurent

counsels

longer

receiv

On
menty

jugeaii individuelleon

any. sentenced
one were

They by

had
one,

been they
en

lesjugea

en

masse.

(now)
masse.

sentenced

[307.]

The
but

distinction
that
a

between degree

the of

imperfect
option

and

the

preterit

is not

so

absolute

certain

is allowed.

Especially

in

compound

tenses,

the

tendency
entra
*

is in
I

favor had

of
my

the

imperfect

form.

Thus,

J* avals

d"jeun"

lorsqu*il
he

had

breakfast

(or

had

just

breakfasted)

when

entered.'

[308.]
in

After

si 'if

(not
the

after

si

'whether'), introducing
the

an

unreal,

unaccomplished
French
"

condition,

imperfect
or

is

regularly be used

used

where

conditional

past

would

in English.
vous

Ex.

Si

me

tromp/ez,
Men

je

de-

If

you

should
me,

deceive I

(or
be

viendrais

malheureux.

deceived)
very
f

should

unhappy.

Si je venais,

mendriez-vous

If

should
you
me

come come

(or came),
?

would
11

mHa

demand^

si

fy

con-

He

asked
consent.

whether

I would

sentirais.
Note
1.
"

Even when
"

in

main

clauses,
writing

the

imperfect

may

be
to

used the

for

the

conditional

in energetic
Ex.

attention

is called

certainty

of the
ne

result.

S*il

Vavait

paa

fait, Vautre

etaft

If he be

had
dead.

not

done

it, the

other

would

mort.

308-313.]
Note

VERBS.

183

2.

"

About

the

use

of

the

compound

imperfect

subjunctive,

instead

of the

conditional,

cf

338.
.

[309.]
to
a

As

the the

present past

may
so a

express the
state

state

or

action also

continue

from

(304. b)
denote

imperfect
or

may

trary (confrom

English
time.
"

usage)
Ex.

action

continued

previous

y if ait depuis

longtemps.

He

had
time.

been

there

for

long

310.
tenses

The

Simple
to

and

Compound
same

Future."
in

These
observing

correspond
that
where

the
more

tenses

English,
in

only
future
"

French

is

strict

than

English

using

the

logically

required,

especially

in temporal

clauses.

Ex.
demain.
vous,

Je part/rai

I shall I shall

depart

to-morrow.

tPaurai le Je

fini avant

have
see

finished him
as

before
soon as

you.
he

verrai

aussitdt

quHl

shall
comes.

viendra,
Je pariirai
mes

quand

faurai

fini

shall
ished

leave

when business. what


of

have

fin-

affaires.
direz
ce

my

Vous

quHl
si the

vous

p/aira.
is used

You

will
in

say
the
not

you

please.

[311.]
304.

After
Ex.

future
sais

only
*I

sense

'whether'

(cf.
come.'

d).
vous

"

Je

ne
vous

s*il viendra
*

know

whether I will

he

will

Si

yenez,

je
*

le dirai be

If you

(will) come,

tell you

it.'

Je

partirai

s'il vient
About

I shall
use e.

off if he
present

comes.'

[312.]
action,

the

of the

for

the

future

to denote

immediate

etc.,

cf

304.
.

[313.]
taken
aura

The

compound
"

future

sometimes

expresses

that

an

act

has

probably

place.
tout

Ex.
He
He

// lui
sera
se

dit.^

has
must

probably
have

told
started

him

all.

//

parti
sera

hier.
sans

yesterday.
other-

//

4gare,

cela

il serait

He

has
wise

probably
he

lost his way,


be
here.

"ci.

would

Cf

German

Er

unrd

ihm

alles gesagt

haben.

184

SYNTAX.

[314-317.
Conditional."
tenses

314These

The
tenses

Simple
correspond
cannot
.

and

Compound
the
same

to

in English,

except the

that '(a.) imperfect

they

be
; and

used

after

si 'if,' which
are more
"

requires

(cf 308)
je

(b.)that

they

strictly
Ex.

used

in subordinate Je

clauses
si

where

logically
I should

required.
come

viendrais

pouvais.

if I could. done it, had


1

Jerauraisfaitsifavaispu,
Si
trompiez,

should been

have
able. should
me,

votis

me

je

If

you

(or
I

were

to)
be

de-

deviendraisbienmcdheureux,

ceive

should

very

unhappy. Si

je
je

retournais

d, Londres^

If

should

return
see

to

London,

le "errais.

I should partout oil

him. you

Je

V0U8
V0U8

suivrais

should
you

follow

wherever

iriez.
After
may
me

went.
"yen

[316.]
conditional

quand,

guand
be
ne

m^me
rendered
m'en

'though,
by Even
"

though/

the
"

French
Ex.

in English

'were

to
were

(love,etc.).'
to hate
me,

Quand

vous

halriez^

je

if you

I should

plaindrais

pas.

not

complain.

[316.]For
317.
verbs
a.

the

conditional pouvoir,
needs
ne
some
'

of devoir

etc., cf. 317.

b.
of Thus

Devoir,
in English

savoir.
special have
no

"

The

rendering

these
:

explanations.

As

'

can

and

'

ought

participle
are

in

English, rendered
^

the

compound
another
or
*

tenses

of pouvoir

and
:

devoir

there
'

by
have,'

turn

of the expression

j'aipu
^

'I could

(or
'

I may
etc.
"

I have

been
le

able

') j'ai di ;

I ought

to have

Ex.

Je

n^ai pu

faire.
le

1 could
to

not

do

it

(I was
done

unable

do
ought

it).
to

auraif du Ces h^mmes pu


p4rir.

faire.

He

have

it.

ant

(or auront)

These

men

may

have

perished.

auraif
b.

du

m'4crire
pouvoir,

(cf. b).
and
ne

He

ought
are

to have

written
an
^

me.

Devoir,

savoir
to

used,

before

infini"

tive, in

the

Bimple

conditional

denote

respectively

ought/

3l7,

318.]
'

VERBS.

185
'

could
the

(*might
componnd

'),and
have.'

can

not

; and

devoir,

pouvoir

likewise

in
*

conditional
"

for

^should

(ought to) have/


do
it.

could

(might)
le
.

Ex.
dots

Je

dewrais
with
ref

faire (Je

I ought

to

to immediate

duty).
I could
f
more

Je pourrafs Pourriez'voua

Vessayer,
me

(might)
you
tell
me

try
?

it.

dire

Could

Je

ne

saurais

(ne puis

I cannot

do

it.

definite)le faire.
Taurais
du
le

faire.
venir.

I ought You

to

have

done

it. have
come.

VoiLS auriez
B

du
pu

8hould(ought to)
could
not

n^auraii
Note.
"

le faire.
part this
usage
two

He
of
the

have
seems

done

it.
only

Id

conditional
independent

idiomatic
into
one.

because

English

has
ne

fused

originally

forms

Cf
.

Sij'l^aiainvito, je
I
were

pourrais
go

invited

I could not

y alter; tTdtais invito, maisje ne pus invited, but I could not there : I was

y aller*lt
go

there.'

c.

Devoir
^

may

be used should,
oh^r

in any
is

due
Lea

[^doitought,

b) (cf. to state things as (destinedor intended) to']. Ex.


tense
"

enfants doiweni
parents.
arriver.

Children
parents. That
He
was

should

obey

their

leurs

Cda

devaii

(destined)to
to have

happen.

II devaii

mourir
itre

308. 1). (cf.


belle dans
sa

ought
must

died.

Elle

du

She

have

been

beautiful

jeunesse.
Selon
avoir le
testament

in her
il

youth.
to the

devaii

According

will, he should the house.

la

maison.

(was to) have


auxiliary
are use. as
"

318.

A Her

in

To

denote
^

immediate
am

turi fu-

je
'

vat's
"

etc.

used

in English

going

(I am
leave,

about)
II
va

etc.

Ex. He

partir. lui 4crire.


Exercise

is going
was

(is about)
to write
to

to

J^allais

about

him.

XVI.

186

SYNTAX.

[819,320.

Subjunctive.

[319.
of the
has

HISTORY.
use

"

The
same

use

of

the

subjunctiye
Yet restrictions

in French

has
between
as
:

grown the

out

of
much In

the

mode by

in Latin. various the

the connection
as

two

been

disturbed
languages, involved

well
chiefly is not

extensions

in French.

both

subjunctive
Lat. [e.g.
=

is used

A.

When
or

the

idea

in the

verb-expression

referred
=

to

as

fulfilled

certain

of being

fulfilled
est ut

Opto
//

ut

venfat

Fr.

Je

desire

quil

yfenne
;

; Lat.

Necesse
qui

venfat

Fr.

faut (^11est n^cessaire) qu*il


misere
=

yienne

Lat.

Legatos

consu/erent

Apollinem

Fr.

lis envoyerent

des

d^put"s B. When
as some

qui conaultassent
the idea

Apolloti] ;
in

involved

the

verb-expression

is

not

the

thing

a"med,

especially
surprise
or

(in French
reserve

almost

exclusively)
Miratur
=

when

it is accepted
=

with

[e.g. Lat.
Unus
est

quod Fr.

venfat

Fr.

MU

est

surprisse quHl yfenne

; Lat.

quipoesft

// est le seul qui le pufsse;

Quamvis

boni s/'/if =Fr.


a

QuoiquHls sofent
of differentiation of
^

bons'].
which language,
has

Still, by
the

process

been
some

going

on

out through-

whole

history
nature"

the
such

French
as

discrepancies of

of
indirect

comprehensive
the

the

loss

of

the

subjunctive
in
use

discourse,

development

of

conditional
gretitly

mood, increased
etc.
"

part

assuming

the

office of the

Latin

subjunctive,
expression exist
now

the of

of the
many

subjunctive
of Latin.
a

of surprise

(afterany
nature,

emotion),
that
has

and and
on

more

restricted
uneven

between

language
been,

the

The
towards

quite

tendency of
the but
use

of
of

the the

French

the

whole,

restriction

subjunctive
in the

both

in independent Even yet


on

and tendency

ordina subis

clauses,
work,

especially

former. in
a

that

at

and

the

choice
or

of

mode

depends,

measure,

the style

used,

whether In
the

rhetorical

colloquial.

17th
same

and
as

18th
now.

centuries Thus
we

the

use

of
in

the

subjunctive
authors

was

not

always

the

often
the
que

classical

find

the

we should subjunctive, where qu*il soft fou (Malherbe) j Je

expect

indicative
ce

instead:

e.g.

Je

crois
;

crois

soft

Pautre

(Comeilie)
; Je

On
qu'il
the

dirait

que

les temples

fussent

autant

d*h6telleries
versa, we

(Racine)
also
:

pensais

fallttt pleurer

(Moli^re).
we

And,
expect
; //

vice
the

sometimes
e.g.

find

indicative

where

should

subjunctive
qu *il est
en

J*appr"hende

qu'il

sera

plus

difficile (Balzac)
rien

semble

vie

(Moli^re) ; Quoiqu'i

n*y auraft

de surprenant

(Bossuet).]
is used, Clauses
to
some as

The

Subjunctive

described
the

below,
notion
of

.320.

I. In

Subordinate
with

qualify

their
as

rerb-phrase,

reference

to

preceding

expression,

320-322.]

VERBS.

187

a.

not

realized
with
some

(but simply
emotion
reserve
as

willed^

feared,

doubted,

; etc.)
as

b.

as

realized
some

joy, (surprise^ sorrow,


as (either

c. etc.);

stated and

with

mental
or

being

of

sweeping

exclusi

nature,

simply

admitted

without
to

special

affirmation. notion of

II.

