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MarineStructures8 (1995)481-499

1995ElsevierScienceLimited Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved 0951-8339/95/$9.50

ELSEVIER

Analysis of Moorings of a Berthed Ship

R. Natarajan & C. Ganapathy


Ocean Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600 036, India (Received 19 July 1993)

ABSTRACT Ships are moored to the shore structures with a system of multiple moorings. The determination of the forces in the cables is essential for the design of moorings and for berthing structures. An optimum number and length of cables can be arrived at for a given ship of known dimensions and environmental conditions. This paper is intended to derive the equations of static equilibrium for the mooring lines when the ship is subjected to surface wind, current and restricted waves. It also gives a methodology to assist the designer to predict the mooring forces on the mooring cables, bollards, etc. A computer p r o g r a m - S H I P M O O R - - w a s developed for the analysis of the mooring system. Experiments were also conducted on a barge model, moored in a 30 m 2 m flume in which both wave and current can be generated. The experimental results were compared with the results obtained from the computer program and they were found to be in good agreement. Using this computer program, a few case studies were carried out and the results are presented. Key words." berthed ship, environmental forces, m o o r i n g ropes, restoring forces, static analysis.

NOTATION
A
Acx Acy

Cross-sectional area of the mooring line Projected area of the ship in the yz-plane below the waterline Projected area of the ship in the xz-plane below the waterline
481

482

R. Natarajan, C. Ganapathy

hw
Zwx

Awy
B

Bi Ci

Cm
Cw d D E F~,Fy, F~ g GM~. GMr H
ki

K !

li
L
Zs Mx, My, Mz
n

a
T

Ux Vy Vw
W
ot

Waterplane area of the ship Projected area of the ship in the yz-plane above the waterline Projected area of the ship in the xz-plane above the waterline Breadth of the ship Coordinates of the ith bollard Drag coefficient for current force Coordinates of the ith chock in the x, y and z directions Added mass coefficient of the ship Drag coefficient for wind force Draught of the ship Depth of water Young's modulus of the mooring line Reactive force of the ith mooring line Force components along the x, y and z axes Acceleration due to gravity Longitudinal metacentric height of the ship Transverse metacentric height of the ship Incident wave height Stiffness of the ith mooring line along its own axis Global stiffness matrix Stiffness of the ith mooring line along its axes of the ship Length of mooring line from the mooring bitt to the bollard Reactive moment of the ith mooring line about the axes of the ship Global reactive moment acting through the centre of the gravity of the ship Length of the ship Moments of the force about the x, y and z axes Number of mooring lines Number of fenders Environmental forces Tension of the mooring line Translation of any point of the ship along the x-axis Translation of any point of the ship along the y-axis Translation of any point of the ship along the z-axis Current velocity Wind velocity Displacement of ship Direction of wind Direction of current

Analysis of moorings of a berthed ship

483

Ox
Oz # Pa Pw

Angular displacement of the ship due to heel Angular displacement of the ship due to trim Angular displacement of the ship due to yaw Wave number Direction of wave Mass density of air Mass density of water

1 INTRODUCTION Mooring is the operation of securing a ship to a wharf or quay by means of ropes or chains. A moored ship need not necessarily be truly stationary. It may be free to rise and fall with the tide or the loading and unloading of cargo or to oscillate in response to the action of the environmental forces. In this respect a moored ship is restricted to a limited amount of movement and is restrained only to the extent necessary to keep that movement within well-defined bounds. The forces acting on a moored ship include those imposed by the environment and those opposing forces that are applied to keep the ship stationary in a desired position and altitude. The environmentally imposed forces result from wind, current, tidal action and wave action. Because of these environmental forces, a moored ship will undergo heel, trim and immersion displacements. Due to these displacements, the ship will be subjected to restoring forces because of changes in the distribution of buoyancy. Hence, the selection and location of equipment for the fixed mooring of a ship presents a major task in the preliminary design stage. Moreover, the available literature indicates an overall behaviour of the moored vessels at berth for a specific environmental condition. 1"6 In addition, in these references, no parametric studies are available for studying the relative influence of various parameters of berthed ships. Hence, the present experimental and theoretical investigations will enable the designer to evolve efficient mooring systems.

