Sie sind auf Seite 1von 30

Cased Hole Logging

Surveillance and by-passed pay

Cased Hole Fluid Composition


Capacitance, Fluid Di-elect. Fluid Resistivity Pulsed Neutron Capture Gradiomanometers Fluid type - hydrocarbon vs. water. Fluid type - hydrocarbon vs. salt water. 3-phase ID in well, req. homogeneous formation Fluid type - oil and water, looses resolution in high deviation, limited in high rate and high oil cut.

Fluid Density
Temperature

Fluid type- oil vs. water, better in high GLR.


Fluid entry (zones/leaks) rate/temp limits.

Noise
Fluid Level Survey Spinners Radioactive Tracer Tool Oxygen Activation

Leak/zone entry. Channel flow behind pipe, depending on rate.


Fluid level only, confused by foams, froths and emulsions. Total flow rates and entry/exit points. Deviated wells are a challenge. Total flow rates and entry/exit points. Not useful in deviated wells. Velocity of water phase. Holdup and leak detection.

Cased Hole Casing/Cement Inspection


Caliper Log Eddy Current
Accuracy depends on number of fingers, speed, tool type. Inner wall investigation. Shows some smaller flaws, measures ID

Casing Inspection Casing Inspection

Flux Leakage
Ultrasonic Electromagnetic Phase Shift Conventional Acoustic Segmented Acoustic

Casing body inspection. Id of inner / outer wall, and body casing problems, not in OBM
Casing body inspection. Affected by fluids, used in thicker wall pipe (>0.2) Casing body inspection. ID and wall thickness, averaging tool may miss small defects Cement presence. Averaged data, not really useful for most problem identification Channels, Bond. 360o, channels and voids, bond under right conditions.

Casing Inspection
Casing Inspection Casing Inspection Cement Evaluation Cement Evaluation

Ultrasonic

Casing and Cement bond. 360o, channels, voids, bond, pipe conditions w/ right application.

Cement Evaluation

Cased Hole Correlation/Evaluation


Gamma Ray Neutron log single detector Lithology and correlation Inexpensive. No porosity. Lithology and correlation Inexpensive. No porosity. Correlation Correlation

Neutron log dual detector

Porosity. RA source needed, accuracy less than OH log.

Formation Evaluation

Acoustic

Porosity. Limited in cased wells, Formation requires good bonds for accuracy Evaluation Water saturation. Does not work in low or changing salinity, or low porosity Water saturation. Does not work well in low porosity Water Saturation. Salinity dependent, stationary reading, relative deep reading Formation Evaluation Formation Evaluation Formation Evaluation

Pulsed Neutron Capture PNC Pulsed Neutron Spectrometry PNS C/O Cased Hole Resistivity

Detection of Crossflow
Problem or Information Needed Rec. Logging Tools

Procedure/Level of Detail
Difference in slope of temperature gradient will detect flow rates down to 25 BPD if liquid and temperatures of fluids are different. Figures on temperature vs. flow distance help estimate water flow in the annulus. Best performance of noise logs is with gas flow. Gas flow to about 10 actual ft3/D (Note not standard ft3/day). At very low gas flow rates (q<400 actual ft3/D), gas flow can be estimated from millivolts of noise between the 200-Hz and 600-Hz frequencies: q = 0.35 (N200 N600). Where q is the actual gas flow in ft3 and N = noise log cut at that frequency. Open hole or channels behind single string. Accuracy is sharply reduced for investigating channels behind two strings (use temp or noise tools).

Detection of Crossflow or Underground Blow out

Temperature Survey

Noise Log

Oxygen Activation Survey

Location of Cement Top


Problem or Information Needed

Rec. Logging Tools

Procedure / Level of Detail

Location of Cement Top

Temperature Survey

OK if run within 12 to 24 hrs of cement job. Little temperature variation with the formation may make cement top difficult to see.

CBL (cement bond log)

Best results after 3 days or when cement has developed 70%+ of the compressive strength. These tools may be too large for slim hole wells.

Gravel-pack logging (GR)

Tool response depends on density difference between cement and annular fluid.

Evaluation of Cement Placement and Bond


Problem or Information Needed

Rec. Logging Tools


Open hole caliper

Procedure / Level of Detail


Accuracy depends on caliper and hole roughness and washouts. Caliper tools with more than 4 arms are needed for hole volume measurement accuracy. Sweeps give decent estimates of hole volume, but sweeps may not reach all of the annular space in uncentralized cased holes. Useful for swept hole % analysis. OK if run within 12 to 24 hrs of cement job. Little temperature variation with the formation may make cement top difficult to see. Good if fluid density difference greater than 0.3 gm/cc (0.13 lb/bbl). Could run before and after cement for background data. Semi-quantitative contact measurement of pipe/cement and cement/formation. Affected by casing pressure and tool calibration.

