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5G: Mobile Technology

2011-2012

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION
The present cell phones have it all. Today phones have everything ranging from the smallest size, largest phone memory, speed dialing, video player, audio player, and camera and so on. Recently with the development of Pico nets and Bluetooth technology data sharing has become a child's play. Earlier with the infrared feature you can share data within a line of sight that means the two devices has to be aligned properly to transfer data, but in case of blue tooth you can transfer data even when you have the cell phone in your pocket up to a range of 50 meters. The creation and entry of 5G technology into the mobile market place will launch a new revolution in the way international cellular plans are offered. The global mobile phone is upon the cell phone market. Just around the corner, the newest 5G technologies will hit the mobile market with phones used in China being able to access and call locally phones in Germany.

Truly innovative technology changing the way mobile phones will be used. With the emergence of cell phones, which are similar to a PDA, you can now have your whole office within the phone. Cell phones will give tough competitions to laptop manufacturers and normal computer designers. Even today there are phones with gigabytes of memory storage and the latest operating systems .Thus one can say that with the current trends, the industry has a real bright future if it can handle the best technologies and can produce affordable handsets for its customers. Thus you will get all your desires unleashed in the near future when these smart phones take over the market. 5G Network's router and switch technology delivers Last Yard Connectivity between the Internet access provider and building occupants. 5G's technology intelligently distributes Internet access to individual nodes within the building.

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5G: Mobile Technology

2011-2012

Chapter 2

EVOLUTION FROM 1G-5G NETWORKS


Cell phones are used millions and billions of users worldwide. How many of us know the technology behind cell phones that is used for our communication? I have also intrigued about the type of technology used in my phone. What are 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G technologies? 1G, 2G, 3G & 4G ("G" stands for "Generation") are the generations of wireless telecom connectivity. In 1945, the zero generation (0G) of mobile telephones was introduced. Mobile Telephone Service, were not officially categorized as mobile phones, since they did not support the automatic change of channel frequency during calls. 1G (Time Division Multiple Access and Frequency Division Multiple Access) was the initial wireless telecom network system. It's out-dated now. The analog brick phones and bag phones are under 1G technology. Cell phones era began with 1G.The next era, 2G has taken its place of 1G. Cell phones received their first major upgrade when they went from 1G to 2G. This leap effectively took cell phones from analog to digital. 2G and 2.5G were versions of the GSM and CDMA connections. And GSM is still the most popular technology, but with no internet. Fortunately, GPRS, an additional service, is provided over GSM for the purpose of internet access. GPRS has been developed and thus, EGPRS was created. It's more secure and faster than GPRS. Then 3G came, the new Wireless CDMA technology. It is the first wireless telecom technology that provides broadband-speed internet connection on mobile phones. It has been specially made for the demand of internet on smart phones. Further development led to the creation of 3.5G, which provides blazing fast internet connection on phones, up to the speed of 7.2 MBPS. A smart phone can be connected to a PC to share its internet connection and 3G and 3.5G are ideal for this. But, as this WCDMA technology is not available in all regions, its not as popular as GSM yet. Before making the major leap from 2G to 3G wireless networks, the lesserknown 2.5G was an interim standard that bridged the gap. Following 2.5G, 3G ushered in faster data-transmission speeds so you could use your cell phone in more data-demanding ways. This has meant streaming video (i.e. movie trailers and television), audio and much more. Cell phone companies today are spending a lot of money to brand to you the importance of their 3G network. The above systems and radio interfaces are based on kindred spread spectrum radio
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5G: Mobile Technology

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transmission technology. While the GSM EDGE standard ("2.9G"), DECT cordless phones and Mobile Wi MAX standards formally also fulfil the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based on completely different technologies. 4G, which is also known as beyond 3G or fourth-generation cell phone technology, refers to the entirely new evolution. Developers are now going for 4G (OFDMA), which will provide internet up to the speed of 1 GBPS! It is said to be able to overcome the problems of weak network strength and should provide a much wider network, making sure that the users get high-speed connectivity anytime anywhere. No doubt, 4G will open new doors of revolutionary internet technologies, but for now, 3G and 3.5G are the best. 4G will allow for speeds of upto 100Mbps. 4G promises voice, data and high-quality multimedia in real-time form all the time and anywhere.

2.1 1G WIRELESS SYSTEM First Generation wireless technology (1G) is the original analog(An analog or analogue signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity), voice-only cellular telephone standard, developed in the 1980s. The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and 2G,is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital. Although both systems use digital signalling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system, the voice itself during a call is encoded to digital signals in 2G whereas 1G is only modulated to higher frequency, typically 150 MHz and up. One such standard is NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone), used in Nordic countries, Eastern Europe and Russia. Others include AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) used in the United States, TACS (Total Access Communications System) in the United Kingdom, JTAGS in Japan, C-Netz in West Germany, Radio com 2000 in France, and RTMI in Italy. Analog cellular service is being phased out in most places worldwide. 1G technology replaced 0Gtechnology, which featured mobile radio telephones and such technologies as Mobile Telephone System (MTS), Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS), Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), and Push to Talk (PTT).
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Keys:

Developed in 1980s and completed in early 1990s 1G was old analog system and supported the 1st generation of analog cell phones speed up to 2.4kbps Advance mobile phone system (AMPS) was first launched by the US and is a 1G mobile system Allows users to make voice calls in 1 country