2 F O R M U L A T I O N OF THE M O O R I N G PROBLEM The mooring arrangement is usually composed of bow lines, spring lines, breast lines and stern lines, all of which may have different angular orientations as shown in Fig. 1. The cumulative elastic behaviour of moorings poses a complicated non-linear problem since the mooring lines are relatively short and hang in the air as non-coplanar catenaries, while

484

R. Natarajan, C. Ganapathy

'L
V ~nnr~

L_----. . . . . . . . . . .

"

+"

"

"

"

"'"

"+ ++++"

Fig. I. Vessel moored to a pier and its excursion.

the ship in shallow water may be subjected to considerable change in elevation from alteration of the tide level, variable cargo load and parasitic motions of surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch and yaw. The size and number of lines will depend on the external forces of wind, current, tide and loading or unloading of the cargo. The wind forces on the exposed surfaces of the ship, particularly in light draught conditions, cause large mooring loads. The ratio of the wind velocities at two different heights above the surface varies as approximately the seventh root of the heights. 5 For design purposes, the prediction of wind loads is based on uniform wind speed measured at least 10 m above the water surface. 3 A moored vessel in a current stream may experience large current forces and yawing moments. In most cases, an adequate mooring arrangement against wave action is usually not a problem because the vessel is moored in a sheltered location. The forces due to various loading and unloading operations of large vessels or the forces due to tide transmitted to a mooring system can reach large values acting vertically upon the vessel. To analyse a mooring system as a six-degrees-of-freedom system, the hydrostatic restoring forces must be considered. A moored vessel undergoing heel, trim, and immersion displacements will be subjected to restoring forces because of changes in the distribution of 0 buoyancy. Under mooring conditions, the hydrostatic restoring forces can be assumed to vary linearly with the vessel movement. 4 When the vessel rotates about its longitudinal x-axis through an angle of 0x from its position of equilibrium, as shown in Figs 2 and 3, the restoring heel moment will be
L rest ~ W
N

GMr x 0~

(1)

When the vessel rotates about its transverse y-axis through an angle, 0y, from its position of equilibrium, the restoring trim moment resulting from the angular deflection will be
t~ est=
m x a m L x Ov

(2)

Analysis of moorings of a berthed ship

485

~MWIND
f , t

Ill

1I

. L I H g

Fig. 2. External and buoyant restoring forces.

When the vessel is displaced downward along the vertical z-axis by a distance Uz from its position of equilibrium, the immersion force becomes Frest ~P

W X g A., Uz

(3)

Mooring lines which stretch under a load absorb mechanical energy, which is equal to the work done by the external loads' on the moored vessel. The actual length of a rope from mooring bitt to bollard is important. The elastic behaviour of mooring ropes under tension results in a strongly non-linear relationship between stress and strain. The elastic stiffness of the mooring line in its principal direction is given by

i 9z ~ ~

,4,

Fig. 3. Mooring coordinates.

486

R. Natarajan, C. Ganapathy

Figure 3 presents a view of a ship with a set of stationary axes x, y and z and coincident set of axes x', y' and z' fixed in the vessel origin; both sets of axes through the centre of gravity of the vessel. The excursion of the moored ship due to external forces is described by the movement of the ship's axes x', y' and z' relative to the stationary x, y and z coordinate system. The translation of the centre of gravity is as well as any point of the ship is Ux, Uy and Uz in the x, y and z directions, respectively, and is expressed by a vector

Uc =

u~
Uz

(5)

The rotational displacements of the ship are characterised by the angles of rotation 0x, Oy and 0~ about the x, y and z axes and may be expressed as a vector

