Sie sind auf Seite 1von 32

Unit No. 3 - Valves No.

3 - Valves Unit

UNITS IN THIS COURSE


UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT 3 PIPING SYSTEMS PIPE FITTINGS VALVES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Para 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 18 3.9 3.10 SPECIAL VALVES STUFFING BOX AND VALVE PACKING 22 26 30 30 31 32 35 36 37 38 Page 1/39 COURSE OBJECTIVE INTRODUCTION TO VALVES VALVE IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTION VALVE PARTS BLOCK VALVES PLUG VALVES BALL VALVES THROTTLING OR REGULATING VALVES Page 3 4 5 6 7 11 12 13 CHECK VALVES

Module No. 7 :Module systems Piping No. 7 : Piping systems

3.11 CONTROL VALVES 3.12 AUTOMATIC CONTROL VALVES 3.13 VALVE ACTUATORS 3.14 PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR OPERATION 3.15 ELECTRIC MOTOR ACTUATOR 3.16 HYDRAULIC VALVE ACTUATORS 3.17 SOLENOID / MAGNETIC ACTUATORS 3.18 VALVE INSPECTION

3.0

COURSE OBJECTIVE This course introduces the students to all major items of static equipment relating to a plant site. Upon completion of the course the trainees will have a general understanding of the following. Equipment Terminology. Theory of operation. Equipment construction. Hands on operation. & Safety features. Equipment interaction with the overall process.

Unit No. 3Unit No. 3 - Valves - Valves


3.1

INTRODUCTION TO VALVES A valve is a device installed in a piping system which controls the flow of a gas or liquid. Valves have an opening through which gas or fluid can flow. They can close off (isolate) the piping system to stop the flow and they can control the amount of flow. Processing systems handle different products at different pressures and temperatures. So, there are many different types of valves A valves shape and material depends upon the product and its operating pressure and temperature. Valves carry the same rating system for pressure as flanges; i.e. 150-300-600 etc. In a gas plant or refinery, valves will be made from the following materials: Stainless steel. Carbon steel. used for process fluids Cast iron. Brass. Bronze. Plastic These are used for utilities / fire water These are used for air chemical lines. These are

Module No. 7 : Piping 7 : Piping systems Module No. systems

3.2

VALVE IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTION Table 1 shows the four main types of valves and their function. VALVE TYPE Block Valve EXAMPLES Gate Valve Ball Valve Globe Valve FUNCTION To stop or start the flow of a fluid. Used in the fully open or fully closed position. To control how much fluid Page 2/39

Throttling / Regulating

Valve

Butterfly Valve Needle Valve Ball Check Valve Piston Check Valve Swing Check Valve Balanced bellows Pressure Safety Valve (PSV) Pressure Relief Valve (PRV)

flows through a valve. Used in any position from fully open to fully closed. Allows fluid to flow in one direction only. Fluid flowing in the other direction will close the valve. To release excess pressure. To protect system from too much pressure.

Check / Non Return Valve

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Safety / Relief Valve

3.3

VALVE PARTS

Figure 3-1 Major Valve Parts The major parts common to most valves are as follows: See Figure 3-1

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Body Valve Disc (Opening Element). Stem. Handwheel / Handle. Bonnet. Packing Gland BODY

Page 3/39

The body is the part of a valve that is attached to the pipework flange. The gases or liquids flow through the body when the valve is open.

VALVE DISC (OPENING ELEMENT)