Figure2.1: 1G Mobile Phone

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2.2 2G WIRELESS SYSTEM


2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Second generation2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radio linja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991. 2G network allows for much greater penetration intensity. 2G technologies enabled the various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages and MMS (multi media messages). 2Gtechnology is more efficient. 2G technology holds sufficient security for both the sender and the receiver. All text messages are digitally encrypted. This digital encryption allows for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it. Second generation technologies are either time division multiple access (TDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA). TDMA allows for the division of signal into timeslots. CDMA allocates each user a special code to communicate over a multiplex physical channel. Different TDMA technologies are GSM, PDC, iDEN, IS-136. CDMA technology is IS-95. GSM has its origin from the Group special Mobile, in Europe. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile technologies. Although this technology originates from the Europe, but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. This enabled the mobile subscribers to use their mobile phone connections in many different countries of the worlds is based on digital signals ,unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer Analogue signals. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time. SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone, other than the voice call or conference. This technology is beneficial to both the network operators and the ultimate users at the same time. In comparison to 1G's analog signals, 2G's digital signals are very reliant on location and proximity. If a 2G handset made a call far away from a cell tower, the digital signal may not be enough to reach it. While a call made from a 1G handset had generally poor quality than that of a 2G handset, it survived longer distances. This is due to the analog signal having a smooth curve compared to the digital signal, which had a jagged, angular curve. As conditions worsen, the quality of a call made from a 1G handset would gradually worsen, but a call made from a 2Ghandset would fail completely.

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Keys: Fielded in the late 1980s and finished in the late 1990s Planned for voice transmission with digital signal and the speeds up to 64kbps 2G was the digital handsets that we are used today 2G network allows for much greater penetration intensity.

Figure2.2: 2G Mobile Phone

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2.3 3G WIRELESS SYSTEM


International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT--2000), better known as 3G or 3rdGeneration, is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunications services fulfilling specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. The use of 3G technology is also able to transmit packet switch data efficiently at better and increased bandwidth. 3G mobile technologies proffers more advanced services to mobile users. The spectral efficiency of 3G technology is better than 2G technologies. Spectral efficiency is the measurement of rate of information transfer over any communication system.3G is also known as IMT-2000. Keys: Transmission speeds from 125kbps to 2Mbps In 2005, 3G is ready to live up to its performance in computer networking (WCDMA,WLAN and Bluetooth) and mobile devices area (cell phone and GPS) Data are sent through technology called packet switching Voice calls are interpreted using circuit switching Access to Global Roaming Clarity in voice calls Fast Communication, Internet, Mobile T.V, Video Conferencing, Video Calls, Multi Media Messaging Service (MMS), 3D gaming, Multi-Gaming etc are also available with3G phones.

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5G: Mobile Technology

2011-2012

Figure2.3: 3G Mobile Phone

2.4 4G WIRELESS SYSTEM


4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 3G and 2G families of standards. The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards compatible transmission technology, and new frequency bands.3G technologies make use of TDMA and CDMA. 3G (Third Generation Technology) technologies make use of value added services like mobile television, GPS (global positioning system) and video conferencing. The basic feature of 3GTechnology (Third Generation Technology) is fast data transfer rates. However this feature is not currently working properly because, ITU 200 is still making decision to fix the data rates. It is expected that 2mbit/sec for stationary users, while 348kbits
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5G: Mobile Technology

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when moving or travelling. ITU sell various frequency rates in order to make use of broadband technologies. Network authentication has won the trust of users, because the user can rely on its network as a reliable source of transferring data.3G technology is much flexible, because it is able to support the 5 major radio technologies. These radio technologies operate under CDMA, TDMA and FDMA.CDMA holds for IMT-DS (direct spread), IMT-MC (multi carrier). TDMA accounts for IMT-TC (time code),IMT-SC (single carrier). FDMA has only one radio interface known as IMT-FC or frequency code. Third generation technology is really affordable due to the agreement of industry. This agreement took place in order to increase its adoption by the users. 3G (Third Generation Technology) system is compatible to work with the 2G technologies. 3G (Third Generation Technology) technologies holds the vision that they should be expandable on demand. The aim of the 3G (Third Generation Technology) is to allow for more coverage and growth with minimum investment. The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. Some of the applications are: Mobile TV- a provider redirects a TV channel directly to the subscriber's phone where it can be watched. Video on demand- a provider sends a movie to the subscriber's phone. Video conferencing- subscribers can see as well as talk to each other. Tele-medicine a medical provider monitors or provides advice to the potentially isolated subscriber. Location-based services- a provider sends localized weather or traffic conditions to the phone, or the phone allows the subscriber to find nearby businesses or friends Mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access and multi-carrier transmission. Mobile WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)

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2011-2012

Figure2.4: 4G Mobile Phone

Keys: 4G is a conceptual framework and a discussion point to address future needs of a high speed wireless network It offer both cellular and broadband multimedia services everywhere Expected to emerged around 2010-2015 4G should be able to provided very smooth global roaming ubiquitously with lower cost 4G Mobile Phone

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Comparision from 1G to 4G

Figure 2.5: Comparison from 1G to 4G

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Chapter 3

WHAT IS 5G & WHAT IT OFFERS?