Oc=

(Ox)
Oy Oz

(6)

A layout of a typical mooring line i is shown in Fig. 3 where the origin of the line coordinates is located at the mooring chock. The angles ~b q~y x, and ~b lying between the line axis and its coordinates define the direction z of the mooring line. The mooring chock restraining the line is displaced by a distance.

ui=uc-GOc
where 6",.is a matrix representing the location of chock i

(7)

ci=

0 G
-C x

-~ 0
~

Gj -~
0 i

(8)

where C,=,Cy and C~ are point coordinates of the chock as shown in Fig. 3. The stiffness of a mooring line oblique to the ship's axes may be expressed as a matrix

I COS 0 x
Ki = ki | c o s Ox cos Oy

cos%

cos Oxc o s

0y

cos

cos0,cos Oz
COS20z

Oxc o s Ozl

L cos Oxcos O~ COS 0y COS 0 z

J
i

(9)

where ki is the stiffness of an individual line along its axis.

Analysis of moorings of a berthed ship

487

The reactive force f,. of a mooring line has three components parallel to the vessel axes x', y' and z' and is given in the form of a vector
f" = g i U i

(10)

The reactive moment li of a mooring line i about the vessel coordinate axes may be expressed as a vector
[i ~- Ci >(A"

(11)

If a mooring arrangement has n mooring lines connected between the bollard and the vessel chocks at CI, C2 ... C,, the resultant reactive force /~ acting through the centre of gravity of the vessel may be expressed in the matrix form ~" = ~
i=1

(K, x Vc + Ai Oc)

(12)

where Ai = -K~ x C~ and a moment/S, about the centre of gravity of the vessel is given by
/1

L= ~
i=l

( A r Uc + BiOc) i

(13)

where B; = C; A/and the superscript T signifies a transposed matrix. Generally, a berthing facility consists of one or more fenders attached to a pier. The fenders absorb the berthing forces and form a protection for ship and berthing structure. Let the coordinates of the point of the j t h fender which makes contact with the ship be rxj, rrj and rzj- as shown in Fig. 3. The relationship between the deflection of the fender () and the reaction force in the fender (Di) is given by 19] = f . where ]) is the stiffness of the j t h fender. The deflection of the j t h fender amounts to d1 = Uy + {rjx - Ux}Oz - {rjz - Uz} Ox (15) (14)

The corresponding fender reaction is found from eqn (5) and the resulting forces and moments on the ship are Njk = 0 k = 1,3,5

Nj2 = - n j Nj4 = {ryz- Uz} Dj


Nj6 = { Vx - rjx } Dj

(16) (17) (18) (19)

488

R. Natarajan, C. Ganapathy

3 SOLUTION OF M O O R I N G EQUATIONS A set of static equilibrium equations is obtained by considering the equilibrium of a moored ship subjected to external force (/~ext) and elastic and hydrostatic restoring forces (~'aast) and (Pr,st), respectively.
/~elast +/g'rest = /Text

(20)

The generalised force vector (/Z'ext) consists of forces and moments due to wind, current, tide and loading or unloading cargo as shown in Fig. 2. Hence

K x Ui = Q
where

(21)

O =

Fx wind + Fx current + Fx wave Fy wind + Fy current + Fy wave Fz tide + Fz load/unload + F~ wave Mx wind + Mx current + Mx wave My wind + My current + My wave Mz wind + Mz current + Mz wave

(22)

Wind and current loads result mainly from velocity forces, which can be calculated from the drag force equation using projected areas of the ship. The total resultant wind force acting on the ship from any direction is given by 2
Pa Fwind (0{) = -~- X C w (~) x V 2 (Awx x cos2o{ "-~ A wy x w

sin2a)

(23)

From the wind tunnel studies on a wide range of vessel types, it is recommended that for different wind directions, the wind force coefficient (Cw) will vary from 0-6 to 1.4 in the lateral direction and from 0.4 to 1.2 in the longitudinal direction. Steady current forces may be evaluated from the following equation: 2
Fcurrent (]~) = ~ Cc (~) V,2 (Acx cos2fl -k- Acy sin2B) (24)

Depending upon the hull form, appendages, and roughness of the vessel, the current force coefficient (Co) ranges from 0.5 to 1-5 in the lateral direction and from 0.1 to 1.0 in the longitudinal direction, based on the direction of the current.

