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Chapter 5.

Listening Back
The ear has three main parts: The outer ear The outer is the part you can see which is where the opening is to the ear canal. The ear drum is what separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Middle ear The middle ear contains three small bones which help amplify and transfer sound to the inner ear. These three bones are called the malleus, the incus and the stapes, these are also known as the hammer, the anvil and the stirrup. Inner ear The inner ear contains the cochlea which changes sound into neurological signals and the auditory nerve, which takes sound to the brain. SUM UP! Any source of sound sends vibrations or sound waves into the air. These funnel through the ear opening, down the external ear canal, and strike your eardrum, causing it to vibrate. The vibrations are passed to the three small bones of the middle ear, which transmit them to the cochlea. The cochlea contains tubes lled with uid. Inside one of the tubes, tiny hair cells pick up the vibrations and convert them into nerve impulses. These impulses are delivered to the brain via the hearing nerve. The brain interprets the impulses as sound (music, voice, a car horn, etc.). EAR DIAGRAM PHYS

Psychoacoustics
Psychoacoustics is the study of sound perception. It is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses that are associated with sound including speech, music and other things that give off sound. It is also categorized with psychophysics.

Setting Up A Studio Effectively


Firstly, you must set up your studio properly. This means that the tweeters should be roughly at ear height and positioned symmetrical as the room will allow you. Also the speakers and your head should form the three points of and equilateral triangle meaning all angles of these points should be 60 degrees. Your speakers should be aiming down the long dimension of your room and ideally your tweeters should be at ear height and the speakers should be suited away from the wall that is behind them.

Damaging Your Ear With Loud Music


People with good hearing have tiny hair cells that line the inner ear and these transmit signals to the brain, which are interpreted as sound.

Listening to loud music can flatten these hairs, and although they normally spring back into place, noise damage over a long period can cause them to snap. The problem that many people don't realize is that these hairs do not re-grow and so any damage is permanent. 'The damage isn't instantaneous. It can take many months or even years for the effect to become apparent. Listening to loud music over a long time will gradually weaken the structures in the ear, and this can cause conditions such as ringing (tinnitus) or muffled hearing.

Overcoming The Dangers


Here are some ways of lowering the dangers that can do your ears some bad damage: wearing special earplugs, standing away from the speakers, and taking regular breaks from the loudest areas. Earplugs are the music industrys best-kept secret. DJs and musicians have been wearing earplugs for years and many recommend them to fans. These earplugs are designed specifically for clubs and gigs and don't muffle sound. There are different types of earplugs available, from affordable and reusable one-size-fits-all plugs to custom molds used by musicians and DJs. Most of them work by reducing the noise level that reaches your ear. This means you can still hear the music the way it is, but at a lower volume. If you hear tingling or buzzing after listening to a set, give your ears a break. You risk more damage if you dont. Wear reusable earplugs, stand well away from the enormous speakers and spend some downtime at the festivals chill-out area. Anybodys hearing can be damaged by loud music and nobody can harden his or her ears against that damage. If you think you've toughened up your ears to loud music or become used to loud music, it's possible you have already suffered some damage. Once hearing is gone, its gone for good. The best solution is to protect your hearing in the first place.