In

Principal
as

Clauses

chiefly

qualify

the

the

verb-phrase
I.

willed.
in

Subjunctive

Subordinate in
a

Clauses. clauses

32 1

The
.

subjunctive
conjunction
a
:

is used

subordinate

duced intro-

by

the
or

que,

or

ending conjunotion-plirase

with

que^

relative
"

pronoun

or

particle,

for

mainly

three

purposes,
A. To

viz. denote
is not

that put

the idea
forth
:
"

expressed

by the
or

subordinate
of being intended

verbso,

phrase simply

as
a.

realized
to

certain
or

but

with
or

reference

its willed

completio

non-completion
'I desire

Je [e.g.

diaire

(ordonne,difends^ etc.)
he
cas

qu^U
b.
'In
to

vienne
its
case

contingent
he

forbid, (order, etc.)that [e.g.En completion

come'];
qu^U

"

or

vienne
or

should

come'];
doute

"

or

c.

its

doubtfulness,
ne

uncertainty
*

Je [e.g.

(ne croispas,
say, with
in

dispas,

vienne
B. To

I doubt denote

(do not
that
sorrow,

believe, do not
it is
etc.,

that etc.)
some

etc.)quHl he comes '].


as

realized

emotion, leading
that he

of

surprise,

joy,

expressed
^1
am
*

the

clause:
has

Je
it
'

m'4tonne
; Je

quHl

I'aii
quHl
that

dit

surprised
I
am

said

suis

fdch4

le saohe

sorry
some

that

he

knows

it.'

G.

To

denote
"

it is stated
a

with

mental

reserve,

whether:

a.

as

involving
eat
"

sweeping
qui
a

assertion

that
^

may

be only
of

erroneous
one

H [e.g.

le sevl
or
c.

puisse

le

faire
made

He

is the

that

can

do

it'],
statement

concession
as

in favor without
est

more

emphatic

and
qu^U

such

admitted
U

positive
homme
*

assertion
Though These

[e.g. Bien
he
be

soit
is
are
an

pauvre,

honnite

poor,

yet

he

honest
more

man'].
specified
form

[322.]

general scheme,
use

principles
presenting

fully

in

the following

in

synoptical

all the clauses.

chief rules for the

of the

subjunctivein

subordinate

188

SYNTAX.

[323.
Clauses:

[323.]

Subjunctive
a.

in

Subordinate
que

With

the

conjunction
that

(or
act to

relative
expressed

word)
by
or

after

verbs

or

phrases
is viewed
or

implying
with
reverse:

the

the

dependent

verb

reference
"

its willed verbs

intended phrases

completion

the

i.e. after desire,

and

denoting
and

command,
verbs

exhortation,

expectation
to
or c,

(esp^er
sion, permis-

M
H
O

of

believing,

unless

referable
etc.,

excepted),
opposites

fitness,
fear,
M O

necessity,

their

(forbid
if the idea

apprehend,
"

etc.).
"

Cf.

325.

Note.
purpose

After

relative

l ("qui,equel,

dontf

ou)

only

of

is implied.

b. After
en

conjunctive
'in
case,'

phrases
*

such

as

'

afin que
etc.,

in order
a

that,'

cos

que

pourvu

que
act

provided,' expressed
by
or

denoting

contingent

5 SI
"

completion
and

of the if used
for

the

dependent
si

verb

after

que,

such

phrases

for

(403. b).

Cf.

326.
c.

With

the

conjunction
the
act
or

que

(or

relative) after
by
as

verbs
verb

or
as

phrases
not

describing
or

expressed

the

dependent

certain,
f

probable,

possible,
so on,

after

t7 n'est pas

certain

douter, {probable possible),


0
or

and

and

after

negative,

tive, interroga-

conditional
"

statements.
*

"

Cf
.

327. of believing
or

Note.
must

^s/xfrer

hope

'

and

verbs

or
si,

thinking
be

be the

used

negatively,

interrogatively
verbs

with

to

followed
always

by

subjunctive,
that
que mode.

while

of

doubt

and

fear

require

With
such
n
H

after

verbs

or

phrases

expressing

an

inner

emotion,
shame,

as

surprise,

disappointment, allowing
with the the

joy,
when
que
no

sorrow,

0 GO

rage
"

(allrarely
of que
be used

indie, de
ce

surprise with

is the

involved)
indicative
"

Instead

subj.,
to

usually verbal

may
a. n3

to emphasize

the reality

of the
a

action.

Cf
.

328.

In

relative
the
a a

clauses

soften
by
some

sweeping
exclusive

assertion word
or

duced (introphrase, may


as

"

in

main

clause

especially

superlative,

seul, nul,
"

etc.),when

there

be

"
room

for
b. After

possible

mistake.
or

Cf

329.
.

ft* M O H
*
.

concessive
que

hypothetical si
.
.

such

as

bien

'although,'

que

'however'
one

conjunction-phrases, (not after si


'although,*
que,
etc.

alone), quoique
and

(the

only

one

written

in

word)
as

after que

indefinite

pronoun-phrases,
tout

such
"

qui

quel

que,

quelque

(but

rarely

que), etc.

Cf. 380.

323.]
Examples

VBBBS.

189

(determining
in

words

are

spaced^

and

the

subjunc

bold

type) :

"

A.

Subj.

of unrealized
a
.

or

uncertain
also

completion

(323.A)
it.

(cf
.

382-^)
you
to

tPordonne D i S'leur

quevoualefassiez}
qu'ils soient qu'ils
pr^ts.

I order

do

Tell

Order) them
them
ever

to be ready. to
come.

Je

defends jamais,
mattre

vienneni

I forbid

Le

exige

que

vous

The

teacher

requires

yau

to

be

attentif, Je desire (souJiaite) que


so/ez

so/ez

attentive.
vous

desire
always

(wish)
be
to

that

you

may

toujours

heureux,
e

happy. tell you the truth.

Pe

rmettez

(souffr
diss
quHl

z)
ne

que

Allow

me

je

vous

la v4rUi,

J'empScherai
fasse.

le

I shall

prevent

him

from

doing

it.
garde quHlne I

Je prendrai
le fasse.

shall
not

take do
it.

care

that

he

does

J^ attends

que parole.
que

vous

me

expect word.

you

to

keep

your

teniez

J^approuve
vos

vous

preniez

approve

of

your

taking

your

precautions. quHl

precautions.
tout

II

faut
suite.
importe

vienne

de

He

must

come

immediately.

quHl

le sache.

It is important

that

he

should

know
II est

it.

juste

{de
vous

toute

jus-

It is only

fair

that

you

should

tice) que
II it ait

lui icriviez.
que
tu

write
It
was come.

him. time that


you

temps

should

vinsses.
^

French
where

often
in

(cf.331)
only

allows
the

subjunctive
can

or

an

infinitire

construe*

tion,

English also

latter

be

used.

Here

Jt

v"m$

ordonne

de U

fat're would

be

correct.

190

SYNTAX.

[323.
I trying
can

Je

cherche

un

mattre

qui

am

to

find
me

teacher

sache
Idsez

m'enseigner
livrea
voire

lefrangais.
puissenf

who
Read

teach
that

French.

des

qui

books

will form

your

former
Us envoy

goUt

(cf a. note).
.

taste.

^rent

des d4put4s

qui

They

sent

deputies Apollo. where

who

were

consu/iasseni

ApoUon,
place
aise,
ma

to consult
vous

Choisissez
so/ez
Je
crains

une

oil

Choose

place

you

will

d, voire
que

be comfortable.
m^re
ne

fear

my

mother

is

(may be)

(383) soii
Je
ne

malade,
pas
que
ma

iU.
I
am

crains

not

afraid

that

my

mother

rn^re

soii maJade,
quHl
n^

is sick.

J'ai
d

peur
temps,

arrive

pas

am

afraid

he

may

not

arrive

in time.

(cf
.

also

387)
that

Approchez

fin

que

(or simply
dise
cela. le

Approach
you.
I

I may

tell

it to

que) je
Je
le

vous

feraiy pourvu

quHl

shall it.

do

it, provided

he

does

fasse.

Conduisez-vous
que
vous

de

mani^re

Behave

in

such

manner

as

to

so/ez

esiimS,
de mani^re

be esteemed.

[But

11 s'esi conduit
est

[He
manner

has

behaved
as

in be

such

quHl
moins

esitimi,']
que
ei que
ne
ne vous
ne

to

esteemed.]
and

so/ez
moins de

Unless

you

be

diligent, take succeed.

diligent

(for ct
preniez

(unless you)
la you

trouble,

que) vous
peine,
vous

will

not

rhissirez
pa^
sans

pas.

Je

ne

le
vu

ferai

que

je
que

ne

will
seen

not

do

it until

have

Vaie
Vaie
Si

(for

je
If

him.

vu).
ne

je

suis
et

pas

de

retour

I any

am
one

not

back

at

noon, me,

and retain

midi,

que

(for si) quelms

calls

for

qu^un

vienne

demander^

him.

retenez'le.

323.]

VERBS.

191

(cf.also 383)
I doubt
ne

Je

doute
ne

que

cela

so/t
que

vrai. cela

if that
no

be

true.

Je

doute

pas
vrau

I have

doubt

that

is true.

(383)
est

so/t

douteux

(^possible,
qu'il

It

is

doubtful

or (possible,

imposs
has

i mp

ossible)
crois pas

Vait
done it.
not

whether

he

fait
Je
ne

qu*il

le

do do

believe

that

he

'will

fasse.

it.

CroyeZ'VOus
vous

quHl
croyez

le fasse

f
le

Do If

you

believe believe
not

he

will will

do do

it ? it, I

Si

quHl
point

you shall

he

fasse
^

je nHrai

go. she will


return.

Esp4rez-vous

qu'elle

re-

Do

you I hope

hope

return?

vienne

J^esp^re

qu'elle

she

will

reviendra.
ne

Je

savais

pas

(JHgno(Je d4nve)

I did

not

know

that

it

was

mitte per-

rais)
ne

qu' il fu t permis. pas

Je

dis

do

not

say

(I deny)
that

that

he

quHl
n'est

a/t tort,
pas
sUr

is wrong.

(certain)
(sAr, certain)

It

is

not

certain

he

is

quHl

so/t

coupable.
Is

guilty. it proved
has
qui
est tou-

Est-il

prouvi
quHl V a/t
un

(certain)that
it ?

he

fait f
homme Is

done
a

a-t-il

there that

man

who

can

say
?

pu/sse

dire

quHl

he

is always

happy

jours heureux?
B.

Subj. of
a/t
pu

emotion
le

(323. B)
astonished
able
to

Je

m^4tonne

quHl

am

that
do
he

he

has

faire,
suis

been

it.

Je

fdchi

qu'il

so/t

am

sorry

that

is sick.

malade.
se

plaint

que

vous

lui
de
vos

He

complains

that
him

you any

so

dom selnews

donniez
nouveUes,

si rarement

send

(write to him).

192

SYNTAX.

[323.
is
a

C^est

dommage

quHl

Vait

It

pity

that

he

has

done

fait
Je
suis

it.
bien
aive

qu^U

soft

am

very

glad

that

he

has

de

retour.

returned.
qu^un
ennemi

II

enrageait
presque
une

It

angered

him

that

an

almost

barbare

lui opposat

barbarous
an reserve

enemy

should

offer

resistance

invincible.

invincible

resistance.
:

C.