Analysis of moorings of a berthed ship

489

The total static wave load on the vessel can be computed from Ref. 2: Fwave(#)=pwxgxCmxHx9 in which Do = (Ls - B) sin # + B Usually, the added mass coefficient (Cm) varies from 0.13 to 0.25 in the longitudinal direction and from 1.45 to 1.75 in the lateral direction, according to the size of the vessels and angle of incident waves. The displacements and rotations of the ship due to the above environmental forces are given by 2xY

~2 (sinhxD - sinhx(D - d))


coshxd

(25)

Ui =

Uz

Ox

(26)

Oy Oz
All the elements of the stiffness matrix K are defined in Table 1, i.e.
"all a21 a12 a22 . . . . . . . . . . . . a16 a26

K=

(27)

a61

a62

......

a66

With the use of a computer, the equilibrium equations can be solved for the unknown vessel translation Uc and rotation 0c from which the elongations and forces on the mooring lines may be determined. A computer p r o g r a m - - S H I P M O O R - - w a s developed for the analysis and design of mooring systems of ships. The flow chart is shown in Fig. 4.

4 M O D E L EXPERIMENTS A N D C O M P U T E D RESULTS The computer p r o g r a m - - S H I P M O O R - - w a s validated by the model experiments. The mooring experiments were conducted on a barge model with the following particulars:

490

R. Natarajan, C. Ganapathy

Length o f model Breadth Depth Draught Displacement Block coefficient

4-8750 0.7500 0-2175 0.1373 451.5000 0.8994

m m m m kg

TABLE 1 Elements of the Stiffness Matrix


all a12 a13 = ~ =

Kxx

Kxy Kxx

a14 = K x ~ G - K~yC, a15 = Xx.C~ - K=C~ a~6 = K ~ C x - K ~ C ~


a21 a22 a23 a24 ~ = ~ =

Kxy Kyy Kyz KyzCy -- KyyCz

a25 = K~yC~ - Ky~C~ az6 = KyyCx - KxyCy


a31 a32 = =

grz Kyz

a33

: Kzz + Pwg A., a3. = K = C y - ryzC~

a35 a36 a4~ a.:

= = = =

Kx~C~ K~Cx Kx~C~ r~c~

K~Cx r~c~, KxyC~ K~y C~

043 a~ a45 046 asi

KzzCz 2 - KyzCz + K=Cf - 2K~C~C~ + WGMr = K.~C~C~ + K ~ C ~ C ~ - K = C x C ~ - K ~ y C f l = K~yCyC~ + KyzC~C, - K,,C~C~ - KxzCy 2 = K~C~ - K.~C,
= K.C,

a52 = K.yC~ - ~ z C z a53 = K=C~ - K=C~ a54 = K=Cs, Cz - KxyC~ z + Ky~C~C, - K = C x C y a55 KxxC~ 2 + K ~ C ~ 2 - 2K=C~C~ + W G M L

a56 = KxyCxC~ + Kx~CxCy - K x x G C ~ - K y z G 2


a61 = K ~ y C . - K . ~ C y a62 = KyvC~ - KxyCy

a63 =

K,~C~ - K ~ G a64 = K x y C y f z q- KyzCxCy - KyyCxCz - KxzC'y 2 a6s = KxyCxCz + KxzC~Cy - KxxCyCz - KyzCx 2
a66 :