Unit No. 3 - 3 - Valves Unit No. Valves

This is the part that opens and closes the valve. All valves have a valve disc in the valve body. Valve discs are made in various shapes and sizes. They can move up and down with the stem, or rotate around a central pivot point. The valve disc stops or allows flow through a valve. We will discuss types of valve disc further when we look at different types of common valves. When the valve is closed the valve disc fits against the valve seat. STEM The stem raises or lowers the valve disc. In manually operated valves the stem is usually threaded. In ball valves and butterfly valves the stem does not move up or down. It turns inside the bonnet. In pneumatic and hydraulic valves the stem is a smooth rod that moves up and down in the valve body. HANDWHEEL / HANDLE On a manual valve a handwheel or handle is attached to the stem. The handwheel or handle allows the operator to turn the stem. The handwheel is held on the stem by a handwheel nut. BONNET he bonnet is a separate housing that is bolted tightly to the top of the valve body. The stem passes through the bonnet. The bonnet holds the stem in position. PACKING GLAND he packing gland is held in place by bolts or sometimes it is screwed into place. This gland keeps the packing tight. Packing is a soft material inside the bonnet placed around the stem to make a tight seal. The packing stops pressurised gas or liquid in the valve from escaping to the atmosphere. 3.4 LOCK VALVES The three most commonly used block valves in process systems are: Gate Valve. Plug Valve. Ball Valve. GATE VALVES There are two main types of gate valves used in the process system: Page 4/39

Module No. 7 : 7 : Piping systems Module No. Piping systems

Rising stem gate valve. Non-rising stem gate valve. The valve disc in a gate valve is a wedge shaped disc or gate. It is attached to the end of a threaded stem. The gate fits into a wedged shape seat in the valve body to stop flow through the valve.

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Turning the handwheel raises and lowers the valve disc. When the valve is fully open the gate is positioned above the passage in the' valve body. This allows full flow in both directions through the ports. There is little or no restriction and no pressure drop across the valve. When the gate valve is fully closed the gate fills the passage and it stops the flow through the valve completely. Gate valves are only used in the fully open or fully closed position to start and stop flow. You must turn the handwheel to many times to move the valve to the fully open or fully closed position. RISING STEM GATE VALVE

Figure 3-2 Rising Stem Gate Valve

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Large gate valves normally have rising stems. When the handwheel is turned the stem rises out of the valve bonnet through the handwheel. The stem shows the position of the valve disc and shows if the valve is fully open or fully closed. In small gate valves the wheel and stem may rise together. The threaded part of the stem is above the valve body. It is not in contact with the fluid flowing through the valve. "this type of valve has less corrosion problems. The Page 5/39

rising stem gate valve requires more space and more head room. NON RISING STEM GATE VALVE

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-3 Non Rising Stem Gate Valve Some gate valves have a non rising stem. The stem does not come out of the valve body. The valve disc moves up and down the stem. With this type of gate valve there is more chance of corrosion as the valve stem is in contact with the liquid flowing through the valve. This type of valve is used where there is not enough space above the valve for the stem to rise out of the body.

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Gate valves provide a good seal against flow. For this reason they are normally used as isolation valves in high pressure hydrocarbon pipelines. The gate valve is the most commonly used valves in the petroleum industry. If the gate valve is partially closed there may be vibration. This can cause noise and possible damage to the valve disc and the seating surfaces. For this reason gate valves should only be used for throttling (restricting flow) in an emergency. There are three main types of gate designs for gate valves: (See Figure 3-4) Solid Wedge Gate. Page 6/39

Split Gate (parallel disc). Flexible Gate.

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-4 Gates for Gate Valves

SOLID WEDGE GATE The solid wedge valve disc was the first type that was used in gate valves. It does not allow for expansion or contraction of the valve body and stem material with large temperature changes. This type of wedge is not used in high temperature processes where there is thermal expansion and contraction of the valve body. (See Figure 3-4)

SPLIT GATE The split gate valve disc is split up the centre. This allows the element to expand or contract. Therefore, the disc has a better fit in the valve seat over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The wedge can adapt itself to small amounts of distortion caused by seat wear or piping strain. (See Figure 3-4) FLEXIBLE GATE

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Like the split gate valve disc the flexible gate valve disc is split up the centre. This allows the element to expand and contract and to give a very tight seal in the valve seat over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. This type of wedge is used in high temperature processes. (See Figure 3-4) 3.5 PLUG VALVES

Page 7/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-5 Plug Valve The plug valve is one of the simplest types of valve. It is also known as a petcock or a plug cock. Like the gate valve it is only used in the fully open or fully closed position. The plug is a tapered round plug. It has a rectangular hole in the centre that lines up with the ports in the valve body.

