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,:::.EssayWriting Unil | - o"rtnsorsanised At the end of this unitstudentsshouldbe ableto: .

,:::.EssayWriting

Unil | - o"rtnsorsanised At the end of this unitstudentsshouldbe ableto: . understandmoreaboutthe requirementsof
Unil
| - o"rtnsorsanised
At the end of this unitstudentsshouldbe ableto:
.
understandmoreaboutthe requirementsof
writingan academicessay;
1.1Smallgroup work
Setthisactivity,askingstudentsto underlinethe
wordsin the essaytitlesthat helpedthem identify
the essaytype.You mayneedto spendsometime
clarifyingthe differentessaytypes in a plenary
sessionat the end of the activitv.
.
oroducea clearoutline.
Title
Type
Task1 Basicprinciplesof
essaywriting
Usingyourpersonal
exoerience,describea
descriptive+ personal
expenence
padicularlyinteresting
culturalencounter.
Leadin by askingstudentsto discuss,in pairs,their
worst and best essay-writingexperience.Aftera
briefround-up,elicitdifferenttypesof essayand
writestudents'suggestionson the board.Thenask
studentsto comparethe ideason the boardwith
the listinTask1.Ask studentsto work in small
groups,sayingwhatthey understandeachtypeto
What arethe main
arqumentsfor and aoainst
the implementationof very
highratesof taxation?
argumenr
oe.
Howgooddo youthink
the authoris at creating
the charactersin this
story?Analysethe
characterisationand give
examples.
evaluative+ analvtical
The most efficientform of
transportis the train.
Discuss.
evaluative
Usingthe statisticsin the
accompanyingtable,write
an analyticaldescriotionof
the riseinthe numberof
Britishhouseholds.
analytical+ descriptive
TheEuropeanUnionis
alreadyfar too big.
Discuss.
argument
Learninga languageis
one of the bestforms ol
educationalactivity.Do
you agree?
evaluative+ argument
1.2Smallgroup work
Answers:
a) introduction
b) body
c) conclusion
E0
Task:Teacher'sBook - ModuleI - Elsay Wriling
1.3Pairwork/small grouPwork In orderto preparethe wayfor the task,you could 'model' ldentify Analyse Describe
1.3Pairwork/small grouPwork
In orderto preparethe wayfor the task,you could
'model'
ldentify
Analyse
Describe
Commenton
Givethemain
ldentifythe
Describeitems Examinein
copy a shoft
essayonto card (oneper
thatbelongto
detailby
features,
mainissues
pairlsmallgroup),cut it up intoparagraphsand ask
the pairs/groupsto put the piecesintothe correct
order.The studentscould then usethe essayas a
concreteexampleon whichto basetheir
discussionsof Exercise1.3questions.Encourage
studentsto makenoteson theirdiscussions.They
can usethesein a plenarysessionat the end of the
a particular
dividingup.
characteristics andgivean
calegory.
ldentifythe
orevents.
informed
main points
oprnton.
Discuss
Evaluate
Exemplify
Gompare
Describethe
Lookatthe
Assesshow
Showwhat
mainelements mostimportant impodantor
somethingis
like,using
oftwoormore aspectsof
useful
thingstoshow somethingina
somethingis.
exampres.
activityin which they feed back to the class.
howtheyare
balancedway,
Itislikelyto
1.4 Individual work/Pairwork
Accordingto the needsof yourstudents, you might
needto pre-teachthe following:
similar.
i.e.,
includeboth
advantages
positiveand
Possibly
explainthe
ano
negative
consequences disadvantages;
nnintc
ofthe
forand
edit (a piece of writing);
source material;
to draft (a Piece of writing);
proofread (a Piece of writing);
paraphrase.
similarities.
against.
Task3 Brainstormingideas
Ask studentsto completethe questionnaireand
thencomparetheiranswerswith a partner's.
Explainto the studentsthat once they have
understoodthe essaytask that has beenset,the
next stageis to brainstormideason the topic of the
essay.
Task2 Analysingthe essay
question
3.1 Individualwork
2.1 Pairwork
Thisactivitycouldbe tackledin a numberof ways
accordingto the needsof yourstudents.You could
ask pairsof studentsto explainthe differencesin
meaningbetweenthe instructionwords.
Modelfreewritingfor yourstudentson the board,
explainingthattheyshouldkeeptheirpens/pencils
on the paperat alltimesandthattheyshouldwrite
continuouslyfor two minutes.Tellthemthatthis is
possibleas they are not expectedto edit their ideas
Alternatively, you couldusethe photocopiable
vocabulary grid below,copyingthe largerversion
on page72,an givingonecardto eachstudentin
your class.Ask each studentto readhis/hefcard
and look up any words they are unsureof. Thenask
the studentsto stand up and move aroundthe
room,teachingtheirwordto anothermemberof the
