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Casein: A A very small found in milk. Casein forms a and venules.

Capillary:phosphoproteinblood vessel joining arteriolesprecipitate during the so Catabolite Repression: A regulatory mechanism by which microorganisms utilize th uring of milk. Catalyze: To source the rate a a chemical reaction. The catalyst, the substan e best carbonspeed uppresent inof medium. Cathode Ray Tube: A vacuum tube in which cathode the (streams ce that catalyzes the reaction, is not changed byrays reaction.of high-speed ele ctrons) are projected onto a fluorescent screen to form a luminous spot. A telev Centrifugation: The use of centrifugal force to separate substances based on the ision picture tube is a cathode ray tube. ir rate of sedimentation. Centrifugal force is the force that impels an object o Chemistry: the center the composition of substances and the reactions they und utward fromThe study ofof rotation. Chemolithotrophic: Capable of obtaining energy from the oxidation of inorganic c ergo. Chemostat: ompounds. A continuous culture device in which the growth rate of the bacteria contained inside is controlled by the addition rate of a limiting nutrient or th Clone: A population of cells descended from a single cell. Cloning is the proces Chloroplasts: The the medium. e dilution rate oforganelles of eukaryotic cells in which photosynthesis occurs. s of obtaining multiple copies of a piece of DNA by inserting it into a phage or Concentration: Theof it andcontent or strength of cytoplasm. Coenocytic: continuous to replicate in that encodessubstance. Concentration is Codon: A andAallowingthree bases in mRNA a clonal population of bacteria. plasmid sequence relative multinucleate mass a a specific amino acid. Conjugate Vaccine: molarity (moles/liter). a selected antigen and other proteins often measured in A vaccine consisting of .ontrast: The degree of difference between the lightest and darkest portions of C Coulter Counter: An Convex: Curved outward, resembling the exterior of a particles, including cells a picture or view. electronic apparatus for countingsphere. . It is based on the property that the electric conductivity of a bacterial cell Cyanobacterium: An of a saline solution. is less than that oxygen-producing photoautotrophic bacterium. Cyanobacteria we Denature: To modify the a carboxyl Decarboxylate: To blue-green (-COOH) from a compound. re formerly calledremovemolecular structure of a substance so that it is no long Diffusion: The er functional. net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentr Dikaryon: An organism composed of cells ation to an area of lower concentration.that each contain two genetically distin Dissimilatory: An energy distinct in bacteria in patterns. Dimorphic: ct nuclei. Exhibiting twometabolismshapes or growthwhich inorganic compounds are Disulfide Bond: A single covalent bond between two sulfur atoms. Disulfide bonds reduced. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid; a double proteins. help form the tertiary structure of helical chain of deoxynucleotides that is t he basic structure of heredity. DNA contains the genetic information necessary t Double Crossover: o make proteins. A genetic event in which segments of two homologous DNA stran Effluent: The discharge or outflow from a the DNA. ds are exchanged at two distinct points insource (e.g., a factory) into the envi Electron ronment. Dense: A region of a specimen that appears dark in an electron microgra Endoflagellum: A flagellum that is located in the periplasm of spirochetes. In o ph. Endospore: An species, the hardy, dormant, survival structure cell. ther bacterialexceptionally flagella are on the exterior of thethat forms in som Endotoxin: The they encounter unfavorable conditions. e bacteria whenlipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of GramEnd-Product Inhibition: A negative feedback mechanism by which negative bacteria that is harmful to humans and other animals. excess metabolic Enterotoxin: A toxin that is harmful formed them. end products inhibit the process thatto the epithelial cells that line the intes Enzyme: tines. A biological molecule, usually a protein, that catalyzes a chemical reac Euglenoids: A class of single-celled protozoans that possess two flagella of une tion. Eutrophic: Rich Eukaryote: An in dissolved nutrients, which results in low levels of dissolved qual lengths. organism composed of a cell or cells with internal membranes. oxygen and a dense population of microorganisms.