The valve has a handle for manual operation. It is opened or closed by a quarter turn of the valve handle. When the valve handle is pointing in the direction of the pipe the valve is in the fully open position. When the valve handle is pointing across the pipe the valve is in the fully closed position. . A special grease is forced into and around the plug to act as a seal and a lubricant. These valves are a simple design. They do not take up much space and do not have high yokes, bonnets or valve stems. Normally these valves are manually operated but they can be operated automatically if required. 3.6 BALL VALVES

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Page 8/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-6 Ball Valve This type of valve is opened or closed by a ball. Like the plug and gate valves, the ball valve is used only in the fully open or fully closed position. The ball has a hole through the centre which is the same size as the valve ports in the valve body. The valve moves from the fully open position to the closed position by moving the valve handle a quarter of a turn.

The position of the valve handle indicates whether the valve is fully open or fully closed. When the valve handle is pointing in the direction of the pipe the valve is in the fully open position. When the valve handle is pointing across the pipe the valve is in the fully closed position. The ball is carefully machined so that it fits exactly into the valve seats. It gives a very tight shut off with metal to metal seal. Ball valves are very good when they are used in gas processes at high and low pressures and temperatures. 3.7 THROTTLING OR REGULATING VALVES Throttling or regulating valves are used to control the amount of flow They can only receive flow from one side. (Except the butterfly valves) There are three main types of throttling valves that are used in the petroleum industry. Globe Valves. Needle Valves. Butterfly Valves. GLOBE VALVES Page 9/39

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-7 Globe Valve

A globe valve is used to control the amount of flow. The valve can be operated in any position from the fully closed position to the fully open position. The valve disc is globe shaped (circular). The valve operates by raising and lowering the valve disc into a circular seat. There is no contact between the seat and disc ends when the flow through the valve starts. Only a few turns of the handwheel are needed to fully open or close the valve. (The gate valve needs many turns to open or close it.) There are partitions inside a globe valve. The fluid flowing through the valve must make two 90 degree turns. The flow is "under and over" to prevent wear to the seat. Therefore, there is a high pressure drop in the valve. It is easier to control this kind of flow. Globe valves are usually smaller if they are hand controlled and need to be opened and closed often. The direction of the fluid flow through the valve keeps the seat and disc clean. NEEDLE VALVES

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Page 10/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-8 Needle Valve The needle valve is similar to the globe valve. It has a needle shaped plug and seat instead of globe shaped ones.

When the valve is fully open the needle valve does not allow a full flow. This is because the hole in the seat is much smaller than the pipe flow area.. The threads on the stem of a needle valve are very close together. This allows very exact control of the flow because the needle can be adjusted very precisely. Needle valves are used in small sizes, only up to 1 ". They are mainly used on instrumentation systems. BUTTERFLY VALVES

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Page 11/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-9 Flanged Butterfly Valve

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Figure 3-10 Lug Wafer Type Butterfly Valve

Page 12/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-11 Wafer Type Butterfly Valve Modern butterfly valves usually have rubber or elastomeric seats. These provide a tight shut off like any other valve. This valve design is very good for installations where space considerations are important. This type of valve is good for large piping systems since they can be made at almost any size. Basically, the valve consists of the valve body, shaft and butterfly disc, sealing gland and valve actuator Because the design is simple, this valve works equally well in three different valve bodies; flanged butterfly valve, the lug wafer butterfly valve and the wafer type butterfly valve., (See Figures 3-9, 3-10, 3-11). The butterfly valve moves from fully open to fully closed. in a quarter turn of the valve handle. These valves are used to control the amount of flow. The sealing mechanism is a circular disc made of rubber or metal. It is difficult to shut off the flow if the sealing mechanism is made of metal; rubber gives a better seal. Butterfly valves usually have some kind of automatic actuator because they are fairly hard to close manually. Butterfly valves can be used for fluid flow in either direction.