group,who thenreciprocatesby teachinghis/her
word.Whenbothstudentshavefinishedexplaining,
the pair swap cards and then each studentlooksfor
a new partnerto teach his/herword to.
but simplywritewhatevercomesintotheirheadson
the topic of transporting goodsby road.Whenthe
studentshavedonethis,put themto work in small
groups,comparingtheirtextsfor similarideasor
themes.Havea brief plenarysessionin whichyou
collectsomeideason the board.
3.2 Small group work
Leadin by askingstudentsto shuttheireyesand
picturea lorryin the middleof a town. Elicitwhether
the imagethe studentssaw was a positiveone,
e.g.,a lorrydeliveringmedicinesto a hospital;a
negativeone,e.g.,a lorrystuckin a traffic-jamwith
blacksmokecomingout of itsexhaust;or a more
neutralimage.Introducethe topic of banninglorries
fromtownsand cities,askingstudentsto thinkof
anythingthat comesintotheirheadson thistopic
andthensharingideaswiththe restof theirgroup.
Providean OHTand penfor eachgroupif you
wouldlikethe studentsto sharetheirideasin a
brief plenaryat the end of the task.
5l
Task:Teacher'sEook - ModuleI - EssayWdting
Unil ?-o",.insstarted At theendof thisunitstudentswill: a group. o be betterequippedto startwritingan essay; o
Unil
?-o",.insstarted
At
theendof thisunitstudentswill:
a group.
o
be betterequippedto startwritingan essay;
o
understandhowto writea thesisstatement;
Task4 Organisingyour ideas
.
haveideason howto makethe introduction
interestingfor the reader.
BeforesettingExercise4.1,askstudentsto work in
smallgroupsanalysingthe question.Referthe
studentsbackto Exercises .1.1 and2.1in Unit1.
Task1 Whatto include
The purposeof thistask isto encouragestudents
4.1Individualwork
to selectrelevantinformationandto prioritisethe
Setthis activityas individualwork,explainingthat
afterfiveminutesthe smallgroupswill re-formto
exchangeideas.
selectedinformationbeforeorganisingit in a logical
way.
4.2 Smallgroup work
Thisactivitywill probablygo betterif you provide
studentswith41 paperand somepost-itnotes,one
for eachidea.Thisallowsthe groupsto moveideas
around,beforefixingtheirpositionon the Al paper
and connectingthe ideastogetherwitharrows.
Allow15-20minutesfor this step.Eachgroup
shouldpresentits essay-posterin a plenarysession
at the end of the activityandthe essay-posterscan
thenforma walldisolav.
1.1Individualwork/small group work
First,askstudentsto evaluatethe imporlanceof the
pointsindividuallyandthenaskthemto discuss
theirideasin smallgroups.Theremay be some
variationin answers,dependingon the argument
studentswishto pursue.
a)
|
b)
U - this couldbe backgroundinformation,
but shouldnot take up a majorpartof the
c)
e)
Possiblequestionsyourstudentsmightaddress
are:
a)
Who suffersfrom trafficcongestion?
b)
What problemsare causedby traffic
congestion?
c)
Whatarethe possiblesolutions?
d)
Whatarethe bestsolutions?
| - the studentsshouldbe encouragedto see
that it is not so mucha listthat is reouiredas
an evaluationof thesesolutions.
U/Nl - the studentsshouldbe encouragedto
carryout researchto findsupporting
evidence.Theyshouldprobablybroadenthe
scopeof the essaybeyondtheirimmediate
surroundings.
e)
Whyarethesethe bestsolutions?
g)
f)
Whichsolutionsarenot effective?Whv?
| - argumentsfor or againstvarioussolutions
shouldformthe mainbodyof the essay.
lf youfeelsomepeerevaluationwouldbe usefulat
this juncture, elicitsomecriteriafor feedbackon the
plansfromthe groupandwritethesecriteriaon the
board.Provideeachsmallgroupwith post-itnotes
of a differentcolourto the firstset and assignthem
the taskof workingtogetherto evaluateanother
smallgroup'splan.Ask eachgroupto chooseone
memberto act as a scribewho writesthe group's
commentson the oost-itnotesandthensticks
themontothe relevantolan.
1.2Individualwork
Inorderto helpstudentsunderstandthe principlesof
orderinginformation,it mightbeworthmodellingthe
firsthalfof an essayon thetopic. Elicitwhichof the
itemsmentionedinthe listin Exercise '1.1 would
comefirstand why (e.9.,definitionso that the writer
establishescommongroundwiththe reader,etc.).
Elicitwhatwouldcomenextandwhy,andso on.
Thensetthe remainderof thetaskas individualwork.
Ask studentsto comparetheiranswersin pairs.
E?
Task:Teacher'sBoEk - ModuleI - EssayWriting
Task2 Information gathering Answers: 21 Pairwork -ncouragethe pairsto thinkof typesof information source.To helpthem
Task2 Information gathering
Answers:
21 Pairwork
-ncouragethe pairsto thinkof typesof information
