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r^

E?

J/AVALL
AUTHOR OF

'

/'

"

" THE DICTIONARY OF PHOTOGRAPHY."

IV/TB A

CHAPTER ON MR. THOS. MANLVS OZOTYPE" PROCESS


''

.MATEUR Photographer's Library, No.

8.]

SEVENTH EDITION

LONDON

HAZELL, WATSON & VINEY, 52, LONG ACRE, W.C.


1904

Ld.,

,^'

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iS-

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INDEX.

INTRODUCTION

4
RIGID FINAL SUPPORTS

Index.
tiOtt

TRANSFERRING PRINTS TO OPAL

...
.

57
57

TRANSFERRING PRINTS TO GLASS, METAL, WOOD,


IVORY, OR

ANY POLISHED SURFACE

,58
59
62

LANTERN SLIDES
FAILURES

RETOUCHING, SPOTTING, AND COLOURING CARBON


PRINTS

66
67

ROUGH PAPER SUPPORTS


MATT SURFACE PRINTS
HISTORICAL AND PRACTICAL NOTES ON THE SIMPLE

68

CARBON PROCESS WITHOUT TRANSFER


OZOTYPE

78

NEW METHOD OF PIGMENT

PRINTING

90

CARBON PRINTING.
INTRODUCTION.
In order to make
The

Amiteur Photographer''

Library as complete as possible, this small work on

Carbon Printing has been written, the main object


being to provide, in convenient form for reference,
historical
it

and practical notes on the subject, and


this

is

hoped that

work may induce greater


all

attention to this the


processes.

most permanent of

printing

HISTORICAL NOTES.
In 1798 Vauquelin
discovered

chromium and
formed with

chromic

acid,

and stated that the

latter
salt

nitrate of silver a carmine red

which turned

purple red by the action of light.*

Eder

states f

" Sur

une Nouvelle Substance Metallique," Annales de


i.,

Chimie, 1798, xxv., p. 21.

"Handbuch der Photographie," Band


erinnere
daran, dass

Heft.

1, p.

61.

" Ich

Ponton

1839,

offenbar

an

6
that he

Carbon Printing.
believes

that

Mungo Ponton knew

of

Vauquelin's researches, and thns was led to discover the sensitiveness of the bichromate of potash
in contact with paper.

In 1832, Dr. Gustav Suckow, Professor of Jena, published a work on " Die Chemischen Wirkungen
des Lichtes," which contains the

statement that

bichromate of potash in contact with organic matter


is

reduced by light and gives a green colour.*

In 1839,

Mungo Ponton f

discovered that ordinary

writing paper soaked in solution of bichromate of

potash was sensitive to light and turned brown in


those parts exposed to the solar rays.

In

1840,

E.

Becquerel %

obtained
starch and

prints

by

strongly sizing paper with

saturating

Vavquelin's Angabe auknupfend, die Lichtempfindlichkeit


des Silberchromates photographisch verwerthen woUte und
dabei die Lichtempfindlichkeit des

Kalium bichromates auf

Papier entdeckte."

Eder's " Handbuch der Photographie,"

Band

i.,
:

Heft.

1,

which is as follows " Setzt man eine Auflosung von zweifach chromsaurem Kali und zweifach Schwefelsaurem Kali der Einwirkung des Sonnenlichtes aus und bestreut das efilorescirte Salz an verschiedenen Stellen mit gepulvertem Zucker, so bildet sich die schonste
p. 95, gives the actual passage,

Moos vegetation. die Beleuchtung wird . Durch namlich in diesem Processe ein Theil des Saurestoffs der Chromsaiire ausgeschieden, so dass dadurch griines chromsauerliches Kali gebildet wird."
farbige
. .

Edm. New

Philos. Joxir., 1839, p. 169.

X Comptea Reiidua, x., p. 469.

Historical Notes.

7
light

same with bichromate of potash, exposing to


and treating the paper with tincture of
a blue image was obtained.
iodine,

when

The

prints were then

washed in water
blotting-paper,

for

some

little

time, dried between

and treated with a varnish of

gum

water.

Becquerel says in explanation, " Voici le


:

detail et I'explication de ce proc6d6

ayant employ^

differentes sortes de papiers enduits de bichromate,


je reconnus qu'ils n'etaient pas tous aptes k produire

rapidement

les

dessins

que

le

mode de
ne

collage

influait sur leur coloration

k la lumi^re,

et qu'avec
s'effectuait

du papier non
qu'k la longue

coll6 cette coloration


;

d^s lors je m'apergus que la prinavait


lieu

cipal

reaction
le

de

I'acide

chromique

contenu dans

bichromate sur I'amidon qui entrait


;

dans la colle du papier


propri6t6

alors

comme

I'amidon a

la

de former avec I'iode uue combinaison

d'un trhs beau bleu, je pensai que sur les parties du


papier qui n'avaient pas 6t6 expos6es k Taction des

rayons

solaires,

I'amidon ne s'^tant pas combing

avec I'acide chromique, I'iode devait former I'iodure


bleu et representer ainsi les ombres par des ombres."

Further

on Becquerel admits his inability to


:

obtain pictures in the camera


j'ai

" Les

essais

que

tenths pour reproduire les images de la

chambre

obscure

au moyen de ce papier

impressionable,

n'ayant pas encore donn6 de r^sultats satisfaisants,


je n'en entretiendrai pas

TAcad^mie."

Carbon Prvntirig.
In August 1843, Hunt* suggested his chroma-

type

process,

which

consisted

of washing

good

writing-paper over with sulphate of copper in solution,

and then, when dry, with bichromate of potash


and exposing to
f in
light. letter to the

solution,

Fox Talbot
Academic

1853 addressed a
Paris,

des

Sciences,

called

"

Gravure

Photographique sur I'Acier," in which he describes


the use of gelatine impregnated with bichromate
of potash for obtaining an image which could be

applied to a steel plate, developed, and the plate

etched with an etching liquid.

This

is

essentially

the

first

note of the property of chromatised gelatine


in light.

becoming insoluble

Pretsch in June 1855 utilised this property of

bichromated gelatine for various photo-mechanical


processes
lines.
;

and Poitevin also worked on the same

But

to Poitevin t

must be given the honour of


is,

being the actual inventor or discoverer of the carbon


process proper

that

of the process of preparing

photographic prints by exposing a sheet of paper


coated with bichromated gelatine, impregnated with

some colouring matter.

Hunt's " Researches on Light," 1854,

p.

175

Dingler's
;

Polytechnic Journal, xc, p. 413.


Brit. Assoc.

Athenceum, 1843, No. 826

Adv.

Scien., Section B., A.ug. 17th, 1843.

t Comptes Rendus, xxxv., p. 780. " Brevets de 1855." X

Historical Notes.

Whilst we acknowledge Poitevin as the pioneer


it

must not

for one

moment be supposed

that he
laid

was the inventor of the process.


foundation, and others

He

the

improved and built upon

the foundation thus laid.


Poitevin's prints were practically devoid of all
half-tones, because the light

had acted more or

less

only on the surface of the bichromated gelatine,


thus leaving the supporting portions soluble
dissolve
half-tone.
;

and
all

they did, carrying away practically

The cause of

this defect

was pointed out by Abb6

Laborde,* and confirmed by Fargier,t


gested as a remedy the

who

sug-

placing of the paper in

contact with the negative, so that the light, having

passed

through

the

negative,

would also

pass

through the paper, and then act on the gelatine and


render
it

insoluble,

and thus preserve the half-tones.

The

fault of this process

was obviously that the


the image.

grain of the paper was impressed on

To get over
light

this difficulty Fargier spread his bichro-

mated gelatine on

glass,

and when dry exposed to

under a negative, and then coated the film


de Photographie," 1858,

" Bulletin de la Socidtd fran9aise

213.
**

Bulletin de la Societe fran9aise de Photographie," 1860,

p. 314.

10

Carbon Printing.

with collodion and placed the whole in cold water


to swell
;

when

the film had absorbed water

it

was

placed in

warm

water, the gelatine not acted upon


left

by light was dissolved, and the image was


floating

on the collodion film and could be trans-

ferred to glass or paper.

Any

of our readers

who

have stripped a negative in the ordinary way will

know

it is

by no means a process which a rough and the delicacy


its

or heavy-handed operator can use,

of this process of Fargier's was against


use.

general

In 1857 M. Testud de Beauregard patented a


process

somewhat similar

to

Poitevin's

but in

Beauregard's process the pigment was applied to


the surface of the chromated gelatine (before exposure), not

mixed with

it,

the idea being to keep the

whites pure.

In

1858 Mr. Pouncy showed

at

the London

Photographic Society some prints in carbon, but


kept their method of preparation secret.

Mr. Port-

bury in a

letter *

claimed that Mr. Pouncy's prints

were produced by him when he was Mr. Pouncy's


apprentice.

Subsequently Pouncy's process

was
:

patented, and the specification runs as follows

" I coat the paper or surface which

is

to receive

the picture with a composition of vegetable carbon,

gum-arabic, and bichromate of potash, and on to

Photographic New8, Nov. 23rd, 1860.

Historical Notes.

11

this prepared surface I place the negative picture,

and expose
the surface

to light in the usual way.


is

Afterwards

washed with water, which dissolves the composition at those parts on which the light
fails to affect

has not acted, but


surface on

those parts of the

which the light has acted.

Consequently,

on those parts of the surface the colouring matter


remains in the state in which
it

was applied, having


Sometimes
bitumen,
for

experienced no chemical change.


the vegetable

carbon

substitute

or
this

other colouring matter

may be

employed.

By

process, pictures are not liable to fade like ordinary

photographs."

In 1858

MM. Gamier

and Salmon suggested a


in

sort of modified

powder process

which plumbago,

lampblack, or pigment in a fine state of division

was applied
also

to the film.

M. Gabriel de Kumine
similar
little

described

a somewhat

process

to

Poitevin's,

and M. Brebisson a

later proposed

a method of applying the colour after exposure.


Seeley, editor of the American Journal of Photography, proposed the application of gum, carbon,

and bichromate
hearing
Poitevin.

to

paper, but

abandoned

it

on

that

it

was

previously

discovered

by

In 1859 the Due de Luynes' prize of

80

for a

process of producing permanent prints was divided

between Beauregard,

Gamier and

Salmon, and

12

Carbon Printing.
is

Pouncy, and the following

the report of the

commission on this subject

"The common and primary


germ of
all

source, the unique

the processes, from which

we have

selected those

which appeared to us worthy of


to say, of all the carbon processes,

reward, that
is

is

incontestably that of

M. Poitevin

and conse-

quently, the
is

common

father of all these inventors

M. Poitevin.

few words will convince you of

this.

In the month of August 1855, M. Poitevin

deposited at the office of the Prefect of the Seine

the description of a process of photographic printing.

The 15th of February of the following


modified
it

year,
it

having
to you.

on certain points, he brought


this
?

What, now, was

simple expression

method reduced to its most In August 1855, application

on the paper of a mixture of bichromate of potash,


organic substances, and colouring matter, at one
operation,

before

insolation.

In February 1856,
in

application

of the

same substances, but

two

operations

to wit, the bichromate and


complete and
fix

the organic

body
after

before,

and the colouring matter or carbon


In both cases, washing in disthe proof.

insolation.

tilled water, to

"

Now

if

we

follow the chronological order of the

presentation,

Beauregard

in

what shall we see ? M. Testud de December 1857 communicated a


is

process to you of which the following

the reiumi :

Historical Notes.

13

the use of bichromate of potash, of an organic substance,

and colouring matter (carbon).


separated into two parts:

Only here
precedes

the complete preparation which always


insolation
is

first,

immer-

sion of the paper in the

mixture of bichromate and

organic matter
the carbon.

drying, and then the spreading of


insolation,

After

the

washing

in

common

water.

The manipulation alone

varies

the principle

is identical.

" In January 1858 Mr. Sutton published a method


of
obtaining

durable
Poitevin

positives;

this
it

again

was

exactly

the

method, for
:

contained

nothing more than this

application on the paper

of a mixture of bichromate of potash, organic substance,

and pulverised charcoal, drying,

insolation,

and washing.
an alkaline
necessary.

On

his

own
for

part Mr. Sutton added


clearing

solution

the

image

if

"

The 10th of
till

April, 1858, Mr.

Pouncy took out

a patent in England, which was not published in


that country

November, and
If

in our Bulletin till

the following month.


elements,

we

isolate the constituent

we

find in substance application

on the

paper of a mixture of bichromate of potash,


arabic,

gum-

and vegetable charcoal,


;

in a single operation

before insolation
water.

afterwards washing in distilled

" Finally, to conclude this long review, on the

14
30th of June,

Carbon Printing.
1858,

MM.

Garnier and Salmon

deposited in the hands of your secretary a paper

containing a process which, more or less modified

by them

in the interval,

led to our
in

being made
the nse of

witnesses of

experiments

which

alkaline bichromate,

of an organic body, and of

carbon, reproduced with more or less trifling variations a series of causes

and

effects

which had their

type in M. Poitevin's process

almost say in truth that,


existed, each of these

if

so that we might M. Poitevin had not


in-

gentlemen would have

vented

it.