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

The valve disc in a butterfly valve is a flat disc. The disc rotates around a central pivot. When fully closed the flat disc fills the entire area of the valve body. The butterfly valve offers very little resistance to flow when it is fully open. Butterfly valves are used as low pressure control valves in gas and liquid pipelines. GAUGE COCK VALVE

Page 13/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-12 Gauge Cock Valve

A gauge cock valve is a special type of valve. It is used between a vessel and a vessel gauge glass. Its function is to isolate the gauge glass automatically if the gauge glass begins to leak or break. The gauge cock valve has a small metallic ball inside. If the gauge glass breaks, the fluid inside the vessel will flow out through the valve and out of the gauge glass. The fluid movement pushes the metal ball into the outlet hole of the valve. This closes the valve and so stops the leak. A gauge cock valve must always be in the fully open position when it is in service or it cannot protect the system. If it is only part open the valve stem will stop the ball from sealing off the outlet hole. If the gauge glass must be isolated for cleaning etc. the gauge valve can be manually operated. 3.8 CHECK VALVES Check valves are also known as non return valves. This type of valve allows the fluid to flow in one direction only. All check valves operate in the same manner. The pressure of the fluid flowing in one direction holds the valve open. Fluid pressure from the opposite direction closes the valve against a seal. Most check valves are marked with an arrow to show the direction of flow through the valve. There are four main types of check valve:

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Swing Check Valve. Horizontal Lift Check Valve. Vertical Lift Check Valve. Ball Check Valve. Check valves are installed on the discharge lines of pumps and compressors. Page 14/39

SWING CHECK VALVE

Unit No. 3 - Valves No. 3 - Valves Unit

Figure 3-13 Swing Check Valve

Swing check valves are so named because of the way they work. They swing open to allow flow in one direction. When they close they stop the flow from the opposite direction. They are widely used in general industry as they offer little flow resistance and they don't go wrong. In a swing check valve the valve disc is attached to a hinged arm. The pressure of gas or liquid flowing through the valve holds the disc open, allowing full flow. If the flow stops or the pressure downstream of the valve becomes higher than the pressure upstream of the valve, the hinged arm will swing down. The disc will cover the passage and close the valve. The back pressure will press against the disc to keep it tightly closed. None of the liquid or gas that has already passed through the valve can flow back through the valve. Swing check valves can be installed horizontally or vertically. Gravity will close the valve if the flow stops. They are usually installed on the discharge lines of pumps and compressors.
BALL CHECK VALVE

Module No. 7 :Module systems Piping No. 7 : Piping systems

Page 15/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-14 Ball Check Valve The valve disc in a ball check valve is a ball. This type of check valve is used -to control the flow direction of heavy fluids. They are available in horizontal, vertical and angle design. Ball check valves also work well where particles are present in a fluid. The ball in this type of check valve rotates. This ensures that the ball wears evenly and makes a good seal on the valve seat. A certain pressure is required to open the ball valve. When the pressure falls, the ball valve will close by gravity.

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

LIFT CHECK VALVES

Page 16/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-15 Lift Check Valve Lift check valves are sometimes built in globe valve bodies. They are also called piston check valves. (See Figure 3-15) They have a guided disc shaped plug which is lifted by the pressure of the fluid. This type of check valve does not shut suddenly as the swing check valve does. It is better for piping systems where the flow is irregular or often changes direction. The disc is seated horizontally so the fluid must change direction twice as it passes through the valve.

3.9

SPECIAL VALVES SAFETY AND RELIEF VALVES

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Figure 3-16 Pressure Relief Valve

Page 17/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-17 Safety Relief Valve