Subj.

of mental
a

(323.C)

C^est

V unique

espoir

qui

me

This

is the
to

only
me.

hope

that

remain

soii rest4.

Vous

Hes

le

seul

ami

d qui

You

are

the

only
rely. you
can

friend

on

je pui'sse mefier.
C^est
le
mieux

whom
que
vous

can

It is the

best

do.

pu/ssiez
VEvangUe
present
aux

faire.
est

le plus

beau

The

Gospel
God

is

the
given

best
to

gift
men.

que

Dieu

ait

fait

which

has

hommes,
a

II

peu

d^ hommes

qui

There

are

few

men

that

can

sachent

supporter

VadversitL

bear

adversity.

Bien

quHl

soii

(Quoiqu^il
il est

Although honest.

he

be

poor

he

is

soif) pauvre,
homme,

honn^te

Si

mince

quHl

soif

un

cheveu

However
causes

small
a

it

be,

hair

fait

de

V ombre,

shadow. be
a

QuoiquHl
Q
uHl,

(En
soii etc.)

d4pit
brave
cet

quHl^
guerrier,

Though
I shall

he

brave that

warrior,
pride of

humble

je lui

rabattrai
vous

orgueil.
entrez,

his. Whoever you

Qui

que

so/ez,

be,

come

in.
possess,
poor.

Quelques
possediezy
les pauvres.

richesses
ne

que

vous

Whatever
do
not

riches

you

m^prisez

pas

despise

the

About

the

use

of

negations cf. 384.

with

subjunctive

after

verbs

of

fear,

doubt,

denial,

etc.^

324-326.]
324.
Alphabetical
"

VERBS.

193

Reference-lists of
reference,

of

Words

Followed
more

by
common

the

juncti Subwords

For

convenience the
are

all the

and

phrases preferred

causing
:

use

of the

indeed, subjunctive (unless,


alphabetically
statement

the infinitive headings

be

331)
to

enumerated in the tabular


OR

below
above

under

corresponding

those

(323).

A.

SUBJUNCTITB

OF

TJnBEALIZED

UnCEBTAIN
a

COMPLETION

(323.A)
by

[325.]

Verbs
:

and
"

verb-phrases

of contingent
agr"er, aimer

result
^

followed
mieux,
not

que

and

the

subjunctive
is implied

abhorrer,

admettre,

aimer

apprihender, positive
; soin)

approuver,

arriter

(cf. note), attendre


:

(when
hesoin
,

expectation,

convictio

cf

also

c), avoir
commander

(cratnto,nvie, e
,

peur,

Uamer,

hruler

(*desire
craindre,

ardently

'); ');
6on,

vient);

dtfcider, d"cTiter,
*
=

(il conconjurer consentir, convenir d^sesp^er, difendre^demander, d^sapprouver,


entendre

d^sirer,

dire
a

order
assez,

empecker,

(*intend,
d'avis,

expect

*);

"

etre

(h

d^sirer,

propos,

bien, convenable,

digne, difficile,

d'opinion,

f essentielf facile, aux


peu,
rare,

important,
f
"

indispensable,

injuste, uste, j naturel,

n^cessaire,

"viter, exiger; falloir(il faut: cf. also c) ; etc.); importer (il importey,louer; m"iter; (cf. note); s'opposer ordonner garder; (i ce que), permettre, plaire, prgf^er, prendre (prendr"^oin), prOendre garde
temps, urgent,

(= 'require') ;
(
'
=

prier, redouter;

r"pondre

(introducing a command),

(il '), souhaiter, suffire suffit"), supplier, supposer bon (mal, mauvais, tarde^,tenir a ce que, trembler (=*feB.T*), trouver
allow
etc.

; tdcher, tarder

souffri me (il

injuste
decree
the

juste,naturel,
Note.
"

cf

Stre) ;
by

valoir bien
an

or

mieux

(impers.),veiller, vouloir.
decision (official)
or
or

Verbs

denoting

authoritative

or

are

frequently
being
son

followed
looked
ann^e

the
as

future
"

indicative,
Ex.

the

conditional,
que

result

upon

certain.

(Edipe
qu*on
ne

donna

chacun

regneraft

(Racine).

II

fut
b

d"cid^

recevraff

plus

de

com-

missaires

(Guizot).
followed

[326.] Conjunctive
the

phrases
a

of

contingent que

result
the

or

condition
is not yet

by

subjunctive
a

"

condition
cas

(when
que,

proviso

accepted),
crainte de peur
en

ajin defagon

que,

moins
or

que,

au

que, que

avant

dans

la crainte
not

que, de

que, que, que,

que que

de maniere
denoting denoting

(if denoting
not

purpose,

result),
que,

de sorte
sorte
an

(if

purpose,
purpose,
"

en

que

(if

not
or

result),en attendant result), jusqu*a ce que


with

cas

(not
pourvu

referring que,
sans

to

accomplished si
ce

fact) ;

(here
doni,

330)

pos^

que,

que,

n'est

que,

soit que, suppose

que.

The

relative
the

words
or

qui,
action

and

ou

are

followed
verb

by the
or

the

subjunctive
clause
is
so.

whenever

state
or

denoted
as

by

the

of

relative

simply

intended

conceived

possible,

not

real

sure

to become

194

SYNTAX.

[326-329.
('who
should
%in

Cf.
qui

lU

envoyhrent
*

de$
who

d^ptUA
consulted

gut

ctmstdtcuierU

consult/ but
chemin
vous
une

consulthrent

*) Apollon.
a

Montrez-moi
un

qui

can-

duise
pas
vous

(but

le chemin

qui

conduit)
vous

N.

Pretez^moi
pas

liure dont

n*ayez

besoin
soyez

(but
hien

ce

livre dont

n*avtz
une

besoin).
ou

Choisissez

place

ou

(but Ne

quittez pas

place
c

vous

ites si

bien)"

[327.] Verbs
bj
be
be que

and
the

verb-phrases

of denial

and

doubt
with

or

uncertainty

lowed folto

and

subjunctive (those marked


or

asterisk
st,

requiring

used

negatively,

interrogatively,
the

with

conditional

in order

to

followed

by

*apprendr"f

*arr{ver

subjunctive): * (ilarrive), assurer,


"

^admettrCf *s*attendre

*affirmer,

s'apercevoir,

*avouer, (cf. also 325),

*comprendre
*

(always
d"sesp"rer,

when

find reasonable

'),*

concevoir

(always
croire,*

when

find reasonable

*),*connaitref contester,
*deviner,
pas

*conclure^ convenir,*
tell*:
or

declarer,

d^mentir, dissimuler

*dire

(*say,
with

cf. also

326),
douter,

disconvenir,
se

(but
*

ne

dissimuler

indie,

subj.),
*etre

douter,

*8*ensu{vre,
dangereux,
tre',
s^en

entendre

(cf. also

325), *

entendre
rare,

dire, *esp^er,
certain

etre

(in

il

est

douteux,

impossible, possible,
sur,

etc.),
; etc.)

(clair, d^mon-

Evident, probable,

vrai, vraisemblable,
s*en

*se

flatter, (beaucoup falloir


*gager, ignorer *oublier,

faut, peut
ignorer

s'en

pas

with

a.), indie), (y)imaginer, *juger, *jurer, nier,


se (J.I

/aut, tant

faut

cf. also

(but

ne

*parier^

*penser,
* *

pouvoir

peut,

il peut
*se

sefaire),*pr"dire,
rappeler,
*remarquer,

*pr"tendre

(cf.326),

pre'sumer,
reconnoitre,

pre'voir^ *promettre,

*r"pondre{cf.. 326),
but

*r"sulter

(il semUer r"sulte),*8avoir,


*soutenir,
se

(ilsemble,
*supposer,

*il

me

semble),

*sentir,
*trouver,

*soupgonner,
*

souvenir,

tenir
'

(il tient a),


que,

voir. phrases
non

Conjunctive
que,
non

followed

by

the

subjunctive

"

ce

n*

est pas

loin

pas

que,

que.

B.

Subjunctive
verb-phrases

op

Emotion

(323. B)
followed
by

[328.]
:
"

Verbs

and

of emotion

que

and

the

subjunct

admirer,
"

approuver, s'aflliger,
etre

avoir honte

b (regret),ldmer,
charm^, choqu^,

d"plorer,
curieux,

s'enrager,

s'"tonner; "tonn^,

afflig"(dommage, chagrin^,
Grange,

enchante'y indign^, surpris,

Aonnant,

fachi, Jacheux, flatt", heureux,


piti", mort\fi^,
une

honteux,

jaJoux,
au

malheureux, dans

m^content,

regrettaJble, surprenant,

d"sespoir,
se

l*"tonnement, plaire

honte,

un

malheur,
se

etc.);

"

se

/acker,

g"mir,

s'indigner,
trouver

plaindre,
bon

(ilplait),regretter,
a

r"jouir,ripugner

(ilre'pugne),
C.

((Grange), voir
of

regret.

Subjunctive

Mental
a

Beservb

(323. B)
followed le

[329.]
pronoun

Words
or

of

an

excessive the

or

sweeping
"

sense

by

relative

particle

and

subjunctive;

le dernier,

premier,

le seul,

a2d-sai.]
Vunique, complement, and

VERBS.

196

auperlativeB
such and
as

negatitves
aucun,

(ne
personne,

alone,

or

especially

with peu

pas,

point,

nvl, que,

rien

; etc.)

de

(with

noun);

in questions

of appeal,
b

cf. 378. denoting


que,
encore

[330.] Conjunctions
followed
que,

and

pronominal
:
"

phrases

concession,
que,
en

etc.,

by

the
non

subjunctive

bien
ou

que,

combien

de'pit
que,
.

malgr"que,
.
.

(pbstant)ue, q
que,

que, pour
.

que, que
. . .

(= quoique),quel
que,
sans

quel
qui
que,

que, quelque
ce

quelque

que,

quelque
que,

qui, qui quoi qui,

qui

que,
,
.

que
tant

soit +
.
.

relat., qui
.
. .

que,

quoi

quoique,
part,

que,
a

si

que, tout

que

(for
that

the

most

however,

denoting

fact

and

followed

by

the be

indicative).
noted
so

21^^
the

It should

the

above

classification
some

of words
may

requiring
not

subjunctive
uses

is not

absolute,

but

that

ot

them

in

feren dif-

be

referred

to

different

classes.

331.

Infinitive
that
or

for

Subjunctive.
the

"

It is of

importance
clause
or

to

observe

when

subject

of

the the the

dependent

is actually

impliedly

identical leading

with

subject

object

(director
the
sense

with

d)

of the
cases

clause,

infinitive

is usually

preferred

(in some
is not

required) to
obscured. in this

the

subjunctive,provided
student
can

thereby guided,
be
an

The

often,

but
an
:

not

always,

be

respect,
"

by

testing

whether
cases are

infinitive
a.

would

allowed infinitive
necessity,
cheval,

in English.
would and be

Special

Grcnerally

preferred
"

after

verbs

or

phrases disire
crains
ifer

of willing,

feeling.

Ex. I had
a

Je

aifoir
de
lui,
ne

un

I wish

(to have)
I

horse. him
at

Je

pas

le trou-

fear

shall

not

find

chez

home.
ce

Jl

faut

le fat re

soir.