5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology. 5G technology has changed the means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth. User never experienced ever before such a high value technology. The 5G technologies include all type of advanced features which makes 5G technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future. The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. 5G technologies which are on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000 lunar modules. A user can also hook their 5Gtechnology cell phone with their Laptop to get broadband internet access. 5G technology including camera, MP3 recording, video player, large phone memory, dialling speed, audio player and much more you never imagine. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Pico nets has become in market. As per the present status all over the world WCDMA is commercially launched .Some nations has planned to launch LTE within next quarter. Operator is looking ahead for wide-scale deployment of LTE in 2012. Operators will also find that the timing is right to make the switch because much of the first generation of 3G equipment will need to be upgraded soon. LTE networking equipment and handsets, already under development, will become available in 2010, and should be rolled out in large quantities in Europe by 2012. clearly shows that within 2020 LTE will become the latest trend for wireless communication all over the world. But yet our question remains unanswered. Why there is a need for 5G?. Even though LTE provides wide range of growth for present wireless telecommunication. People are not in a circumstance to make use of those benefits in an effective manner.LTE might be rigorously used in Commercial/Industrial areas. But think of a common man who utmost utilize LTE for downloading a movie or make a video call. Fact is that there is no such groundbreaking application exists in real world to be utilized by a common man. You might doubt how this verdict is applicable for current innovative world, where have enormous splendid real time applications. Concern is that our present wireless telecommunications is bottlenecked to use those applications in an effective manner. This paper mainly focuses on how a 5G network can

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provide more approach to a common man to utilize his available possessions in an immense way to make him to feel the real progress.

If you can able to pay all your bills in a single payment with your mobile. If you can able to sense Tsunami/earthquake before it occurs. If you can able to visualize lively all planets and Universe. If you can able to navigate a Train for which you are waiting. If you can get the share value lively. If you can lock your Laptop, car, Bike using your mobile when you forgot to do so. If youre mobile can share your work load. If youre mobile can identify the best server. If youre mobile can perform Radio resource management. If your mobile can intimate you before the call drops. If your mobile phone get cleaned by its own. If you can able to fold your mobile as per your desire. If you can able to expand your coverage using your mobile phones. If you can able identify your stolen mobile with nanoseconds. If you can able to access your office desktop by being at your bedroom. If youre mobile can able to suggest you possible medicine as per your healthiness. If youre mobile can able to calculate approximate Hike. If youre mobile can estimate the quality of your new build house. If youre mobile can able to provide recent worth on products using its barcode.

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Chapter 4 BASIC ARCHITECTURE OF 5G TECHNOLOGY


4.1.1 Ubiquitous Computing
5G would be about "ubiquitous computing", that is, having the ability to access the applications want from any platform, anywhere, any time. To create such an environment, one needs to integrate various applications, emerging from various engineering practices. Human life will be surrounded by intelligent sensors, which will bring radical change to human lifes daily approaches of doing things, as: Your intelligent car will send SMS to your cell phone, from your car. Your home security camera is attached to secured internet. So that you can view your sitting room on your laptop/mobile phone screen, by accessing secure website. You are receiving regular MMS from your hospital about your medication need and next doctor appointment.

Key challenges:Integration of various standards: Each engineering practice has their own standard (F.eks Telecom has 3GPP, 3GPP2, ITU, IETF, etc). To integrate these various standards, requires systematic and time consuming approach. o Common Platform: There is no common architecture for interconnecting various engineering practices. One common governing body is required, which creates a common platform for all engineering practices to regularize the interconnectivity issues as well as knowledge sharing.

4.1.2 Aggregator
Existing telecom networks are fashioned in hierarchical way, where subscriber traffic is aggregated at aggregation point (BSC/RNC) and then routed to gateways. (As shown in figure).Flat IP architecture will lessen burden on aggregation point and traffic will directly move from Base station to Media gateways. Vision of Super Core is based on IP platform. All network operators (GSM, CDMA, Wimax, and Wireline) can be connected to one Super core with
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massive capacity. This is realization of single network infrastructure. The concept of super core will eliminate all interconnecting charges and complexities, which is right now network operator is facing. It will also reduce number of network entities in end to end connection, thus reducing latency considerably.

Key challenges High redundancy requirement: Under Super core concept, all network operators will be moving to single core infrastructure, high redundancy and security among core network entities is required. A failure of single node will impact huge number of subscribers across various network operators.

Transparency among network operators, regarding Subscriber data, churn management, etc. Government regulatory framework for Super core

4.1.3 Flatter IP concept


At regular interval, semiconductor manufacturers advance to a new generation with smaller feature sizes. This allows them to incorporate more functions into a given area of silicon and, hence, more features or new capabilities into electronic devices like cell phones, Increased processing capacity will be allow Mobile devices (cell phones, PDAs, etc) to do more tasks (instructions per minute) then before. This will lead to even the Flatter IP network. As Flat IP has shifted some of the BSC/RNCs radio resource functions to Base station, Flatter IP will shift some of the RR functions, to Mobile devices from Base station. Finally your cell phone will not be just access device but, it will also perform some of the Radio Resource Management functions. With the shift to flat IP architectures, mobile operators can Reduce the number of network elements in the data path to lower operations costs and capital expenditure