Is

it

possible,

we ask

you,

in

the

presence of this severe but impartial analysis, to

deny that these products of different origins ought


all to

bear in some sort a

common
to

trade

mark

And

if

we give prominence

some

in our photo-

graphic world by stamping them with a seal of


honour, means should be found of associating very

prominently, and even in the foremost place, the

name

of the initiator."
it

Poitevin,

seems, had also recognised the defect

in the carbon process

and

its

cause.*

In 1858 Burnett,! in speaking of this subject,


says
:

" It

'

must be observed that the


de
I'lmpression

possibility
sans

of
Sel

Traits

Photographique

d'Argent,"

p. 71.

t Joum. Phot. Soc,

vol. v., p. 84.

Historical Notes.

16

producing half-tones

by

this

plan rests on the


actinism
facility,

power

of

the

insolubility

causing

to

penetrate, with

a certain degree of

the

mixture of pigment with bichromate and gelatine


or

gum, the

gelatine or

gum

being in consequence

rendered insoluble, to a greater or less depth on


different parts of the picture according to the vary-

ing depth to which the actinism has been allowed


or had time to penetrate
;

this, again,

being de-

pendent on the varying translucency of the different


parts of the negative."

At

this period

Mr. Swan commenced his experi-

ments and

tried first of all coating a glass plate

with bichromated
exposure the

gum

and lampblack, and after


to

plate

was washed with water

remove the unacted-upon gum.


In 1859 Blair of Perth * independently recognised
the cause of loss of half-tone in carbon printing.

Having applied bichromated gum and carbon


paper,
crust

to

he states that after exposure " the outer

was more sunned and hardened than the inner," and that by steeping the latter was washed

away and

carried the outer with

it.

He

therefore

exposed through the paper, and tried

wax

paper.

M. Joubert
he
called

in 1859 discovered a process

which
of

" phototype,"
in the

and

examples

the

same appeared
*

Journal of the Photographic


vol. iv., p. 331.

"Photographic Notes,"

16
Society for

Carbon Printing.

June 1860, but no

details

were ever

published.

In 1863 Pouncy patented a process of producing


pictures
in

fatty
etc.

inks by the aid of bitumen or

bichromate,

1864 Swan * made what was the greatest improvement and we may say the final improveIn

ment, for
detail.

all

since

have been merely matters of

was finally published by Swan, April 15th, 1864.t In a paper read before the Edinburgh Society in 1863, Mr. Davies stated

The

process

he had transferred carbon prints, but the details were not published
till

July

1864, after Swan's

process had been patented.

The best description of Swan's process is contained in his patent specification, which we give in its
entirety.

"

My

invention relates to that

manner

or style

of photographic printing

known
is

as carbon, or pig-

ment

printing.

In this style of printing, carbon


fixed

or other colouring matter

by the action

of light passing through a negative, and impinging

upon a surface composed of


matter, and

gelatine, or other like

substance, coloured with carbon or other colouring

made

sensitive to light

by means of

bichromate of potash, or bichromate of ammonia,


Photc. Journal,

March

15th, 1864, p. 2.
86.

t Photc. News, 1864, p.

Historical Notes.
or other

tl
photo-

chemical
;

substance having like

graphic property

those portions of the coloured

and sensitive gelatinous surface which are protected


from the light by the opaque or semi-opaque portions
of the negative being afterwards

washed away by

means of water, while the parts made insoluble by light remain, and form a print. This kind of
photographic
printing,

although

possessing

the

advantage of permanency, and affording the means


of insuring any
print,

required tone or colour for the

has not come into general use, because of


hitherto

the difficulties

experienced in obtaining

by

it

delicacy of detail, and complete gradation of

light

and shade.

" The difficulties referred to were


larly experienced in attempts to

more particu-

employ paper coated

with the coloured gelatinous material, and arose

from the

fact that, in

order to obtain half-tone,

certain portions of the coloured coating lying behind

or at the back of the photographically impressed

portions

required to

be
in

washed away, and the


the

employment of paper
porting the

way

it

has

been

employed hitherto, not only as a means of supcoloured


coating,

but also to form

ultimately the basis or groundwork of the print,

obstructed the removal of the inner or back portions

of the coloured coating, and prevented the obtaining


of half-tone. 3

18

Carbon Printing.
" Now,

my

invention consists in the

formation

of tissues adapted to the


to,

manner of printing referred


prepared with, coloured

and composed

of,

or

gelatinous matter, and so constructed, that while

they allow, in the act of printing, free access of


light
to

one surface of the coloured

gelatinous

matter, they also allow free access of water, and

the unobstructed removal of the non-aifected portions


of the coloured matter from the opposite surface,
or back, in the act of developing
this result either
;

and

obtain

by the disuse of paper altogether,


it

or

by the use of
support,

merely as
the

backing, or
gelatinous
entirely

temporary
matter
;

of
so

coloured

the

paper

used

becoming

detached from the coloured gelatinous matter in


the act of developing, and forming no part of the
print ultimately.

"

My

invention

consists,

furthermore,
said
tissues,

in

the

special

mode

of using the

whereby
of trans-

superior half-tone and definition in the print are

obtained as aforesaid, and also in a

mode

ferring the print after developing from a temporary


to a

permanent support, so as

to obtain a correction

in the position of the print in respect of right


left.

and

'In

producing the photographic ti&sues referred


;

to,

I form a solution of gelatine

and

for the pur-

pose of imparting pliancy to the resultant tissue,


1

nave found

it

advisable to add to the gelatine

HistoHcal Notes.
solution,

19
matter,
or

sugar

or

other

saccharine

glycerine.

To the

said gelatinous solution I

add

carbonaceous or other colouring matter, either in

a fine state of division, such as

is

used in water-

colour painting, or in the state of a solution or dye,


or partly in a fine state of division,
solution.

and partly

in

"With
sheets

this coloured gelatinous solution I

form

or films, as hereafter described, either at

the time of their formation, by introducing into

the gelatinous compound bichromate of ammonia,


or other agent of like photographic properties, or

by applying to such non-sensitive sheets or

films,

after their formation, a solution of the bichromate,

or other substances of like photographic property.

This latter method I adopt


is

when the

sheet or film
its

not

required

for

use

immediately after
bichromate

formation.

I will, in of

my

future references to the


or

bichromate

ammonia

the

of

potash, or to other chemicals possessing analogous

photographic
sensitiser'
;

properties,

denominate
to

them

'

the

and

in

referring

the

coloured

gelatinous solution, I will denominate this mixture

*the tissue-compound.'

When

the tissue to be

produced

is

required for immediate use, I add the

sensitiser to the

tissue-compound

but where the

tissue

is

required to be preserved for some time

before using, I prefer to omit the sensitiser from

20

Carbon Printing.
with a view to the tissue

the tissue-compound,

being

made

sensitive to light subsequently,

by the

application of a solution of the sensitiser.

"

With

respect to the composition of the tissueit

compound,
it

will be understood

by chemists, that

may

be varied without materially affecting the

result,

by the addition or substitution of other


similarly

organic matters,

acted

upon by

light,

when combined with a


1

salt of

chromium, such as
or
to

have referred
gum-arabic,

to.

Such other organic matters


;

and one more of these may be employed occasionally


are

albumen, dextrine

modify the character of the tissue-compound, but


I generally prefer to

make

it

as follows:

I dissolve,
in eight

by the aid of heat, two parts of gelatine


of sugar, and as

parts of water, and to this solution I add one part

much

colouring matter in a finely

divided state, or in a state of solution, or both,


as

may

be required for the production of a photo-

graphic print with a proper gradation of light and

The quantity required for this purpose must be regulated by the nature of the colouring
shade.

matter employed, and also by the character of a


negative
to
is

be

used

in

the printing

operation.

Where

it

desired that the colouring matter of


entirely,

the print should consist


carbon, I
prefer to

or chiefly,

of

use lampblack finely ground

and prepared as

for water-colour painting, or I use

Historical Notes.

21

Indian ink

and where

it is

desired to modify the

black, I add other colouring matter to produce the

colour desired.

For instance, I obtain a purple

black by adding to the carbon indigo and crimson


lake, or I

add to the carbon an aniline dye of a


;

suitable colour

where the colouring matter used

is

not a solution or dye, but solid matter in a fine state


of division, such as
diffuse

Indian ink or lampblack, I

such colouring matter through water, or


it

other inert liquid capable of holding


sion
;

in suspento

and

after allowing the coarser particles

subside, I add, of that portion

which

is

held in

suspension, as
solution.

much

as is required, to the gelatine

In preparing tissue to be used in printing


technically

from

negatives

known
and

as

'weak,'

increase the proportion of colouring matter relatively


to that of the tissue-compound
for tissue or paper to
;

diminish

it,

be used in printing from

negatives of an opposite character.


"

Having prepared the tissue-compound


I

as before
:

described,

proceed to use
tissue,

it

as follows

For

preparing

sensitive

add to the tissue-

compound more
sensitiser,

or less of the sensitiser, varying

the quantity added, according to the nature of the

and

to the degree of sensitiveness to


it.

be

conferred on the tissue to be produced from

For

ordinary purposes, and where the tissue-compound


is

made according

to the formula before given, I add

22

Carbon Printing.

about one part ol a saturated solution of bichromate


of

ammonia and I make

to ten parts of the tissue-compound


this addition

immediately previous to

the preparation of the tissue, and I maintain the

tissue-compound in the fluid

state,

by means of heat,
I also filter

during the preparation of the tissue, avoiding the


use of an unnecessary degree of heat
it
;

through

fine

muslin or flannel, or other suitable


to use
;

filtering
all

medium, previous

and I perform

the operations with the tissue-compound, sub-

sequent to the introduction of the sensitiser, in a


place suitably illuminated with yellow or non-actinic
light.

In forming tissue upon a surface of glass,

I first prepare the glass, so as to facilitate the separa-

tion of the tissue

from

it.

For this purpose,

I apply

ox-gall to the surface of the glass (by

brush, or by immersion), and allow


glass
is

it

means of a The to dry.

then ready for coating with the tissue-

compound, or I apply to the glass a coating of


collodion, previous to the application of the coating

of tissue-compound.

In this case, the preparation

with ox-gall

is

unnecessary.

When

collodion

is

used, the collodion

may

consist of about ten grains

of pyroxyline in one ounce of mixture of equal parts of sulphuric ether and alcohol.
I apply the collodion

by pouring
ing
to
off"

it

on the surface to be coated, and drain-

the excess, and I allow the coating of collodion


tissue-

become dry before applying the coating of

Historical Notes.

23
on which

compound.
to

I generally use a plane surface


tissue,

form the

but surfaces of a cylindrical or

other form

may be sometimes

used advantageously.

In preparing sheets of sensitive tissue on a plane


surface of glass, I prefer to use the kind of glass

known

as plate, or patent plate.

Before applying

the sensitive tissue-compound, I set the plate to be

coated so that
position,

its

upper surface

lies in

a horizontal

and I heat the plate


about 100 Fahr.

to about the
is,

same
gene-

temperature as the tissue-compound, that


rally,

to

The quantity of the


generally about

tissue-compound that I apply to the glass varies


with circumstances, but
is

two
After

inches to each square foot of surface coated.

pouring the requisite quantity of the tissue-compound

upon the surface of the


fluid

plate, I spread, or lead the

by means of a glass

rod, or soft brush, over

the entire surface, taking care to avoid the formation


of air bubbles
;

and I keep the surface

in a horizon-

tal position, until the

solidification of the tissue,

compound.

In coating other than plane surfaces

I vary, in a suitable

manner, the mode of applying


In coating

the tissue-compound to such surfaces.

a cylindrical surface, I rotate the cylinder in a trough


containing the tissue-compound, and after having

produced a uniform coating, I remove the trough,

and keep up a slow and regular rotation of the


cylinder until

the

coating

has

solidified.

After

24

Carbon Printing,

coating the surface of glass or other substance as


described, I place
it

in a suitable position for rapid

drying, and I accelerate this process by artificial

means, such as causing a current of dry


to the current of air, or I place

air to pass

over the surface coated, or I use heat, in addition


it

in a

chamber

containing quicklime, chloride of calcium, or other

substance of analogous desiccating property.


the tissue
is

When
through

dry, I separate

it

from the surface on


incision

which

it

was formed, by making an

the coating to the glass, around the margin of the


sheet
;

or I cut through the cylindrical coating near

the ends of the cylinder, and also cut the coating


across, parallel with the axis of the cylinder,

when,

by

lifting

one corner, the whole will easily separate

in a sheet.

Where

the tissue-compound

is

applied

over a coating of collodion, the film produced by


the collodion, and that produced by the tissuecompound, cohere, and the two films form one sheet.

Sometimes, before the separation of the coating

from the glass,

I attach to the coating a sheet of

paper, for the purpose of strengthening the tissue,

and making
surface

it

more easy

to manipulate.
state, to the

I generally

apply the paper, in a wet


;

dry gelatinous

and having attached the paper thereto in this manner, I allow it to dry and I then detach the film and adherent paper from the glass by
;

jutting

round the margin of the sheet and

lifting

Historical Notes.
it

25

off as before described.