It

must

be

done

this

evening it ;

(ifit
de
s'en

is clear

who

is to do

otherwise

subj.).
to

DiteS'leur
suis

alien.
d4gu, quHl

Tell
1
am

them very
or

be

gone.
to be

Je

bienfdchid^dtre
"

sorry
II lui

deceived* 'He

Note.
come

We
'

say

II

faut
II

vienne
mon

faut venir
'

must

; but

only

faut

que

fr^re vienne
are

My

brother
when

must

come.'
a

That
pronoun,

is, two

constructions

allowed
a

the

subject is

but

only

one

when

it is

noun.

196

SYNTAX.

[331-334.
de

b. Instead
avant sorte

of

afinque,
a

pour

que,

manure

que,
de

en

sorte

que^ d,,
en

que

with
de
me

subjunctive, afin
with
an

de, pour,

mani^re used.
"

de,

avant

infinitive
I

is frequently
to to
save save

Ex. in

Je

consens

d
sauver.

perdre

afin

consent

destroy
her.

myself

de

la

order
se

// le fait pour Fei'Tnez la

sauver.

He
de

does

it to

himseK. before
inf.,
no

porte

avant

Close
out

the

door

you

go

sortir.

(always
being
the

uncertainty

implied).
before
you lose

Tuez

le

cJieval

avant

de

le

Kill

horse

perdre

(or subj.).
Special Cases
is regularly

him.

of

Subjunctive
followed
by

Usage.
indicative.
is sometimes

332.
imperfect
especially compound
verb

Si

*if'

Yet

the used,

subjunctive (simple or compound)


in rhetorical

style, instead after


"

of the

simple

or

(usually)
of de
eu

imperfect

si,

or

without

si, with

inversion

and

pronoun-subject.
je
vou^

Ex.

Sifeusse
Euf-il
vou/u

(or favais)
prendre d
cent
ce

Vargent,
Pierre

aurais

payL
pas

parti,
d'ici,

n^y

eUt

(338)

consenti,

Fui-il
mime.

lieues

firais
Note
it.'

le chercher.
also

Fui-U

la valeur

Dussh-je numrir,je leferai'Though

I should

die, I shall

do

333.

Que

followed
the
.

by

ne,

and
"

used Ex.

in the

sense

'

'

of

without/
qu*il
ne

unless/
perde

'until/

requires

subjunctive.

//

ne

joue jamais

sans

qu'il

perde)

334.
kind
govern

When

no

uncertainty
mind

or

mental

reservation

of

any

is present

in the

of the

speaker,

words

that

usually

the

subjunctive
versa,

require

the
are

indicative
commonly

(observing 323.
followed
by
the

B)

; and,

vice
may,
:

words

that
uses,

indicative

in special

be

followed

by

the

subjunctive.

Compare

334.]

VERBS.

197

Indicatite
86

Subjunctive
vous complains

plaint

de

ce

que

II

se

plaint

que

vous

Vayez
that

Vavez

tromp4.

He

trompL you have

He

complains him.

about
him.

your

ing deceiv-

deceived

PenseZ'VouB
m'esf

que

sa

tion protec-

PenseZ'Vous
me

que

sa

protection,

n^cessaire I need

Do

soii

n4cessai7'e f

Do

you

you

think

his protection do
est

think

I need

his protection?

! (= I certainly

not).
cow-

Si

vous

croyez pourquoi

quHl
ne

Si

vou^

croyez pourquoi pOiS 9

quHl
7ie

soii

cou-

pdbley

le punis-

pable^
vous

Vexaminez

sez-vouspasf

If you

believe

If

you \^hy
?
vous

think
do

he you

him do

guilty
you
not

(asyou do),why
punish
que
vous

may
not

be

guilty,

him

examine

him
que
raoi.

J^entends

voulez
that

tPentends

restiez
you

(327)
you
n

Tester.

hear

(325) avec
to

I expect
me.

wish

to

remain.
II

remain

with
que
que

suffit que tu Vas voulu une fois. It is sufficient


that
once.

suffit

vous

le
le croie.

disiez
For

(325)pour
me

je

you

have

wished

it

to

believe
say
pas

it, it is enough
it.

that
crois

you
crois

Je

ne

pas I do

que
not

Dieu

Je

ne

que

cet homme

est that

cruel,

believe

soft

(325)
that he

cruel.

I
man

do

not

God

is

cruel

(which
de
a

believe

this
may
de

is cruel

he
H

cannot

be).
telle

(though
vous

be).
telle
sorte

s'est

comport^
quHl
des

ComporteZ'Vous
que

mani^re

m4nt4
de

meriiiez
gens
a

(326)
Behave
as

Vestime

gens

bien.
a

Vestime

des

de

bien.

He
manner

has

behaved

in

such

in such deserve
the

manner

to

that he has deserved of honest


people.
ce

esteem

of honest

the esteem

people. J^y
resterai

J^y

restai

jusqu'd,
arnva.

que

jusqu'di,
guM.

ce

que

monp^e

I remained

je sois
remain

(326)
there

I shall I get

there until my

father

arrived.

until

well.

198

SYNTAX,

[355-3^7.
and
the

[335.]
after
Ex.
qu*on
qu'on

Exceptionally,
same

both

the
as

indicative
the
et
sense

subjunctive
one or

are

found
"

the

verb,
que
au

according

requires

the

other. criaient

Dis-lui
les menat

je

8ui8
combat;

empech^,

quHl

v/enne.
venger

Les la
mort

soldats de

quails voulaient

leur g"n^al;

les laiasat

faire ;
Tense
tense

qu*tls etaient

furieux.
Subordinate
Subjunctive.
in
a

Use

of

in

the

336.
usually is present
present

The

of

the

subjunctive
on

subordinate

clause
It

337) (cf.
or

depends

that

of if

the

principal

clause.

(simple or

the compound), future (simple or compound)

leading
; in

verb

is in the
cases

other

it

is

imperfect
As
to

(simple or compound).
the
choice
or

for

of

simple

or

compound
and the latter

tenses,

the time

former

are

used
to

express

present

future
verb.

time,

past

relatively

the

time

of the

principal

Examples

"

Je J'ai
Je

permets
per

quHl
mis

sorte.

I permit

him

to go

out.

quHl

sorte, sorte.

I have

allowed
permit

him
him

to go to

out.
out.

permettrai doute

quHl

I shall
I

go

Je

quHl

ait

fait

son

doubt
his

whether

he

has

done

devoir.

duty.
not

Je n^ai

point

dit

qu^il parle
que
vous.

I have

said

that

he

speaks
you.

(ait parl6) mieux


per
mis

(has spoken)
I permitted

better
to

than
out. to

Je

quHl

sort it.

him

go

J^avais

permis

quHl

sortH.

I had

permitted permit whether

him him you

go

out.
out.

Je permettrais Je

qu'il sorttt.
que
vous

I should
I doubted

to

go

doutai{s)
siez

Peus-

had

done

fait (le fissiez).


aurions

it
We

(would
should

do

it).
wished been
that settled

Nou^
qtie

souhaitS
ter-

have

affaire edit etS


d V amiable.
dis

the
in
a

matter

had
way.

minee Je

friendly

le lui ai

afin

qu^il

le

have he

told might
are

him know

about
it.

it, that

sache. [337.]
The
chief
exceptions
to

this

rule

those

determined

by

the

relation
to

of that

thought,

all formal Thus


:

rules

for

the

sequence

of

tenses

being

subject

principle.

^37,

338.]
In
in
some cases

VERBS.

19$

a.

(as especially
referred
to
to

in
the

those main

coming
and
the
"

under

330),

the

ence differmay

the the

time latter

by

subordinate

verb

require
Bten

Ij^eonstrued c
vaincu.

independently. Although

Ex.
is strong,

qu'il soit

fort ilfat

he

he

was

van*

quished.

Supposons
a

que

noire

Mstoire

fut

Let

us

suppose
to
not

that

our

history

were

composer,
n'en

yet
pas
un

be

composed.
one
me.

Je

connais servir.

qui

voulut

do

know
to
serve

who

would

be

me

willing

b.
to

The

present
a

subjunctive
truth, and

is used always

independently
after
"

of the
on

governing

verb
=

denote

general

on

dirait,

croirait

(both

il

semble')^ .ndje ne a
La
raison
nous

saurais

(^=je nepuis),
que
avec

Ex.
was

nous

fut

donntfe pour
nous

Reason
might

bestowed

on

us

that
with

we

puiasions

conduire

conduct

ourselves

wis-

sage"se.

dom.

dtait
qu*on
c.

une

des

plus
voir,

belles

fetes

It

was

one

of
can

the
see.

finest

festivities

puisse

that is
a

one

The

imperfect
when

conjunctive
to

commonly
preterit.
"

used
Ex.

after

compound

present,

this is equivalent

J*ai

mpech"

qu*il
avant

ne

sortit.

I prevented
1 paid
him

him

from
he

going

out.

Je Pax pay"
d.
tense

q uHl partH,

before
by
a

left.
the

When

the

subjunctive
is determined

clause by de

is followed

conditional
"

clause,

of its verb

that

of the

latter.

Ex.

Je

doute V argent.

qu'il jou"t

s*il avait

I doubt money.

if he

would

play,

if he

had

Jene

crois

pas

qu*tl

en

fut

venu

I do

not

believe
even

he had

would

have

suc-

hout^ quand

mimeje

Vaurais

aid".

ceeded,

I helped

him.

Exercise

XVII.

IL

Subjunctive
independent in
an

in

Independent the

Clauses.
is used
:

338.
A. that

In

clauses^

subjunctive
or

To the

denote,
act

imperative by
the
"

exclamatory
some
manner

way,

expressed

verb
some

is in

willed
such
as

desired, (i.e.
diairer

commanded, readily

etc.)

governing

word,

etc., being

supplied.

200

SYNTAX.

[338, 339.
to express

B.
a

Frequently,

instead conclusion.

of

compound

conditional,

hypothetical

Examples

A.

Vive
Ainai
Dieu

le roi !

Long

live the
may

king

soii'il I soit lou4 !


d

Thus

it be ! ! it
were so.

God
en

be

praised
to

Plui

Dieu

quHl

filt

Would

God

ainsi.

Puissiez'vous

rhissir,

May
Let

you him

QuHl

diss

la vMtL
tout

(be able to) succeed. (May he) tell the truth. (He must)
do what

QuHl parte
QuHl
fasse

de

suite.

Let

him

depart

medi im-

ce

QuHl ?'

lui

Let

him

he

likes.

plaira. B.

Qui
II

Veui
eut

(Vaurait)cnu
vovlu
suivre

?
les

Who
He

would would
the

have

believed

it ?

fain

have

frequented

thidtres, J'eusse
81

theatres.

adouci

voire

sort^
connu

I would your

(might) have
lot, had I

lightened
your

feusse
mis^re,

(332)

known

voire

misery.
prendre Even

EUt-il
ce

(332) voulu
parti,

if he
this have

had

been

willing
would

to

Pierre

n'y

edf

take
not

step,

Peter

pas
NoTB used
to

consenfi.
1.
"

consented.
que

The
the

independent
imperative
;

subjunctive
for the
*

with

is
*

thus let him

habitually
'

supply

3d

persons
come

(Engl.
'

etc.

; cf

example Note

6 etc.
2.
"

above The
*

Qu'ilvienne
(do

let him

:
*

etc.).
Who
which
shown
comes

sentiners
Who
you

challenge

Qui
may

vive

there
are

? ?