Partially decouple the cost of delivering service from the volume of data transmitted to align infrastructure capabilities with emerging application requirements
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Minimize system latency and enable applications with a lower tolerance for delay; upcoming latency enhancements on the radio link can also be fully realized Evolve radio access and packet core networks independently of each other to a greater extent than in the past, creating greater flexibility in network planning and deployment

Develop a flexible core network that can serve as the basis for service innovation across both mobile and generic IP access networks

Create a platform that will enable mobile broadband operators to be competitive,

from a price/performance perspective, with wired networks

4.1.4 5G: Nano Core


Sophisticated technology has enabled an age of globalization. Technological convergence is the tendency for different technological systems to evolve towards performing similar tasks. What Nicholas Negroponte labeled the transformation of "atoms to bits," the digitization of all media content. When words, images and sounds are transformed into digital information, it expand the potential relationships between them and enable them to flow across platforms. The 5G Nancore is a convergence of below mention technologies. These technologies have their own impact on exiting wireless network which makes them in to 5G. Nanotechnology. Cloud Computing. All IP Platform.

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Figure 4.1: Architecture of 5G 4.2 Heterogeneous Wireless Networks Interoperability

The challenge in the design of the terminals is connected to the management of trade between the flexibility of how to use the spectrum and needed space and power to given platform. New methods for partial reconfigurable offer design dimensions that allow the system to adapt to the opportunities and requirements of the terminals in a manner that shall maximize the spectral efficiency and also maximize the battery power. As a result of growing level of acceptance of the wireless technologies in different fields, challenges and types of wireless systems associated with them are changing. In heterogeneous wireless networks the concept is "always best connected" (always associated with the best quality), aimed at client terminals, and is proposed in different researches.

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Reviewing the concept of heterogeneous networks inevitably raises the question of interworking among the radio access technologies in a newly designed system, which will not demand changes in the RATs, but only introduction of control functionalities the core networks. In terms of the user or user applications, heterogeneous system or a heterogeneous network is considered as a unified network and access a single segment which will place the connection with the application servers in and out of operators network. To meet the relevant requirements of the user applications are generally considered two possible models for interoperability between building blocks of radio access technologies within the heterogeneous system. First one refers to a centralized operator access, while the second one defines the Internet model of interoperability. The first model involves introducing a certain level of integration between the radio access technology through which mobile access terminal, in this direction have been made different analysis and developed different standards that should define the levels of architecture connectivity for realizing vertical handover between different access technologies involved in the construction of heterogeneous domain. The introduction of this model implies interoperability protocol interoperability of lower levels of communication in the field of radio access. The second model is called the Internet model, which represents a focus for further development in this paper and refers to providing continuity of customer service in case of independent radio access technologies available to the mobile terminal by connecting on the network level. In this case, interoperability between network technologies is done on the upper (network) protocol levels, i.e. at a level that is common to all access technologies for communication between user applications with the appropriate application servers. The ultimate goal of both models for interoperability is the same and it is providing a transparent transfer of user information between client applications and related application servers without impact on the diversity of access technologies in the communication process and providing continuity of user sessions in the communication process. The main difference between the two models concerns the way in providing interoperability. Apart from this difference, very important are vertical handover between access technologies and the conditions or circumstances which trigger handovers. The first method provides an integrated architecture of radio access technologies that builds heterogeneous network, and as such is applicable in cooperative networks or in networks where the radio access technologies are owned by the same operator or operators who have cooperation. In such networks are strictly defined rules for vertical handovers, mainly dictated by conditions in the radio access networks, or by the operator's preference, while user preferences
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are taken into cooperative architectures. The second method is more general and relates to interoperate regardless of the users operators, which provide access technology for the user equipment. In these methods, generally speaking, vertical handover is accomplished as a result of the conditions under which user applications see main qualitative parameters of service or experience to the user.

The tendency of introducing heterogeneity in future wireless radio systems entails the implementation of different radio interfaces in the new terminals. Each radio access technology has its own radio resource management and they are well engineered for maximum utilization of available resources. Radio access technologies can ensure achievement of customer service in the access part. In most of the radio access technologies which have been made, the system makes adaptation of appropriate resources allocated according to the nature of the services.

Variety of access technologies in order to realize the user requirements. The heterogeneity of these networks allows the user terminal to perform a selection of radio access technologies depending on given preferences. This choice provides better conditions for user applications.

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Chapter 5 DESIGN OF 5G MOBILE NETWORK ARCHITECTURE


Figure shows the system model that proposes design of network architecture for 5G mobile systems, which is all-IP based model for wireless and mobile networks interoperability. The system consists of a user terminal (which has a crucial role in the new architecture) and a number of independent, autonomous radio access technologies. Within each of the terminals, each of the radio access technologies is seen as the IP link to the outside Internet world. However, there should be different radio interface for each Radio Access Technology (RAT) in the mobile terminal. For an example, if want to have access to four different RATs, need to have four different access - specific interfaces in the mobile terminal, and to have all of them active at the same time, with aim to have this architecture to be functional.

Figure 5.1: Functional Architecture for 5G Mobile Networks


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The first two OSI levels (data-link and physical levels) are defining the radio access technologies through which is provided access to the Internet with more or less QoS support mechanisms, which is further dependent upon the access technology (e.g., 3G and WiMAX have explicit QoS support, while WLAN has not) . Then, over the OSI-1 and OSI-2 layers is the network layer, and this layer is IP (Internet Protocol) in todays communication world, either IPv4 or IPv6, regardless of the radio access technology. The purpose of IP is to ensure enough control data (in IP header) for proper routing of IP packets belonging to a certain application connections - sessions between client applications and servers somewhere on the Internet. Routing of packets should be carried out in accordance with established policies of the user.

