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Digestion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate

a) Digestion of lipid: Hydrolization of coconut oil by lipase (from pancreatic juice) Data Collection and Data Processing: Observation Test tube after 30 minutes A Pale pink colour Pale pink Pale pink Pale pink Pale pink of the mixture colour colour colour colour remains and 2 layers of solution are produced B Pale pink colour Pale pink Very pale Colourless Colourless of the mixture colour pink /white /white becomes colour white/colourless and 2 layers of solution are produced C Pale pink colour (controlled Pale pink Pale pink Pale pink Pale pink of the mixture experiment) colour colour colour colour remains and 2 layers of solution are produced D Colourless (controlled Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless solution experiment) /white /white /white /white remains and 2 layers of solution are produced Colour change of mixture in 10 minute interval (min) 0 10 20 30 Inference No production of fatty acid and glycerol Fatty acid and glycerol are produced No production of fatty acid and glycerol No production of fatty acid and glycerol

Discussion: 1) In each test tube, a drop of soap solution is added to emulsify the coconut oil. It splits the coconut oil into smaller size and increases the surface area of coconut oil. So, rate for digestion of coconut oil by lipase will increase. 2) In test tube A, the colour of the mixture remains pale pink as the lipase used is boiled lipase that has becomes denatured and unable to digest coconut oil into fatty acid and glycerol. So, there are no production of fatty acid and glycerol. 3) In test tube B, the pale pink solution colour changes to colourless solution because the non-boiled lipase is able to function efficiently. Lipase breaks down coconut oil into simple molecules that are glycerol and fatty acid which are acidic and cause the colour of phenolphthalein to change from pale pink to colourless.

4) For controlled experiment, two test tubes are prepared. In test tube C, pancreatic juice used to show that without the presence of lipase, coconut oil can not be digested into fatty acid and glycerol. In test tube B, acidic solution is used to show that lipase can not function in acidic condition. Conclusion: The digestion of lipid by lipase produces simple substances that are fatty acid and glycerol. b) Digestion of protein: Hydrolization of fibrin by Trypsin Data Collection and Data Processing: Test tube Mixture Volume of 10% Trypsin, ml (condition) 2 (boiled) 2 (boiled) 2 (boiled) 2 (not boiled) 2 (not boiled) 2 (not boiled) 2 (boiled) 2 (not boiled) Observation Colour of Amount of the solution fibrin present Colourless A lot of fibrin present Colourless A lot of fibrin present Colourless A lot of fibrin present Colourless A lot of fibrin present Pink A little of fibrin present Red Very little of fibrin present A lot of Colourless fibrin present A little of Pink fibrin present

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (controlled experiment) 8 (controlled experiment)

2 pieces of Fibrin + 3 ml distilled water 2 pieces of Fibrin + 3 ml 0.5 M HCl 2 pieces of Fibrin + 3 ml 0.2% NaOH 2 pieces of Fibrin + 3 ml 0.5 M HCl 2 pieces of Fibrin + 3 ml distilled water 2 pieces of Fibrin + 3 ml 0.2% NaOH 2 pieces of Fibrin only 2 pieces of Fibrin only

Discussion: 1) Factors affect the activity of trypsin: (a) The state of the trypsin. Enzyme is sensitive to the low or high temperature where it can be denatured due to the extreme temperature change such as boiling. In test tube 3, the enzyme used is boiled trypsin. Although the medium condition is already acidic, the hydrolyzation of fibrin still does not occur because trypsin is already denatured due to the boiling process. Compared to test tube 6, the state of the trypsin used is not boiled and this has allowed the hydrolyzation of fibrin feasible. (b) The condition of medium for the activity of trypsin. Typsin works efficiently in basic medium which is optimum pH and terminated in the acidic. In test tube 6, the medium is basic and causes trypsin to hydrolyze fibrin which able the dye to dilute in the solution. In test tube 4, the medium are acidic. This condition caused trypsin not to hydrolyze fibrin and causes the dye not to be diluted in the solution. However, in test tube 5, the medium is neutral and this is not an optimum pH for trypsin. So, the rate of hydrolyzation of fibrin occurs at slow rate. Conclusion: Trypsin required basic medium for the digestion of fibrin. c) Digestion of carbohydrate Data Collection and Data Processing: Time, min Observation (colour change) Inference 1 Dark blue Maltose is not present 2 Dark blue Maltose is not present 3 Dark blue Maltose is not present 4 Blue A little amount of maltose present 5 Blue A little amount of maltose present 6 Dark brown Maltose is present 7 Brown Maltose is present