gxxfy 2 + gyyfx 2 - 2gxyCxfy

Analysis of moorings of a berthed ship

491

Read A, GML, GMT , Aw ,n, ~w,g , '[Q}, N

For i = 1, n ; j =I,N Read Cxi, Cy i , Czi Bxi, Byi ,Bzi.rxj.ryj.rzj

1
i

Generate[K] of Mooring I_ line with respect to ship's axes F


I

I Solve fo~{U}i~rom {Qr = ["] {U} i J


i J Calculate '[f}i from {f}i=[K]i{U}i I

~
o

Yes

_~ Eliminate ith -I mooring line

JCotculate{=} i

from{l~[C]i{,}iJ

I Calculate Global reactive forces and moments about C.G.of the ship

Fig. 4. Flow chart for SHIP MOOR computer program.

492

R. Natarajan, C. Ganapathy

The model was constructed of wood coated with wax of 3-5 m m thickness. The bottom and side shells were stiffened by wooden frames. Nylon ropes of 5 m m in diameter were used as mooring ropes. The model was ballasted to the required displacement with concrete blocks. The complete mooring arrangement is shown in Fig. 5. The model was tested in a wave-current flume which has an overall length of 30 m and a cross-section of 2 m 1.5 m. The far end of the flume is provided with a rubble stone beach to absorb incident waves and to reduce reflection. At the other end, the wave generator is installed. The wave generator has a plunger-type wave maker driven by an electric motor system. The maximum stroke and speed of the plunger are 46 cm and 0.56 rev/s, respectively. The wave height can be controlled by adjusting the stroke of the plunger. An electrical control device is capable of producing regular waves of different frequencies. Suitable pumping devices are also provided to develop water current of velocity of 20 cm/s, in the flume. Maximum wave length of 5 m waves can be produced in the flume. Fabricated steel frame structures were used for simulating harbour basin conditions, for handling the model, fixing transducers, and for connecting the equipments. A block diagram of instrumentation used for recording data is shown in Fig. 6. This consists mainly of the following: (1) Wave p r o b e - - 2 Nos (2) Wave m o n i t o r s - - 2 Nos (3) Carrier frequency amplifier six c h a n n e l s - - 2 Nos

" O " - FORCE TRANSOUCER


,. -woooE. FE.OER

~ ) 6 ( ] ~ - " O O m , . G U.ES
' ~-BERTHING STRUCTURE

Fig. 5. Barge model.

Analysis of moorings of a berthed ship

493

,it

I ~

"

I........

'~l.~_.JcoNv[~rtl

Fig. 6. Instrumentation of the model.

(4) Apple II computer (5) Printer Two. resistance type wave probes were used for wave monitoring. They were electrically connected to two wave monitors to amplify the signals. To measure three motions of the model in the longitudinal vertical plane, three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) were connected through frictionless pulley-twine arrangements. Two LVDTs to measure vertical movements of the model were installed at the bow and stern. A third one was at the bow to measure the surge motion of the model. Four force transducers were attached to the four mooring lines of the barge model. All the LVDTs and force transducers were connected electrically to six-channel carrier frequency amplifiers. Output from amplifiers and wave monitors were fed to an Apple II computer through an analogue digital converter. A 16-channel data acquisition program package was used to collect the data. The gains of the amplifier for each channel and the sampling intervals were adjusted such that the recorded data accommodate a sufficient number of waves and such that the magnitudes of recorded responses had sufficient resolution. All the measurements were recorded for the following different environrnental conditions: (a) Waves of different frequencies for a wave height of 7.5 cm (b) Current alone (c) Combinations of (a) and (b) The coordinates of the mooring arrangement of the model are shown in Table 2. The experimental results were compared with the results obtained

