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Introduction to Biology

Light Microscope

Biology and Its Importance Biology - earlier study as Botany (study of plant) and Zoology (study of animals) but now Modern Biology has many fields such as Genetic Engineering, Biotechnology and Bacteriology. Biology - the scientific study of life. Its Importance: 1. Education. 2. Knowledge 3. Control 4. Research 5. Economy 6. Quality of life 7. Diseases 8. Problem solving 9. Careers Scientific Investigation The following are steps involved in a scientific investigation: 1. Define the problem

2. Form a hypothesis 3. Plan the investigation 4. Control the variables 5. Collect the data

6. Analyse the data 7. Interpret the data 8. Make a conclusion 9. Write a report Berry Berry Teacher would like to recommend young berries to follow these rules inwriting their report: 1. Aim / Objective 2. Statement of problem (must be in the form of question) 3. Hypothesis 4. Variables (Manipulated, Responding and Fixed) 5. Materials 6. Apparatus 7. Technique 8. Procedure / Method of the experiment 9. Results / Record of data 10. Discussion / Presentation of data 11. Conclusion (accept of not accept the hypothesis)

Cell Structure and Function Comparison between Animal Cell (AC) and Plant Cell (PC) 1. Mitochondrion (pl: Mitochondria): AC and PC

spherical / rod-shaped organelles two membranes: Inner membrane form cristae & Outer membrane regular and smooth an energy source site of cellular aerobic respiration produces ATP (adenosine triphosphate) contains the genetic material regulates and controls the activities of the cell an organelle bounded by double (2) layers of nuclear membrane with pores and selectivelypermeable responsible for all cellular structure, chemical functions, growth and reproduction separates the genetic materials (chromatin) from cytoplasm spherical structure within the nucleus consists of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) and proteins visible when the cell is not dividing synthesis RNA which is needed to make ribosomes

2. Nucleus (pl: Nuclei): AC and PC

3. Nucleolus: AC and PC

4. Nucleoplasm: AC and PC

fluid contained within the nucleus highly viscous solid made up of the chromatin and the nucleolus thread-like structures (consists of genetic material) appears as chromatin spread throughout the nucleus in the form of tiny granules chromatin condenses into chromosomes (during cell division) carry genetic information in its DNA small dot-like organelles protein synthesis consist of RNA (ribonucleic acids) smallest cellular organelles attached on the surface of ER and occur freely in cytoplasm connected to the nuclear membrane synthesises proteins, steroids and lipids collects, stores and distributes protein, steroids and lipids exists as rough ER and smooth ER Rough ER: covered with ribosomes, flat sealed sac which continued from the nuclear membrane, transports protein, and have a large surface area for chemical reactions. Smooth ER: does not have ribosomes, transports lipids and presents in large amounts of cells. cell membrane thin membrane surround the cytoplasm of a cell selectively permeable / semi permeable a protective and selective outer barrier consists of phospholipids and protein molecules bound sacs processes, packages and transport molecules synthesised in the cell forms lysosomes transports and stores lipids synthesis of carbohydrate from hormone changes protein into glycoprotein excretes waste products out of the cell aqueous solution (except nucleus)

5. Chromosomes

6. Ribosomes: Ac and PC

7. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): AC and PC

8. Plasma membrane: AC and PC

9. Golgi apparatus / Golgi body: AC and PC

10. Cytoplasm: AC and PC

stores water, enzymes, nutrient, salts and dissolved gases provided support, shape and protects the cell organelles medium for metabolic reactions provides substances sac-like organelle with one membrane digest proteins, lipids and carbohydrates removes undigested materials releases enzymes to digest external materials are paired cylindrical organelles nine tubes with three tubules each produces spindle during cell division (mitosis and meiosis) migrate to the opposite poles of the cell (during cell division will be discussed in Chapter 5 Cell Division)

11. Lysosome: AC

12. Centriole: AC

13. Vacuole: AC (temporary / lower class species) and PC


small cavity in the cytoplasm bound by a single membrane filled with cell sap storage of food (protein, oil and water) some vacuoles remove metabolic waste functions as cell expansion Amoeba: food vacuoles (phagocytosis) Paramecium: contractile vacuoles (expel water) rigid and tough cellulose layer surrounding the plasma membrane (cell membrane) protects and supports the cell maintains the shape prevents the cell from busting (excessive intake of water) allows substances to move freely through the cell wall disc / lens-shaped organelle have two membranes: inner and outer membrane contains chlorophyll in the grana to trap sunlight energy carry out photosynthesis in the chlorophyll storage of food and pigments

14. Cell Wall: PC

15. Chloroplast: PC