'

originally
the

meant

wish)
is
no

live ?
felt,

On
as

'

side
by

you
answer

But
*

force

of

the

expression

longer

the

ami*

339.
know
ne

To

soften
be

an

assertion, negatively,
*

^^the
in

subjunctive
the

form
or

sache
after

(of
que.
ne
"

savoir
Ex.

') may
sache
que

used

first person,
more

Je

rien de plus beau

I know quod

nothing

beautiful.'

//
so

viendra
far
as

pas

je

sache

(cf. Lat.

sciam) "He

will

not

come

339-341.]

VEBBS.

201

know/
'

Etait-elle

jdte,

que

vous

sachiez

Do

you

know

whether

she

was

prfetty ?

Exercise

XVIII.

The

Infinitive.

[340.
and

HISTORY.
gerund both.
or

"

The

French
the

infinitive,
Latin

replaced

the

Latin

tive infini-

Unlike
*

infinitive,

it is frequently

construed or

with direct
use

de
:

(the

infinitive
est

sign
=

'),even

when

used

as

subject

object
de
the

cf. Lat.
to

Turpe fact
"

mentin
in

Yt. II est honteux times upon


'

de

mentir.
"

The
as

of

is due

the

that
was

early

the
as

subject-infinitive
the lying
'

also
or

often

subject-noun
predicative

looked

expressing is

source
:

origin

of the
est

statement

(e.g.
good

Shame
:

from

so

also
this
sign,

Bonne de
even

chose

de paix

Peace
came

is
to

thing'
as
a

Joinville).
neutral
a,

Gradually
infinitive
to
are

losing
where
or

its significance
not

be

used

mere

logically
came

explainable.
to

So
neutral

also

at

first used

denote
now

aim
more

purpose,

be
no

mere

sign.

De

and

far

frequently The infinitive of


other
with the
turn
a

used
was

than
once

preposition. much
more

used
the

freely

than

now.

Even

in the
where

writers
some

17th

century,

infinitive
now

is frequently
be

found
; and

used

of expression
that

would would

required
be

it is often E.g.

construed

preposition
a

not

now

allowed.

Ma

gu^son Dieu

depend
nous

de parler
cet

Mdite
a

(Corneille).
nous

Jusqu'a
=

avoir

parle'

(Sevigne).

donne

exemple

(^ fortifier

pour

quHl

nous

: fortified Moliere.]

341.
noun

The

Infinitive
the

is in rrench,
action of the

as

in

English,

verbal

representing
or

verb

without

designating

person

time. importance,
however,
to

It is of

remember be

that

the

French

infinitive

infinitive
noun

in (e.g.aimer) may (^love'),or proper

English

rendered

by

the

by

the

gernnd
any

(=

participial
not

in
to

-ing),
*to.'
"

by

the
II

latter
aime

chiefly
d

after

preposition loves from


to

equal

Ex.

parler *He

^He

talk

(or

talking).'
Note
be
1.
"

II s^abstient
As
into

de parler
below,
English
uses

abstains

talking.*
cannot

will

be

seen

the by
an
"

French English

infinitive

always

translated
Note
2.
"

idiomatic
never

infinitive.
etc.
as
a

French
en

parlant

speaking'

verbal

noun,

except

after

(370).

202

SYNTAX.

[341-34S.
be
the

Like

any

other
or

noun,

the

infinitive

may

subject,
a

predicate
Unlike
or

noun,
nouns,
'

object (direct or
it is often
'
=

prepositional)of
preceded
*

verb.
de

however,

by
.

neutral
a

(the
or

infinitive-sign
"

English
vous

to,' cf

340) as
'

tive nominato

accusative.

Ex.

C'est d
to

de parler

It is for you
a

speak'
loves

' (i.e.speaking talking (or to


' '

belongs
talk

you').

II aime

parler

'He

').
Alone
alone,
or
or

342.
The

The

Infinitive
may

With
be

Preposition."
by
or

infinitive

stand

governed
entre,

one

of
a

the

prepositions

de,

a,

par,

pouPj
in de

sans,
or
a

apres,

by

preposition

phrase
The

ending

de, (avant de, d,fo7'ce etc.).

main
are

principles
pointed detailed
out

determining below.

the

construction of
to

of

the

infinitive

Instead

expanding

these
practical
more
or

principles

by

rules

(too intricate
reference-lists

be
of
or

of

real

value), alphabetical
verbs
cases

all the
with
de

common

requiring offer any

the

infinitive

alone

(the

that

serious

are difficulties)

added

under

each

general

rule.

343.

Infinitive
;

Alone.

"

The

infinitive

is used

without

preposition
a.

As

subject (except,usually,
and, often, when
c'est,

when

by
ce,

inversion
or

it follows

the

verb,

repeated

by

; cela)

as

predicate-

nominative
est

after
une

semblery

parattre.

"

Ex.

Medire

infamie.

To

calumniate is shameful.

(calumniation)
to

Prometire

et

ienir

sont

deux.

To

promise different

and things.

keep

are

Ifetre
n'dfra
Te

bon

qu^a

soi

c'est

To

be

good

to nobody

but

one's

hon

rien.

self is to be good
To
f
see

for

nothing.
thee.

"oir c^est f aimer.


quoi

thee

is to love
of it?
to love

bon

en

parler aimer. Vawoir

Why
He

speak
seems

II aembU
me

vous

you.
it

II

sernbU

vu,

Methinks

saw

(him).

343,

344.]

VERBS.

203

b. As causation
and

object (director
or

prepositional)
of

after

most

verbs

of

duty,
Ex.

or

thinking,

willing,

speaking,

motion.

"

Jeferai btiir
Je
dois parti homme
r

une

maison, soir.

I shall

cause

house

to be built.

ce

I
doit

am man

to

set

out

this

evening.
keep

Uh

d'honneur parole,

of

honor

should

ienir
Je

sa

his
I

word.

croyais

(youlais, d^sirais,

thought hoped, him


a

(wished,
etc.)
service. I did

desired,

espirais,
un

etc.)

lui

rendre

(to do)

service,

affirme (assure, pr4tendy confessejetc.)Vavoir


vu,
"

He

asserts

(protests, pretends,
that etc.)

admits,
I hasten

he has this

seenit.
news.

Je

cours

lui

apprendre

cette

to tell him

nouvelle.

Venez

nous

voir

ce

soir.

Come

to

see

us

this

evening.

[344.]

Kbference-list

of yerbs

taking

the

direct

infinitive

1 "

Also,

though

rarely,

with

de.

fjg when

construed
term

with

datire.

Direct

inflnit, in first, and

infinit. with

de in second

(cf.348).

204

SYNTAX.

[345, 346.
of
appeal, where
"

[346.] In

exclamations
the

and

questions

the Ex.

governing
Moi,
vous

yerh

is understood,

infinitiye

is also

used

directly.
f

payer I
Note.

Pourquoi
"

toujours par/er
also
to

d'un

pareil

scil"at

Quel parti prendre

Observe
'Applj

these the

elliptical

infinitives
3

of direction: 'See
page

S'adresaer
3.'

au

concierge

porter.'

Ifoir page

Saroir

namelj,

viz.*

346.
a.

Infinitive
as

with

de.

"

The

infinitive
as

with

de

is used:

Generally
after
a

inverted

snbject or
il vaut

predicate-nominative^
impersonals
il

except

few

verb-expressions
semble^

[the
direct

faut,
c'es^,

il

il fait (beau etc.),

(mieux^ autant); and


infinitive.
after

aembler^

b. As

a which require paraXtre], object (direct or prepositional)usually

verbs
means

logically
concern

implying

or

separation*('from, of) or a ('with,by, about, to'); and some others.


a

Examples
a.

he

plus

grand

art

est

de

The

greatest

art

is to

conceal

cacher
(Test A
n
me
vous

Vart,

art.

de parler, d^obliger
un

It is for you
ami.

to to

speak.
oblige
a

plait
premier

It pleases His first

me

friend.

Son
est

commandement

commandment

is

to

d^ aimer

Dieu.

love

Grod.

(but)
II

faut venir.

It is necessary

to

come.

b.

Je
Ne

vous

conseille

de pariir,
longtemps

I advise
Do
not

you

to

set

out.

diffSrez pas
de parti
r.

plus

delay

any

longer

your

departure.
soin

6vite

avec

de

me

ren-

He
me.

avoids

carefully

to

meet

contrer.

II s^abstient

de

boire.
au

He He

abstains commands

from
the

drinking.
sun

II commande
mer

soleil d^ani-

to

give

la nature,

life to nature.
venu.

Je

me

rijouis d'dtre
de
vous

am am

glad afraid

that
to

came.

Je

crains

dbplaire.

displease

you.

206

SYNTAX.

[348-350.
is always
by

[348.]

After

comparatire,

'than'

rendered

que

de.

"

Ex.

II aime

mieux
autant

perir que de
rester

se

pfaindre.
que

He

would

rather
as

die than
to

complain. here
as

J*aime

id

de

I like
go

just
out.

much

stay

to

BOrtir.

[349.]
used

Historical

Infinitive.

"

The

French

infinitive

with

de

is sometimes
in

(like the
"

Latin Ex.

historical dit

instead infinitiye)

of the

indicative

lively

narration.

Ainsi

le

renard,

et

flatteursd^applaudir

(La

Fontaine). 360.
a.

Infinitive direct
no

with

a.

"

The
,

infinitive
aimer

with

A is used
aimeraiSy

As

object

after

avoir

(yet, after
trouver,

the

cond.,

preposition),
"

hair^

chercher^

appr4hendery

enseigner^
V0U8

montrer,

Ex.

JTai A

parler.

have you

something about.

to

speak

to

aime

(H hait) a
matin.
a

se

lever

de

He

likes
early.

(dislikes)

to

rise

bon

II cherche

m^eviter.

He
a

tries to avoid

me.

Jl

m^enseigne

(me

montre)

He

teaches

me

drawing.

dessiner.
b. As

indirect

object usually
in, in reference
son

after
to

verbs

implying
some

direction
others.
"

towards II
s^

(*to,at,
a

^), and

Ex.

applique
m'a

faire
a

devoir.
une

He

tries to do have

his

duty.
to

On

invito

faire

been

invited

take

promenade,

walk.
se

aspire

faire

un

nom, a

He

is ambitious
your

to make

name.

Habituez Dieu,
Notre

vos

enfants

prier

Accustom
to

children

to pray-

God.
happiness
to

bonheur

consiste

vivrq

Our

consists
nature.

in living

suivant

la nature,
a a
a

according She There She takes is


no

EUe

f^
a

platt
pas

iravailler,

pleasure
room

in working.
for hesitation.

II vHy

h^siter.
lire^

EUe

^amuse

diverts

herself

by reading.

[362.] After
where in English
"

etre

the

active

infinitive with

is in French
participle
must

often

used

the

passive
est
a

infinitive
*

Lat.

in

is re-dus) quir again

Ex.

Ge theme

refaire

This

theme

be done

is (i.e.
to

for

be saved

II deux cents correcting).' restait a sauver It remained to (not save) 200 men.'

hommes

'There

remained

363.
Same

Infinitive Verbs.
"

Alone
some

or

With
the

de

or

ft after

the

After

verbs

infimtive

is used

variously

preposition or with de or d, according to certain distinctions, or in part optionally, as described below. ^without

208

SYNTAX.

[36a
de
mind'
*

commencer,

continueTf
de,
*

contraindre
make

optionally
up
*

or

a.

ddcider:

intr.