Where extreme smoothis

ness of surface, such as

produced by moulding
is

the tissue on glass, as described,

not of importance,

and where greater

facility of operation is desired,

I apply a thick coating of the

tissue-compound to
In this case the

the surface of a sheet of paper.

paper

is

merely used as a means of forming and

supporting temporarily the film produced from the

tissue-compound

and such paper separates from

the gelatinous coating in a subsequent stage of


process.

my

In coating a surface of paper with the

sensitive tissue-compound, I apply the sheet,

some-

times of considerable length, to the surface of the

tissue-compound contained in a trough, and kept


fluid

by means of heat, and


and
I

draw or

raise the sheet

or length of paper off the surface with a regular

motion

sometimes apply more than one

coating to the

same sheet
it

in this

manner.

After
it

such coating, I place the coated paper where


quickly dry, and seclude
"
is,

will

from injurious

light.

The sensitive tissue, prepared as before described, when dry, ready to receive the photographic

impression, by exposure under a negative in the

usual manner, or by exposure in a camera obscura


to

light

transmitted through a negative in the


in printing

manner usual
of the time of

by means of a camera.
two days
is

I prefer to use the sensitive tissue within


its

preparation.

Where

the tissue

26

Carbon Printing.

not required for immediate use, I omit the sensitiser

from the tissue-compound, as before mentioned and with this non-sensitive tissue-compound, I coat
paper, glass, or other surface, as described in the

preparation of the sensitive tissue or paper.

In

preparing sheets of non-sensitive tissue by means of


glass as described, I use no preliminary coating of
collodion.
I dry the

non-sensitive tissue in the

same manner
case

as the sensitive, except that in the

of

the non-sensitive tissue,


is

seclusion

from

daylight
''

not necessary.
is

The non-sensitive tissue

made

sensitive,

when

required for use, by floating the gelatinous surface

upon a

solution of the sensitiser,

and the
is

sensitiser

that I prefer to use for this purpose


solution

an aqueous

of the bichromate of potash containing


salt.

about two and a half per cent, of this

I apply

the sensitiser (by floating or otherwise) to the


gelatinous
I place
it it

surface

of the tissue

and after

this

in a suitable

position for drying, and


light.

exclude

from injurious
to

" In

applying

photographic

printing

the

various modifications of the sensitive tissue, pre-

pared as before described, I place the sensitive


tissue

on a negative

in

an ordinary photographic

printing frame, and expose to light in the

manner
it in

usual in photographic printing

or I place

a camera obscura in the manner usual in printing

Historical Notes.

27

by means of a camera

obsciira.

When

the tissue

employed

is

coated with a film of collodion on one


the coUodionised side in contact witli
;

side, I place

the negative
place

or where

it is

used in the camera, I


towards
lens.

the

coUodionised
the

side

the

light

passing

through

camera

Where

the

tissue is not coated with collodion,

and where paper


tissue, the other

forms one of the surfaces of the

surface being formed of a coating or film of the

tissue-compound, I place this last-named surface in


contact with the negative
;

or

when using

it

in the

camera, I present this surface towards the light


transmitted by the lens.

After exposure for the

requisite time, I take the tissue

from the printing

frame or camera, and mount


inafter
tissue,

it

in the
say,

manner hereI

described

that

is

to

cement the
other words,

with

its

exposed surface,

or, in

with that surface which has received the photographic impression, downward, upon some surface
(usually of paper) to serve temporarily as a support

during the subsequent operation of developing, and

with a view to the transfer of the print, after

development, to another surface


(also

or I cement

it

with the exposed or photographically im-

pressed surface downwards)

upon the surface to

which
card,

it is

to remain permanently attached.


it is

The

surface on which
glass,

so

mounted may be paper,


etc.

porcelain,

enamel,

Where the

28
tissTie

Carbon Printing.
has not been coated with collodion previous
it

to exposure to light, I prefer to coat

with collo-

dion on the exposed or photographically impressed


side, before
is

mounting

it

for development, but this


;

not absolutely necessary

and I sometimes omit

the coating with collodion, more particularly where the print


is

intended to be coloured subsequently.


collodion, with a view to connect

Or where
together,

employ

the minute and isolated points of the print firmly

during development, I sometimes


it

ulti-

mately remove the film

forms by means of a

mixture of ether and alcohol, after the picture has


been finally mounted, and the support of the film
of collodion
is

no longer required.

In mounting

the exposed tissue or paper previous to development,


in

the temporary manner, with a

view to sub-

sequent transfer to another surface, I employ, in


the mounting, a cement that
is

insoluble

in the

water used in the developing operation, but that


can be dissolved afterwards, by the application of
or one that possesses so

a suitable solvent

little

tenacity, that the paper or other support, attached

temporarily to the tissue or paper by

its

means,

may be
solvent.
"

subsequently detached without the use of a

The cements that may be used


in

for

temporary

mounting are very

various, but I generally prefer to

use a solution of india-rubbor,

benzole or other

Historical Notes.

29

solvent, containing about six grains of india-rubber


in

each ounce of the solvent, and I sometimes add


the
india-rubber
solution

to

a small

proportion

of dammar-gum,

or gutta-percha.

In using this
impressed

cement, I

float

the

photographically
it,

surface of the tissue upon

and

I treat in a similar

manner the paper


development

or other surface intended to be

used as the temporary mount or support during


;

and

after allowing

the benzole or

other solvent to evaporate, and while the surfaces

coated with the cement are


strongly together in

still

tacky, I press

them

such a manner as to cause

them
"

to cohere.

When

the photographically impressed but


is

still

undeveloped tissue

to be

cemented to a surface,

that not only serves to support the picture during


its

development, but also constitutes permanently

the basis of the picture, I prefer to use albumen, or


starch paste as the cementing
I

medium

and where
it

employ albumen,

coagulate, or

render

in-

soluble in water

(by means of heat, by alcohol,

or other means), after performing the


operation,

cementing
In
the

and previous
in the
tissue,

to

developing.
of

permanent as
cement the
which

temporary mode
with
its

mounting, I

photographically imsurface
to

pressed surface downward, upon the


it

is

to be

permanently attached.

After

mounting the

tissue, as before described,

and allow-

30

Carbon Printioig.
it is

ing the cement, used time to dry, where

of

such a nature as to require

it,

I then submit the

mounted

tissue to the action of water, sufficiently

heated to cause the solution and removal of those


portions of the coloured gelatinous matter of the
tissue

which have not been rendered insoluble by

the action of light during exposure in the printing

frame or camera.

Where paper has been used

as a

part of the original tissue, this paper soon becomes

detached by the action of the

warm

water, which

then has free access to the under stratum or back


of the coloured gelatinous coating, and the soluble
portions of
it

are therefore readily


;

action of the water


sion
is

and by

this

removed by the means the impres-

developed, that was produced by the action

of light during the exposure of the tissue in the


printing frame or camera, and the picture remains

attached to the mount, cemented to the photographically impressed surface previous to develop-

ment.

I allow the water to

act

upon the prints


I then
to

during several hours, so as to dissolve out the

decomposed bichromate as
dry,

far as possible.

remove them from the water, and allow them


and those not intended
for transfer,

but that

have been permanently attached to paper, previous


to development, I finish by pressing

and trimming
have been

in the usual manner.

Those which

temporarily mounted, I transfer to paper, card, or

Historical Notes. other surface.

31

In transferring to paper or card,

I coat the surface of the print arabic, or other

with gelatine, gum-

cement of similar character, and


I then trim the print to the proper
surface in contact with
is

allow

it

to dry.
size,

shape and

and place

its

the piece of paper or card to which the transfer

to be effected, such piece of paper or card having

been previously moistened with water, and I press


the print and

the paper or card has

mount strongly together and after become perfectly dry, I


;

remove the paper or other supporting material,


temporarily
either

attached,

previous
it
off,

to

development,

by simply tearing

where the cement


is

used in the temporary mounting

of a nature to

allow of this without injury to the print, or I apply


to the

temporary mount benzole or turpentine, or

other solvent of the cement employed, or I immerse

the print in such solvent, and then

detach the

temporary mount, and so expose the reverse surface


of the print, and after removing from the surface of

the print, by means of a suitable solvent, any

remains of

the cement

used in the

temporary

mounting, I finish the print by pressing in the


usual manner.
dionised,
If, however, the print be coUoand be required to be tinted with water

colour, I prefer to

remove the collodion film from


I

the surface of the print, and this


application of ether and alcohol.

do by the

32
" Having
tion

Carbon Printing.

now

set forth the nature of

my inveninto effect,

of

'

Improvements

in

Photography/ and ex-

plained the
I

manner of carrying the same


:

wish

it

to be understood, that under the above in

part recited letters patent, I claim

" First,
gelatinous

the preparation
tissues,

and use of

coloured
for

in

the

manner and

the

purpose above described.


''

Secondly, the mounting of undeveloped prints,

obtained by the use of coloured gelatinous tissues,


in the

manner and

for the

purpose above described.

'B

" Thirdly, the remounting or transference of de-

veloped prints, produced as above described, from


a temporary to a permanent support."
It will be seen, then, that the whole secret of the process lay in preparing " a tissue " which could

be exposed to light under a negative in the ordinary

way and then attached

to

some support and deto

veloped from the back, leaving the half-tones entire.

The above diagram may help


or any colloid body.

make

things clear

as to the action of light on bichromated gelatine

Let

AAAA

represent the

film of bichromated gelatine, after exposure under

a negative, then

HCCC

will represent that portion

PrepaHng

the Nafi-Sendtive Tissue.

33

which has been rendered insoluble by the action


of light, and
soluble.

BBBB

that portion which


it

is still

In some places

will be noted the light

action has penetrated right through the film, but


in others only partially so,

and to develop

it

in the

position as

shown above

it is

more than

likely that

those portions of the


will break

film

representing half-tone

away

in

development when the unactedis

on gelatine,

B, underneath

dissolved.

PREPARING THE NON-SENSITIVE TISSUE.


The
readers
tissue
is

prepared by machinery in large

establishments,
to

and

strongly

recommend

my

purchase their tissue ready prepared.

Although
prepared

I have, for purely experimental purposes,

my own
bands

tissue, it is far

more

costly,

more

troublesome, and more messy.


in endless
is

Commercially, paper

passed over the surface of a


is

trough of pigmented gelatine, which


even temperature by the aid of steam.

kept at an

The pigmented gelatine

is

prepared as follows

A plain "jelly " is


by Jeanrenaud.*
is

first

prepared from some formulas

such as the following, the

first of which was given The following quantity of jelly

sufficient

to

coat

length

of

paper 3
ins.).

m.

60 cm. X

m. 76 cm.

(=

132 x 30

"Bull, de

la Soc. fran.," 1872, pp. 31. 70, 103.

34

Carbon Printing.
PLAIN JELLY.

Nelson's gelatine

...
... ...

25

g.

or

386 grs.

oz.

Amber
Water
Sugar
Dry- soap

...
... ...

200
675
30-60
cc.

3100
or or

24

...
...

g.

460-920 grs.

25

g.

or

386

grs.

The gelatine
added

is

soaked in the water, dissolved by

the aid of a gentle heat, and the sugar and soap


;

the whole carefully filtered and mixed with

the colouring-matter.

EEDDISH BROWN (PHOTOGRAPHIC TINT).


Indian red
...

10 g. or 154
6 8
,,

grs.

Carmine lake
Chinese ink

92|^

))

123

CHOCOLATE BROWN.
Chinese ink (stick)
...

g. or

46
31

grs.
,,

Dry hydrated peroxide of


Purpurine
... ...

iron

2
0"5

Alizarine dissolved in soda


...

7|

0*5

7^

ENGRAVING BLACK.

Lampblack
Carmiue lake
Indigo

...

...

3*8 g. or 58*6 grs.

4 2

62
31

Preparing

the Non-Sensitive Tissi^.

35

WARM
Lampblack
... ... ...

BLACK.
...

6 g. or 92 grs. 6
,,

Carmine lake
Burnt umber
Indigo

...

92
62
31

4
2

DARK BROWN.
Indigo Indian red
2'5
g.

or 39 grs.

6
1*25
...

92
19

Carmine lake

Vandyke brown Lampblack

...

62

30

462

RED BROWN.
Chinese ink
6 g. or

92 grs.

Carmine lake

123 123

Vandyke brown

SEPIA.

Lampblack
Sepia de Cologne
. .

4g.

RED TRANSPARENCY.
Carmine lake
Indian red
. .

Chinese ink

3ft

Carbon Printi/ng.

The pigment or colouring-matter


being sifted
is

is

in as fine a
it,

state of division as it is possible to get

and

after

placed on a large sheet of ground " plate glass, and a little of the warm " plain jelly

poured into the middle, and worked about with a

muUer

till

absolutely smooth

then the rest of the

jelly is added,

and the paper coated.


:

Burton * gives the following directions


"
at

The following formula


one time

is

due to Adolph Ott,

chemist

to

Messrs.

Braun &

Co.,

Dornach, one of the largest workers of the carbon


process
in

the world.

