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Tidal model is a mental health recovery model which be used as the basis for interdisciplinarymental health care.

It was developed by Phil Barker and Poppy Buchanan-Barker of University of Newcastle, UK.

It is considered as a mid-range theory of nursing. The main focus of the model is on helping individual people, make their own voyage of discovery.

Definition "The Tidal Model is a philosophical approach to the discovery of mental health. It emphasises helping people reclaim the personal story of mental distress, by recovering their voice. By using their own language, metaphors and personal stories people begin to express something of the meaning of their lives. This is the first step towards helpingrecover control over their lives". Barker

The Tidal Model provides a practice framework for the exploration of the patient's need for nursing and the provision of individually tailored care. (Barker P, 2001)

Theoretical Sources

Tidal Model draws its core philosophical metaphor from chaos theory, such that the unpredictable - yet bounded nature of human behaviour and experience is compared to the dynamic flow and power of water and the tides of the sea. (Barker P, 2001)

Assumptions The tidal model is applied through six key philosophical assumptions:

a belief in the virtue of curiosity

recognition of the power of resourcefulness, rather than focusing on problems, deficits or weaknesses

respect for the person's wishes, rather than being paternalistic acceptance of the paradox of crisis as opportunity acknowledging that all goals must belong to the person the virtue of pursuing elegancethe simplest possible means should be sought

Description of the model

In the Tidal Model, the person, the individual is represented, theoretically, by three personal domains: Self, Worldand Others .

The theory suggests that our mental wellbeing depends on our individual life experience, including our sense of self, perceptions, thoughts and actions.

The Ten Commitments The values of the Tidal Model can be distilled into Ten Commitments. 1. Value the voice the person's story is paramount 2. Respect the language allow people to use their own language 3. Develop genuine curiosity show interest in the person's story 4. Become the apprentice learn from the person you are helping 5. Reveal personal wisdom people are experts in their own story 6. Be transparent both the person and the helper, Professionals are in a privileged position and should model confidence, by at all times being transparent and helping to ensure the person understand exactly what is being done 7. Use the available toolkit the person's story contains valuable information as to what works and what doesn't 8. Craft the step beyond the helper and the person work together to construct an appreciation of what needs to be done "now" 9. Give the gift of time time is the midwife of change. The question that should be asked is, "How do we use this time?". 10. Know that change is constant this is a common experience for all people

Applications of the Model 1. Young BB. Using the tidal model of mental health recovery to plan primary health care for women in residential substance abuse recovery. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2010 Sep;31(9):569-75. 2. Fletcher E, Stevenson C. Launching the Tidal Model in an adult mental health programme. Nurs Stand. 2001 Aug 22-28;15(49):33-

6. References 1. Official internet site for the Tidal Model available at 2. Barker P. The tidal model: developing a person-centered approach to psychiatric and mental health nursing. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2001 Jul-Sep;37(3):79-87 3. Barker P. The Tidal Model: Theory and Practice. 2000. 4. Tidal Model Publications - visit at