Figure 5.2: Protocol Layout for the Elements of the Proposed Architecture

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Application connections are realized between clients and servers in the Internet via sockets. Internet sockets are endpoints for data communication flows. Each socket of the web is a unified and unique combination of local IP address and appropriate local transport communications port, target IP address and target appropriate communication port, and type of transport protocol. Considering that, the establishment of communication from end to end between the client and server using the Internet protocol is necessary to raise the appropriate Internet socket uniquely determined by the application of the client and the server. This means that in case of interoperability between heterogeneous networks and for the vertical handover between the respective radio technologies, the local IP address and destination IP address should be fixed and unchanged. Fixing of these two parameters should ensure handover transparency to the Internet connection end-to-end, when there is a mobile user at least on one end of such connection. In order to preserve the proper layout of the packets and to reduce or prevent packets losses, routing to the target destination and vice versa should be uniquely and using the same path. Each radio access technology that is available to the user in achieving connectivity with the relevant radio access is presented with appropriate IP interface. Each IP interface in the terminal is characterized by its IP address and netmask and parameters associated with the routing of IP packets across the network. In regular inter-system handover the change of access technology (i.e., vertical handover) would mean changing the local IP address. Then, change of any of the parameters of the socket means and change of the socket, that is, closing the socket and opening a new one. This means, ending the connection and starting e new one. This approach is notflexible, and it is based on todays Internet communication. In order to solve this deficiency propose a new level that will take care of the abstraction levels of network access technologies to higher layers of the protocol stack. This layer is crucial in the new architecture. To enable the functions of the applied transparency and control or direct routing of packets through the most appropriate radio access technology, in the proposed architecture introduce a control system in the functional architecture of the networks, which works in complete coordination with the user terminal and provides a network abstraction functions and routing of packets based on defined policies. At the same time this control system is an essential
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element through which it can determine the quality of service for each transmission technology. He is on the Internet side of the proposed architecture, and as such represents an ideal system to test the qualitative characteristics of the access technologies, as well as to obtain a realistic picture regarding the quality that can be expected from applications of the user towards a given server in Internet (or peer). Protocol setup of the new levels within the existing protocol stack, which form the proposed architecture, is presented in Figure . The network abstraction level would be provided by creating IP tunnels over IP interfaces obtained by connection to the terminal via the access technologies available to the terminal (i.e., mobile user). In fact, the tunnels would be established between the user terminal and control system named here as Policy Router, which performs routing based on given policies. In this way the client side will create an appropriate number of tunnels connected to the number of radio access technologies, and the client will only set a local IP address which will be formed with sockets Internet communication of client applications with Internet servers. The way IP packets are routed through tunnels, or choosing the right tunnel, would be served by policies whose rules will be exchanged via the virtual network layer protocol. This way achieve the required abstraction of the network to the client applications at the mobile terminal. The process of establishing a tunnel to the Policy Router, for routing based on the policies, are carried out immediately after the establishment of IP connectivity across the radio access technology, and it is initiated from the mobile terminal Virtual Network-level Protocol. Establishing tunnel connections as well as maintaining them represents basic functionality of the virtual network level (or network level of abstraction).

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Chapter 6 ENTITIES AND FUNCTIONALITIES IN THE PROPOSED NETWORK ARCHITECTURE


Heterogeneity of wireless networks enables the user terminal to perform a selection of access technologies depending on their preferences. This choice provides better conditions for user applications. The processes of achieving connectivity in new environments are strongly associated with the application process. Namely, the need of the user application to establish communication with the some application server usually ends by initiating a connection through the network level, i.e., network access to resources by the user terminal. Considering that the functions of the virtual network layer in the proposed new architecture include many functions related to connectivity, security and continuity of the application sessions initiated by the user, the virtual network layer logically is divided into several cooperative software modules which perform different functionalities. Figure given block-diagram of the software modules in the virtual network layer.

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Figure 6.1:Software Diagram of the Proposed Virtual Network Layer

Figure 6.2 Software Diagram of the Proposed Virtual Network Layer There are certain differences between client and server functions to a virtual network layer. On the client side there are five software modules that:
RAT-CCSM (Radio Access Technology - Connection Control Software Module); MQPBR (Mobile Quality Policy Based Router); SPME (Security and Policy Management Entity); ITHC (Inter Tunnel Handover Control); and QoS / QoE CM (QoS and QoE Control Manager).

On the other side, the Policy Router includes four software modules as follows:
MCCSM (Media Connection Control Software Module); CQPBR (Central Quality Policy Based Router); SPME (Security and Policy Management Entity); CPH (Client Profile Handler); and QoS / QoE CM (QoS and QoE Control Manager).