It

has

given successful
:

results in the

hands of the writer


...
..
.

Gelatine

...
...

100 parts
... ... ...

Sugar candy

25
5

Glycerine (when necessary)

Potassium bichromate (dissolved in


50 parts of water)
... ...

Water
Colouring-matter
" The above
is
... ...

300

to

400
5

2 to

the

formula
is

exactly as given

by Ott.
'jelly':-

The following

the modification used by

the writer, and the

exact manner of mixing the

Nelson's opaque gelatine


" Practical

^ lb.

Guide to Photographic and Photo-mechanical

Printing Processes" (published by Marion).

Preparing

the Non-Sensitive Tissue.

37
oz.

Coignet's gold label gelatine

2
3

White loaf sugar


writer has

...

Glycerine (none for any climate the

had any experience


if

of,

and a thing to be avoided


sible).

pos-

Potassium

bichromate (dissolved in

5 ounces of water, and converted into


double chromate of potassium and

ammonium by
monia
till

adding liquid amsolution

the

smells
i oz.

distinctly of it)

Water
Colouring-matter, quantum
to be hereafter described.
suff.,

2 pints
as

"As
there
is

to the colouring-matter that

may
all
is

be used

almost an endless variety.

For

common
used as

work, however, lampblack in some form


the body of the colour.

Any form
*

of lampblack
It is

may be used
there
is

as, for

example,

ivory black.'

probable that for work on a small scale, at least,

nothing so good as
all

'

Chinese

ink.'

It is

with this that

the writer's experiments have


'

been made.

'

Chinese ink

is

merely a very

fine

quality of lampblack suspended in a sort of gelatine

or in a

gum

and even the

inferior varieties,

which
all

can be bought very cheaply, are good enough for

38

Carbon Printing.

kinds of carbon-work, except such as the making of


lantern
slides.

These
it is

being

subjected to

great

magnification,

advisable, if they are

made by
is

the carbon process, to use a fairly high quality of


*

Chinese

ink.'

quantity of the ink

broken

into fragments

by a hammer
hard

not a very easy thing,


is

for the ink is very


left

and

placed in a cup, and

covered with cold water for twenty-four hours.

Any

time after this the ink can easily be melted

by the application of heat, forming a thick black


paste.

"When
gelatine
is

it

is

wanted

to

mix up the
is

jelly,

the

covered with water, and

allowed to

soak for an hour or two.


to
is

Heat
is

is

then applied
This latter

melt

it,

and the sugar

added.
little

very readily melted by a

stirring.

Next
to
is
:

comes the pigment.


the gelatine with

The Chinese ink paste having


is

been melted by heat,

added

little

by

little

much

stirring.

The colour

tested from time to time in the following

way

small strip of thinnish white paper

common
moment

writing-paper, for example

is

floated for a
is

on the surface of the


It is held

jelly,

and

then removed.

by one end
has run
it

till all

the jelly that will run


it is

off of Itself

off,

and

looking through

at a lamp.

then examined by The addition of the


the
little

pigment should be continued

till

bit of

sample tissue that has been made appears quite

SeTwitising the Tissue.

39

opaque.

For 'transparency tissue' the addition


till

should be continued

there

is

about 50 per cent,


is

more pigment

in

the jelly than

necessary to

produce opacity."

SENSITISING THE TISSUE.


The
tissue

may
warm

be obtained commercially, and


are
:

the various

colours

standard brown,

warm

brown, sepia,

black, engraving black, standard

purple, Bartolozzi red, sea green, blue, transparency


grey, or, in fact, in
to size, or in

any colour.
rolls,

It

may

be had cut

bands or

and for

strongly
in this

recommend beginners
;

to follow

my own use I my lead

matter at least

I prefer that cut to size, as

costing less in the

end than buying a whole band,

though of course when advance has been made, and


considerable numbers of prints have to be made,

bands will be cheaper.

The

sensitising solution is

made by
...

dissolving

Potassium bichromate
Distilled water

...

1 oz.

20
('880)
...

oz.

Liq.

ammonia
tissue

...

5 drops

The cut
if

may

be floated on the surface of this

desired, but personally I prefer

immersing the
for
this.

tissue,

and therefore

give directions

40

Carbon Printing.
dish, one or
;

Take a deep porcelain developing


sizes larger
this to

two
fill

tban the tissue to be sensitised

about the depth of an inch with the above

solution.

Take a piece of

tissue with both hands,


liquid,

and immerse one edge first below the


the whole under the surface.
thirty seconds
;

drawing
soak for

Allow

to

then, taking hold of the edge first

immersed, draw over the edge of the bath and hang

up by wooden

clips or pins to dry.

The temperature

of the solution must not exceed 79 Fahr., but in

winter the tissue


forty-five seconds.

may be

allowed to remain for

It is possible

by altering the method of


and

sensitising

to alter to

some extent the resulting


If on the other

prints.

Thus,

by

floating the tissue, softer

less vigorous prints

may

be obtained.
is

hand the

paj)er
is

support

floated

on the

liquid,

and the solution

absorbed by the lower layer of pigmented gelatine

more than the


prints
result
;

surface, harder

and more vigorous

whereas by immersing the tissue


is

uniform sensitiveness

obtained.

Ammonium bichromate may replace the potassium


salt, in

which case the solution of ammonia may be


I

omitted, but
greater
sitising

am

not aware that there thus


obtained.

is

any
senI

sensitiveness

After

about a dozen or eighteen cut sheets


little

always add a

fresh stock soiutiou.

Dryi/ng

and Keeping

the Tissue.

41

DRYING THE TISSUE.


This operation
is

an important one, and on the


of
it

successful performance

depends to a great

extent the success of the subsequent operations, for

should the time taken in drying be too long, the


tissue will

become insoluble or adhere

less firmly

to its support.

The more slowly the tissue is dried within reason the more sensitive it is, but I prefer to keep it a little longer when dry if increased sensitiveness
is

required.

always use a specially

constructed drying-box, but the want of this need


not deter any amateur from trying the process.
If

the tissue
left

is

sensitised at night

by candle-light and
in front of a fire,
if

hanging up, pinned

for instance to a domestic

clothes-horse, about
it

two yards

will

be dry by the morning, and


are

the blinds of

the room
light

or yellow blinds may be used


it.

drawn down,

so as to exclude all white


^the

light will

not affect

KEEPING THE TISSUE.


When
jrdinary
sensitised

the tissue
fortnight,

will

keep in the
it

way about a

though

may

be

kept longer by being placed in a tin box provided with a chloride of calcium drying chamber.

The

damper the paper the shorter the time

it

will keep.

42

Carbon PrintiTig.

PRINTING.
The
first

essential

is

to provide the negative to


is

be printed from with what

technically called a

" safe-edge "

this is

an edging of paper or thin

coating of opaque black varnish.

The

safe edge

should not be absolutely opaque, and I always use


thin orange yellow paper, or the yellow or pink
lantern-slide binding strips

may

be used with great

convenience, and are just about the right width.

film,

The paper should be stuck on to the glass, not the though if thin paper be used it may be stuck
on the film.

Any

ordinary printing frame

may

be used, but

I always

use the india-rubber pads as used for

platinotype printing, which not only ensure better


contact between tissue and negative, but keep the

former from absorbing moisture.

As the progress of
by looking at the contrivance which
meter.
is

printing cannot be observed

tissue,

we have

recourse to some

called a photometer or actino-

THE PHOTOMETER OR ACTIMOMETER.


There are several kinds in the market, such as

Woodbury's, Johnson's,

etc.

Watkins' exposure
or the

meter can also be used

if desired,

number

tablet of Warnerke's sensitometer I have used at a

The Photometer or ActimoTneter.


pinch, and
it is

43
construct

by no means

difficult to

one at a

trifling

expenditure of time, trouble, and

money.

For
of the

this

purpose procure a one-ounce purple-

shouldered pill-box

from any chemist, lay the


half-inch

lid

box upside down on the

table, take a sharp


slits in it, parallel

penknife and

make two

to one another and about half an inch apart.

Be

careful that there are

no ragged edges to the

slits,

which would cause possibly subsequent trouble.

Now

take a piece of ordinary sensitised paper, or


it

even gelatino-chloride paper will do, cut


strips three-eighths of

into

an inch wide, insert one end

through one of the

slits

and into the other, so that


In the side of
slits,

when the
the
lid,

lid is

on the box you have just half an


a line with the two

inch of sensitive paper showing.


just in

cut a

44
half-inch
slit
;

Carbon Printing.
through this draw the end of the

paper.

It will thus be possible to

draw out the

paper as required.
to make the actinometer. Take the above home-made box a sketch of which is here given into the open air, and expose the paper to
little

Now

light

till

it

turns to a fairly strong colour

about
with

the tint of an ordinary silver print


printed.

when

one-third

Then

retire

to

your

workroom,

water-colour try and match the tint of the paper


as nearly as possible,
it

and be careful that


is

it
j

matches

when the water-colour pigment


is

dry

and then

the actinometer

ready for use.

THE ACTUAL PRINTING.


Expose your frame recommend sunlight must be, of course, a
is

in

a bright light

some even
;

for

dense negatives

but

it

sine

gud non that the

tissue

absolutely dry.

Should the film of pigmented


it is

gelatine retain any moisture,

of course obvious

that

it

will,

when printed

in the

sun, give rise

to trouble.

printing frame with hinged back, of the ordinis

ary pattern,

not a necessity, as the tissue

is

not

examined during printing.


printing frame
is

Many

of the ordinary

backs are lined with cloth which

very coarse and lumpy, and this

may

give rise

The Actual Printing.


to

46

uneven contact.

piece of planed

For my own work I nse a mahogany and one or two sheets

of white blotting-paper, or the india-rubber pads

mentioned above.
be placed side by side

The printing frame and the actinometer should when printing, and if much
is

carbon work
to obtain

done, I should advise the operator


wire,

some stout copper

bend

it

round

into a circle,

and drive the end into the side of the

printing frame, so as to form a little holder for

the actinometer.

As the exposure
tint to

is

estimated by the depth of


it is

which the actinometer paper darkens,


After a

obvious that a somewhat close watch on the process

must be kept.

little

experience, one soon


or

gauges the requisite

time

number

of

tints

required to print from a certain class of negative

approximately of course.
duration of printing
it is

rough idea of the

may

possibly be given

when
But
large

known

that carbon tissue prints in about one-

third of the time necessary for silver printing.

the sensitiveness of chloride paper, Ilford P.O.P.,


is

about the same as carbon tissue.

Where
it

negatives
well to

have to be printed from

is

just as

expose a small piece of tissue under a

typical part of the negative.

When

printing has continued for

some time and

the actinometer has registered one tint, then the

46

Carbon Printing.

sensitive paper is
piece.

drawn forward to expose a fresh Of course with actinometers with numbered


it is

squares
It
is

only necessary to note the numbers.

always advisable to print several pieces


being no toning bath,

of tissue, although, there


it is

not a question of cost, but one of trouble, as


is

hot water

used, and

it

as easy to develop six

or twelve prints as one.

DEVELOPMENT.
Somewhat analogous
plate, the

to the gelatino-bromide dry

image

is

invisible

as a

rule,

although
possible

on some of the lighter-coloured tissues


to

it is

see

the image faintly.


:

There are advantages


in the first

over dry-plate developing

place,

we

can work by ordinary candle or gaslight, or even


faint daylight
;

but probably the carbon worker

will prefer to utilise every available


light,
ofi"

hour of printing

and can thus get a dozen or more prints


in the

and develop the whole


is

evening.

water

the only developer, so that

Hot we have no

finger stains,

and practically not such nicety as

to the exact composition of the developer.

The

requisites for developing are


1

4 Dishes
1

Sheet of Zinc

Squeegee

Single-Transfer Paper

Hot Water

Development

47

Like the Irishman, we begin with the last thing


first.

Hot water may usually be had


it

in households;

but

is

not always convenient to have to trot


to

down from the dark room


I use one

the

kitchen.

To

avoid this trouble and always have some handy,


of the copper kettles provided with a

spirit-lamp underneath

which

are
;

so

much

the

fashion just

now

for tea-tables

and having got

a good supply of hot water in


kettle filled with hot water

my

dish

and the

and the

spirit-jet alight,

there

is

no further trouble.
porcelain, zinc, or enamelled

The dishes may be


iron
;

it

is

not advisable to use ebonite or glass,

for fear

of warping or cracking them.

Always

choose your dishes a decent size and a good depth.

For half-plates I use a small lead sink, which


measures

11x13x6 ins.,

and whole-plates can


Plenty of room and

easily be developed in this.

plenty of water will not come amiss.

The squeegee should be one of the scraper kind,


not a
roller.

My
;

attempts with these last have

not been happy


bubbles.
It

somehow

have always got

air

may be my
is

fault

possibly

it is

still

I prefer scraper squeegees.

sheet of zinc

advisable,

though old negative


I use is

glasses

may

be used.
Is. 8d.

The zinc

No. 18

gauge, costing

per square foot, and for half-

plates measures 10 in. square,

and can be used

for

48
whole-plates

Carbon Printing.

and half-plates

costing so

little,

it

need not be spared.