Evaluation of Cement Placement

Sweeps with markers after running casing Temperature Survey Gravel Pack Log

CBL both regular and segmented

Casing Inspection
Problem or Information Needed
Detection of casing wear from drilling

Rec. Logging Tools


E-line calipers

Procedure / Level of Detail


Multi-arm calipers generally good, but slick line calipers may rotate and over-report the bad spots. Highly accurate if the hole is filled with a non conductive fluid.

EM eddy current tool that measures wall thickness


Acoustic wall thickness tool

Qualitative indicators of wear (thickness numbers are not very accurate)

Determination of External Casing Corrosion

Problem or Information Needed Detect casing collapse

Rec. Logging Tools

Level of Detail

EM eddy current wall thickness survey

Investigation is to 8 to 10 radius. Investigation ability falls off after the first string encountered. Qualitative investigation. Splits are more difficult to see. Depth of investigation depends on source strength may range from 4 to 16. Splits are more difficult to see.

Gravel-pack (GR density)

Flow Behind Pipe


Problem or Information Needed Rec. Logging Tools

Procedure / Level of Detail


Useful where the well has active annular flow. Can spot flows on the order of 1 bpd (after 24 hrs) if temperature of formation at measurement and source of water is sufficiently different. Two surveys, 12 hrs apart is usually adequate to spot presence of a channel.
Accurate, but dont swap out muds. Migration of fluids in pipe may be seen as channel. Accuracy depends on channel variations to accelerate flow and change sound.

Annular Flow

Temperature Survey

OA - oxygen activation Noise logging

Determination of Flow Behind Pipe for Injector


Problem or Information Needed Determine annular flow in injector Rec. Logging Tools

Procedure / Level of Detail


Track from surface to annulus until slug is completely pumped away. Track any flow that goes behind pipe and moves up. Not as reliable as the chemical tracer, due to fluctuations in the injection rate.
Three temperature surveys are needed: one before annular injection (base line), one during and one 4 to 6 hours after injection (decay). Pumping borax/water solution down tbg into the liner, allowing mix to invade perfs & any channels in casing/formation annuli. Initial pass, before borate injection, is w/ Pulsed Neutron log (no Borax), followed by passes at 20bbls, 40bbls, and 60bbls as borax mix pumped. Borax affects neutron capture, leaving a characteristic signature. Overlays of the Sigma/CNL counts reveal the zones of borax penetration, and identifies channels taking fluid.

RA Tracer Survey - inject slug of I131 in brine. OA- oxygen activation survey Temperature survey Borax Log

Location of Annular Leak


Problem or Information Needed Rec. Logging Tools

Procedure / Level of Detail


Can distinguish entry points and limited detail on up or down movement of the inject slug.

Certification for annular disposal

Radioactive Tracer Survey with RA isotope in brine, pumped into annulus while logging with a GR tool in tubing.

Oxygen activation survey Temperature survey

Not as accurate as RA logging. Fluctuations in rate create problems. Can determine channels and entry points. Needs 3 runs before, during and after.
Pumping borax/water solution down tbg into the liner, allowing mix to invade perfs & any channels in casing/formation annuli. Initial pass, before borate injection, is w/ Pulsed Neutron log (no Borax), followed by passes at 20bbls, 40bbls, and 60bbls as borax mix pumped. Borax affects neutron capture, leaving a characteristic signature. Overlays of the Sigma/CNL counts reveal the zones of borax penetration, and identifies channels taking fluid.

Borax Log

Location of Source of Annular Leak


Problem or Information Needed

Rec. Logging Tools

Procedure / Level of Detail


Relatively accurate at rates of at 1 bpd or more. Need minimum of 2 runs, before and during injection. A third run may help define a qualitative level of leak rate. Run at 1oF/in sensitivity. Will not see small gas leak rates through liquid.
Best for gas leak detection. Run static log and then again during flow or negative test. Upward gas movement (percolation) at actual 10 ft3/D or more should be detectable. Can detect flows of 20 to 40 bpd in the annulus of a single string well if the leak is directly opposite the tool. Resolution drops to >200 bpd when two strings are present Pumping borax/water solution down tbg into the liner, allowing mix to invade perfs & any channels in casing/formation annuli. Initial pass, before borate injection, is w/ Pulsed Neutron log (no Borax), followed by passes at 20bbls, 40bbls, and 60bbls as borax mix pumped. Borax affects neutron capture, leaving a characteristic signature. Overlays of the Sigma/CNL counts reveal the zones of borax penetration, and identifies channels taking fluid.

