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Todays objectives and Key Questions Definition of convective mass transfer o What is the mathematical definition of convective mass transfer in terms of our original definition of total flux for a system (NA)? Define the direction of mass transport under diffusive and convective conditions o How does convective mass transfer differ from diffusive mass transfer in terms of the direction of molecular movement? Define mass transfer correlations used for different flow conditions and geometrical shapes o How are the dimensionless groups developed by dimensionless analysis methods? Applying the mass transfer correlations to different problems of concentration, turbulence and geometry. o How do you use the correlations to solve MT problems and design MT equipment?

Where can you read more about this: Hines and Maddox: Mass Transfer Fundamentals

Dimensional Analysis (Ch 6 p 163 - 166) Mass transfer in cylindrical tubes (Ch 6 p 176 181)

Step One: Introduce the concept of a Mass Transfer Coefficient A more convenient way to describe flux NA (one that does not involve Differential eqns) is; Flux (NA) = mass transfer coefficient (k) x (concentration difference driving force) The individual mass transfer coefficient k (lower case) takes different forms depending on the following (The full expression for these coefficients are summarized in Table 5.1 see notes)

In previous lectures we looked at two types of mass transfer problems (Evaporation MT through a stagnant film case a) and (Mass transfer from a thick slab case b). In this lecture we will define MT coefficients (given the symbol k) for each general case. a. b. k - Diffusion through stagnant film k Equimolar counter diffusion (denoted by the sign)

The subscript for k denotes the type of driving force: 1. The concentration difference driving force a. kc concentration mol/L (gases) b. kG partial pressure (gases) c. ky mole fraction (gases) d. kL concentration (liquids) e. kx mole fraction (liquids)

Note lower case k indicates that these are individual mass transfer coefficients. (For example one for convection and one for diffusion). In this lecture we will introduce a term for turbulence (and its impact on diffusion)

N A = (DAB + E D )

where

CA Y

= k c (C A1 CAm )

* Y =0

The convective mass transfer coefficient is indicated by a star superscript and includes both mechanisms by which mass transfer occurs: 1. Molecular diffusion (which dominates in laminar flow). 2. Eddy or turbulent diffusion (which dominates in turbulent flow).

ANALOGY BETWEEN HEAT TRANSFER, MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND MASS TRANSFER General Summary Experimental studies suggest that heat, momentum and mass are transferred by elements of fluids moving from one region to another. Reynolds (1901) incorporated eddy diffusivity terms into the molecular equations to predict flux: Molecular diffusion Intrinsic properties of fluid MT occurs in direction of concentration gradient (direction of diffusion) Eddy Diffusion Depends on type of fluid Depends on type of flow MT occurs perpendicular to flow

Other similarities between heat and mass transport Mass NA (mol/area.time) DAB (area/time) ED (area/time) CA (mol/vol)

k c* [mol/time.area(mol/vol)]

Flux Molecular Diffusivity Eddy Diffusivity Differential Driving force Convective coefficient

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS (DA) Aim of DA is to identify all the variables that describe transport by action of bulk fluid movement (under either laminar or turbulent conditions). One Example of dimensional analysis is the Buckingham Pi Method. It defines the number of dimensionless groups () needed to describe MT (or the process) as the number of physical variables minus the number of primary dimensions (M, L, t etc) used to express the physical variables. Example Transfer of a substance away from the surface as a result of flow across the surface. What are the key factors describing the movement of a substance A away from a surface as a result of a stream moving across the surface?

1st step. Ddefine direction of movement away from the surface. Movement away from the surface is perpendicular to the direction of the stream. 2nd Step. List all the variables with movement of A from surface. Variable Velocity Viscosity Density Diffusivity Mass transfer Characteristic Length Symbol U DAB kc* l Dimension L/t M/L.t M/L3 L2/t L/t L

3rd Step. Describe the contribution of each variable i.e. f (U, , , DAB, kc, l) = 0 Note the function f() must be zero to balance all contributions 4th Step Determine the contribution of each variable by setting up the dimensionless groups to reduce (simplify) the data needed to describe the process. In this case the No. of variables = 6 and the No. of 1o dimensions = 3 dimensionless groups () = 3 i.e. f (1, 2, 3) = 0 5th Step. Collect like terms and define dimensionless groups describing physical conditions.

DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS FOR MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT CORRELATIONS Mass transfer coefficients may be correlated using the following dimensionless groups (determined by dimensional analysis):

Sh = and

St* =

where: * = mass transfer coefficient (the star indicates convective mass kc transfer) [kmol s-1 m-2 (kmol/m3)-1] l = characteristic length (diameter (tubes & spheres)) [m] DAB = diffusion coefficient [m2 s-1] U = mean (or bulk) velocity of fluid flow [m s-1] = kinematic viscosity [m2 s-1] = / = dynamic (or absolute) viscosity [cP] where 1 cP = 0.001 kg m-1 s-1 = density [kg m-3]

SPECIFIC MASS TRANSFER CORRELATIONS From the dimensional analysis (Buckingham Pi Method) demonstrated that the functional equation describing mass transfer: f (1,2,3..) = 0 For the case of sublimation of a flat solid in a stream of air f ( Sh,Re,Sc) = 0 Various researchers have developed functional equations for different geometries (tubes, plates, cylinders, spheres). Consider flow in tubes Laminar or turbulent conditions o Constant wall concentration o Constant mass input o Low concentration of species of interest CORRELATIONS FOR MASS TRANSFER IN CYLINDRICAL TUBES (Pages 176 - 182) eg absorption of a gaseous component into a liquid in a wetted-wall column: The gas flows up the middle of the column, counter current to the liquid flowing as a thin film down the wall. Radial mass transfer of the gaseous component occurs from the bulk gas to the surface of the liquid film - this is called convective mass transfer, because there is convection (ie flow) of the gas through the column. LAMINAR FLOW IN CYLINDRICAL TUBES Fully-developed parabolic velocity profile and developing concentration profile: Constant wall concentration:

* 0.0668[(d / L )Re d Sc ] k cd * = Sh d = 3.66 + 2/ 3 DAB 1+ 0.04[(d / L)Re d Sc ]

(6-67)

* Sh d = 3.658 (6-84)

* 0.023[(d / L )Re d Sc ] k cd * = Sh d = 4.36 + 1 + 0.0012[(d / L )Re d Sc ] DAB * Note that for fully developed concentration profile, Sh d = 4.36

(6-68) (6-79)

TURBULENT FLOW IN SMOOTH CYLINDRICAL TUBES For gas-phase mass transfer in a wetted-wall column, the concentration difference between the bulk gas and the liquid surface varies through the column, so a mean concentration difference is calculated as the logarithmic mean of the concentration differences at each end of the column. The corresponding mean mass transfer coefficient was calculated from the experimental data and correlated by:

Sh M =

(6-91)

_

P B , LM = log mean composition of the carrier gas between the surface and the bulk

concentration This is valid for: 2000 = Re = 35,000 0.6 = Sc = 2.5 for column pressures from 0.1 to 3 atm A transferring through stagnant B A more generally applicable correlation including liquids is:

Sh M =

(6-92) which is valid for: 2000 = Re = 70,000 0.6 = Sc = 2500 A transferring through stagnant B

TURBULENT FLOW IN ROUGH CYLINDRICAL TUBES If ripples occur on the liquid surface of the wetted-wall column, a modified correlation applies:

0.15

(6-94)

LAMINAR FLOW ACROSS A FLAT PLATE As fluid flows past a flat plate, a laminar boundary layer builds up in thickness from zero at the leading edge of the plate until a distance XC from the leading edge. Beyond this point, the boundary layer flow becomes unstable and a turbulent boundary layer occurs with a laminar sub-layer between the surface and the turbulent boundary layer. From theory, the average mass transfer over a length L along the plate is given by:

Sh

* avg

(6-109)

where ReL is the Reynolds Number based on the length L of the plate. Experimental data are correlated by Figure 6-8 or:

jD =

jD =

0.664 Re L

k* c (Sc )2 / 3 U

(6-147)

where

(6-146)

TURBULENT FLOW ACROSS A FLAT PLATE From theory, the average mass transfer over a length L along the plate is given by:

Sh avg =

*

(6-142)

for cases where Sc is close to 1. Experimental data are correlated by Figure 6-8 or:

jD =

for

(6-148)

where

jD =

(6-146)

MASS TRANSFER TO OR FROM SINGLE SPHERES The Frssling equation applies for low Re:

Sh = 2 + 0.552 Re d Sc

0.5

1/ 3

(6-149)

Several modifications of this equation have been given, including the effects of natural convection (6-150) and for high Reynolds Numbers > 2000 (6-153).

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