Each software module has determined position within the global architecture to provide the ultimate functionality that is providing interoperability in 5G heterogeneous systems. Providing functionality between software modules is done through precisely defined interfaces to other
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modules and with appropriate links between peer protocol modules on both sides of the architecture. As can be seen from the diagram in Figure there are four common cooperative / coordination modules on different sides (client and server) that are interconnected. Hence, we may distinguish among four basic functionalities carried out by the virtual network layer. First basic functionality of the virtual network layer is to provide a network abstraction. This functionality is related to the cooperative working together of the RAT-CCSM and MCCSM software modules that are designed to make masking of the IP level seen by each radio access technology. Besides this basic functionality, RAT-CCSM module at the client side is using API interfaces for access to the appropriate software modules from the lower levels of radio access technologies in order to provide additional information. This link is a way through which it receives information for improving connectivity of individual access technologies (e.g., generated PDP context with specified IP address, connection established with a given AP in WLAN networks and corresponding IP addresses, etc.) and the level of received signal of the corresponding radio access technology. In this way the software module has continuous information for the network and radio conditions in each radio access technology. Tunnels are formed between RAT-CCSM on the client side and MCCSM module in the Policy Router. RAT-CCSM module starts a process to establish a tunnel between the mobile client and the Policy Router (in particular, with the MCCSM module). The tunnel is formed through the established IP connectivity of the particular radio access technology. Source IP address of the tunnel is the IP address obtained by the establishment of IP connectivity via the given access technology, while destination IP address of the tunnel seeing in the uplink direction from the mobile side) is the loopback address of the software module of MCCSM Policy Router. RAT-CCSM software module performs continuous monitoring of the status of each radio access technology in terms of radio parameters (signal received level) and in terms of IP connectivity through the same network. The obtained information regarding the radio access technologies it forwards to another associated software module whose primary function is managing handover in the transmission of data between the established IP tunnels (the ITHC software module). The second link of this module refers to the routing module, where routing is based on policies determined on the offered Quality of Service. Their interaction results in defining the appropriate tunnel interfaces (corresponding to the tunnels created by the radio access technologies) within the routing table. The process of establishing the tunnel procedure begins
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with the authentication and authorization between the mobile client and the Policy Router, so the software module has a direct connection with SPME module for management of security mechanisms. The second function is related to routing policies based on the determined Quality of Service offered by access technologies. This functionality is accomplished by cooperative working between MQPBR and CQPBR software components on the client and server sides. The mutual cooperation between these two modules is realized through the appropriate routing control protocol developed specifically for this purpose. Its goal is to provide proper prioritization of routes or routing rules via the tunnel interfaces within routing matrix / table. The changes are initiated and controlled by MQPBR client module in cooperation with the ITHC module. At the same time, the MQPBR software module on the client side presents the client IP address which is obtained in the phase of the authentication and authorization by the software module for that purpose - SPME. The actual determination of the client mobile IP address will be marked with McIP, where it is an IP address of the client in the heterogeneous network, which is generated by SPME software module and it is then given to the MQPBR client module. The communication of the upper protocol levels, such as the transport, session and application levels, is via McIP address of the user, which is seen as IP network address to them. The main feature of this software module, in comparison with other routing software components, is its ability to perform coordinated routing between the two software modules depending on the application that is initiated by the client. This would mean that routing table of this module expands and takes the form of three-dimensional routing matrix where for each initiated user application is defined priority for the tunneling interface. The third function is associated with managing security procedures or security mechanisms and policies applied to users. RAT-CCSM module triggers corresponding module on the client side (SPME) in order to carry out proper user authentication and authorization for the same approval to create a tunnel through the appropriate technology. This process is accomplished through any free IP address obtained from a radio access technology towards a defined IP address of the server on the other side. In this case RAT-CCSM transparently forwards these packages directly to the network interfaces of the radio access technologies. After receiving the result of a process of authentication and authorization RAT-CCSM and MCCSM begin the process of establishment of an IP tunnel or reject the request. On the client side user terminal contains all the information in a local storage (in the mobile terminal) within the
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security software module, while the Policy Router stores the information for the mobile clients in an additional software module, referred to as CPH, which can be part of the same Policy Router (but, it is not mandatory). All information for each user of this architecture, the authentication parameters and policies, are stored in this database - CPH. Obtained policies and user parameters that describe a customer, which are obtained from other systems and stored in CPH module, and such data is then made available to RAT-CCSM module as well as MQPBR and CQPBR modules and the IHTC module. The RAT-CCSM module is allowed to establish a tunnel; the defined McIP address is announced to MQPBR and CQPBR modules, while to IHTC are announced other policies contained in the CHP that should help it in the process of handover decisions. The fourth functionality is associated with the management mechanisms for measuring the parameters that define the Quality of Service and Experience in terms of user applications. This functionality is accomplished by cooperative working between the QoS / QoE module on the client side and QoS / QoE module on the server side. The purpose of this module in the mobile terminal (the client side) is to continuously measure the basic qualitative parameters of radio access technologies. Thus, the measured parameters give a realistic picture of the Quality of Service that can be expected from the radio access technologies, which in fact are on the path between the client and Policy Router. Measurements are carried out individually by each access technology. The results of these measurements are a direct input to the ITHC module for handover decisions between tunnels. Fifth functionality of the network architecture is dedicated to the user only, and its location within the heterogeneous wireless network. This functionality is intended to ensure continuity of customer service while taking into account the qualitative requirements of the applications, the user, and the network, in a form of predefined policies or gained knowledge from the user services. This module on the user side is represented as ITHC software module and has a direct interaction with other software modules of the virtual network layer. Software Module continually processes data from RAT-CCSM software module (realized tunnels and signal reception level of each access technology). Also, it is directly associated with the QoS / QoE module, from which it receives information about the qualitative characteristics of each radio access technology used by the user. Then, with aim to decide which application will use which available radio access technology, it receives from the SPME the user policies as well as preferences of the user and the
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operator (that is the one that provides the functionalities of Policy Router). If there is a need of changes of the access technology for an ongoing session, this module is required to initiate the process of handover between tunnels connected with the relevant access technologies. The criteria under which it will begin the procedure of handover are part of the software module and its internal logic. The change of priorities for the routes for each application is performed by the module responsible for policy-based routing, i.e., the Policy Router on the network side.