Single-Transfer Paper.

This

is

paper coated on

one surface with insoluble gelatine, and


obtained commercially.
Failing this, one

may be may use

baryta paper, such as used as a support for gelatinochloride printing-out

emulsions, and this

may

be

obtained either white or tinted.


his

W. K.

Burton, in

work from which


:

have previously quoted,

says

" It

may

be useful to

know

that

common

albumenised paper

may

be used in place of either

single-transfer paper

or the final support used in

the double-transfer process.


processes

In

all

the older carbon

some cement was used to fix the gelatine image to the support, and amongst them was
albumen.
salt, as

Common

albumenised paper

contains

the reader well knows, but this has no bad

action on the carbon film.

In using the albumenised

paper the operations are exactly the same as in


using single-transfer paper, only that the albumenised paper
is

must be soaked
it
;

in water no longer than

necessary to soften

otherwise the albumen

will

be dissolved away, and will not, of course, act

as a cement.

The albumen
fine

in the high lights

is

sure to be dissolved

away during the development,


matt surface
is

with the result that a


spite of the

got.

In

matt surface, the writer considers that

almost better results are got in the case of small

Development.

49

vrork with the ordinary albumenised papers in the

market than with the papers specially coated


single

for

and double
is

transfer,

and the thin albumenised


suited to the

paper

certainly particularly well

production
ticular

to

be described hereafter

of the
in the

par-

kind of print

known

as

Lambert-type.'

The use of common albumenised paper


just mentioned

way

was

first

described to

me by m)
in

friend

K. Ogawa." The
first fill

Having everything ready, place your dishes


line.

with cold water, the second with


;

hot water at a temperature of 100 to 110 Fahr.


at first
it

is

advisable to use a thermometer, but

after a little practice one soon

knows the

right tem-

perature from the

feel.
is

The

water, and the fourth


solution

third is used for cold " reserved for the " fixing

not

our

old

friend

"hypo.," merely a
in water.

saturated solution of

common alum

Put

a sheet of single-transfer paper


cut a
little

which

should be

larger than the print to be developed

in the first dish,

and allow
feels slimy.

it

to remain for three

minutes or

till it

Now immerse

a piece
it

of exposed tissue face downwards and allow


soak.

to

This will at
;

first
it

curl up, or if very dry even

roll up, film inside

will soon begin to straighten,

and,

if left

long enough, curl up the other way.


it is

But

as soon as

all

but

flat

bring the transfer


;

paper and the tissue into contact

have the zinc

"

50

Carbon PHnting.

plate ready, slip under, and raise the whole from

the dish, carefully adjusting the exposed tissue into

the middle of the paper


vigorously
necessity,

then apply the squeegee


is

do

not be afraid, absolute contact

and no harm can be done except rubbing


of the paper.

up a

little

Use the squeegee from the


and then up and
Lift

middle outwards in

all directions,

down and
place the

across the print.

from the zinc plate

on to two or three sheets of white blotting-paper,

same number on
only one
or

top,

and then a heavy


have
to be

weight.

Should

two

prints

developed they must be

left for

twenty minutes, or
;

even longer

if

absolutely necessary

where several

prints have to be developed they should be treated


in the

same way, and placed on the top of the


after the lapse of
first print
first

first,

and then

twenty minutes from


the pile
print
is

squeegeeing down the

may

be

turned upside down and the

ready for

development.

Taking the
paper support

first
it is

print on its " single-transfer

immersed

in the hot water,


it

and
will

allowed to remain for a few seconds, when

be seen that the pigmented gelatine will begin to


ooze out from the edges.

Now

take hold of a

corner of the original paper support, and gently and


carefully pull
it ofi".

If
it

it

comes
soak

ofi"

easily, well

and

good

if

not allow

to

for a

few seconds

Development.
longer,

61

and commence at another corner.


paper

Wlicn

completely removed, this


aTvay, as,

may be thrown
it is

having served

its

purpose,

no longer

of any use.

The print p.t this stage will probably look a dirty, smudgy mess, and with the darker tissues be quite
buried in the melting tissue.

Now

form a cup of

the palm of your hand, and dash the hot water on


to
it.

As

this is effected, the

image becomes clearer


In

and

clearer, the

pigmented gelatine not acted on by


minutes the process of develop-

light being

washed away by the hot water.


five

about four or

ment

will

be complete.
it

Development should not


possible thus
to

be hurried,

being far preferable to use cooler


it is

water and take longer, as

compensate more readily for errors in exposure, a


subject I shall treat of in Failures (q.v.).

As carbon prints always dry a little darker than when wet, development should be pushed just a shade further than when the finished print is
required.
far to go.

A little

experience soon teaches one

how

As soon

as developed, put the print into


;

the third dish of cold water

this chills the gelatine,

and may be said


fixing.

to

perform a sort of provisory

52

Carbon FHnting.

FIXING.
Our
print
is

not yet complete

it

still

contains,

both in the paper and in the film, some soluble


bichromate, and the object of " fixing " in the alum

bath

is

the removal of this.

After a few minutes'

stay in the third dish of cold water, the print should

be placed in the alum bath

till

absolutely free from


to

any yellow tinge, and then washed


alum, and dried when the print
is

remove the

complete.

The

alum

also hardens the film,

and

this,

together with

the hardening action of light and the permanent


character of the pigments used in the carbon process,

has caused

it

to

be considered the acme of

photographic printing as regards permanency.

THE DOUBLE-TRANSFER PROCESS.


Probably some of
understand what this

my
is,

readers

will

not

quite

and
If

must try and put


print from a nega-

this as clearly as I can.

we

tive
let

make it easier, when our slide is dry we hold it up with the film towards us, we see a correct representation of what we saw in the view
by contact on any paper
or, to

us say a lantern slide

and

or subject which was impressed on the negative.

But

if

we turn the
is

lantern slide round so that the

glass

next us,

we

find that things

which were

The Dovhle-Transfer Process.


previously on the right have

53
the
left,

now come on

and this
process.

is

precisely

what happens

in the carbon

We

print

by contact from a negative, and then


becomes right and right
it isn't

turn our tissue round and develop from the back,


so that the left
left,

and as

the

left is

not the right

right,

although in

some cases we need not trouble our heads about


that.

For instance,

in

printing from
it

a bust or

quarter-length portrait,

does not

much matter
the right

whether the portrait of a pretty young lady be


turned round so as to

make her

left ear

and

vice versd

probably she will be quite as pretty


;

one way as the other


left

but should that young lady's


fijnger

hand be included, and the third


ring,
it

of that

hand bear a wedding


right hand.

will look curious to

see her in the print with a

wedding ring on her

In landscape work this " lateral " reversal


often be neglected

may
of

when picture-making pure and


to

simple, as
places

opposed
is

topographical

studies

we know,

the object.

To get us out of
sists

this difficulty, therefore,

we have
a

recourse to the double-transfer process, which con-

in squeegeeing the print

down

to

waxed
This
j>

support, flexible or otherwise, and then applying

the final support, and


not a
iifficult process,

when dry

strippicg.

and, reverting to our lantern-

54
slide simile,
slide

Oarhon Printing.

round again, so that the film

means that we have simply tnrned the is next us. To

transfer our print then, or put right,

we use a

TEMPORARY SUPPORT,
which

may

be either flexible or

rigid, polished or

matt, according to the surface desired in the final


print.

Should a matt surface be desired, " smoothed"


be used
;

opal

may

smoothed opal
side,

is

opal which

is

finely

ground on one

and

is

probably called

" smoothed " on the lucus a non lucendo principle.

Personally I

much

prefer zinc, and using the


it

same
and

gauge, No. 18, as previously mentioned,

can be

mulled or grained hj using


water, or a

fine

emery

flour

weak

nitric acid bath.

Flexible supports are to be obtained commercially,

and are really paper coated with insoluble gelatine and solution of
water.
shellac, so that
it is

impervious to
easier for

Flexible supports are

somewhat
it
is

beginners to manipulate, but

not possible to

matt surfaces with them.

Whatever the temporary support


The solution recommended
Yellow resin
for this

be,

it

must
;

before use be waxed, in order to facilitate stripping.

purpose

is

36 grs.
12

Yellow wax
Turpentine

oz.

Final Support.
Melt the wax, add the
resin, stir for

55
a
little

time,
I

remove from the

fire,

and add the turpentine.

have suggested elsewhere the substitution of ether


for the turpentine in the

above formula, because the


transfer

ether evaporates

more quickly, and the

paper or temporary support


quickly.
I

may
I

be used more

must confess that

was under the

impression this was quite original, but I find that


ether was used instead of turpentine quite in the
early days.

The temporary support means of the above


pad of
formula

is

zinc or paper

waxed by
little

solution, a little being poured


all

on to the middle and smeared


lint,

over with a

wash-leather, or soft linen, and then

polished with another piece.


is

When

the turpentine
left

used, the support

must be

some

hours before use, to allow the turpentine to evaporate.

Having our temporary support ready, we need only


prepare our

FINAL SUPPORT
to

have a finished
Final supports

print.

may be glass,
we

leather,

wood, metal

stone, opal, or paper, but


first

shall content ourselves

by describing the use of paper.

Paper

specially
is no%'

prepared

may

be obtained commercially, and

56

Carbon Printing.
This

ordinary paper coated with a film of gelatine.

has to be soaked in 2 per. solution of alum for about


ten minutes, and
it is

ready for use.

The operations
same

for double-transfer prints are practically the

as for single-transfer so far as regards development,

but for the sake of beginners I run through the

whole process again.

Expose your

tissue in a
;

frame simultaneously
sufficiently

with the actinometer


lay the tissue in water

when

exposed

till soft,

place the previously

waxed temporary support


previously described.
water, transfer to

in the water, bring the

tissue into contact, squeegee well,

and develop as

When
bath,

developed, dip in cold

alum

wash

well,

and bring

the final paper support, which has been soaking in

alum, into contact with the developed print, squeegee


well,
its

and allow

to dry.

When

dry, the print and

final

support

may

be stripped by inserting a

knife under one corner, and gently pulling.

RIGID FINAL SUPPORTS.


In
it is

all

cases where a rigid final support

is

desired,

essential to use a flexible temporary support

otherwise intimate optical contact cannot be obtained.

In every case the procedure


30
lai

is

precisely the

same

as development, washing, and fixing are

Transferring Prints

to

Opal.

57

concerned, a slight diiFerence only being necessary


in the preparation of the final support.

TKANSFERRING PRINTS TO OPAL.


Carbon prints on opal, particularly the smoothed
or matt surface with bevel edges, form exquisite

ornaments for any room, as they can be prepared


any colour and mounted in any
style, either

in

on plush
;

mounts or as transparencies,
and
I

etc.,

and of any shape

have some charming

little

candle shades

prepared by the carbon process on circular opal


plates.

Matt opal requires no preparation, the carbon


image holding firmly enough
;

the image on the

temporary support being merely squeegeed well to


the opal, set up to dry, and the temporary support
stripped.

TRANSFERRING PRINTS TO GLASS, METAL, WOOD, IVORY, OR ANY POLISHED SURFACE.


The only
in

difference

in

this is to

prepare the

surface of the final support,

and

this
it

may be done
a coating of

two ways, either

by giving

58
bichromated

Carbon Printing.
gelatine

or

with
I

chrome-gelatine
give both methods,

personal!}^ I prefer the latter.

however.

THE BICHROMATE METHOD.


Heinrich's gelatine
Distilled water
1 oz.

18
;

Soak

for four hours

dissolve by the aid of a

water bath.

Potassium bichromate
Distilled water
...

...
...

... ...

20

grs.

2 oz.
;

Dissolve and add to the gelatine solution

filter

whilst hot, and coat the support with as thin a film


as possible
;

dry and expose to sunlight for an hour

at least, or diffused light for four hours.

THE CHROME-GELATINE METHOD.


Heinrich's gelatine
Distilled water
...

320
20

grs.

oz.

Soak

for four hours

dissolve

by the aid of heat or

water bath.

Chrome alum
Distilled water

...
...

... ...

...
...

12 grs.

4 oz. Coat the

Dissolve, add to the gelatine, and

filter.

glass or final support as thinly as possible.

Lantern Sliden.

59

When
it is

using wood, kather, or any porous support


fill

advisable to
for

the pores as

much

as possible,

and

wood

always use Aspinall's enamel thinned

down with turpentine and rubbed in with a pad. The average worker of ordinary ingenuity
have no
difficulty in

will

adapting from these hints the

process to any surface.

Of the two substrata


is

given,

the chrome gelatine

is

superior, but unless care is

exercised in mixing there

a great tendency for

the gelatine to precipitate.

LANTERN SLIDES.
Probably of
all

processes for lantern-slide making


is

the carbon process


finest results

that which

gives the very

exquisite gradation, transparency in

the shadows, and,


is

when

required, bare glass.

It

not more difficult than other processes for the

production of lantern slides

and

perhaps not so difficult


may
be used, as

the single-transfer process


is

a reversed slide

of no consequence, and

may be

put right in mounting and marking.