Location of leak to annulus or crossflow behind pipe

Temperature survey

Noise log

Oxygen activation log Borax Log

Gamma Ray Tool (Basically a Geiger Counter)


Uses a scintillation crystal and a photomultiplier tube to measure naturally occurring and artificially induced gamma-ray radiation. The gamma-ray radiation is a signature of the formations in a well very useful in depth control. Used in open hole or pipe Also used to spot changes in radiation (NORM scale) and radioactive tracers. GR is sensitive to logging speed and factors/statistics that govern radioactive decay. Used as one measurement of shaliness, correlation tool for stacked beds and in shales, seal/barrier location, id of organic rich zones, gross and net reservoir thicknesses.

Multi-sensor caliper (cased hole)


Multi-arm feeler gauges the shape and smoothness of the casing id.
Corrosion and pit detection Pipe collapse and deformation Pipe wear

Production Logging (PLT)


Spinner or radioactive tracer ejector that is useful for identifying and quantifying fluid entry and exit points in the well. Challenged by deviated wells if the tool is not in the predominant flow stream.

PLT in Gas Lift Wells


Very common to run PLTs in gas lift wells w/ precautions. W/ fullbore spinners, choke the well back and reduce or shut-in the lift gas to reduce the chance of getting the tool stuck. Make sure the well is stable before logging. Run in at 50 to 75 ft/min. A pressure / density log may show some gas lift problems that a flowing gradient survey will not. There is very little chance of getting the PLT stuck in a GLM if a series of gauging runs is made immediately prior to the log (insures full ID). The fullbore centralizer collapses to the tubing ID and the tool is run with the spinner centralized so the point / bull-nose on the tool does not contact the walls of the tubing. There is a possibility of the centralizer holding up in the mandrel, but picking up and running a little faster should take care of this. Adhere to the service companies recommendation on minimum tool clearance.
Sources: Duane Toth and Franklin Bohla

PLT Sticking Hazard


Greatest risk of tool hang-up is in the tubing tail (TT). Also watch the reservoir (may not be able to run a full ID drift gauge) for scale build up. Running a slim hole GR prior to the spinner to look for potential barium scale deposits is a good idea. Other scales and nonNORM BaSO4 scale may require a tool-sized drift. Lost Tool Experiences (from Duane Toth):
Lost one in Alaska where we didn't shut-in the well before going from the 7" production casing into 2-7/8" tubing. The tool was off center, hung-up on the TT, and the wire came loose. We were able to fish this tool. The other was in Algeria where we lost the tool across the reservoir section. Believed to be result of excessive barium scale deposition, but fill may have also been a problem. This tool string was never recovered, and since it had the GHOST tool, it was an expensive mistake.

Source Duane Toth

Cement Bond Tool


Transmitter-receiver tool measures the signal received back from a segment. Helps assess cement presence and bond to the formation and the pipe.

Temperature Tool
A recording of the wellbore temperature.
Identify fluid entry or exit Gas channeling Tubular leaks Hydraulic frac height Cement top Fluid levels Differential temperature curve

Down Hole Static Temperature Varies with Depth - Effect of the Geothermal Gradient
0 1000 2000 3000
"cellar effect - temperature normally cools from surface temperature to about 100 ft below surface, then temperature begins to increase with increasing depth. Watch for anomolies. This response is about 2.1oF per 100 ft

Depth, ft

4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 50 100 150

200

250

300

Temperature, F

Temperature log Saaman Well Trinidad. Leak at packer using annular injection after base line at same rate.

Gradiomanometer
Measures the differential pressure of a 24 column of fluid calculates the fluid density.
Determine gas or liquid entry points Identify static fluid interfaces Determine exact depth of fluid density change Assist production logs

Flow meter
Measures fluids moving past the tool. Moving fluids turn the spinner
To determine fluid entry or exit points Evaluate perforations Evaluate cross-flow occurrence Helps evaluate completion design

Tension Measurement Device


A component of the tool string that records the tension during logging in various parts of the wellbore. Helps spot increased drag and break free points (tool jumps) that may signal poor logging tool records. Used for quality control on logs, as an indicator of depleted zones (fluid loss sticking), dog-legs, location of sticking (above or below tool when compared with a surface record).

Logging Behind Casing


Key Elements:
Understand the condition of the casing Understand the connection of casing to the formation cement bond. Inclination, diameter, geometry

Partial List of Information Sought and Cased Hole Logging Tools


Information Sought
Casing Condition Cement Condition Saturation Lithology Porosity Formation Strength Oil Gas By-passed Pay Pressure

Logging Tools Used


USIT, Multi-arm Calipers, Sonic Calipers, Downhole TV Cement Bond Logs (sonic) Resistivity Tools (CH), C/O Logs, Reservior Saturation Tools, DSS Gamma Ray, Density, Neutron, Sonic Resistivity Tools (CH), Porosity (CH), CNL, Dipole Shear Sonic Dipole Shear Sonic, Resistivity, Casing Wall Coring Tools, Neutron and Sonic Tools Resistivity, O/C Logs, Casing Wall Coring Tools