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Chapter 7 QOS FUNCTION BASED ON PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS


Next Generation Networks (NGN) consists of support functionalities for data transport, and control transport, as well as functionalities for support of services and applications. The measurement of traffic is a basic control activity in order to provide Quality of Service. So, performance measurement is an intrinsic component in NGN, and it is usually performed at edge (border) network nodes, in access, core and transit networks. Also, it can be performed by the mobile terminals in the wireless environment, and here this is very important to create mobile user assisted probing of the RAT performances.

Figure 7.1:Network Performance Measurements Using RTP / RTCP and RTCP Extension Figure presents also detailed view of the general architecture for Management for Performance Measurements (MPM) in NGN, with added functionalities on the side of the mobile terminal (CPE Customer Premises Equipment). The network architecture consists of the following entities: Performance Measurement Execution Functional Entity (PME-FE) is an entity to perform performance measurements. PME-FE is responsible for three groups of functionalities: performance measurements, process measurements and single configuration entity conducting the measurements;
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Performance Measurement Processing Functional Entity (PMP-FE) is an entity for processing the measurements. PMP-FE is responsible for two groups of functions: processing of measurements and configuration of measurement tests across the network architecture. Functions for processing of measurements include collecting measurement reports, their analysis, aggregation as well as analysis of measurements in cyclical periods; and Performance Measurement Reporting Functional Entity (PMR-FE) is an entity reporting the performed performance measurements.

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Chapter 8 BENIFITS
High speed, high capacity, and low cost per bit. Support interactive multimedia, voice, streaming video, Internet, and other broadband services ,more effective and more attreactive ,Bi directional ,accurate traffic statistics. Global access, service portability, and scalable mobile services. The high quality services of 5G technology based on Policy to avoid error. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65,000 connections. 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency. Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get better and fast solution.

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Chapter 9 CONCLUSION
The development of the mobile and wireless networks is going towards higher data rates and all-IP principle. Currently, there are many available radio access technologies, which provide possibility for IP-based communication on the network layer, as well as there is migration of all services in IP environment, including the traditional telephony and even television, besides the traditional Internet services, such as web and electronic mail as most used among the others. On the other side, mobile terminals are obtaining each year more processing power, more memory on board, and longer battery life for the same applications (services). It is expected that the initial Internet philosophy of keeping the network simple as possible, and giving more functionalities to the end nodes, will become reality in the future generation of mobile networks, here referred to as 5G. Author have defined completely novel network architecture for such 5G mobile networks. The architecture includes introduction of software agents in the mobile terminal, which will be used for communication with newly defined nodes called Policy Routers, which shall be placed in the core network. The Policy Router creates IP tunnels with the mobile terminal via each of the interfaces to different RATs available to the terminal. Based on the given policies, the change of the RAT, i.e., vertical handover, is executed via tunnel change by the Policy Router, and such change is based on the given policies regarding the Quality of Service and user preferences, as well as performance measurement obtained by the user equipment via new defined procedure for that purpose in this paper, called Quality of Service Policy based ROuting (QoSPRO). The proposed architecture for future 5G mobile networks can be implemented using components of the shelf (existing and standardized Internet technologies) and its implementation is transparent to the radio access technologies, which makes it very likeable solution for the next generation mobile and wireless networks.

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Chapter 10 ACRONYMS
1G: Old-fashioned analog mobile phone systems capable of handling very limited or no data at all. 2G: Second generation voice-centric mobile phones and services with limited data rates ranging from 9.6 kbps to 19.2 kbps. 2.5G: Initerim hardware and software mobile solutions between 2G and 3G with voice and data capabilities and data rates ranging from 56 kbps to 170 kbps. 3G: A long awaited digital mobile systems with a maximum data rate of 2 Mbps under stationary conditions and 384 kbps under mobile conditions. This technology is capable of handling streaming video two way voice over IP and Internet connectivity with support for high quality graphics. 3GPP: Third Generation Partnership Project. 3GPP is an industry body set up to develop a 3G standard based upon wideband CDMA (WCDMA). 3GPP2: Third Generation Partnership Project 2. 3GPP2 is an industry standard set up to develop a 3G standard based upon CDMA-2000. 3.5G: Interim systems between 3G and 4G allowing a downlink data rate upto 14 Mbps. Sometimes it is also called as High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). 4G: Planned evolution of 3G technology that is expected to provide support for data rates upto 100 Mbps allowing high quality and smooth video transmission. 5G: In evolutionary view it will be capable of supporting wwww allowing highly flexible dynamic adhoc wireless networks. In revolutionary view, this intelligent technology is capable of interconnecting the entire world without limits. Ad-hoc networks: It is a self configuring mobile network of routers (and hosts) connected by wireless, in which the nodes may move freely and randomly resulting in a rapid and unpredictable change in networks wireless topology. It is also called as Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET).