source.To helpthem in thistask,drawtheir
attentionto the visuals.
a)HOWthe criminal justicesystemfunctionsin
my country.
b)TheQUESTIONSleftunansweredby the Big
BangTheory.
SOLUTIONSto copingwith sea-level
") MO
rISES:
.
Possibleanswers,dependingon availability,
nclude:
educationon the effectsof sea-levelrises
r
accurateforecastingof its hazards
books
4.2 lndividualwork
newspaperafticles
journalarticles
Drawstudents'attentionto the languageissues
relatedto the essayorganisationsignpostingsection:
websites
documentaries
a)
Useof impersonalsubject,e.9.,Thisessaystarts
'l
(NOT
2.2Individualwork
by discussingdefinitionsof
willstart".')
Thisexerciseoffersthe opportunityfor studentsto
evaluatetheirstrengthsandweaknesses,so the
answerswillvaryfromstudentto student.
b) Choicebetweenraril//presentsimple,e.9.,This
essaywillfirstoutline
andthenit
willdiscuss
or
Thisessayfirstoutlrnes
andthenit
discusses
2.3 Plenary
Theplenaryprovidesyou withthe opportunityto
findout whichskillsareasworryyourstudentsthe
mostandthis informationcouldprovidea rationale
c) Typicalsentencestructures,e.9.,Inthe first
section,X is defined.(prepositionalphrase+
passivevoice)or TheessayfirstdefinesX' ('The
for someremedialwork on areasof perceived
weaKness.
essay'as subject+ activevoice)
Ask studentsto use a varietyof structuresto
Task3 Arousinginterest:
completeExercise4.2.
Theintroduction
4.3 Individualwork
As a lead-into Task3 you could photocopya
numberof introductionsto essayson topicswith
whichyourstudentsarefamiliarand askthemto
choosetheirfavouriteintroduction,givingreasons
for theirchoice.
Modelthistaskfor yourstudents, possiblytaking
two differentviewsabout possiblesolutionsto the
problemsof trafficcongestionand showinghowthe
3.1 Individualwork/Pairwork
differentviewswouldresultin differentthesis
statements.Circulateand correct yourstudents'
work wherenecessary.
Answer:a)
3.2 IndividualworUpairwork/plenary
Whilethe studentsarewriting,circulateand correct
anylanguageerrorsintheirwork.At the end of the
task,collectsomeexamplesof firstsentencesfor
oneof the essaytopicson the board.Thenask
studentsto work rnpairs,drscussingwhichfirst
sentencetheypreferand why. Elicitpreferences
and reasonsin a brief PlenarY.
4.4 Individualwork
Returnto the two examples you modelledin
Exercise4.3 and showyourstudentshowthe
signpostingstatementswoulddifferdueto
differencesin the thesisstatements.Circulateand
correctyour students'work wherenecessary.
Examoleanswer:
Task4 Writinga thesisstatement
4.1lndividualwork
lf yourstudentsareunfamiliarwiththe notionof a
controllingidea,you shouldmodelthe firstexample
on the board.
Thereis growing agreement that the way to control
the congestion that ruinsour towns and citiesis to
tax the motorist. Ihis essay will argue for the useof
varioustaxation poticiesto addressthe traffic
congestion problem in Britain, using London and
Edinburghas examples.lt will first evaluate
congestion charging as one posslb/e solution, and
then discussthe effectof motorwaytolls.
lask: Teacher'sEook - ModuleI - EssayWriting
63
5.3 & 5.4 Individualwork/pairwork 5.1 Smaligroup,work You couldphotocopythe sentencesof the
5.3 & 5.4 Individualwork/pairwork
5.1 Smaligroup,work
You couldphotocopythe sentencesof the
introductionontocard,onecopy persmallgroup,
and askthe studentsto work in theirgroupsto re-
formthe introduction,
Ask studentsto applythe criteriain Exercise5.3to
the introductiongivenin Exercise5.4 and make
notesin theircoursebooks.
Answers:
Alternatively,youcouldturnthisactivityintoa
runningdictationby cuttingup onecopy of the
sentencesand blu-tackingthe sentencesontoone
wallof yourclassroom.Ask studentsto work in
pairs,oneplayingthe roleof runnerandthe other
thatof scribe.Movea lineof desksto the farendof
the classroomoppositethe wallwiththe sentences
on it.Askthe scribesto sit behindthesedesks.
Clearthe otherfurnitureto the sideof the roomto
providea clearpathfor the runners.Giveeach
scribefive stripsof paperto writethe five sentences
on.Tellthe runnersto runto the otherendof the
room, reada sentenceand memoriseas much of it
as possible,includingthe punctuation,andthenrun
backto their oartnerand dictate.The scribenotes
downthe dictation.Therunnerreturnsto memorise
the next part, andso on.Whenallthe sentences
havebeenwrittendown by the scribe,the pair
shouldorganisethe fivesentencesinto a general-
specificintroduction.Thepairswho finishquickest