'decide,

one's

(tPai d^cid^
*

de

parttr);
d

-^

h,

tr.

cause
*

to decide,

i.e. induce

; refl.

decide
*

(Je

Vat
'

d"cid"
te

partir)

d^fier:
au

de,

defy

'

(Je
'

le d"jie d'y

oiler);

"

d,

challenge

(Je
*

d"ftea jouer

Hilar
:

d).
de,
*

demander
observe

ask

somebody
*
'

else
one's

{Je
self

demande

d'observer
a

I ask
*

that

one

');

"

d,
to

ask

for

(Je demande

observer

I ask

the

permission

remark').
d like decider,
'say,
assert';

determiner
dire:
no

de

or

preposition,
vu.

with

de 'tell, order.'
s*en

"

Ex.
He

// dit Vavoir
seen

He

says

he has

II lui dit de
him
to

aller.

tells

(told)

it. 8*ennuyer,
takes
a.

go

away.

8*empresser,
etre
or

essay But

er

de

or

er (essay

us'ly
a

de).
infinitire
requires

usually in the

c'est
'

followed
to to

by
or

predicate

(346. a)
de.
"

expression
a

c'est
*

it belongs

is the

office of

Ex.

G'est

lui de

venir

It is for him
miss,
come

come.'

faillir: no

^rep. (de, it),'just


by
has

very
'

near';
'

forcer Jinir,
11

de, d.

jurer 'attest
swears

oath,'
seen

no

preposition; II

(/e, promise
'He

Jure

Payoir
it.*
'

vu

'He

he
:

it.'
'

Jure
cause

de U fat re
'

swears

to do

laisser

no

preposition, with
a,

let,
"

"

de, in negative

clauses

leave

off,

cease*;

'leave.'

Ex.

II

me
ne

/alsse partir.
laisse pas
laisse
a

He
se

lets
does

me

depart.
cease

// //

de

plaindre.

He He

not
me

complaining.
think
about it. 'He
came

me

y penser.

leaves
'

to

manquer:
near
ses

de, 'fail, omit';


falling

'all
omit,
=

but

do
'

(II a
Cf
.

manqu"de

tomber
manqu"

');
"

"

d,

fail in
manquer

(one's duty) (// a


faillir,bove. a
busy*

li remplir

devoirs);
or

no

prep.

de.

dbliger: de
s'occuper:

d.
busy
to
'

de, 'be de,


no
'

'

physically
;
*
"

"

ft, 'be
how
A,
*

mentally,

'think

of.'

ouhlier
penser

:
:

forget

d,

'

forget
'

to.'

preposition
:
'

intend
'

; with

think.'
'

prendre
*

garde
care

de,

(de faire)
to

take

care

(not to do)
tr.;

"

rf

(a

ne

pasfaire)

take

(not
'

do).
intr.;
"

r^soudre:

(/e, 'resolve' de, 'try de, il


no
me

d, 'induce,*
'try;
'

determine,

refl.

tdcher:

generally

;"",
*

purpose.*
a,
'

tarder:

tarde

de

I long
'come

"

delay.'
or
'come
'

venip:

preposition
sense
a

and/

to
come

in

order
=

to'

(in this

also with

pour) ;
venir

"

just (done

thing)

'

"

'

venir de happen.'

from

have

"

Ex.

36S-360.]
B le dire.

VERBS.

209

vint
viens viens

me

He

came
come

and
to

told
to

me

about

it.

Je Je

(pour) lui
de
h mourir.
a

parler,

speak

him.
to

lui parler.

I have
If he

just spoken
should happen
with

him.
to

S^U
Observe

venait
also but

die.
tive, transi-

few
a

verbs when

(ctccorder, offrir, etc.) used


reflexive
:

de when

with

347,

351.

364.

Par
and

with

the

infinitive

rarely

occurs

after

verbs
"

of

beginning
n

ending
par

(chieflycommencer,
nous

continuer,

finir),
us.'

Ex.

comment

injurier ' He
before
of of
'

began

by

insulting

366.
*

Pour

is

common
'

an
'

infinitive
assez,

in

the

sense
now

of

for,

(in order) to
rarely in the
me

; also
sense

to

after
=

trop, etc. ; and

more

for

because
is here

of.'

"

Ex.
to to
see me.

est id
est

pour

voir.

He
vous

in order candid

trop

franc

pour

He

is
you.

too

deceive

tromper. H
est puni

pour

avoir

menti.

He

is punished

for

having

lied.

356.

Sans

is

common

with

an

infinitive

// parte

sans

penser,

357.
by

Apres
apres

is used

only the

before

the
"

compound
Ex.

infinitive
*

(being

supplied

de

before

simple).

Aprhs

avoir

Jini after

having

finished.'

358.
and

Entre

is

rare

//

balance

entre

alter

et

rester

He

wavers

between

going

staying.*

369.

After is used

en

not

the

infinitive,
as

but

the

gerundial

participle

(in

in French,

in English

-ant)

(367).
after

360.
by
de hair
'

The
an

inverted expletive
a

subject infinitive Ex. que (266).


"

c^est is often
un

preceded

C^est
un

tourment

que que
gens

It is
^

torment

to

hate.'

O'est

besoin
se

de

Vdme
des

W aimer

It is the

soul's
^

need

to- love.'

C^est

moquer

(que)

de parler

ainsi

To

speak

thus

is to ridicule

people.'

210

SYNTAX.

[361,362.
and
nouns
*

361.

Infinitive
of
a
noun

after

Nouns
with

Adjectives.
and
the

"

The

construction like that


'

the
:

infinitive
e.g.
*

adjectives
desire

is

of

le (Usir

de parler
to

of speaking

; ^tre prU

parler

be

ready

speak certain

(forspeaking)/ etc.
require
sentence,

It

must

be

observed

only

that
ease
or

adjectives (facUe,
de
in

difficile, utile, etc.) denoting


when

adaptiveness
of

the
case

infinitive they but


de.
are

is the

logical
by
a.
"

subject

the

which
semhle,

preceded

an

impersonal
:

verb

(U

est,

it

; etc.)

otherwise

Examples

a.

est

de diffixiile rSsoudre
'

ce

Ce probUme
dre.
to

est

a difficile r^sou-

probl^me.

It is diflB.cult to

This

problem

is

hard

solve
II
est

this
bon

problem.

solve.
bon
to
a

de

savoir

se

taire.

C^est
well
II

savoir.

That

is

It is well to know

to be silent.

know.
une

VoUd,

une

Amotion

quHl

serait

iprouva
A exprimer.

emotion

diffici

d^exprimer. diffidle
is
an

There

He

experienced
to

emotion

it would

be

an

emotion

difficult

expres

difficult to

express.

362.

frequent

use

of

the
as

infinitive deviating verbs the


of

is

characteristic English

of

French

writing.

Especially,
its
use

from

usage,

should

be observed
after

after

believing,

declaring,

etc., and

imperatives, with the

when

clause

is identical

of

the

leading
she
that

clause

subject or (331). Ex. Elle


"

subject of the dependent object (director with A)


'

croit

etre

aimie
bien

She
'He
de

believes

is loved.'

assure

la

connaiire
Je
lui

fort

insists

he
'

knows I pardon

her
him take

very

well.'

pardonne
me.'

m'avoiP

oublii

for having them

forgotten

Venez

les prendre

I 'Come

and

I ' etc. of. 331.

EXBBCIBB

XIX.

B63-3650

VERBS.

211

Participles.

[363.
the

HISTORY.
Latin
as

The

Present

Participle

in French

usually
; but

comes

from

present

participle

{aimant
it
answers

from
to

amant-em)
the often
Latin

in

some

instances, -ndo

especially
aimant
=

after
in
"

en,

ablative
a

gerund
or

in

(en
in

amando),
The the

and

is
was,

then

called
enough,

gerund left
as a

gerundial

participle. French,
but

gerund

naturally
whether in

unin-

flected
a

real

participle, inflected,

construed
number

verb

or

qualifying century
also

adjective,was
in

agreeing

(during
prevailing

the
yet

16th

gender)
allowed
.

with such

its

noun.

This

principle,
as

in

the

17th

century, petits
the

constructions

Cent
But

fois
in

suppliants
the
same

(Racine)

; Les

voletants

(La Fontaine),
the its yet
etc.

etc.

century

was

fixed
as

present
to

rule, requiring with


are
noun

participle when
in
a

to be
as an

unlnflected

when

used

such,

but

agree

used few

adjective.
like

Traces

of

the

old

construction

found

expressions

les

allants
The

et venants;

les ayants
is really
or

droit;
an

Past

Participle its

an

adjective
the

subject
being made

adjunct of object (notice *I

the
have

predicate

qualifying
the book'
in
=

as

bought
it
was

*I

possess

book, always

bought':
to

etc.).
in

As

such and

once

French, the

as

in Latin,

agree

gender

number
nature

with
was

word

qualified. after

Gradually,
some

however,

the
usage,

feeling

of its real

dimmed
classical

and

discordant

characteristic

even

of
to

the
were

period

of the

language

(17th cent.),the

rules

now

adhered

fixed.]

364-

The

French
in

Participles
part
remain

are

in

part

inflected
rules

like

and adjectives, given

invariable.

Special

are

below.

365.

Present
as
or

Participle.

"

The
simply

present
qualifies

participle
a
noun

is

treated

an

adjective
denote
AS

when but
or

it
as an

expres

understood;
to

invariable
"

verb-form

when

it is used

action
Adj.

condition.

Ex.
as

UsBD

Used

Fartic.
caressant
seen
ses

Les

nitres

caressantes

gdtent

J'ai

vu

cette

rn^re

leurs

enfants.

Caressing

enfants,
mother A

have

this

mothers

spoil their children.


mourante,

caressing
mourant

her children.
de

Une

femme
woman.

Une
A

femme
woman

faim.

dying

dying

of hunger.

212

SYNTAX.

[365-368.
Ces hommes,
ont
su

Ces

hommes le

pr4voyants
danger.
men

ont

su

pr4voyant V4viter. the

le danger,

^viter

Those how
to

These

men,

prudent
avoid
NoTB

knew

foreseeing how
to

danger, it.

knew

the
1.
"

danger.
Sometimes
should
usage

avoid
can

and

good
as

taste
a

alone

decide
or

whether
not.

the

present

participle

he

considered like

pure
*

adjective

[366.]

Several
are

adjectives,
hj
origin

charmant participles.

charming/
Sometimes
exist
at

inttfressant
such

interesting

etc.,

present
more

adjectives,
side
*

usually

preserving differently
*

the

original participial
*

spelling, forms.
'

the

of

the
'

somewhat

spelled
;

E.g.
*

different
fatiguing
:
'

different
'

diff^ant
negligent

differing
'

'

fatigant
*

tiresome
'

fatiguant
*

; negligent
*

ne'gligeant

neglecting

; v(icant

vacant

vaquant

vacating.'

[367.]

Present
:

Participle
participle with
or

with

en.

"

The
to

present
an

(i.e. gerundial
gerundial 'while, pMt
en

363)

with 4n'

en

corresponds

English

participle although,'
phir

expressing
"

ousness, contemporane-

'by.'
He

Ex.

voyant

ses

perished
hopes

(in)
war

seeing

his

"sp4rances,
d

perish.
to

Forc4

faire

la

guerre il la

en

Driven

make

while
peace,

(al
he

d^sirant

la paix,

fit.

though)
made
it.

desiring

On

hasarde

en

voiUant

trop

One
too

risks
much.
used:

by

wishing

to

gain

gagner.
NoTB
act

1.