494

R. Natarajan, C. Ganapathy

from the computer program and found to be in satisfactory agreement as shown in the Table 3. By varying environmental load conditions, the computer program SHIP MOOR was further used to investigate characteristics of the mooring lines and the behaviour of a ship with the following particulars:
TABLE 2 Coordinates of Mooring Arrangement of the Model
Line no C~i (m) Chock Cvi (m) C~i (m) xi (m) Bollard yi (m)
Zi

(m)

1 2 3 4

2.4 1.0 -1.0 -2.4

0 0.375 0.375 0

0.117 0.117 0.117 0-117

3.15 -0.75 1.05 -3.45

0.42 0.10 0.10 0-42

0.0168 0.0168 0.0168 0.0168

TABLE 3 Experimental Results


Mooring particulars Mooring line number a

1 H I

H I

H I

Condition (a) - - Wave alone, direction head sea, wave height 7.5 cm, period 2 s Mooring line 10.62 il.89 1 4 . 2 5 13.68 9.66 1 0 . 5 9 10.47 11.52 force (N) Line tension (N) 12-26 1 2 - 9 1 1 4 . 7 5 1 4 - 1 6 1 0 - 0 0 1 1 . 2 1 1 4 . 8 0 15.10 Chock excursion in 0.052 0.049 0.058 0.056 0.056 0.059 0.042 0.046 x - direction (m) Condition (b) - - Water current alone, Velocity 0.2 m/s Mooring line 1.81 1.75 3-04 3-16 force (N) Line tension (N) 2.10 2.02 3.16 3.28 Chock excursion in 0.038 0.045 0.042 0.028 x-direction (m) Condition ( c ) - - Combined wave and water current Mooring line 8.89 1 0 . 6 7 1 1 . 5 0 12.08 force (N) Line tension (N) 10.26 1 1 . 8 5 1 1 . 9 1 13.45 Chock excursion in 0-047 0-042 0.052 0.050 x - direction (m)

2-54 2.63 0.026

2.41 2.49 0-032

1-66 2.32 0.034

1.16 2.66 0-031

9.47

10.03

7.07

6-79

9-80 1 1 . 2 7 0-058 0-038

1 0 . 2 0 12.01 0-038 0.039

"I, Results of model experiments; II, Results of computer program.

Analysis of moorings of a berthed ship

495

Length of the ship Displacement Longitudinal metacentric height Transverse metacentric height

122.0 13413.0 133.8 0.8

m tonnes m m

The coordinates of the mooring arrangement are given in Table 4. The results of these case studies are illustrated in Figs 7-9.

5 DISCUSSION F r o m the analysis of results, it is observed that the tension of the mooring ropes increased non-linearly with the increased intensity of current forces for a constant wind velocity, for the combined wind and current forces acting on the ship in bow, quartering and beam directions as shown in Fig. 7. However, the magnitudes of the tension of the :ropes varied without following any specific pattern. In the case of ship motion, the displacements of the ship in surge and sway directions varied non-linearly with stiffness of the mooring ropes as in Fig. 8. The excursions were reduced with higher stiffness for all the load conditions. The forces on the mooring lines and fender reactions depended on the direction of wind and current acting on the berthed ship. When the direction of wind and current, i.e. ~ = fl was 90 with respect to axis of the ship, all the mooring lines were in tension and