canthencomparethe accuracyof theirdictation
withthe sentencesgiveninthe coursebook.
Yourstudentsshouldnoticethatthe thesis
statementfailsto explainthe focusof the essay,
thoughit can be inferredthatthe essaywillexamine
the effectsof GM foodson people'senvironment
andtheirhealth.
5.5 Individualwork/pairwork
Takein and correctthe introductions.Ask students
to preparea correctedcopy of theirintroductions
for a peer evaluationsessioninthe nextclass.
Encouragethe studentsto referbackto the criteria
listedin Exercise5.3to helpwiththe taskof
evaluatingthe introductions.
Unil
3
- rhebodyortheessay
At
the end of this unitstudentswill:
r
havea clear idea how to structurethe main paft
of an academicessay;
o
know how to plan and write effectiveparagraphs.
Task1 Paragraphorganisation
1.1Individualwork/plenary
Answers:
Answers:
a)true
e),b),a),d),c)
b)false
5.2 Pairwork
c) true
Answers:
a) Statementse), b) and a) are generaland give
importantbackgroundinformationto helpthe
readerunderstandthe contextof the oroblem.
d)false - examples,figuresand statisticsare
threetypesof supportingmaterial.Thereare
othertypestoo, dependingon yourdiscipline.
e.9.,paraphrasing/quotingopinionsgivenin
b) Statementc) is the thesisstatement.The
essaywillfollowthe orderoutlinedinthe
thesisstatementand willfocuson evaluating
solutions.
authoritativesources
e)false - as notedabove,supportcan be given
throughquotingotherauthorities,but you carl
also paraphrase
c) The body of the essaywill requireat leastsix
paragraphsas sentenced) listsfourdirect
oroblemsandtwo knock-onoroblems.The
essaywill probablybe organisedas a
Problem-Solution-Evaluationtext.
f) true
54 fask: Teacher'sBook - ModuleB - EssayWriling
1.2lndividualwork Answer: 1 Thefirstepisodein the Coca-Colastoryis an imporlantpartof the riseof capitalismin the
1.2lndividualwork
Answer:
1 Thefirstepisodein the Coca-Colastoryis an
imporlantpartof the riseof capitalismin the
UnitedSiates of America.Towardsthe end of
the nineteenthcentury,Americagradually
beganto transformitselffrom a nationof
farmersto a city-based,industrialisedsociety.
The industrialrevolutionwas epitomisedby
newcommunicationsandthe arrivaland
spreadof the railways.Thisproduceda new
kindof capitalism,a distinctiveAmerican
varietywherethe ethoscentredfirmlyon the
imageof individualimmigrantstruggle.The
worldof US businesswas on itswav.
Oneof the mostimportantchangesthat
helpedbusinesssuccesswas population
growth.TheAmericanpopulationalmost
doubledin sizebetween1880and 1910,a
largepartof whichwas new immigrantsfrom
Eurooeandthe restof the world.Success
camefromambitionand hardwork and
anybodycouldmakelargeamountsof money
providedtheyworkedhardenough.Helpedby
the successof some,immigrantsflockedto
the USA.By 1890,therewerealreadyover
Anotherimportantaspectof the siory is that
the worldof medicinewas not advancedat
thistime.Nineteenth-centuryAmerican
doctorswerenot numerous,norwerethey
very good (anaestheticswere stillto be
inventedandsomeof the primitivemethods
usedby the medicalprofessionwere
terrifying,killingmorepatientsthanthey
saved).Thiswasthe reasonwhy manypeople
turnedto alternativeremedies,the so-called
patentmedicines,to solvetheirhealth
problems.By the end of the century,there
werethousandsof cureson offerfor every
imaginableailment,fromthe commoncoldto
malaria,allof whichrequiredextensive
advertisingin newspapersand publicplaces
to promotetheirsuperiorvaluesovertheir
competitors.
4,000AmericanmillionairesandAndrew
Carnegie,who had madea fortunefrom
railwaysand ironand steel,was spreadingthe
"Gospelof Wealth".
To conclude,it is not surprisingthat many
would-betycoonswereattractedby the rising
numbersof consumers,andthatthefieldof
patentmedicineswas an attractivestafting
point for some.In 1869,DrJohnPemberton,a
Georgiapharmacist,had movedto Atlanta
searchingto makehisfoftuneby the discovery
of the perfectpatentcure.In 1886,afterlong
yearsof research,hefinallylaunchedhisnew
invention.lt was intothisverycrowdedanc
over-competitivemarketthat Coca-Colawas
to emergeas a highlysuccessfulproduct.
Task2 Linkingwordsand phrases
Therewere,however,somedisadvantagesto
the newbusinessenvironment.In manyparts
of the USA,therewas morethanan element
of the WildWest.Conmen,thievesand
swindlerscameto the newtownsthat were
appearing,lookingfor suitablevictims.A
secondmajordisadvantagewasthat Coke
was originallya patentmedicineand only
abouttwo oercentof the medicines produced