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Bluetooth: It is a wireless networking protocol designed to replace cable network technology for devices within 30 feet. Like IEEE 802.11b, Bluetooth also operates in unlicensed 2.4GHz spectrum, but it only supports data rates up to 1 Mbps. CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data is a wireless standard providing two way data transmission at 19.2 kbps over existing cellular phone systems. CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access, also known as CDMA-ONE or IS-95 is a spread spectrum communication technology that allows many users to communicate simultaneously using the same frequency spectrum. Communication between users are differentiated by using a unique code for each user. This method allows more users to share the spectrum at the same time than alternative technologies. CDMA-2000: Sometimes also known as IS-136 and IMT-CDMA multicarrier (1X/3X) is an evolution of narrowband radio transmission technology known as CDMA-ONE (also called CDMA or IS-95), to third generation. 1X refers to the use of 1.25 Mhz channel while 3X refers to 5 Mhz channel. DAWN: Advanced technologies including smart antenna and flexible modulation are keys to optimize this wireless version of reconfigurable adhoc networks. DSSS: In Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum, the data stream to be transmitted is divided into small pieces, each of which allocated a frequency channel. Then the data signal is combined with a higher data rate bit sequence known as chipping code that divides the data according to a spreading ratio thus allowing a resistance from interference during transmission. EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution technology gives GSM and TDMA the capability to handle 3rd generation mobile phone services with speeds upto 384 kbps. Since it uses the TDMA infrastructure, a smooth transition from TDMA based systems such as GSM to EDGE is expected. FHSS: In Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum a broad slice of bandwidth spectrum is divided into many possible broadcast frequencies to be used by the transmitted signal.

GPRS: General Packet Radio Service provides data rates upto 115 kbps for wireless Internet and other types of data communications using packet data services. GSM: Global Systems for Mobile Communication is a world-wide standard for digital wireless mobile phone systems. The standard was oroginated by the European Conference of Postal and
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Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) who was responsible for the creation of ETSI. Currently ETSI is responsible for the development of GSM standard. Mobile phones: Mobile communication systems that uses radio communication and conventional telephone switching to allow communication to and from mobile users. Photonic networks: A network of computers made up using photonic devices based on optics. The devices include photonic switches, gateways and routers. PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network is a regular voice telephone network. Spread Spectrum: It is a form of wireless communication in which the frequency of the transmitted signal is deliberately varied over a wide range. This results in a higher bandwidth of the signal than the one without varied frequency. TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access is a technology for sharing a medium by several users by dividing into different time slots transmitting at the same frequency. UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is the third generation mobile telephone standard in Europe that was proposed by ETSI. WAP: Wireless Application Protocol defines the use of TCP/IP and web browsing for mobile systems. WCDMA: Wideband CDMA is a technology for wideband digital radio communications of multimedia and other capacity demanding applications. It is adopted by ITU under the name IMT-2000 direct spread. WDM: Wavelength Division Multiplexing allows many independent signals to be transmitted simultaneously on one fiber, with each signal located at a different wavelength. Routing and detection of these signals require devices that are wavelength selective, allowing for the transmission, recovery, or routing of specific wavelengths in photonic networks. WWWW: A world wide wireless web is capable of supporting a comprehensive wireless based web application that includes full graphics and multimedia capability at beyond 4G speeds.

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Chapter 11 REFERENCES
[1] Aleksandar Tudzarov and Toni Janevski Functional Architecture for 5G Mobile Network International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 32, July, 2011 [2]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5g [3]5G: Nano core by Imtiaz ali [4] http://google.com [6] ITU-T, Y.2001, General overview of NGN, December 2004. [7] ITU-T, Y-2002, Overview of ubiquitous networking and of its support in NGN, October 2009. [8] T. Janevski, 5G Mobile Phone Concept CCNC conference in Las Vegas, 2009. [9] M. Kassar, B. Kervella, G. Pujolle, An overview of vertical handover decision strategies in heterogeneous wireless networks, Elsevier Computer Communications 31, p.2607-2620, 2008. [10] W. Luo, E. Bodanese, Optimising Radio Access in a Heterogeneous Wireless Network Environment, IEEE International Conference on Communications, Dresden, Germany, 14-18 June 2009. [11] M. Ha Nguyen Tran Hasegawa, Y. Murata, H. Harada, Representation of user satisfaction and fairness evaluation for user-centric dynamic spectrum access, Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Tokyo, Japan, 13-16 September 2009. [12] J. Perez-Romero, O. Sallent, R. Agusti, A Novel Metric for Context-Aware RAT Selection in Wireless Multi-Access Systems, ICC07, Glasgow, Scotland, 24-28 June 2007. [13] A. Tudzarov, T. Janevski, M-RATS: Mobile-based Radio Access Technology Selector for Heterogeneous Wireless Environment, Telfor 2010, Belgrade, Serbia, November 23-25, 2010. [14] ITU-T, Y.2173, Management of performance measurement for NGN, September 2008.
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[15] T. Janevski, A. Tudzarov, M. Porjazoski, P. Latkoski, System for Analyses of End-to-End Quality of Data Services in Cellular Networks, IEEE Eurocon 2009, Saint Petersburg, Russia, May 18-23, 2009.

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