TABLE 4 Coordinates of the Mooring Arrangement of the Ship (a)/Vlooring Lines

Line no
1 2 3 4 5 6

Cxi (m)
-65.1 -54.9 -36-6 36.6 54.9 62.0 (b) Fenders

Cyi (m)
0-0 5.3 8.4 8.4 5.3 0.0

Czi (m)
3.1 3.1 3.1 3-4 3.1 5-6

B.ri (m)
-75.0 -53.4 38.4 -38.4 53-4 72.0

Byi (m)
9.4 9.4 9.4 9-4 9.4 9.4

B.~i (m)
1.2 1.2 1-2 1.2 1.2 1.2

~n~r
A B

r.~j(m)
-30.0 30-0

ry.j(m)
9.0 9.0

r:j(m)
0,5 0-5

496

R. Natarajan, C.

Ganapathy

fender reactions were zero. When 0~ = fl -- 0, the tension in the mooring lines and fender reactions varied non-linearly from 0 to 367 kN and 270-692 kN, respectively. If a = fl = 45 , the reaction in one of the fenders, i.e. fender B became zero and the tension in stern and aft breast mooring ropes reduced considerably. All the fender reactions and tension of the mooring ropes are presented in Table 5. The behaviour of the ship and the characteristics of the mooring ropes were, however, different in the case of combined wave and current forces as presented in Fig. 9. The tension of the stern rope and forward spring line decreased with the increasing current velocity to a certain value and thereafter the tension increased. Also, the stiffness of the mooring ropes

500

SO0

Legend: Legend :
Vw = 45 Knots
400

(~

E :l,SxlO4kNIm2
4O0

Moi~ J org n
E :1.5 x l 0 4 # N I m 2
"3

300

o 30O

2OO

20O

o~
lo0

1oo

0
0.0
0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.~ 3.00 3.50

0 Current (a) velocity (Knots)


a =p
=

0.0

I 0.50

I 1.00

I 1.SO

I 2,00

I 2.S0

I 3.00

3.50

Current
(b)

velocity (Knots)
~ = p = 45

O*

000

Legend:
vw : 45 Knots E : 1.5xlO&kNI m 2 Mooring lines :(~) - ( ~

600

o 400

._~
~, 20C

0.0

I I 0 . S O 1.00

I 1.50
~=~=90

I 2.00

I 2.50

I 3.00

3~50

Current
(c)

velocity ( K n o t s )

Fig. 7. Variation of tension of mooring ropes with current velocity at constant wind velocity. (a) ct = # = 0; (b) ct = / ~ = 45; (c) 0t = / ~ = 90 .

Analysis of moorings of a berthed ship

497

TABLE 5 Tension of Mooring Lines and Fender Forces of the Berthed Ship under Steady Wind and Current Forces

Line tension (kN) (Degrees) (Degrees) (Knots) (Knots)


0 0 45 1.0 2-0 3.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 2.0 3-0

Fender force (kN) 5 6 A B

45

45

45

913,

90

45

1 0 0 - 0 56.7 216.7 160.0 86.7 166.7 270.3 324.3 50-0 33.3 283.3 73.3 85-0 210.0 378-4 464.9 13.3 20.0 366.7 0 160-0 270.0 540.5 691-9 53.3 143-3 140.0 166.7 300.0 160.0 540.5 0 26.7 93-3 183.3 226.7 373-3 206.7 810.0 0 16.7 66.7 250.0 300.0 473.3 273-3 1264.9 0 150.0 236.8 115.0 60.0 273.3 165.0 0 0 196.0 298.5 150.0 90.0 352.7 225.0 0 0 255.0 384.2 220.0 150.0 478-9 320.0 0 0

and movements of the ship differed completely from that of the combined wind and current forces. It may be due to the wave and current forces, which acted orthogonally with increasing influence of wave forces acting on the ship.

6 CONCLUSIONS This method of determining the design requirements for mooring of ships; restrained by elastic mooring lines and subjected to wind, current and wave forces may aid the designer to make the proper selection and location of the mooring equipments and mooring fittings on board ship and as well as at berth. This method is suitable for all types of mooring lines, particularly synthetic ones with highly elastic characteristics.. The same type of quasi-static analysis can also be extended to offshore floating platforms with spread moorings. In these cases, the catenary effects of mooring lines will also be considered, by suitably discretising the mooring lines, while generating the stiffness of the mooring lines. But the only limitation to using this method, is that the floating struc, tures should be moored in the sheltered location, where the influence of the waves are not severely felt. In the case of significant wave load]ngs, the dynamic analysis should be carried out to solve the mooring problems.