everbecamewell-known - mostinventorsand
salesmenfailedmiserably.Thirdly,although
largeprofitscouldbe madefromall kindsof
medicines,manyof whichoftencost almost
nothingto produce,by the late1880sthe
marketfor medicineswas alreadysaturated.
Patentmedicines,therefore,were not an easy
commercialareato breakinto.
2.1Individualwork
Answers:
Firstly = Thefirstepisode
Secondly = Oneof the mostimporlantchanges
Thirdly = Therewere,however,some
disadvantages
Fourthly = Anotherimportantaspect
FinallY = To conclude
2.2 Individualwork/pairwork
Answers:
Showingsimilarity -
in the same way
Comparingor contrasting - on the other hand
Addingsomething - equallyimportant;another
important aspect
Givingreasons
Showingcauseand effect - as a result;
therefore
Givingan example - as shown by; for instance;
like
Task:Teacher'sBook - ModuleI - EssayWriling
E5
the answersto the question, ,, "t,.ilO askstudentsto addto thelinkersineach 4.2,4,3 & 4.4
the answersto the question,
,, "t,.ilO askstudentsto addto thelinkersineach
4.2,4,3 & 4.4 Pairwork/individualwork
Afterthe discussiontask in Exercise4.2,the
remainingtwo exercisescould be set for
homework.
Task3 Thetopic sentenceand
supportingsentences
Unil
4-ru,nmariesand
3.1 Pairwork
conclusions
Answer:c)
At the endof this unitthe studentswill:
3.2 Smallgroup work
Answer:
. havea clearideaof howto finishan academic
essaywith a successfulconclusion.
ExampleA is a better-formed paragraph
becauseit developsthe ideastatedin the topic
Task 1 Restatingthe thesis
sentence.ln contrast,ExampleB tendsto
digressfrom the topic sentencestatement
(challengesfor incomingfamilies)intoan
argumentaboutthe humanrightsof incomers.
1.1Pairwork
Answers:
Original
Synonym
3.3 Individualwork
lackol
insufficient
Responsesherewill vary.lt is a good ideato take
consequences
impact
thiswork in and checkit.
travellers
commuters
Task4 Organisingan essay
majorpoint
matnTocus
4.1 Individual work/pairwork/small
group work
discussed
explored
Paragraph begins
Topic
Order
1.2Individualwork/pairwork
Anotherimportantaspectof
the storyis that the world of
medicinewas not advancedat
thistime.
the worldof
4
Possibleanswer:
medicine
Inconclusion,this essayhasarguedthat
insufficientinvestmentin Britain's public
transportsystemhas had a negativeimpacton
Therewere,however,some
disadvantagesto the new
businessenvironment.
disadvantages
3
commutersinthiscountry.
to the
business
environment
Task2 Organisingthe concluding
paragraph
To conclude,it is not
surprisingthat manywould-be
tycoonswereattractedby the
risingnumbersof consumers
and that the fieldof patent
medicineswas an attractive
starting pointfor some.
thefieldof
patent
medicines
was an
attractiveone
2.1 Individual work/pairwork
Ask studentsto do thistask individuallyandthen
compareanswerswith a partner.
for would-be
rycoons
Answer:
One of the most important
changesthat helpedbusiness
successwas population
growth.
population
2
b),a),d), c), e)
growth
,l
The first eoisodein the Coca-
Cola storyis an importantpart
of the riseof capitalismin the
UnitedStatesof America.
the riseof
capitalism
5E
Task:Teacher'sBook - ModuleB - EssayWriling
Task3 Finishwith a clearstatement 1.1& 1.2Individualwork/pairwork Answers: Feature Informal/spoken
Task3 Finishwith a
clearstatement
1.1& 1.2Individualwork/pairwork
Answers:
Feature
Informal/spoken
Formal/written
3.1
Pairwork
examples
examples
Possibleanswers:
Useof
contractions
fullformsused,
a) Fastfood and its impacton healthin Britain.
contractions
useo,e.9.,
e.9.,which,
Possibletitle = Discussthe impactof fast
food on healthin Britain.
isn't,don't, eIc.
which'd
would
Useof fillers
used,e.9.,weL
not used
b) In a similarveinto the introduction,the
conclusionstatesthat fast food playsa role
in Britons'unhealthydietaryhabits.The
conclusionaddsthe idea,however,that
increasedconsumptionof fastfood is an
effectof changesin lifestyleand it is these
that underliethe developmentof an
increasinglyunhealthyBritain.
Well,
er
eIc.
um,
er
Useof passive
activevoice
votce
preferred,
e.9.,you could
lookat how
morefrequent,
e.9.,two main
branches may be
distinguished
human beings
adapt
themselvesto
the environment,
that's human
3.2Individualwork
Thisactivitycouldbe set for homework.
lmpersonaland
Non-useof
objective
personal
3.3
Pairwork
pronouns,e.9.,/,'
Possibleanswers:
the readeris not
mentioned
Advantages:
You knowthe destinationof youressay.