The ordinary

tissue
;

may

be used and will not

give good results

the finest results only are to

be obtained with the special transparency tissue,

which contains an extra amount of pigment and


of a finer kind.

This should be bought from the

60

Carbon Prlrding.

mannfactnrers and sensitised on the ordinary bath.

For lantern work


a convenient

it is

advisable to get tissue cut to


ins.,

size,

such as 6| x 6^

which ob-

viously cuts into four lantern slides of 3J ins. square. Obtain some patent plate glass this can be bought

very cheaply at any plate-glass insurance

office

little

larger than the tissue, about half an inch


it

each way, coat

with a plain collodion, such as

Pyroxyline

...

6| grs.
^ oz.

Ether
Alcohol

i
after

Coat the glass with this collodion

having

waxed
has

or talced

it,

and, as soon as the collodion a dish of cold water.

set, transfer to

When

the tissue has floated long enough on the sensitising


solution,
slip

the collodionised glass underneath,


set

remove both together, squeegee, and


dark to dry.

up

in the

When

thoroughly dry, strip from


into

the glass, cut up


requisite size,

carefully

squares

of the
in the

and expose under a negative

ordinary

way, as previously described, using as

a safe-edge a lantern
previously described.

mask

or the black
is

varnish

The exposure

about half

as long again as for ordinary carbon work.

To prepare the

glasses, they should be coated


p.

with the chrome-gelatine described on

68, or

may

be treated with

62
the
little

(Jarhon Printing.

edges of the exposed tissue so


dish,

fis

to form a

and coating

it

then

(i.e.,

after exposure)

with collodion.
cisely the

The subsequent operations are

pre-

same as above.

FAILURES.
The carbon
process,
not,
is

process, like every other photographic


;

not free from possible failures


I

they are
treat

however, insurmountable.

shall

of

them

in the order of procedure to facilitate matters.


is

The tissue

insoluble.

This

may

be caused by

(a) acid bichromate of potash to


(b)
(c)

hence the suggestion


;

add a
too

little

ammonia

to the sensitising bath

slow drying or a

damp

drying room

gaseous products of combustion in the drying


;

room
in

(d) keeping the film too long


place
;

(e)
;

keeping
(^) un-

damp

(/) exposure
or too little

to light

suitable gelatine
Jelly.

sugar in the plain

The film dissolves in the sensitising bath. The bichromate solution is too warm cooling by adding
;

ice will

prevent

this.

The gelatine runs while drying.


or

Drying

room

box
The

is

too

tissue,

negative.

warm. when dry, refuses to lie Jlat on the The paper was dried too quickly, or at

too high a temperature.

Failures.

63

The paper
the

sticks

to

the

negative.

The

tissue,

negative, or printing frame

pads are damp.

Remedy, rub the negative and


a sensitising bath.

tissue with talc.

Crystals form on the tissue in drying.

Too strong
(a) insolu-

The jilm frills.


bility of

The
;

causes

may be

the film

(b)

absence of the safe-edge, or

putting the safe-edge on the film and not on the


glass side of the negative
;

(c)

allowing the tissue

to soak too long in the cold water before squeegeeing

to the temporary or final support

(d) too short

a time between squeegeeing to the support and


developing
;

(e)

collodionised glass, frilling occurs

when developing tissue on a when the collo-

dion

is

torn or scratched so that water can get

underneath.
Reticulation of the film.
incipient
frilling,

This

may be

said to be

and the same causes

may

be

assumed, with also the additional one (a) using


the temporary support too soon after waxing, or
(i) too freshly sensitised tissue.

Spots and streaks in the finished prints.

These

may be caused by

(a) unequal coating of the tissue,

ib) air bubbles on the sensitising bath, or (c) solid

impurities in the bath

{d) air bubbles between

the temporary support and tissue


is

to remedy this

it

just as well to pass the squeegee over the tissue

under water just before applying to the support.

64

Carbon Printing.
The prints are too dark.

(a)

Over-exposure,

(b)

keeping the tissue too long between exposure

and development in a
cause
is (J>)

damp atmosphere.

The

due to what has been called the con-

tinuing

or continuating action of light, and this

only occurs in a

damp
will

atmosphere.

Carbon

tissue,

when exposed,

keep for a long time

in

chloride of calcium tube.

This continuing action

of light has been suggested as useful in the case

of under-exposed tissue, as by leaving

it

little

time in the dark want of sufficient insolation

may
as

be compensated

for.
is in effect,

Over-exposure

of course, the
It

same

over-printing with

ordinary silver paper.

may be

remedied to some extent by using hotter water.

Some

operators

have recommended soapy water,


tried.

but this I have never


chloride of
lime,

Swan
;

suggested
chlorine

hypochlorite of
of

soda,

water,

and

peroxide

hydrogen

but

of
is

all

remedies,
best.

hot

water

continually

applied

the

A
I

very large firm of carbon printers have an

arrangement which struck


which
prints.

me

as very practical,

and

saw made useful for forcing over-exposed Hot and cold water was laid on, as is now
was affixed a short length of inchThis in the case of

80 often the case in modern-built houses, and to the


respective taps

diameter india-rubber pipe.


over-exposure
is

compressed at the end, and the

failures. tap turned on, and a fine jet of hot water


directed on to the print.
is
is

65
thus

The same device


was

used

with the cold water, and, whilst there, the operator


kindly showed

how

easy

it

to alter the cha-

racter of the prints


in this way.

by using one or the other spray

Sulphocyanide of

ammonium

has been

used for lightening over-exposed carbon prints, but


so far

my

experiments have been merely to prove

that quite as

much may be
weak

judiciously done with


solution

hot water as with a


whereas,
is

of sulpho.
it

if

a strong solution be used, even cold,


its action.

impossible to regulate

The prints are

too light.

Under-exposure
it

will

cause prints to be too light, though

may happen

that with negatives which are harsh and full of


contrast the details in the high lights

may wash
To avoid

away, whilst the shadows are too dark.


this it

may be

advisable to expose the tissue to

diffused light for a short time, so as to sun


as in ordinary silver printing
;

down

this will of course

soften the results

by preventing the high lights


tint lowering

from washing away and by a general


the tone.
It is possible to intensify prints

by soaking

for

a few minutes in
Nitrate of silver
Distilled water
...

2 grs.
1 oz.

Rinse under the tap, and flood with


5

66

Carbon Printing.
Pyrogallic acid
Citric acid
...

...
...

1 gr.

Water
to

1 oz.
is

which

added at the moment of using two or

three drops of a 20 per cent solution of nitrate of


silver.

After intensification, the print should be


It

dipped in hypo, and well washed.

may

also be

dipped into a
iron, well

per cent, solution of perchloride of

washed, and then into a weak pyro. solu-

tion (1 gr. to 1 oz. water).

The best

intensifier is to

dip the prints into a 20-gr. solution of permanganate of potash in


1 oz.

of distilled water,

wash well and

dry, repeating if necessary.

During development,

the use of cooler water will of course compensate


to

some extent
so

for under-exposure,

by not washing

away

much

of the pigmented gelatine.

sparkling appearance in the print after final

transfer.

This

is

caused

by too

little

pressure

during the final transfer.


Prints developed on collodionised glass refuse
leave the glass.
to

The

fault lies in not


oflP

waxing the

glass properly, or else polishing

too

much wax.

RETOUCHING, SPOTTING, AND COLOURING

CARBON PRINTS.
OarboD prints
trooble

may

be spotted out without any

little

solution of

chrome or bichromated

Rough Paper Supports.


gelatine, such as used for a
slides,
etc.,

67

substratum for lantern

should be mixed with the requisite


If the re-

colour and applied with a fine brush.

touching be done before the final transfer of the


print, it will

be under the gelatine film, and thus


if

show

less

than

done

after.

Colouring carbon

prints
if

with water-colours
a
little

is

extremely easy, especially

semi-aqueous

and alcoholic solution of purified inspissated ox-gall


or

Newman's

sizing preparation be

brushed over

it

first.

To colour with

oil-colours the best thing is


flat

to apply

with a broad,

camel's-hair brush a

solution of

Isinglass
Distilled water

180
10
10
to soak for

grs.
oz.
>?

Methylated

spirit

Allow the isinglass

two hours

in the

water, dissolve in a water bath, and then add the

alcohol with careful stirring.

ROUGH PAPER SUPPORTS.


The use of rough paper as a support for carbon prints has grown considerably in favour, and therefore the following brief note
is

added.

The rough paper, Creswick, Whatman, or other


kind should be pinned on to a drawing
boai'd,

and

a fairly large pool of the chrome gelatine poured

68
on to
it,

Carbon Printing.
and evenly distributed with a fairly ; the solution being worked
it

stiff

hog-hair brush
the paper,

into

should be then allowed to set and


This can be then used as the final
it,

thoroughly dry.

support, but in transferring the carbon image to

the two must be put under a very heavy weight, so


as to ensure complete contact.

MATT-SURFACE PRINTS.
An
exquisite fine

matt

surface,

may

be obtained

by coating

" smoothed "

opal with

plain

enamel

collodion, allowing to set,

washing out the solvents,

or

till

the surface

is

no longer greasy, and then

transferring the print to this as a temporary support.

Bibliography of Carbon Printing.


Traite EUmentaire et Pratiqiie de Photographie

au Charbon
Engel-

By AUBERT.
ipplications Nouvelles de la Photographie

au Charhon.
fr.

Feitknecht, Douanne, 1891.


Fotografia alle Polveri Indelebili.
1869.

Price 25

By Borlinetto.

Padova,

Suite Applicazioni del Bichromato Potassico.

By Borlinetto
Paris, 186G.

Padova, 1869. Photographie au Charhon.


Instructions sur

By

Despaquis,

VEmploi du Papier au Charbon.

By Lamv.

Paris, 1878.

La

Photographie au Charbon.
Paris.

By Liebert.

Pub. by Tignol,

Price 3

fr.

50

c.

Le ProcSde au Charbon.
illars,

By LiESEGANG.
Price 2
fr.

Pub. by Gauthier-

Paris, 1886.

Bibliography.
Der Kohledruch. By Liesegang. Dusseldorf. Manual of the Carbon Process. By Liesegang.
1878.

69

London,

TraU6 de Photographie au Charbon.


Paris, 1876.

By Monckhoven. By Monckhoven.
Milan, 1869.

Historique

du Precede

au Charbon.

Paris, 1876.

La
On

Fotografia al Carbone.
the Reproduction of

By Montagna.

Photographs in Pigments.
Carter.

By

G.

Simpson.
1879

Piper

&

Fotautuacografia.
;

By

London, 1867. Sobacchi. Pub. by Pettazzi, Milan,

and Lodi, 1883. Price 3 fr. Traiti Pratique au Charbon. By Vidal. Pub. by GauthierPrice 4 fr. 50 c. Villars, Paris, 1877.

Das

Photographische Pigment-Verfahren oder der Kohlcdruck.

By VoGEL & Sawyer.


Price 2

Pub. by Oppenheim, Berlin.

m.
of Autotype Printing.

The

Pub. by The Autotype London, W.C. Ueber die Reaktionen der Chromsaure und des Chromate auf By Eder. Pub. by Knapp, of Halle-a.-S. Gelatine. Price 4 m.

A B C

Company,

New

Oxford

St.,

Besides the above most textbooks contain more or less full


instructions for

working the process.

Considering the very brief time that has elapsed


since this little

work was

written, there

is

not

much

of any great importance to add to this, the Second


Edition.

The most striking point

is

the use and

preparation of the so-called Ladeveze and Artigue's


processes of carbon printing, in which no transfer

70
is

Carbon Trinting.
necessary, the print being developed from the

front by a mixture of water

and

fine

sawdust

and

a note upon Bedford's insoluble substratum.

ARTIGUE'S PROCESS
Although not
strictly

new, having been actually

made

since 1884, this paper, Artigue papier velours,

has only lately sprung into prominence, at least in

England
is

and

it is

interesting in that no transfer

required, the

print being developed

from the

front, after printing in the usual

way, with sawdust

and water.
Whilst no exact formulse are to be found for

making
to allow

this

paper, sufficient has been published


little practice, to

any one, with but


rives paper is

secure

satisfactory results.

Smooth

damped and squeegeed

to a

sheet of plate glass, and then coated as


as possible with a 1*5 per

evenly

cent, solution of soft

gelatine
float

or

damp

rives

paper

may

be allowed to

on a 4 per cent, solution of gelatine at 30 C.


is

This

allowed to

set,

and placed

in a dusting box,
is

such as used for photogravure, in which

the

powdered pigment
box
is

in

fine state of division.

The

slowly revolved, the sides being knocked to


;

dislodge adhering lumps


six

and after about


is

five or

revolutions

the

box

brought to

rest,

and

Artigue's Process.

71

allowed to stand for about two minutes


the glass plate with the

and then
inserted,

damp paper
settle

is

and the powder allowed to


minutes.

for

about five

The

glass is then removed,


it is

and the paper


be a uniform
If necessary,
sufficiently

examined to see whether


colour,

sufficiently coated.

The whole of the surface should


showing no sign of white.
is

the operation

repeated,
is

and when

covered the paper

allowed to dry thoroughly.


indefinitely.

