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Gibbs equation is

du = Tds - Pdv

The enthalpy h can be differentiated,

dh = du + pdv + vdP

Combining the two results in

dh = Tds + vdP

The coefficients T and v are partial derivative of

h(s,P),

v

P

h

T

s

h

s

P

,

_

,

_

Since v > 0, an isentropic increase in pressure

will result in an increase in enthalpy.

We introduce Helmholtz function

a = u Ts

Combine Gibbs equation with the differential of

a,

da = -Pdv sdT

The coefficient P and s are the partial

derivatives of f(v,T), so

s

T

a

P

v

a

v

T

,

_

,

_

g = h Ts

dg = vdP sdT

Consequently,

s

T

g

v

P

g

P

T

,

_

,

_

Note:

1. The decrease in Helmholtz function of a

system sets an upper limit to the work done in

any process between two equilibrium states at

the same temperature during which the system

exchanges heat only with a single reservoir at

this temperature. Since the decrease in the

Helmholtz potential represents the potential to

do work by the system, it is also a

thermodynamic potential.

2. The decrease in Gibbs function of a system

sets an upper limit to the work, exclusive of

pdv work in any process between two states at

the same temperature and pressure, provided the

system exchanges heat only with a single

reservoir at this temperature and that the

surroundings are at a constant pressure equal to

that in the end states of the pressure.

The maximum work is done when the process is

isothermal isobaric. Gibbs function is also called

Chemical Potential.

Some important property relations

dz(x,y) = Mdx + Ndy

where, M =

y

x

z

,

_

N =

x

y

Z

,

_

differential, which simply means that z is a

continuous function of the two independent

variables x and y. Since the order in which a

second partial derivative is taken is unimportant,

it follows that,

Maxwells relations:

] equation [From

] equation [From

] equation [From

] equation [From

sdT vdP dg

P

s

T

v

sdT Pdv da

v

s

T

P

vdP Tds dh

s

v

P

T

Pdv Tds du

s

P

v

T

T P

T v

P s

v s

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

y

x

x

P

y

M

,

_

,

_

Mnemonic Diagram

The differential expressions for the

thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell relations

can be remembered conveniently in terms of a

thermodynamic Mnemonic diagram.

The diagram consists of a square with two

diagonal arrows pointing upwards and the

thermodynamic potentials in alphabetical order

clockwise on the sides as shown in figure. The

natural variables associated with each potential

are placed in the corners.

Diagonal arrows indicate the coefficients

associated with the natural variables in the

differential expression of the potential. The sign

of the coefficient depends on whether the arrow

is pointing towards (- ve) or away from the

natural variable (+ ve).

For example,

du = (sign)(coeff.) ds + (sign)(coeff.) dv

du = (sign)Tds + (sign)Pdv

du = +Tds - Pdv

To write the Maxwell relations we need to

concentrate on the direction of the arrows and

the natural variables only.

If both the arrows pointing in the same direction,

there is no need to change the sign, otherwise

the equation should carry a negative sign.

The internal energy

u = u(T,v)

For a simple compressible substance,

dv P

v

u

T

dT

T

C

ds

dv

v

u

dT C du

T

v

T

v

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

+

1

Taking entropy as a function of temperature and

volume,

Using thrid Maxwell's relation,

1

From this we obtain

u

v

v

v

T v T

T v

C s

T T

s P u

P

v T T v

P

T P

T

,

1

_ _ _

+

1

, , ,

]

_ _

, ,

This important equation expresses the

dependence of the internal energy on the volume

at fixed temperature solely in terms of

measurable T, P and v. This is helpful in

construction of tables for u in terms of measured

T, P and v.

For a perfect gas,

Pv = RT

u

0

v

v

T

P R

T v

R

T P P P

v

,

This implies that, for a perfect gas, internal

energy is independent of density and depends

only on T.

v

v

C P

ds dT dv

T T

_

+

,

Similarly it can be shown using Fourth

Maxwells relation that

P

P

C v

ds dT dP

T T

_

+

,

Using the above two equations and solving for

dP,

( )

( / )

( / ) /

P v v

P

P

C C P T

dP dT dv

T v T u T

Considering P as a function of T and v, we see

that

Two thermodynamic properties can be defined

at this stage,

is called the isobaric compressibility and is

called the isothermal compressibility.

From calculus, it can be shown that,

( / )

P v

v P

C C P

T v T T

_

,

1

P

v

v T

,

1

T

v

v P

,

1

,

( / )

v P T

P

v

T

P T v

T v P

or

v T P

v

T

P

_ _ _

, , ,

_

_

,

,

Therefore,

Since

( )

/

T

v P

is always negative for all stable

substances, C

P

is always greater that C

v

( )

( )

2

/

/

P

P v

T

T v P

C C

v P

1

]

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