Yourconclusionmatchesvourthesisstatement.
Disadvantages:
Personaland
Useof personal
subjective
pronouns,e.9.,/
fhrnk;addresses
listeneras you
As you arewriting,you maychangeyour
argument.lf you forgetto changeyour
conclusion,it will not matchyourthesis
statement.
Punctuation
Usesintonation
Uses
punctuation
lmprecise
e.9.,somesorf
Avoids
ranguage
Task4 Lecturerexpectations
of mix of
physical and
socialsciences
imprecision
4.1
lndividualwork
Conciseness
Usesa clauseto
Prefersconcise
Thisactivitycouldbe set for homework.lt might
formthe basisof a tutorialif thesefeaturein your
expressan idea,
forms,e.9.,noun
e.9.,how they
phrasesfor an
interact together
idea,e.g.the
course.
interrelationof
thesefeatures
Unil
5-n""oemicstyte
1.3Pairwork
and
register
Answers:
a)l
s)l
At the end of this unitstudentswill:
b)F h)l
.
be morefamiliarwiththe languageof essaysand
ableto identifysomeof the featuresof academic
style;
c) F
i)
F
d)r
j)
|
e)F k)l
.
havepractisedusingformal,objectivelanguage.
f)IDF
Task1 Formalor informal
register?
Task2 Gautiouslanguage
Leadin by focusingthe students'attentionon the
visualsand eliciiingthe differencesbetweenthe
formaland informalsituation.
2.1 lndividualwork
Answer:
Hedginglanguage
Task:Teacher'rBook - MotluleB - EssayWriling
67
Hedging feature Example hedgingverbs,e.9., Somecolleges aopearto appear to be appearto havelargenumbersof
Hedging feature
Example
hedgingverbs,e.9.,
Somecolleges
aopearto
appear to be
appearto havelargenumbersof international
students.
have
Thiswouldseemto be
Erlichman'sfindingssuggest
thiswouldseemto
be
It couldbe arguedthat,insteadof coming
here,internationalstudentsshouldstudyin
theirown country.
The surveytendsto indicate
that
Useof modalverbs
Thiswouldseemto
be
Thiswouldseemto be a misapplicationof
governmentpolicy.
thismaybe
true
the amountof independent
studymightbe
To a certainextent,this may be true.
Qualifyingexpressions
Erlichman'sfindingssuggestthatthe amount
of independentstudymightbe directly
relatedto higherperformancelevels.
It couldbe arguedthat
To a certainextent,
Evidenceindicatesthat
Adjectivesand adverbs
inflationwill
probably not
Evidenceindicatesthat inflationwillprobably
not risenext year.
Thesurveytendsto indicatethat English
schoolchildrenareapparentlynot in favourof
learningmoreforeignlanguages.
nse
Englishschoolchildrenare
apparentlynot infavour
Thereare undoubtedly
situationswhere
theonlypossiblesolution.
Set exoressions
Thereareundoubtedlysituationswherethis
wouldseemto bethe onlypossiblesolution.
Task3 Registerin use
3.1 & 3.2 Individualwork/pairwork
Ask studentsto work throughthe task, compare
witha partnerandthenlookat the originaltext in
Unit3, Exercise2.1together.
Possibleanswers:
A massivechange - one which reallyhelped
business - was
more oeoplearrivingin the USA
Therewere two times as manypeoplewho got
herebetween 1880and 1910 and lots of them
came from all sorts of differentplaceslike
Europe.lf ypy wanted to be successfu/you had
to work really hard: however, ypu could get ich
quickly if you did this. Lots of immigrants made it
and becauseof this,lots more wannabe
millionairesturned up ln fhe US.By 1890,
America maybe had around 4,000 millionaires.
One of the best wasAndrew Carnegie,who Wt
rich through trains and iron and sfee/.Hrs
message was called the "Gospel of Wealth".
EE
Tark: leacher's Book - ModuleI - EssayWriling
3.3 Pairwork/individual work 2.2 Pairworklsmal I group work/plenary Askstudentsto work in pairsto identify
3.3 Pairwork/individual work
2.2 Pairworklsmal I group work/plenary
Askstudentsto work in pairsto identify
inappropriatelanguageand placeswherehedging
wouldbe appropriate.
Possibleanswers:
Redrafting:
Gonsiderations
things to work on:
paragrapns
r
the rightstructure
Modelanswer:
r
A further kind of useful alternativefuel is
eachparagraphhasa
mainidea
electricity.At present,this would not seem to be
o
paragraphsare in the
rightorder
a very efficient fuel, becausethe technology is
somewhat limited; however,it may be argued
that recent advancesin the production of electric
carscould make this a realityin the future. Cars
powered with electricity tend to releaselittle or
no emissions,so fo maximise this benefit it
would be advisableto encourageconsumers to
switch to buying electric cars.Changing
consumer preferencesmay take some time.
grammar
. articles
.
sentence grammar
.
word order
.
accuratelinkwords
lengthof essay
respectthe instructions