A safety or relief. valve is a very important protective device. It is designed to avoid accidents by relieving pressure when something goes wrong in the system. Safety valves and relief valves respond to high pressure in a pipe system. These valves relieve the pressure before it can cause an accident or damage. Safety valves are used for protection on steam and gas production facilities. Relief valves are generally used on liquid production systems. Safety valves are commonly called PSV's (Pressure Safety Valves). Relief valves are commonly called PRV's (Pressure Relief Valves). A safety valve on a gas processing system is usually connected to a flare vent system. The gas escapes to a flare where it is burnt. A safety valve on a steam system will vent to the atmosphere. Safety valves are set to open (pop) completely at a pre-set pressure. This pre-set pressure can be adjusted. The safety valve will stay open until the pressure drops back to the pre-set lower pressure. The valve should then shut immediately. The outlet ports on safety valves and relief valves are always larger than the inlet ports. This allows the excess pressure to flow through the valve faster and bring the pressure down to normal quickly. The safety valve is spring loaded. The spring is adjusted before it is installed. At the pre-set pressure the spring loaded disc is forced open. It is designed so that the flow pushes the disc fully open. It stays in the fully open position until the
Page 18/39

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

pressure falls to below the pre-set pressure. The spring then snaps the disc to the closed position where it is firmly seated. The relief valve is normally spring loaded. When the pressure goes above the pre-set pressure the disc does not go fully open immediately. The amount it opens depends on the amount of excess pressure. The more excess pressure there is, the more the valve opens.

Unit No. 3 - Valves

When the pressure falls to the pre-set pressure, the valve will close gently. There is no loss of liquid because the liquid that escapes is recycled to the suction of the pump or inlet of the vessel it came from, These valves are generally used as relief valves for the thermal expansion of liquids in pipelines.

Safety valves and relief valves are very important for the safe operation of a piping system. They are normally inspected and tested once a year or during plant turn arounds. RUPTURE DISCS

Figure 3-18 Rupture Disc

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Page 19/39

Figure 3-19 Ruptured Rupture Disc

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-20 Rupture Disc Installation Rupture discs (bursting discs) are another pressure relief device. A rupture disc is designed to break if the pressure is too high. Different discs are designed for different pressures. After they break they must be replaced. DIAPHRAGM VALVE

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Figure 3-21 Diaphragm valve A diaphragm valve is not like the other valves. It does not have a valve disc. The diaphragm valve uses a flexible diaphragm as its opening / closing element. When the diaphragm is forced downward it completely closes the valve. When it is completely open the diaphragm is out of the line of flow so it does not restrict it. There is no valve stem in the flow path. No stem packing is required. These are types of valve require less maintenance than the conventional valves. Page 20/39

Unit No. 3Unit No. 3 - Valves - Valves

The diaphragm is usually made of a rubberised compound so these valves are often used where highly corrosive materials are present. Figure 6-63 shows the three position of a diaphragm valve.

Figure 3-22 Positions of a Diaphragm Valve 3.10 STUFFING BOX AND VALVE PACKING The valve packing inside the stuffing box has two main functions. It keeps the process fluid inside and the atmospheric atmosphere outside the pipe. The packing also makes it easier to open or close a valve because it lubricates the valve stem. The valve packing must be able to withstand the following: High temperature.

Module No. 7 : Piping 7 : Piping systems Module No. systems

Low temperature. High pressure. Vacuum. Many different types of fluids. Abrasive materials. Compression forces. Good packing must be: Page 21/39

Good lubricant. Compressible. Long Lasting. Tough. Flexible. One type of packing cannot handle all the processes or be suitable for all the different types of valves. Because of the wide variety of valves and process fluids, a wide variety of stuffing boxes and packings are used. Stuffing boxes are designed to hold a number of different types and sizes of packing. Four of the most common types are shown below: PACKING NUT WITH GLAND

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-23 Packing Nut With Gland This type uses ring type packing. The packing is secured and compressed by a normal single packing nut with a free gland.

