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# Lab 2: Introduction to Multisim

## LAB EXPERIMENTS USING NI ELVIS II AND NI MULTISIM

Alexander Ganago Jason Lee Sleight
University of Michigan Ann Arbor

## Lab 2 Introduction to Multisim

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## Goals for Lab 2

Learn how to simulate circuits and obtain data such as output voltages with NI Multisim In the pre-lab, simulate circuits with semiconductor diodesthe ideal diode, which is called DIODE_VIRTUAL and one of the real diodes1N914 In the in-lab, build semiconductor diodes circuits with 1N914 on NI ELVIS prototyping board and take data with NI ELVIS test/measurement instruments In the post-lab, compare the data you obtained for semiconductor diodes circuits in pre-lab simulations and in the in-lab; draw conclusions on the accuracy of simulations Learn about the Wheatstone bridge circuit and its applications in DC and AC measurements In the pre-lab, simulate balanced and unbalanced Wheatstone bridge circuits with DC and AC sources In the in-lab, build balanced and unbalanced Wheatstone bridge circuits with DC and AC sources and take data with NI ELVIS test/measurement instruments In the post-lab, compare the data you obtained on balanced and unbalanced Wheatstone bridge circuits in the pre-lab and in the in-lab; draw conclusions on the accuracy of simulations In the in-lab, explore [for extra credit] various unbalanced Wheatstone bridge circuits In the post-lab, explain [for extra credit] the data you obtained on various unbalanced Wheatstone bridge circuits explored in the in-lab.

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## Lab 2: Introduction to Multisim

Introduction

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Lab 2: Introduction to Multisim As seen from the diagrams, the Wheatstone bridge is simply a pair of voltage dividers, thus its output voltage is easy to calculate:
R4 R 4 R4 1 = VS = VS V1 = VS R1 + R 4 R1 R 4 R1 R +R R +1 4 4 4 R3 R 3 R3 1 = VS = VS V2 = VS R2 + R3 R2 R3 R2 + R R R +1 3 3 3 R 2 R1 R R 3 4 1 1 = VS = V1 V2 = VS R2 R 1 R 2 R1 R + 1 R + 1 + 1 + 1 3 4 R 4 R 3

VOUT

Note that the output voltage is zero, regardless of the source voltage, if the ratios of R R resistances in two voltage dividers equal each other 2 = 1 . This is called a balanced R3 R4 Wheatstone bridge. Suppose that R 1 is variable while other 3 resistors are constant. Then the output voltage is R R R R R R positive if 1 < 2 ; the output is negative if 1 > 2 , and vanishes if 1 = 2 . The R4 R3 R4 R3 R4 R3 Wheatstone bridge whose output signal is nonzero, is called unbalanced.
B B

Note that the output voltage of the Wheatstone bridge circuit is directly proportional to the source voltage. If the source is DC (with voltage independent of time), such as a battery, the output is DC voltage as well. If the source is AC (time-dependent voltage), for example, sinusoidal voltage VS = VS,max sin(2 f t ) with the peak value VS,max , at the frequency f Hz, the bridge output voltage will also be sinusoidal, at the same frequency. It is easier to detect small output signals of an unbalanced bridge using sinusoidal voltages instead of DC, to separate useful signals from noise by filtering, etc.

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## Lab 2: Introduction to Multisim

Pre-Lab Work
The assignments you have to bring to the lab are typed in bold font.

## Part 1: I-V Characteristics of a Diode

Section 1.1: Diode Characteristics
In Pre-Lab Part 1, you will simulate 2 circuits with semiconductor diodesone with an ideal diode, which is called DIODE_VIRTUAL, the other with a diode, which has the characteristics of 1N914. You will compare the results of these two simulations side-by side with each other and with real data that you will receive in the lab. Open NI Multisim (may be named NI Circuit Design Suite). Click the Place Diode key to open the diode selection window.

In the diode selection window, click on the Diodes_Virtual family, then place a DIODE_VIRTUAL onto your circuit. Select the Diode family and place a 1N914 diode onto your circuit. Click the add I-V Analysis and place the I-V Analyzer tool into the circuit. Do this again to add another I-V Analyzer.

## Add wires to create the following circuit:

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## Lab 2: Introduction to Multisim

Run the simulation by clicking the green triangle button. You should allow it to run for a few seconds in order to get an accurate picture of the IV characteristics. Stop the simulation. Open the Grapher tool to view the simulation results (found in the View menu). You can switch between the two IV graphs by clicking the respective tabs. NOTE: if you make a mistake and have to run the simulation again, you will have more than two tabs. The most resent results will be displayed on the furthest right. You can delete the old simulation results by doing Clear Pages (found in the Edit menu) and then selecting the graphs you no longer want. Export the results of each graph to Excel (found in Tools menu). If the option is grayed out, then click on the graph and try again. #1. Print out the voltage-current plot for DIODE_VIRTUAL. #2. Print out the voltage-current plot for 1N914. #3. Create a plot that shows the power consumption by each of the diode (as function of voltage applied to the diode) to turn in as part of your pre-lab. #4. Write a brief comparison between the results of 2 simulations. Explain which one you consider more realistic and why.