In this state

it

will

keep

An

alternate

plan which suggests


tried, is to coat
set,

itself,

but which I have not

the paper with gelatine, and

when

blow the powder on by means of one of the


used for nasal diseases.
sensitise this paper, it should be floated

insufilators

To
the

on

back, not film

side

down, on a 5 per centtaken not to

solution

of bichromate, care being

allow any of the solution to get on the coated side.


It is

then removed, and pinned by means of drawing

pins to a
film side

wooden frame or
is

stretcher, so that the


is

underneath, but also so that there

free access of air.

Instead of floating, the bichro-

mate solution may be applied with a broad brush


to the

back

but this

is

less convenient,
is

as

the

paper must be strained whilst this

being done.

The paper

is

printed the same as usual with a

photometer or actinometer, the rapidity of the paper


being stated to be about three times that of silver

72
paper.

Carbon Printing.
It is then

pinned to a

flat strip

of wood, or
by-

held between two thin laths clipped together

wooden

clips,

surface a thick

and developed by pouring on to the mixture of warm water, about


fir or boxwood The sawdust should be placed in

90 Fahr., and very fine sawdust,

being the best.

any convenient

vessel,

an ordinary

tin

coffee-pot,

with rather small spout, being very handy.

As the
it

warm sawdust mixture


abrades the particles

flows over the surface

of gelatine and

colouring

matter which have not been rendered insoluble

by the action of light


appears in

and as soon as the picture


should be well washed

all its details it

with a spray of cold water, which arrests the developing action, and washes

away any adherent


was not undertimed,
far,

sawdust.

If the exposure

and development not carried too


full detail.

the resulting

print will possess fine gradations of half tone and

The hotter and thicker the sawdust mixture, the ; and it is frequently advisable to commence development with a thin
greater the developing action

mixture of about 76 Fahr., and then to use a


thicker and hotter mixture

subsequently.

It is

obvious that in the local application of sawdust

mixtures of various strengths and temperatures


considerable

command

over results can be obtained.


is

The

finished print

washed

in

alum

solution

Artigues Process.

73

and cold water, as for the ordinary carbon process,

and dried.
for

The

prints

have a

fine

matt surface, and


obvious that

some subjects the

results are extremely fine.


it is

From

the preceding description


is

this process

applicable to almost any surface,

such as glass, plain or opal, ivory, wood, leather,


or even fabrics.

M. Artigue's paper

is

sold commercially in France,

but there seems considerable difficulty in obtaining a


supply, therefore for those
selves, the

who

like to

make

it

them-

above directions will possibly

suffice.

Practically the above and the following process,

that of

M. Ladeveze,

is

nothing more than a revival

of the earlier processes, particularly that of Pouncy,


described in the

commencement

of this work.
is

Instead of gelatine,
colloid,

gum
:

arable

used as the
will

and the following method of procedure


fairly

be found quite satisfactory

Choose clean and

white gum-arabic, free

from

dirt

place the required quantity in a cup or


is

jam pot
if

the latter
gum

the better

capable of holdThus

ing at least four times the quantity of water.


4 ozs. of

16 ozs. of water.
the vessel,

the vessel must hold The gum should be placed in and the same filled with water, stirred

be used

rapidly once or twice, and the water poured

off.

This operation should be repeated, the object being


to

wash away mechanical impurities

then

the

74

Carbon Printing

proper quantity of distilled water should oe added


to

the washed gum, and the vossel placed in a


place,

warm
is

and frequently

stirred, till the

whole

Some fine meshed muslin should be well washed in warm water to free it from dressing, and then tied over the mouth of the jam
thoroughly dissolved.

pot,

and the solution of

gum

strained through

it.
:

The

correct strength for the

gum

solution

is

Gum-arabic
Distilled water
..
.

... ... ...

ozs.

8 ozs.

After solution and treatment

mix

in equal

volumes

with a solution of

Potassium bichromate
Distilled water
Stir

...

... ...

1 oz.

10 ozs.

the mixture thoroughly, and

then add the

colouring matter,
described
colloidal

which may be
34
is

any of those

on

pp.

and

35.

The pigmented

mixture

now

applied to the paper by


;

means of a soft badger hair softener and this should be worked over the surface of the paper, till on holding it up to the light it appears of a uniform tint all over. The pigmented colloid
matter

may

also be applied to the paper

by means

of an ether throat spray apparatus, and very fine

even coating

is

thus obtained.

So

far the

whole of the operations

may

be con-

Carbon Prints on Toned Paper.

75

ducted in diffused daylight, but the paper must, as


in the case of ordinary carbon tissue, be dried in

the dark.

Development may be

effected

by placing
to a board,

the paper in
rocking.
or clipped

a dish of tepid water, and gently


this print

Or

may be pinned

by the edges

to a sheet of glass,

and

developed by the aid of a soft brush, or by using


the spray apparatus.
trol

In this way very great con-

over results

is

attainable.

CARBON PRINTS ON TONED PAPERS.


Mr. G. H. James has suggested the use of toned
papers as a

support for carbon prints

(Amateur
says
:

Photographer, January 4th, 1895).


" Photographers have,

He

up

to the present time, but

accepted and shown one form of support for their


pictures

namely, a colour white.

They have taught


is possible.

their audiences that that,

and that only,

We

now ask them

to teach something

else

we

ask them to teach the public that the lights and

shadows in a picture depend upon each other, that


they work by contrast, and that they do not depend

on white paper for the highest

light,

and black

pigment

for the darkest

shadow."

Mr. James goes on to recommend brown papers


of various tints, and thus describes one of the
cases for

many
:

which such toned supports are suitable

76

Carbon Printing.

" I passed over one of the

many

bridges which

span onr London river as


pathetic scene caused

it

winds through the

great city, one evening, a while back, and a most

me

to stay a
its

moment.
all

The
was

noisy traffic had passed on


quiet, save for the
rolled,

way, and

murmur
it

of the waters, which

and turned, and eddied against their granite


seemed, right under

walls, passing away, as


feet.

my

The sun had

set

some short time, and threw


mounts

up, from below the horizon, that beautiful 'after

glow of golden-red, fading into yellow as


'

it

high overhead.
"

The mist rose slowly from the shadowed


all

river,

and met that beautiful smoke cloud (of

clouds

the most pathetic), throwing the distance into a

dim nothingness. A solitary barge, with its bargee, and as he floated slowly down with the stream
;

dipped his oar to guide his unwieldy


rippling
light

craft,

the

waters

caught

little

beams
if

of

yellow

from the sky above, as

to

add a spark

of brightness to the quieting scene.

The barge

passed on, and the evening faded into night, and


I

was the gainer over the world


" It
pictures such as these

for having seen

a picture which perchance they did not miss.


is

impossibilities

to

us with ordinary

means
it is

I try to adequately re-

present with

my

peculiarly coloured papers."

Whilst of course

possible to transfer ordi-

Bedford's Insoluble SubstrafMm.

77

nary carbon tissue to toned papers, there must be


infinitely greater

command
is

over results by using

one of the above processes, Artigue's or Ladeveze's,


as the choice of

pigment

entirely in the operator's

hands.

BEDFORD'S INSOLUBLE SUBSTRATUM.


The
late

Mr. William Bedford, well known as a


ability,

worker of no mean

suggested the following

method of preparing an insoluble substratum for the preparation of glass plates, to which the carbon
image
is

to be transferred

Take of hard gelatine 270


a water bath.
cent,

grs.,

and soak for an


6 per

hour in 3| ozs. of water, and melt by the aid of

To

this solution

add

sufficient

chrome alum solution

to thoroughly precipitate

the gelatine, which should then be collected, and


the water allowed to drain, and then dissolve in
7

drms. of glacial acetic acid on a water bath, and


ozs. of

add gradually 17
for use.

methylated

spirit,

and

filter

The glass should be well cleaned, and


set

the solution of gelatine poured on just like collodion,

and the plate

up

to dry.

78

Historical

and Practical Notes on

the

HISTORICAL AND PRACTICAL NOTES ON THE SIMPLE CARBON PROCESS WITHOUT TRANSFER.
Reprinted from,

The Amateur Photographer

of March

6t/i

a-nd

20M,

1896.

The following chapter will give a general idea of the field covered by the Non-Transfer Carbon Process but the reader intending to take up this method is referred to the book entitled, "Aquatint, or Gum-Bichromate Process," by Messrs. Alfred Maskell and Robert Demarchy, now in the press.
;

That the simple non-transfer carbon process


give, not only the

will

most perfect gradation of


even for

tone,

but the most minute definition

small
for

subjects, has been fully recognised

by experts

at least thirty-eight years, in

evidence of which

we may quote the


no
less

following, written in 1858, by

an authority than Thomas Sutton.

Speak-

ing of the method originally due to Poitevin, but

independently discovered and introduced by Mr.

Thomas Pouncy, of Dorchester, Mr. Sutton


(Sutton's

writes

"Notes," 1858, p. 185): "It will give and does give as good definition and half-tone as
any other process upon plain paper, and
it

will

prove to be the very thing most ardently wanted

by sensible photographers, and when


into operation it will

fairly

brought

supersede
first

all

other

modes

of printing."

In the

issue

of Mr. Sutton's

Simple Carbon Process without Transfer.

79

"Notes"

for the following year (1859, vol. iv., p. 7),

we

find

very concise

directions

for

working the
in

method which
this chapter
;

scarcely differ

from those given

only the convenience of development

by cold water
tions

than in

more emphasised in these direcThe following are particulars ours.


is

as given

by Pouncy

in 1859,

but with such slight


as

curtailment in

descriptive

detail

the general
:

knowledge of our time renders admissible


1. 2.

Saturated solution bichromate of potassium.

Gum

of consistency of thin varnish.

3.

Vegetable carbon ground with water, by muller on (Mr. Pouncy appears to have inpaint stone. tended this to be quite fluid and even thin.)

Mix
of No.

together equal parts of

and

2, also suf-

ficient quantity, say, one-eighth the total


3.

volume,

Stir

and strain through

finest muslin.

Coat paper freely with a broad camel's-hair brush,


laying on a copious supply over the whole surface
;

allow about two minutes for the paper to absorb,

and remove the superfluous liquid thus


painter's four-inch hog's-hair softener,

take a
it

and work

regularly over the paper, with an alternate vertical

and horizontal motion,

until the

whole presents a

smooth and even


completed by the

surface.

The drying may be


directions for exposure

fire.

The

need not be reproduced, but Mr. Pouncy's instructions


for

development with cold water we give

80

Historical
"

and Practical

l^otes on the

verbatim

On removal from

the pressure frame,

lay the picture, face downwards, in a flat dish of


clean water, taking care to exclude all air-bubbles.
It

will

be found advisable to place some slight

weight upon the picture, that the back

may

thus

be retained wholly under water and kept free from


stains.

at

five

minutes

The time of soaking may be roughly stated though in some cases of over;

exposure pictures
days,

may remain

in

the

water for
It

and come out

equally good.

may

be

observed here, that when the high lights of the


picture appear soon after immersion, the operator

may
his

conclude that he has under-exposed, or that

gum-arabic

is

too thick

which
of

last fault

must
more

be

corrected by

the

addition

little

bichromate solution.

It is preferable to find the

picture developing evenly all over.

Each
finally

picture

must be
or

set in a separate dish,

and

washed

under a gentle stream of clean water from a tap


a lip cup.

Should the margin be not quite


brush carefully over
it,

clean, pass a camel's-hair

and,

if

needful, over any parts of the picture, be;

fore rinsing at the tap

but the best results are

obtained by soaking only."

Whilst recently Mr. Alfred Maskell has worthily

drawn attention

to this exquisite process, valuable

alike for its results as for its adaptability to the

Simple Carbon Process without Transfer.


picture-maker's purposes,
for

81

we

feel that there is

room

more

precise

and

explicit details of precedure

than have been hitherto given, and with this view


the present chapter
is

written.

The

directions, moreover, include the older

and

newer modifications, and such information as shall


enable workers to select which
to their special requirements. It in

may be

best adapted

should be borne in mind, however, that, as


greater rapidity
is

other processes

often only

attained with compromise of

some

sort, so in

the

present process those

who

seek greater sensitiveness


solution,

by the use of acid or by use of old

must be prepared
insolubility.

for

occasional

failure

due to

The

new carbon

process

without

transfer

is

perhaps the easiest

and

least

expensive

of

all

printing methods for an amateur, and offers especial


attractions to those

who aim

to bring the resultant

image more directly under


graphy to
artistic ends.

control, as is so desirable

and essential in the higher applications of photo-

Not only does the material


lie

which forms the base


prefers to use, but the

open to choice by the


a matter

worker, instead of being what the manufacturer

pigment
;

itself is

of equally free choice

indeed, various pigments

may be mixed

so as to give

any

tint desired,

and

local variations in tone

may be

realised quite easily

82

IJistortcal

and Practical Notes on


to do.

the

by those who wish so


carbon process lends

In addition, the new

itself in

an exceptional manner

to local treatment in development.