498

R. Natarajan, C. Ganapathy

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors express their sincere thanks to the Institute authorities for the facilities offered for the preparation of this paper.

xtO 3 10 Le z a : Knot K not Knot K not K not

xlO 3 to

[
Le

:::,SKnots
Knot Knot K not Knot Knot

O--O Vc : 0 . 5 b - - ~ VC = 1,0 VC = 1,5 e - - e Vc : 2 . 0 Vc : 2-5

O-,-O VC = 0.5 Vc : 1 0 Vc = 1 5 e~e Vc=2.0 Vc = 2 . 5

g
E o
2 t

I I

I 2 Surge
(0)

I 3

I 4

I 5

0
0.0

I
0.50

i
1.00

I
I. 50

I
2.00 2.50

motion of ship ( m l a : p : O*

Surge motion of ship ( m )


[b) = fl = &5 t

x 1o 3 10

xlO 3 10

Knots
A ~--O V =O.S ~ V c =1.O D-.-Q VC = 1 . 5 H VC:2.O ~ Vc:2,S Knot Knot Knot Knot Knot

L
0~0

:
not

Vc = 0.5 VC = 1-0 C)~(3 Vc : 1 . 5 VC : 2. O 4k~& V : 2 . 5

Knot Knot Knot Knot Knot

0
0-0

I 0-50

I 1-OO
Sway

I 1.50

I 2-00

I 2-50

I 3.00

i
3.50

i
Sway

motion at s h i p ( m )

4 6 motion of ship ( m ) cr = /9 = 90"

(c)

P = 45"

(d)

Fig. 8. Variation of ship motions with stiffness of mooring rope under wind and current.
( a ) ~t = fl = 0 ; ( b ) e = fl = 4 5 ; ( c ) ~t = fl = 4 5 ; ( d ) ct = fl = 9 0 .

Analysis of moorings of a berthedship


500

499

L.,:o:2.
4o0 . z E : 1.5xlO4kNIm2 Mooring lines= I -S / /
~ 300

/*
~ ~

x103 10

t.:.;,2: 8

O--O Vc : O. S K not

g
g S 2oo
o 100

g
E 4

0.0 O.S0

1.O0 t.SO 2.00 Z .SO 3,00 3.50 Current velocity (Knots) (el
B = 0"

0.0

I O. 50

I t I 1.00 1.50 2.00 Surge motion of 1;hip (m)

I 2.50

3.00

/z--90*

(b)

/?=0"

p:90*

xlO 3 10 1 I ~ 8 Legend: H:2m O~OVc : 0.5 Knot ~,-LsYc : 1.0 Knot O,.-,gtYC : 2,0 Knot

I~\\

I ~ ' ~ v c : 2 s KnOt

I 2

I I I ~ 6 8 Swoy motion of ship (m) Ic)

10

f)=0*

/~ = 90"

Fig. 9.

Variation of tension mooring ropes and ship motions under wave and current. (a) fl = 0,/~ = 90; (b) fl = 0,/~ = 90; (c) fl = 0, # = 90.
REFERENCES

1. Chernjawski, M., Mooring of surface vessels to piers. Marine Technology, 17 (1980) 1-7. 2. Gaythwaite, J. W., Design of Marine Facilities for Berthing, Mooring and Repair of Vessels. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1990. 3. Hunley, W. H. & Lemley, N. W., Ship manoeuvering, navigation and motion control. In Ship Design and Construction. (Ed. R. Taggart) SNAME, NY, 1980. 4. Lewis, E. V., The motion of ships in waves. Principles of Naval Architecture. (Ed. John P. Comstock) SNAME, NY, 1967. 5. Saunders, H., Hydrodynamics in Ship Design. SNAME, NY, 1957. 6. Wilson, B. W., Elastic characteristics of moorings. In Topics in Ocean Engineering (Vol. 1) (Ed. Charles I. Brestschneider) Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX, USA, 1969.