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## Part 2: Wheatstone Bridge

In Pre-Lab Part 2, you will simulate balanced and unbalanced Wheatstone bridge circuits. You will start with the balanced circuit where R1 = R2 = 100 and R3 = R4 = 200 ; then you will change R4 to 205 and 210 in order to simulate the signals from an unbalanced circuit. You will run these simulations twicefor DC and AC sources.

## Section 2.1: Wheatstone Bridge at DC

Create a new circuit by clicking File New NI ELVIS II Schematic. Create the following circuit:

The red wire is connected to the VPSs Supply+ terminal, the black wire is connected to the VPSs Ground terminal, the yellow wire is connected to the DMMs V terminal, and the green wire is connected to the DMMs COM terminal. Double click on the VPS and DMM icons to bring up their respective VIs. On the VPS VI, set SUPPLY+ to be 6V and ensure the device is Multisim. On the DMM VI, ensure the device is Multisim and click the green V to set the DMM to DC voltage mode.

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Lab 2: Introduction to Multisim Run the simulation. #5. Record the value of the output voltage across the balanced bridge measured with the DMM. #6. Change R4 to be 205. Rerun the simulation and record the new value across the bridge. #7. Change R4 to be 210. Rerun the simulation and record the new value across the bridge. #8. Save you circuit. You will need the file for the in-lab, so make sure you bring it with you. #9. Calculate the output voltage values expected for #6 and #7. Briefly discuss the agreement/disagreement between the results of your theoretical calculations and the results of your circuit simulations.

Unclear whether students have to sweep the source voltage (as sample data show) or just use one value (then only a part of sample data is needed). Also, is it correct to assume that answer to #8 is simply the diagram shown on page 3 of this file?

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## Section 2.2: Wheatstone Bridge at AC

Repeat Section 2.1, this time using the following circuit (create a new file, so that you have two different files to bring along to lab; one for DC and one for AC):

The red wire is connected to the FGEN pin and OSCOPE CH0+, the black wire is GROUND and OSCOPE CH0, the yellow wire is OSCOPE CH1+ and the green wire is OSCOPE CH1. #10. Record the value of the output voltage across the balanced bridge measured with the oscilloscope. #11. Change R4 to be 205. Rerun the simulation and record the new value across the bridge. #12. Change R4 to be 210. Rerun the simulation and record the new value across the bridge. #13. Save you circuit. You will need the file for the in-lab, so make sure you bring it with you. #14. Use the results of your calculations in #9 above. Explain whether the output voltages for #6 and #7 should equal those for #11 and #12. Briefly discuss the agreement/disagreement between the results of your theoretical calculations and the results of your AC circuit simulations.

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## Lab 2: Introduction to Multisim

In-Lab Work
Part 1: IV Characteristics of a Diode
Section 1.1: Diode Characteristics
Turn on the NI ELVIS II Wire a 1N914 diode to the DMM/Impedance Analyzer (terminal strips 29 and 30). Power on the PB. Open the NI ELVISmx Instrument launcher and run the Two-Wire CurrentVoltage Analyzer Set the settings as follows:

Run the VI. Log the data and create a printout of the plot. Power off the PB.

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## Section 2: Wheatstone Bridge

Section 2.1: Measuring Resistance
Get two 100 , two 200 , and two 10 resistors. Using banana cables with alligator clips, connect one of the 100 resistors to the DMM ports on the left hand side of the NI ELVIS II. One end of the resistor should go to the COM port and the other to the port directly above the COM port. On the NI ELVISmx Instrument Launcher, run the DMM. Put the DMM in ohmmeter mode by clicking the green symbol. Run the VI. Record the actual resistance of the resistor in the table below. Repeat resistance measurements for the other five resistors. Make sure you remember which resistor is which value! Nominal Value () 100 100 200 200 10 10 Stop the DMM VI. Actual Resistance ()

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## Section 2.2: Wheatstone Bridge at DC

Open Multisim and load your pre-lab circuit of the 5 unbalanced Wheatstone bridge which uses the VPS and DMM. If you circuit still has the 10 unbalancing or is already balanced then remove/add those resistances to your model before continuing. Build your circuit on the PB. For the DMM connections, you must use banana clips with alligator clips to connect to the DMM ports on the NI ELVIS (like you did for resistance measurements). Use the two 10 resistors to create the 5 resistor. Record which resistor is in which location of your Wheatstone bridge. You will need this information for the post-lab. Power on the PB. In Multisim, double click the VPS symbol and then the DMM symbol to open up the respective VIs. On the DMM, click the green V to put the DMM in DC voltage mode. Set the VI to collect real data by changing the device to be NI ELVIS II. Run the VI. On the VPS, again set the device to NI ELVIS II and also set the following settings:

This will give you 7.5 seconds to record a data point. If you would like longer, then increase the step interval. On the VPS, click the Sweep button to start the VI. Record the DMM voltages in the table on the next page. Repeat the measurements for a 10 unbalance and a balanced bridge. Power off the PB.