"

For

emphasis

tout speaking.'

en

is often

tout

en

pariant

in the

very

(^oreven
2. the
"

while)
the
was

Note of
met

The

suhject of the
of
I
sentence
to

participle
; Cf

with

en

must
en

be

the

same
a

as

that

verb
while
him

Je
.

le rencontrai
but

allant

V"gli8e
a

*1

him *I
met

going

church';
way
can

Je

le rencontrai
"

allant
tions devia-

V"glise

going

(=
no

on

his

to)

church.'
are

Occasional
with.

from

this

rule, where

mistake

result,

met

368.

Past
the

Participle'.
treatment

"

The

general past

principle
now

which

has

determined

of

the

participle number

adhered the- word and


as

to, is that

it should

agree

in gender word

and

with

it determines,

provided

that

is already

mentioned,

368.]
in

VERBS.

213

sucli present

the

mind
is
:

of the

speaker.

"

Hence

the

slightly

modified
a.

rule,

which

Without
qualified
With
the
dtre

auxiliary
:

the

past

participle

agrees

with

the

noim

e.g.

Uhe

fille aim4e.
and
neuter

b. with
a

in

passive

construction,
est

it agrees
also

preceding

subject:

e.g. Elle

aim4e

; and

with

following

invariable
c.

subject,unless (cf.ex. below).


avoir,
or

the

verb

is impersonal,

when

it is

With
a

6fre

in

refiexive

constructions, uninflected

it agrees when
no

with such
sont

preceding

direct

object (being
Vai aim4e
cette

object precedes):
aim4s.

e.g. Je

{V
lis

for
se

la).

Us

se

But

J^ai

aim4

fille.

sont

bkss^

la

main

(se

dat.).
Farther
a.

examples
auxiliary:

Without

Ma

m^re

aim^e.

My

beloved

mother. granted
never

Les

recompenses
ne

accord4es
doivent
de

au

Rewards

to

merit

m"rite
Hre

jamais

should
of

be

the

prize

le prix

Vintrigue.
b.
With etre

intrigue.
: reflexives)

(except

in

Cette nouvelle
ville

4te regue.

This The

news

is received.
was

La

fut

prise.
aimes

city
are

taken. by
our

Notts

sommes

de

nos

We

loved

parents.

parents.

De

grands

malheurs
II
est

sont

ar-

Great
pened.

misfortunes

have

hap-

riv^
grands

(but

arriv^

de

Que

Mnie

malheurs). (though subj.


soit la main qui

folmla

Blessed

be
me

the

hand

that

has

lows)
sauvL

saved

(m.).

c.

With

avoir

(or "fre

in

(Partic.inflected):
Vai
seen

: reflexives) (Partic.uninflected) :

Je

vue

her

(or vu). (or him).

have

Avez-vous
you
seen

vu

ma

m^re.

Have
?

my

mother

214

SYllTAX.

36d. t:368,

La

lettre letter

que

fat

lue.

The

J*ai

lu cette

lettre.

I have

read

which

I have

read. Rentes. he
has H

this
a

letter. tragHies,

Les
The

tragedies

quHl

4crit des

He

has

tragedies

which

written

tragedies.

written.

Les
se

fruits
sorit

que

nous

avons

eus

Nous
cette

avons

eu

heaucoup

de

fruit
had

gdt4s.

The

fruits spoiled.
qu^on
a

ann^e.

We
fruit

have year.

we

had

have
des

been
choses

plenty

of

this
ces

On

fait
crues

On

cru

longtemps

choses-ld,

longtemps

impossibles.

impossibles.

Those

things

Things

long
are

considered done
vous

possible im-

have

long

been

thought

imposs

to-day.
a-t-on

Quelle
faite
one

rSponse
f

Quelle nuit
night

a-t-on

dans4f
dance

What
f

What
you?

answer

has

did

they

(no

given

object).
Cic4ron.
that

La

langue

qu^aparUe

L^affaire
lis ont

dont

(not
spoke.

direct

obj.)
of

The spoke.

language

Cicero

parlL
they

The

affair

which

Elle

s^est

(seace.)lavSe.
herself.

She

Elle

s*est

(se dat.)Iav4
She
has

les mains

has

washed

(ace).
hands.
de
repented

washed

her

Elle
ses

s^est

(se ace.)repentie has She fautes.


of

Elle

s'est

(se dat.)

rappeU

ces

fails (ace). She


these
facts.
lis

remembered

her

faults.

Us
la

se

(ace.)sont
ville.

empar^
have

de

se

(dat.) sont
avantages.

arrogS

de

They

taken selves them-

grands

They

have

possession

(made

arrogated
great

for

themselves

L^amitiS
se

masters) of the city. (que ace.) qu'elles


t4moign4e. The

advantages.

Elles

se

(dat.)sont
amitii.

t4moign4

une

sont

grande

They
other

have
great

friendship

they

have

shown

shown

each

each

other.
Attendu,
a
noun

friendship.
excepts,
pass"y

[369.]
before

suppose,

vu,

(or non)

compris

are

able invari-

(cf.219. 4).

370,371.]
[370.]
When
after
an

VERBS.

215

adverb
agrees

of quantity
with
the
sauv^s
noun
*

no

noun

is

expressed,
"

the

past Beau'

participle
se

nevertheless

that

is understood.

coup

sont

enfuis,mais
In

pen

se

sont

Many

fled, but

few

were

saved.*

[371.]
avoir

accordance
itre

with

the

main

rule,

the

past

participle
there need

with
no

(or

in

reflexives) object.
:

is invariable

whenever distinctions

is

preceding

direct

The

following

be

specially
a.

observed
'

Que
it,

that

referring
are

to time

or

measure,

or

to

the

pronominal
que
a

particle

en

'of

some'

not
"

direct
two

objects.
hours he
has

"

Les

deux
slept.*
me

heures

(^
=

pendant

lesquelles) ai f
a

dormi
He

The

I have
given

//

des

Jleurs,et

ii

nCen b.

dimn" If
a

has

flowers, pronoun

and

some.'

preceding
the

is the

participle,
:

latter

is invariable

object of an (its real object

infinitive being
the

following

the
"

infinitive).

Compare
a.

preced'g

pronoun

object
"us
enseve-

b.

infinitive

object
vu

Les

soldats

que

fai
I

Les

soldats

que

fai

enseveHr.
I have

lir leur

camarade.

The

solseen

The
seen

soldiers
buried I have
que

whom

diers burying

whom their

have

the (lit,

burying

comrade.

whom
La

seen).
fai
song

La

JUle
chanter.

que
The

fai
girl

enteiidue
I

chanson

entendu
I have

have

chanter.
heard
sung.

The

heard

singing.
vue

Je

Pai
leaux,

peindre

ces

tab-

Ces

tableaux

je

les ai
seen

vu

peinpic-

I these
ai

have

seen

her

dre,
tures

have

these

paint

pictures.
partir,

painted.
sont

Je

les

/aissSs
go.

Us

se

fa/'sse

surprendre,
to

let them

They be

allowed

themselves

surprised.
invariable,
I let them
go

Note

1.
one

"

Fait

before
"

an

infinitive

is always
*

the

two

together

forming Note

causative.
"

Je
duj

les

aifait
voulu

soriir
an

out.'

2.
"

When

after

pu,

infinitive

is understood,
que
nous avons

they

are

invariable.

Nous
*

lui

avons

donn"
him

tous

les
help

secours

pu

(viz

lui

donner)
Note 3.

We As

have
"t"

given
can

all the

we

could.'
^

"

be

preceded

only

by

avoir

it is always

invariable.

Exercise

XX.

216

SYNTAX.

[372,373.

XVII.

DTDEOLINABLES.

A.

Negations.

[372.
has

H ISTORYi

"

Latin
non

noriy

which

in popular
"

usage

often
ne

supplanted
used

ne,

in French though
a

become

or

ne

(older nen)
Latin,
to

French

is always

with

Terbs,

rarely
by
.

alone. adding
a

like

other

languages, particle
a

frequently

emphasized

negation
. .

the

negative instead
'not

word

of

compariso was

(e.g.non
also
*
f

giitta 'not and


'

drop/

of simply
move

done

in French,
not
"

expressions

like

non). step* (pas

This
=

Lat.

possum)

see

point

( potW

Lat.

punctum)
by
"

becoming other

stereotype,

pas
guere
came

and

point

unless,
'

indeed,

supplanted rien^ etc.

some

word though

such

as

much,*

goutte

drop,'

personne,

gradually,

slowly,

to

be

the
not
=

regular
*

complement
'

of

ne

in

purely
=

negative

expressions
even as

(cf.

Engl,

nd
a

wiht

not

whit value,
than

; (xerm.

nicht
now

ni

wiht)

They
.

assumed,
negative

themselves, with

negative other

being
verbs

often
the

used
century
usage,
once

alone also

particles

words

(in

17th

with

verbs,
distinction).

especially The
is

when
use now

interrogative,

and
as a

yet,

in popular negative,
cases

without

of

ne

alone
to
ne now

full

common

in the

17th

century,

confined hand,
doubt,

few

definite

described
in

below

(376 etc.)
as

On

the

other

enters

ezpletively and
in the

many

expressions, proposition of

of

fear,

negated
etc.
use

prevention,

second

comparison, This

(381 etc.).
ne
"

of

often
"

corresponding
in

to

the
most
:

use

in

English perfectly
'

of

'lest'

(^quominus)or
Latin

'from'
ne

was

its origin,
meant
ne
use
'

in

cases,

logical.
;
so

The

timeo

ventat

really

I fear

may

he
meant

not
'

come

wise likethat

impedio
may
ne

(from
come.'

in and This crains

pes)
Latin qu*il

veniat of

originally
ne

I check

him

he

not

was

inherited
ne

into

French

(cf
=

timeo

veniat

=je
ne

ne

vienne;
the

impedio

(or quominus)
of
that
use

veniat

fempSche
is
more

quHl

vienne).
and
even

But

development and
use

in French

is

often

anomalous
no

inconsistent,

the

force
ne,

of the

original
is being

negation
more

longer

felt.

The

expletive

of

however,

and

neglected

in popular

usage.]
Except

373.

Hon
the

(or

non

pas),

pas.

"

in

connection
non

with

verbs,

purely

negative

particle

is in French

(or,with

373,

374.]

IKDECLINABLES.

217

adversative

emphasis,
is used,
"

non

pas,
in

non
answers

point).
for

Exceptionally

pas by

(or point)

chiefly

'not/

followed

another

word.

Ex.

Viendrez-votbs

Hon,
n'est-ce

Shall
pas f

you

come
come,

No.

Vou8

viendrez,

You

will

will

you

not

Hon
on

pas.
non.

No Wise
et non

(I will not).
or

Sage

not.

Sa

cruaut4
non

(or non
orgueU.

pas.

His

cruelty

and

not

his

pride.

point) son
des

A't'il

livres f

Pas
du

un

Has

he

books
none

?
at

Not

one

(not

{pas
Note
a

beaucoup,

pas

tout),
preceded
by
"

many, by
que,

all).
elliptically by
'I say
non
'

1.

"

Non

is often

gue

{que non,
translatable
non

for

whole
or

clause
a

introduced

'

and
dis

no,' no.'

or

'not,'
crois

whole
non
so.'
'

phrase).
I

Ex.
not.'