BOLTED GLAND

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Page 22/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-24 Bolted Gland This type compresses the packing into the stuffing box with a gland follower (See figure 3-24). The follower has two eye bolts through These are tightened down by the nuts to compress the packing. LANTERN TYPE

Figure 3-25 Lantern Type Packing. This type has two sets of packing in the gland separated by a lantern ring. The lantern ring is connected to the outside of the valve by two holes with a threaded inlet and outlet. This will allow the following:

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

A cooling fluid can be circulated in and out of the gland so as to keep it cool. Any excess fluids passing the lower packing can be piped away without any leaking or loss. A flushing fluid can be pumped in so as to flush out any corrosive or abrasive Page 23/39

materials before they reach the top packing. This ensures a good seal. INJECTION TYPE GLAND

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-26 Injection Type Gland. The injection type gland uses a sealing compound instead of packing material. The compound, e.g., special grease is injected into the stuffing box. This grease acts as a packing to seal the process fluid and to help the valve turn easily. The operator must check the following on these types of valves: Check the valve for leaking fluids. Check the gland for tightness. Check how much thread is showing through the nuts. This will tell you how much life is left in the packing material Check for the smooth operation of the valve Check that the valve is lubricated.

3.11 CONTROL VALVES The function of a control valve is to control the amount of fluid which flows through it. By controlling the flow of fluids we can also control other process variables, i.e. pressure, temperature and liquid levels. The types of control valves are globe valves and butterfly valves. They have a valve actuator attached. Control valves are important in any piping system where you want automatic control. Modern plants use a lot of automatic control from a centralised control room; so do pipeline and tank farm operations. Manually operated valves can control fluid flow in any piping system. Control valves are specially designed to provide a variable resistance in a piping system. This is called throttling. Page 24/39

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Valves can be operated Manually or Automatically, Valves can be operated Locally or by Remote Control 3.12 AUTOMATIC CONTROL VALVES Automatic valves are made in the same wide range of valve body styles, materials, pressure ratings and end connections as manual valves. However, there are some differences and certain types of valve bodies are better than others. The most common automatic control valve is the globe type, unbalanced contoured plug valve. This is very good for throttling actions. A similar plug type globe valve is the balanced tight shut off plug. This is also available with a balanced trim. (see Figures 3-27 and 3-28 ).

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-27 Unbalanced Contour Valve

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Figure 3-28 Balanced Tight Shut Off Plug Page 25/39

3.13

VALVE ACTUATORS Valve actuators are devices that provide the force to move a valve. They open, close, adjust or maintain a set valve position by pulling, pushing or rotating the valve stem. There are a number of different types of valve actuators that can be used:

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Manual Valve Actuators: Handwheel: Handwheel: Gear operated. l Chain operated.

Automatic Valve Actuators: Pneumatic: Electric : Hydraulic: Air driven. Motor driven. Liquid driven.

Valve actuators are used on valves for the following reasons: Remote Operation: Valve actuators are used on valves so that the operator can open, close or control the flow from the control room. An operator can control the valve from a safe location, e.g., at ground level.

Valve Size: Large valves can be too large to be opened / closed by hand. A valve actuator is quicker and easier. A valve actuator is more accurate for setting a desired flow rate. Safety A valve actuator gives a remote operation for valves that are in hazardous areas. 3.14 PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR OPERATION

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Most control valves use a pneumatic valve actuator. Air pressure from the actuator positions the valve stem. A pneumatic valve actuator is attached to a valve. The valve stem connects the valve disc to a diaphragm inside the valve actuator.

Page 26/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-29 Major Components of a Typical Control Valve The actuator has a rod which connects the actuator diaphragm to the valve stem of a globe or butterfly valve. The diaphragm moves by increasing or decreasing the air pressure pushing on the diaphragm. The air pressure is increased or decreased by the operator in the control room when he moves the valve controller.

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Figure 3-30 Typical Reverse Acting Diaphragm Actuator

Page 27/39

In Figure 3-30 the air pressure from below the diaphragm is increased and it pushes the diaphragm up to open the valve. To close the valve the air pressure against the diaphragm is reduced and the diaphragm moves down. It is the spring that holds the diaphragm down.

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-31 Typical Direct Acting Diaphragm Actuator In Figure 3-31 the air pressure from above the diaphragm is increased and it pushes the diaphragm down to open the valve. To close the valve the air pressure against the diaphragm is reduced and the diaphragm moves up. It is the spring that holds the diaphragm up. The position of the valve depends on the air pressure on the diaphragm. The valve will move from the fully open position to the fully closed position with an air pressure change of from 3 psig to 15 psig.