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V IN (V)
B B

V OUT (mV) 5
B B

V OUT (mV) 10
B B

## V OUT (mV) balanced

B B

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00

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## Section 2.3: Wheatstone Bridge at AC

Open Multisim and load your pre-lab circuit of the 5 unbalanced Wheatstone bridge which uses the FGEN and OSCOPE. If you circuit still has the 10 unbalancing or is already balanced then remove/add those resistances to your model before continuing. Build your circuit on the PB. Make sure you remember which resistor has which actual resistance value (measured in part 2.1). Use the two 10 resistors to create the 5 resistor. Power on the PB. Double click on the FGEN and then the OSCOPE icons to open the VIs. On the FGEN VI, set the device to Multisim and set the following settings:

On the OSCOPE VI, set the device to Multisim. Run the simulation. Adjust the Volts/div and Time/div settings on the OSCOPE VI to view the signals. Once you have the data, stop the simulation. On the FGEN VI, set the device to NI ELVIS II. Run the FGEN VI. On the OSCOPE VI, set the device to NI ELVIS II. Also change the Channel 0 and 1 sources to AI 0 and 1 respectively. Run the OSCOPE VI. Check the Simulated Data and Real Data boxes so that both the simulation and real data are simultaneously displayed on the plot. Log the data and create a printout of the plot. Repeat this section with both the 10 unbalanced and balanced bridge circuits. Make sure you change the resistor values in the simulation as well.

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## Section 3: Explorations, for Extra Credit

This is the end of the required lab. If you are not going to continue with the explorations, power off the PB and NI ELVIS II and clean up your workstation.

## Section 3.1: Opposite leg unbalanced

Change your circuit so that the offset is on the other leg of the bridge (i.e. in series with the other 200 resistor). Redo Section 2.3, however leave the simulation circuit unchanged (so your unbalances are in series with different resistors). Still change the simulation from 5 to 10 to balanced as directed.

## Section 3.2: Top half unbalanced

Change your circuit so that the offset is on the top half of the bridge (i.e. in series with a 100 resistor). Redo Section 2.3, however leave the simulation circuit unchanged (so your unbalances are in series with different resistors). Still change the simulation from 5 to 10 to balanced as directed.

This is the end of the lab. Power off the PB and NI ELVIS II and clean up your workstation.

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## Lab 2: Introduction to Multisim

Post-Lab
1. Compare your In-Lab Part 1 data with your pre-lab results in #1, #2. Briefly discuss the agreement and/or disagreement between both simulations and your real data. 2. Typically, when students do Section 2.2 measurements on the balanced Wheatstone bridge in the lab, they obtain nonzero output voltages. Explain why. 3. Use the actual resistances measured in the lab and calculate the output voltages expected for 6 V DC input in the following circuits: the balanced Wheatstone bridge the bridge with R4 = 205 the bridge with R4 = 210 .

Compare the results of your calculations with your lab data obtained in Section 2.2. Briefly discuss the agreement and/or disagreement between them. 4. When students do experiments in Section 2.3, they usually obtain two pairs (input and output) of traces on each oscilloscope screenshot: one that belongs to pre-lab simulations and the other that shows the lab data. The input measured with the oscilloscope in the lab differs from the expected 6 V p-p set on the function generator because the total resistance of the bridge circuit is small and loads the function generators output. The output is proportional to the input, and it also depends on the actual (not nominal) resistances in the bridge circuit. These two causes of discrepancies between simulation and real data can be taken into account. Redo your pre-lab simulation for the bridge with R4 = 210 making both corrections:

(1) Instead of the 6 V p-p input, use the actual V p-p of the input signal that you measured with oscilloscope in the lab, and (2) Instead of nominal resistances, use the actual ones measured in the lab. Compare the results of new simulation with your lab data and comment on whether the agreement improved. This is the end of required Post-Lab. Optional (extra credit) assignments are on the next page.

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Lab 2: Introduction to Multisim Optional (extra credit) assignments 5. Explain the difference of output voltages expected in the Wheatstone bridge circuits: A. R1 = R2 = 100 , B. R1 = R2 = 100 , R3 = 200 , R3 = 210 , R4 = 210 R4 = 200

Confirm your explanation with analytic calculations and/or Multisim simulations. 6. Compare the result of #5 above with your lab data in Section 3.1. 7. Explain the difference of output voltages expected in the Wheatstone bridge circuits: C. R1 = R2 = 100 , D. R1 = 110 , R3= 200 , R4 = 210 R2 = 100 , R3 = R4 = 200

Confirm your explanation with analytic calculations and/or Multisim simulations. 8. Compare the result of #7 above with your lab data in Section 3.2. 9. When your Wheatstone bridge (which was originally balanced) is unbalanced by adding 10 to resistance R4 = 200 , the output voltage changes from 0 to V4. When your Wheatstone bridge (which was originally balanced) is unbalanced by adding 10 to resistance R1=100 , the output voltage changes from 0 to V1. Why does V1 not equal V4?

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