Je

quo quo

Je

quo

believe

Je

gage

I wager

that
NoTS

it is not
2.
"

In

popular

usage style:

pas

alone

is often

the

negative

even

with

verbs;

rarely

in literary

Craignez-vous

pas

lefer? (V. Hugo).

374.

Ho
.
,

pas

(or point),
by
two
or

"

With
words,

'

'

verbs viz. the

not

is

in
no

French
'

usually
'

expressed the

negative

(/?') not
These

and

adverb

pas

though (optionally,

rather

more

emphatically) point.
words
"

are
ne

placed it

one

on

each its

side

of the

personal
if there
a

verb-form

before
pas,

(preceding
after

object-pronoun,
both
is then

be

one),

and

point

it.

Usually

precede

simple

infinitive.

An

object-pronoun
"

placed

after

or

(lessoften) between
no no no

them.

Ex. I do
I do

Je

parte

pas

(or point),
pas

not not not

speak.

Je

lui parte

(or point).

speak

to

him.

Je

le tui dis pas.

I do

tell him
not

about

it.

Je n'ai

pas

parl4.

I have

spoken.

^18

S^rNTAX.

[374-376.
to him.
not

Je
n

ne

lui ai point
ne

parU,

I have
ne

not

spoken

faut

pas

lui

(pv

lui

It

is
must

necessary

to to
the

(You

pas)
NoTB

parler.
1.
"

not)
by
an

speak

him.
negatives
ne

If

personal the
cannot

yerb

is followed

infinitive,
"

are

arranged

with
*

verb do

they it.'

actually

determine.
ne

Ex.
*

Je

puis

(pas)
Note

le

/aire
it.'
2.
"

Je

puis

pas

le

fcUre

am

gapable

of

not

doing

In

questions

pets

is used
"

only Ex.

when

an
vous,

affirmative
n'est-ce

reply
pas
f

is

expected,

but

point

without

distinction.

C'est

375.

Me
any

Used

Alone.

"

^Not' in

is expressed several
cases,

by
as

ne

alone,

without

complement-word,

explained

below.
A.
"

Ne

is used
or
'

alone

in independent

clauses
*

[376.] More
know,'
cesser

less optionally,
oser
'

with

pouwoir
^

be able,' sawoir Eegularly phrases like

cease,' sense

dare,'
'

bouger
in
a
'

budge.'
set

with

savoir
'no

in

of
ne
'

can

; and
en

few

nlmporie

matter,'
ne

vous

deplaise
n^

may

it not
'

displease
not

you,'

d IHeu

plaise

God
not

forbid,'
wish, be

avoir

garde
"

have

the

inclination
ne

(not care,
(or
Je
ne

far

from).'
it.

Ex.

Je

puis

peux

I cannot

believe

pas)
ne
ne ne

le croire.

II

pent
sais sais

(pas) tarder. (pas) qu'en


penser

He

cannot

delay. what
to think

Je

I don't

know

of it.

Je

(or saurais) rvCexvous

I cannot

express

myself

differ-

primer
ne
n*08e
n'a

autrement.

ently.
le dire,

Je

saurais

I He

can

(could) not
dares is too
not

tell you.

II

(pas)
garde
honn^te
de

revenir. tromper,

return.
a man

II

il est

He

honest

to think

trop
Note.

homme,
is omitted
by
ne
an

of cheating.
pas
with

"

Ordinarily
and
rare
ne

pouvoir
In

etc.

when

the
usage

negation

is unemphatic
is always

followed

infinitive.
more

popular than Je
ne

the

sion omis-

(e.g.Je
occurs

puis

classical
option.

peux

pas).

Sometimes

alone

by

arbitrary

877-379.]

IKDBGLINA6LES.

219

[377.] After
or

que

and

(optionally) qui
"

introducing

rhetorical

questions
n'^s

exclamations. arriv4
plus

Ex.

Que

vous

tdt f

Why Ah,

have why
of
us

you
was

not

come

before?
! ?

Ah,

que
de

Id,! n^4tai8-je
rums n*a

I not
not

there

Qui

{pas)

ses

Who

has

his faults

(Ufauis Qui ne V aimer


B.
"

ait f

Who
alone
in dependent

would

not
:

love

her

Ne

is used

clauses

[378.]

Usually
so

when
sans^

the

leading
peu,

verb

is itself negative
etc.,
or

or

impliedly

(as with
The then 'but,'

impossible,

in questions

appeal). 327, 329) can


with
est
vienne.

of

dependent
often in

verb

(usually in
be
Ex.

the

subjunctive :
affirmatively

English
"

construed

*but
quHl

that.'
ne

impossible

It is impossible
not
come

that He

he
cannot

should but

(=

come).
n'y
sache,
a

personne

qui

ne

le

There

is nobody
it

that

does
none

not

know
knows

(= There it).
one

is

but

Je

ne

connais

personne

qui

ne

know

no

who
a

does mistake.

not

fosse quelquefois
peu d^amis qui les vdtres, Y Ort-U
personne

des
ne

fautes,
soient

sometimes
I have few
are

make

tTai

(=
not

not

many)
whom

friends

that
dont

yours.

eUe

ne

Is there
not

anybody
?

she does

m^dise

f
un

slander
you
a

Avezrvous
aussi

ami f

qui

ne

soit

Have mine mine

friend

who
that

is not
he

le mien

also ?

(=

but

is

also?)
my fault

ne

tient
se

pas

d moi

que

cela

It is not
not

if that

does

ne

fasse.
After
a

happen.

[379.]

leading
'not'

clause

expressing

care

or

effort

(that something

may

take

place).
"

Ex.

220

SYNTAX.

[379^82.
I take
that he

Je

prevdrai
tombe,

garde

quHl

ne

shall
not

care

does

fall.
to

Soyez

cUtentif

qu*il

ne

se

See

it

that

he

does

not

blesse,

wound
Usually
in the
*

himself.

[380.]

expression

si

"

ne

if not,
for

unless
'

; and
"

when

by

inversion

si is omitted

(as
Vavais

in n'eta/t

*were

it not

etc.).
had

Ex.

II

serait Veusse

tomb^
:

si

je

ne

(or
des

He

would ported

hare
him.

fallen,

I not

sup-

332)
pas hien

retenu.

N'esp^rez
gens
vos

obtenir

Vestime
ne

Do

not

hope

to

gain if you

the

esteem

of

de

si

votis

remplissez

honest

people, fulfil your


be rich

do not

(unless
for

devoirs.

you)
I should
taxes.

duties.
were

Je

serais riche, n'litaient les impdts.

it not

the

N'eut

"t"

la

crainte

de

surprise,

je

Had of

it not

been

for

(But
not

for)
hare

fear
left

n'aurais

pas

quitttf cet

endroiU

surprise,

I should

this place.

381-

Me
by French
.
.

Used
the

Expletively.

"

In

dependent
a

clauses

tro inin

conjunction
has
ne

que

(or

conjunction-phrase
has
no

qy^),
.

often
is then

where

English

negation.

Que

/la

variously

rendered by
the

('that/ 4est/ 'from/


sentences

or

as 'than/ etc.),

illustrated

various

below,

382-7.

Usage
ne.

is not
In
the

consistent following
:

with
cases,

regard
however,

to

this
the

expletive

use
ne

of

expletive

is

generally

introduced After

[382.]
personal

emp%cher

'

'

prevent

and

iviier

'

'

avoid
"

before
Ex.

verb-form
qu^U
ne

(always
vienne

subjunctive: 325).
prevent
prevent

J'emp^cherai

I shall

his him

coming. from
com-

(I

(but

Je

Vemp^herai

de

shall

venir).
quHl
"

ing).
ne
vous

Evitez
Note.

parle.
exceptionally
or

Avoid

his

speaking
ne

to

you.
chiefly

Both
or

are

construed
in the

without

(empicher

when

negative

interrogative,

infinitive).

383.]

INDECLINABLBS.

221

[383.]
of

After
the

expressions
dependent
rather
or as

of

fear, donbt,

or

denial

when

the
325,
than

action

verb merely

(then

in

the

subjunctive;
or

327)

is viewed

probable

possible

as

improbable
That

certain.
after expressions
avoir

is, usually,

of
peur,

fear de

or

apprehension
de crainte,

Icraindre
etc.] when
negation,
est

appr^hender,

trembler,
or

redouter, interrogatiye
expressions

peur,

affirmative inversely,

without

implied
and

and,

after

of

doubt

denial

Idouter (il

douteux,

il y

du

doute,

etc.),

d^sesp^rer,
with

nier, contester, implied

ddsconvenir'] when

negative

or

interrogative

negation.

Examples.
Action

probable

or

possible

Action

improbable

or

certain

Je

Grains

J (J^appi*4hende,'ai
quHl
ne

Je

ne

crains

pas
am

(etc.) qu^U
afraid that

peur)
fear

vienne,

vienne,

I
come.

not

he (etc.)
peur f

may
quHl

come.

he
vous

will

Avez-vous
trompe

ne

Pouvez-vous
trompe

craindre

quHl
fear
can

vous

Are

you you
?

afraid

f
cannot

Can

you

he

may

deceive

You

fear,

you?)
you?
quHl
me

that
pas quHl
not

he

should

deceive
point

N'appr4hendeZ'V(ms
ne
vous

Je

n^appr4hende
trompe,

trompe

9 Are

you

am me.

not

afraid

he

afraid
ne

lest he
doute
ne

deceive

you
pas have

will

deceive

Je

(d^esp^re)
I
may

Je

doute sisse.

{d^esp^re)
I

quHl

rius-

qu'U
no

r4ussisse.
he (etc.)

doubt

whether

he

doubt

or

will

succeed.

will

succeed.

Doutez-vous Do
you

quHl
doubt
?

ne

r4ussisse
he

Doutez^ous
Do you

quHl

soit

malade

whether

doubt
he

that

he

is

will
ne

succeed
nie

sick?
ne

(which
nie

really
vous

is).
soyez that

Je

pas

quHl I don't

soit trhs

Je

ne

pas

qu^e
not

Eloquent

deny

that

malade

I do

deny

he very

may

be

{or

his

being)
Je

you

are

(or your

being)
I deny

sick.

eloquent.
nie que

cela soit,

that

that

can

be

so.

222

SYNTAX.

[383-386.
doutez-vous vienne

Je

ne

disconviens
soit

pas

que

cela

Ne

pas ?

qu^U Don't

en

ne

ainsi,

I don't
not

deny
so.

bout

you

that
Note.
que,

that
"

may

be

doubt
after
avani

that
que

he
in

will

succeed?
of 'lest' for and
sans

Ne

is sometimes
construction
ne

used

sense

sans

but

this

is becoming
ne

antiquated. de la
maison,

Que used
qu*il
ne

que

usually
sans

requires

Je [e.g.

puis

sortir

le sache

(or

qu'il le

sache^"].
//
s^en

[384.]
ne

After

faut

used

negatively
ne

or

with

peu.

"

Ex. his brother's

II

s'en

faut
de

pas
son

heaucoup

quHl

He

is not equal.

far from

being

soit V^gal
s^en

fr ere.
ne
se

Peu

estfallu qu^il
With
.
.

soit tu".

He

came

very

near

killing

himself.

[385.]

compound
.

tenses

after

depuis
with the

que

or

que

'since'

(qu"

ne as

also,
a

by

beginning

dependent

clause,

translatable
vous

negative).
port4
How f
saw

Comment
depuis
a

Me