vocabulary
accurateuseof technical
IETMS
argumenl
o evidencesupportsthe
claimmadein a
paragrapn
Unil
E - or,oetinesforthefuture
e the mainclaimssupport
the thesisstatement
At
the end of this unitthe studentswill:
.
understandthe editingand redraftingprocesses
r the thesisstatementis
echoedby the summary
sentencein the
conclusion
in essaywriting;
o
havea clearerunderstandingof what lecturers
expectfroma pieceof academicwriting.
o the argumentis relevant
to the questionset
sources
.
accurate quotations
. accurate
paraphrasing
Task1 Thingsto remember
o adeouateand accurate
referencing
1.1lndividualwork
. accuratebibliography
Answerswillvaryfromstudentto student.
formalstyle
. impersonal,objective
IOne
Task2 Redrafting
o
formalvocabulary,e.9.,
latinate
2.1 Plenary
o
fullforms
r
Answers:
avoidscolloouialisms
and idiomaticlanguage
a) probablya minimumof two
b) relevanceof the answerto the title;
.
.
logicalorganisationof ideas;
Task3 Howto get a bettermark
.
substantiationof claims;
o
accurateparaphrasing;
3.1 Pairwork
.
adequatereferencingand bibliography;
Ask studentsto discussin pairsthe answersto this
r
accuratelanguage.
task.
Answers:
c), 0
3.2 IndividualworUplenary
Ask studentsto makea noteof theirown examples.
Thenelicitsomeof thesein a briefplenarysession.
Task:Teacher'rBook - ModuleI - EssayWriling
E9
Marking criteria Mark (%) ideasgenerallynot madeclearand often irrelevant;weak paragraphs;smallrange of
Marking criteria
Mark (%)
ideasgenerallynot madeclearand often
irrelevant;weak paragraphs;smallrange
of vocabulary;grammaticalstructureis
verv limited
40-49
ideasgenerallyclearbut not alwaysvery
relevant;some lackof paragraphing;
limitedrangeof vocabulary;limited
grammaticalstructureat times
50-59
lacksany satisfactoryorganisationor
developmentof ideas;vocabularyuse
veryweak;unsatisfactoryuseof
grammaticalstructure;generallyfailsto
meetthe requiredpassstandard
30-39
excellenttext organisation;clear
paragraphswith well-expressedideas;
wide rangeof vocabulary; good useof
grammaticalstructure
70+
good text organisationwith generally
relevantideas;adequaterangeof
vocabularyand grammaticalstructure
60-69
Task4Amodelessay
4.1 lndividualwork
Answers:
Essaytitle: Discussthe problemsassociated
with urbanovercrowdingand evaluatepossible
solutions.
4.2 lndividualwork/pairwork
Ask studentsto work throughthe questionson their
own andthencomparetheiranswerswith a
paftner's.
Answers:
a) The writer arousesinterestin the readerby
underliningthe globalnatureand actualityof
the problem.
b) The purposeof this essayis to identify
solutionsto someof theseproblemsof urban
overcrowdingand attemptto evaluatetheir
feasibility.
4.3Individualwork
Thistasklendsitselfto homework.Afterstudents
haveworkedon the task individually,theyshould
comparenoteswitha Partner.
70 Task:Teacher'rBook - ModuleE - EssayWriling
Answers: Paragraph1 Topic sentence key words: Urban overcrowding = hasbecomea global phenomenon Support examplesand
Answers:
Paragraph1
Topic sentence key words: Urban
overcrowding = hasbecomea global
phenomenon
Support examplesand evidence:Riseof
megacities -
around20 millionpopulation=
impoftanttrendin last20 years,e.9.,NewYork
Paragraph2
Topic sentence key words: Reasonsfor
megacities'growth:economicsecurity -r
imorovedsocialconditions
Support examplesand evidence:Cities
developas economiccentres,e.9.,post-2"dWW
megacities:Sydney,Sao Paulo+ Frankfutt;
Tokyo - expandedin linewiththe city's
economicgrowth
Paragraph3
Topic sentence key words: No. 1 problem=
poverty+ inabilityof developingcountriesto
copewith highpopulationdensityin cities
Support examplesand evidence:Rural)
urbanmigration:livein shantytownson edgeof
city.Problems:unsanitarylivingconditions;
infectiousdiseases.Vaccessto healthcare+
education
Paragraph4
Topic sentence key words: Two main
solutions:bothrelocateurbanpopulationoutside
cities.
Support examplesand evidence: '1"'solution -
resettlement,e.g.,Shanghaihousing
resettlementproject - successful)
social+
economicbenefitsBUTnot address problemof
urbansprawl.
Paragraph5
Topic sentence key words: 2"dsolution =
relocationof employersto ruralareas
Suppoft examplesand evidence:e.9.,
brownfieldsitesin ruralareasbecomebusiness
parks - successfulin Canada& UK BUT:
1) requireslong-terminvestmentby government
as peoplewillonlyrelocateif havebetter
housing,education,transPoft , etc.
2) threatto ruralenvironmentaccordingto
environmentalists.