Test Benedict test

Observation Blue colour of Benedict solution changed to cloudy brick red precipitate

Conclusion Maltose is produced in the mixture

Discussion: 1. One of the primary goals of the digestive process is to provide every body cell with sufficient amounts of energy to sustain itself and remain alive. Many of the vital chemical reactions that take place in the cell require energy, which is derived from the oxidation of the glucose, within the cell. Glucose is carried to the cell as the end product of carbohydrate metabolism. 2. There, in the presence of enzymes and oxygen, the glucose is converted into carbon dioxide, water and energy. The carbon dioxide and water are non-essential by-products of this reaction; the important product is the heat energy, which is derived from the glucose. glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + heat 3. The oxygen used in this chemical reaction is brought from the lungs to the cells by the red blood cells, containing hemoglobin. The hemoglobin and oxygen combine chemically until enzymes in the cell separate them for the oxidation process. Glucose is one of literally hundreds of chemical compounds called carbohydrates or saccharides. The molecules of all carbohydrates are made up of building blocks called simple sugars. Carbohydrates may be subdivided into three groups: (a) Monosaccharides, like glucose, consist of a single sugar building block. (b) Disaccharides, like common table sugar (sucrose) consist of two simple sugar building blocks. (c) Polysaccharides, like starch and cellulose, consist of many simple sugar building blocks joined together in a long line in daisy-chain fashion. 4. It appears that the only carbohydrate of any chemical value to the body is the simple sugar or monosaccharide called glucose. Therefore, one of the major goals of the digestive process is to extract the glucose from the various carbohydrates that we ingest every day. Carbohydrate sources are primarily starches (like grains) and sugars (like cane sugar, milk sugar, fruit sugar). The enzyme ptyalin or amylase in the saliva begins to break down the food in the mouth. Food does not stay in the mouth long enough for ptyalin to complete the breakdown of starches. Yet the action of ptyalin continues for several hours after food has entered the stomach...until the food is mixed with the stomach secretions. Once the pH of the food's environment falls below approximately 4.0, as will occur in the second portion of the stomach, this enzyme becomes nonactive. But, before this happens, 30 to 40 percent of the starches will have been changed into maltose and isomaltose. They are now ready to enter the small intestine as part of the chyme. When muscle tone and other factors are normal, the result is a beautifully timed and regulated pumping. With each strong wave of movement, several milliliters of chyme are forced from the stomach into the duodenum. This stomach and intestinal reflex is especially sensitive to the presence of irritants, breakdown products of protein digestion, proper concentration of fluid and to substances too acid or too alkaline.

5. As covered previously, this emphasizes the need for sufficient hydrochloric acid and other gastric secretions, the importance of drinking water before eating and the avoidance of antacids or other drugs that would interfere with or halt digestion. As much as 30 to 40 percent of starches have been changed (broken down) into maltose and isomaltose (combinations of simple sugars) before reaching the small intestine. After the chyme enters the duodenum and mixes with pancreatic juice, starches, not yet split, are immediately digested by amylase. Like saliva, pancreatic secretions contains large amounts of amylase, acting identically to the amylase in saliva, splitting the starches into maltose and isomaltose. Carbohydrate, split down into simple sugar combinations (disaccharides), lactose, sucrose, maltose and isomaltose, are then split even further into just simple sugars (monosaccharides) by enzymes from the cells lining the small intestine. These simple sugars (galactose, glucose, fructose) are then absorbed into portal blood...that is, on their way to the liver. About 80 percent of the final products of carbohydrate digestion is glucose. Blood sugar is glucose.