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

In most process systems there are fail safe control valves. These protect parts of the system from too much pressure if something goes wrong. A large spring is attached to the actuator rod and diaphragm. Its function is to fully open or fully close the valve if the instrument air supply to the valve actuator cuts off. In Figure 3-30 if the air supply fails the valve will close. In Figure 3-31 if the air supply fails the valve will close, these are called "Air Fail Closed" control valves.

Page 28/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves 3 - Valves Unit No.

Figure 3-32 Butterfly Valve with Actuator 3.15 ELECTRIC MOTOR ACTUATOR Some valves use an electric motor as an actuator. These valves are called motor operated valves or MOV's.

Module No. 7 : Piping systems Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Figure 3-33 Motor Operated Valve

A motor operated valve has two main parts: the valve itself and a motor driven
Page 29/39

screw stem. The motor uses two bevelled gears to move the valve stem up and down. The drive gear is attached to the shaft of the motor through speed reducing gears. The stem gear is threaded in the centre. The valve stem is screwed through the gear. As the motor turns the stem gear, the valve stem threads itself inside the stem gear. This threading action moves the stem up or down depending on the direction of motor rotation.

Unit No. 3 - Valves

A motor operated valve is also equipped with a handwheel. The handwheel allows
the valve to be manually operated if the motor should fail. 3.16 HYDRAULIC VALVE ACTUATORS

A hydraulic actuator uses the force of a pressurised liquid, (usually oil) to position
the valve stem. In a hydraulic valve actuator a cylinder assembly is attached to a valve. A piston inside the cylinder moves up and down. The piston is attached to the valve stem. The pressure of hydraulic fluid in the cylinder causes the valve stem to rise or fall. When the hydraulic oil is pumped to the top side of the piston the valve will close. When hydraulic oil is pumped to the bottom side of the piston the valve will open.

Figure 3-34 Hydraulically Actuated Control Valve

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

3.17 SOLENOID / MAGNETIC ACTUATORS

Page 30/39

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Figure 3-35 Solenoid Valve Operation Solenoid operated valves are not very large. They are commonly used to shut off instrument air supply to control valves. They are often used in emergency shutdown systems (ESD's). Solenoid valves use the principle of electromagnetism to operate. As long as the coil is energised, electromagnetism holds the core up. The valve remains open and instrument air reaches the control valve. In an emergency the coil is deenergised. Then the coil moves down and shuts off the instrument air to the control valve. The control valve can be set up to open, close or remain in its position.

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Page 31/39

Figure 3-36 Magnetic Valve Operation Electromagnetic force from the coil holds the solenoid core down, allowing instrument air to the , valve actuator. When power to the coil is shut off the solenoid core moves up shutting off the instrument air supply to the valve actuator. At the same time the system air is vented from the actuator (See Figure 3-36).

Unit No. 3 - Valves

Control valves act in one of two ways: Air pressure to close, "Direct Acting". An increase in air pressure closes the valve. Air pressure to open, "Reverse Acting". An increase in air pressure opens the valve. 3.18 VALVE INSPECTION Valves should always be checked regularly by the operators for flange stem or bonnet leaks. A stem leak may indicate the valve needs new packing or the packing nut needs tightening. Bonnet leaks may be caused by loose bolts due to strains in the line over a long period of time. A flange leak may also be due to loose bolts. No small leak should be overlooked or ignored as a small leak may develop into a large leak.

You should lubricate valves regularly. Regular lubrication will prevent frictional wear (galling). Lubrication of the valves will also prevent the valves seizing.

Seizing occurs when metal to metal surfaces stick to each other because of heat or pressure. If any type of valve is left in one position for a long period of time, corrosion and foreign particles may accumulate. This is especially true on stem threads. Periodic checking and lubrication should be done regularly. Maintenance should be told of leaking valves by the operations staff. Operations staff are the eyes of the maintenance staff.

Module No. 7 : Piping systems

Page 32/39