4.4Paiworn

Answers:

a) paragraphsl&2

b) paragraphs4&5

c) paragraph3

4.5Pairwork

Answers:

a) suggestionthat long-termmeasureswould benefitthe livesof all city dwellers

b) generalisesabout the type of solutionsthat wouldworkwell,i.e.,long-termones

4.6 Individualwork/Pairwork Ask studentsto work alone,underliningexamples of assertivelanguagefirst.Theyshouldcompare with a partnerand then work as a pair,adding cautiouslanguageto the text. Answerswill vary from pairto pair.

lf you havea largeclass,you could give halfthe pairsa photocopyon OHTof the first halfof the text, and halfa photocopyon OHTof the second halfof the text. When each pair has identifiedoverly assertivelanguageand rewrittenusingcautious languageon the OHT,the pairscould be askedto presenttheir new versionto the class,explaining why the changeswere made.

Task5 Writean essayoutline

5.1Individualwork

Thistaskcouldbesetfor homeworkasstudQnts wouldbenefitfromcarryingoutresearchinorderto substanliatetheirclaims.

5.2Small groupwork Askstudentsto presenttheiroutlineplansinsmall groups.Encouragetheothergroupmembersto givefeedbackusingthesetof criteriagivenin

Task5.

,t

Examineindetailby dividingup.ldentifythe characteristicsor andgiveaninformed mainpoints. events. opinion.
Examineindetailby
dividingup.ldentifythe
characteristicsor
andgiveaninformed
mainpoints.
events.
opinion.
Describethemain
Lookatthemost
elementsoftwoormore
importantaspectsof
orusefulsomethingis,lt
like,usingexamples.
thingstoshowhowthey somethinginabalanced islikelytoincludeboth
aresimilar.Possibly
way,i.e.,advantagesand positiveandnegative
explainthe
disadvantages;forand
points.
consequencesofthe
against.
similarities.
Tesk:T:*hrr'r
Eook - ModulpI - Erray Wrlilng

Givethemainfeatures, ldentifythemainissues

Assesshowimportant Showwhatsomethingis