The new carbon process


excepting so far as
is it is

is

not a carbon process,

a near equivalent of what

popularly and generally

known

as the carbon

process,

and carbon
Neither

the
it

most permanent of pigprocess "

ments
use

may

be used should the worker desire to


is

it.

the

new

new "

in

any

other sense than that


into

has been recently brought

prominent

notice.

M. Rouille-Ladeveze,
by the issue of

to

whom

is

due much of

the credit of bringing the method into general use


his little book,* published

two years
:

ago, thus deals with the question of novelty

" Is the process

new

" asks
it is

" No," he answers, " for

M. Rouille-Ladeveze. the gum, bichromate,

and pigment method of Poitevin, and dates from


the
first

photographic period."

Several early workers practised the carbon process

without transfer, and

among these may be mentioned


gentlemen
having

Mr. J. C. Burnett, Mr. Thomas Sutton, and Mr.

John
chiefly

Pouncy,

these

worked

between 1855 and 1860.

The old notion

was that an ideal gradation or half-tone must be a


smooth, structureless

*'

tint,

such as was given by


par

S^pia-Photo

et

Sanguine-Photo,"

A.

Rouille-

Ladeveze.

Paris, 1894, Gauthier-Villars et Fils.

Simple Carbon Process without Transfer.


the transfer carbon process of
its

83

Swan (1864) and


;

simplification

by Johnson (1869)

hence these

methods soon drove out of use the easier non-transfer methods


is

in

which the sensitive pigment mixture


is

simply spread upon that paper which

to be

the final support of the picture.

Indeed, the earlier

writers scarcely admitted that a gradation of tone


in stipple deserved

the

name

of half-tone, hence

the contention that in the carbon process half-tone

can only be obtained by the process of detaching


the film from the unexposed surface.

The method of simple carbon


practised,

printing, as

now

may be summarised

as

follows

The

ground pigments, as sold in tubes or pans for the


use of water-colour painters, are mixed with a

mucilage of gum-arabic and a certain proportion of


a soluble bichromate.
This mixture, which must
artist's

be quite thin and almost like an

wash,

is

now spread uniformly over


a very large and soft brush

the sheet of paper with


;

but the coating must

not be nearly so dense as to prevent all light from

reaching the fibre of the paper.


dry,
is

The paper being

exposed under a negative, and then no


is

further treatment

required but development in

water, which water should ordinarily be

somewhat
is

warm, and occasionally quite


exposure
adopted,
at

hot.

When, however,
J.

the back, or through the paper,

as

recommended by Mr.

C. Burnett

84
in

Historical

and Practical Notes on


of
the

the

the " Journal

Photographic Society,"
sensitive

November, 1858, a thicker film of the


mixture should be used, and
if

a thin hard and

smooth paper
tint

is

employed an even gradation ofwithout


grain

practically

may

be obtained.

Thus the two non-transfer carbon processes can


give the widest variation in style or manner. This

chapter refers only to that method in which the


coated side of the paper
is

exposed.

The working
to master,

details

are

by no means

difficult

and by no means burdened with exact


;

rules or recondite technical conditions

but there

are a few technical points which

attended to

if failure

must be carefully and trouble from the varying


insolubility of the film

sensitiveness

and untoward

are to be avoided.

When
a

the exposure

is

to be

made from

the front

rough-surfaced

paper should
gradations

be used, as the

rendering of full

depends essentially

upon the roughness of the paper.

The various

drawing papers give a wide choice, and the choice

may be quite free between thick and thin paper. The various Dutch hand-made papers of Van Gelder are excellent as regards chemical^ purity, and afford
a wide choice of texture.

Moreover, the prices are


with high-class drawing

very low, as compared


papers.

The wholesale London agents are Messrs.

Grosvenor, Chater,

&

Co., of 68,

Cannon

Street,

Simple Carbon Process without Transfer.

85

who
soft,

issue

specimen book.

The kinds most

desirable are Nos. 51, 52,

and 83, brown tint, heavy, and coarse grained also Nos. 1 and 12, white
;

and coarse

in texture.

The

sensitive preparation is
A.

made

as follows

Clear white

gum
and squeeze through
B.

4 oz.
6

Water
Soak
till

dissolved,

fine muslin.

Bichromate of potassium

1 oz.

Water
In a room illuminated by yellow light,

mix equal
moist

volumes of

and B, then

stir

in

such

water-colours as will give the required tint.


colouration

The

should ordinarily be such that


is

when

the preparation

washed over the paper with a

broad camel's-hair brush the tint hardly appears


full
;

in other

words, the white and texture of the

paper should show through. paper


less

For a very rough


less

pigment

will

be required than for a

rough paper. There


is

a wide choice of pigments open to users


is

of this process, but indigo

best avoided, as

it

considerably lessens the sensitiveness of the mixture,

and ultramarine
;

is

not allowable for chemical

reasons
able

but Prussian blue and cobalt remain availthe blues.

among

Indian ink or lamp-black

86

historical

and Practical Motes on


;

the

alone teod towards a greenish tint

which can,
are

however, be modified by the addition of cobalt blue.


Sepia, the earth colours, and the
all

madder lakes

very suitable.
sides

The paper having been sponged on both


to stretch
it,

is

pinned down to a board by one

corner and rapidly brushed over with the sensitive

mixture by means of a broad camel's-hair brush.

The mixture should be


and before the brush

in a flat dish close at hand,


is

brought to

the

paper
drops

any solution which may tend to


is

fall off in

struck off on the sides of the dish.

All brush

motions on the paper should be parallel, and in


one direction,
the same
i.e.,

the brush

must not return along


little

path.
at,

Quick work and even coating must


practice
it is

be aimed

and with a very

easy to obtain almost complete uniformity.

The best method of drying


night in a room where a
day, but the paper
fire
;

is

to

hang up over-

fire

has burned during the

may

be dried rapidly before a


fire,

better only a glowing

as a flaming fire

may

fog the paper.


is

The exposure
papers,

longer than for ordinary silver


;

about double

and can be most readily

judged by looking through the paper.

The coating

should never be dense enough to materially affect


the translucency of the paper, and consequently the
faint

image formed by the darkening of the

bi-

Simple Carbon Process without Transfer.

87

chromated

gnm

can be sufficiently distinguished

to enable the exposure to


in the shades

be judged.

should be just visible.


is,

The details The use of

an actinometer

however, preferred by some.


is

Developing the print

a very simple matter,

a tin tray somewhat larger than the print, a plate


of metal, or a board sloping gently
tray,

down

into the

a few soft brushes, and a small tin coffee-

pot being all the appliances required.


is first

The print

soaked in cold water, and

its

behaviour will

soon give the clue to the next step, as in the event


of under-exposure

the colour will soon begin to


tray
is

wash
water

oft,

especially if the

rocked or the

is

repeatedly poured on the print from the


;

coffee-rpot

the print for this purpose resting

on

the sloping board or plate.

In some cases cold

water

alone

may

finish

the

development,

but

ordinarily the temperature will have to be raised to

about 90 F., by the gradual addition of hot water.

In other cases

much

hotter water

may

be required,

and as regards

local

treatment, the use of the


soft

steam from the cofiee-pot and the


should be obvious

brushes

The former gains in detergency by the height from which it flows, and
enough.
the brushes should, as a rule, only be used on the
face

of the
it is

print

while

well
oft"

covered by water.
to

When
line,

desired to

wash

an approximate

a small stream from the coffee-pot, held at

88

Historical

and Practical Notes on


;

the

arm's height, should be used

and a small

strip

of metal held at an incline half an inch over the


line to be protected, will be

found useful.

Those who have not been accustomed to carbon


printing or other process depending

upon the use

of bichromate, will be

somewhat put out by the widely varying sensitiveness of the film, and when
is

the film

but slightly sensitive they will probably


little

obtain hard prints with but

gradation of tone,

and when the film


prints

is

highly sensitive they will


;

obtain soft prints and full gradation

but the soft

and

full

gradation

depend rather on the

exposure being suitable to the condition of the


sensitive film than on the particular
to

means adopted
quickly
dried

give

greater

sensitiveness

sample of the pigmented paper, prepared with a


fresh sensitive mixture, will

be at

its

minimum

of sensitiveness, and

may

require an exposure of a

quarter of an

hour in sunshine with an average

negative

or very considerably

more

if

the pig-

mented paper has been highly


to time,
will be

dried.

If this paper

be kept in the dark, and samples be tried from time


it

found to increase in sensitiveness

until insolubility sets in

and the prints refuse

to

develop.

This
is

weather

may happen in a few days if the warm and damp, or not for months if
is

the weather
in ^I.

cold and the paper

is

kept dry

Marion's preservative receptacle, containing

Simple Carbon Process without Transfer.


chloride

89

of

calcium,

for

example, an
ago,

appliance

much used about


revived as a

half a century

and now

means of preserving platinotype paper.


tlie

Long
in

contact of

gum

bichromate in a moist

state favours that preliminary

change which results


but

greater sensitiveness and consequent obtaining


;

of better half-tone with a short exposure

all

expedients for obtaining greater sensitiveness


volve

in-

an increased risk
in a

of

general insolubility.

Dr.

Holman,

communication to the French

Photographic Society, about three years ago, advocated keeping the sensitive mixture for twenty-four

hours before using, and quite recently M.

Demarchy

suggests the use of a weak acid in the bichromate mixture.


to

Both these expedients have been known

workers with bichromated colloids since the time

of the Pretsch process in 1853.

The mixture

as advocated

by Demarchy
it

is

much

thinner than that given above, and


suitable for those

is

specially

who wish
is

to prepare a stock of

paper overnight for use in the morning.


thin, the

Being

mixture

also

more easy

to

wash over

the paper.

According to Demarchy's method, the solution A,


as given above,
Clear white
Citric acid
is

replaced by the following

A
gum
Water

bis.

4
1

oz.

15

90

Ozotypd.

OZOTYPE.
In issuing the
it

fifth edition

becomes necessary to

Cakbon Printing take notice of a new method


of

of printing in pigment, a process brought to the


notice

of the photographic world by

Mr. Thos.
is

Manly, the principal purpose of which

that

it

shall constitute an auxiliary to the ordinary

Carbon

Process.

hibition in 1898, Mr.

At the Royal Photographic Society's ExManly showed a few examples

of his process under the

was not

until

name of Ozotype, but it March of the present year that any


to the nature of the process

communication as

was

made, when Mr. Manly read a paper and demonstrated his process before the Royal Photographic

Society on

March

28tb, and this paper constitutes

up

to the present the only authoritative information

on the subject, so that our best plan will be to give

Mr. Manly's paper in

full,

which

is

as follows

Ozotype with Carbon Tissue

A New Method

OF Photographic Pigment Printing without

ACTINOMETER, TRANSFER OR SaFE EdGE.

My

communication to-night

will deal with only

a part of the uses to which a

surface giving a

photographic image in a high metallic oxide can


be put.

Ozotype.
It is

91

my

intention to describe
its

what

I consider the

most important of
in

uses, namely, its


is to

employment
the most

pigment printing, which

my mind

artistic

method of making pictures by photography.


assume that
all or

I will

most of you are familiar


1

with the present process of carbon printing, and


will

make
;

only one remark with regard to that


it

process

namely, that

has been practised for over

thirty years,

and during that period no fundamental


to

improvement appears

have taken place.


photographers alike

Amateur and

professional

would heartily welcome a method of pigment printing where the image


is

plainly

visible

during

exposure, and at the present time they feel certain

misgivings
required in

in

contemplating

the

extra

work

making a reversed negative

or in going

through a second process in order to correct the


reversal of the

image which, unfortunately, takes


have the honour to bring to yoni
overcomes both these
it
is

place in the present bichromated gelatine process.

The process

notice to-night

difficulties

and many others, and


I

so unconventional

and

perhaps revolutionary in

its

conception that I hope

may

be excused
to

if I

quote an extract from the


Meldola's
invaluable

Introduction

Professor

series of lectures

on the Chemistry of Photography.

*'

He says, in speaking of photography in general, am disposed to believe that the art is in danger

92

Ozotype.

of outstripping the science.


aifairs

This

is

a state of

which we often witness when a discovery of


utility is

immediate practical

made.

There are

many branches
go. on

of industry which are

now

suffering
to

in this country because they

have been allowed

from the time of their foundation without any


paid to the
It has
scientific

attention being

principles

underlying them.

been found by a long


results

course of experience that certain

can be
of pro-

obtained in a particular way, and that

mode
is

cedure has become stereotyped into a kind of article of faith.


ascertain

In

such cases no trouble


the particular

taken to

why

mode

of operation

leads to the desired result

the

art here has out-

stripped the science

and we are running

into

the danger of seeing the industry taken out of our

hands by more

scientific competitors

who have no
taken
the

stereotyped formulae,

and who

have

trouble to investigate the

why and

wherefore of the

different steps in their process."

How

severely true these

observations are, es-

pecially in regard to certain branches of British

industry.
I

should be very sorry to see the art of photoscience.

graphy outstrip the

Work

that

is

not

produced entirely by the hands must necessarily be


based upon certain physical or chemical reactions

which should be manifest to the worker

if his

aim

Ozotype.
is

93
if

to excel.

It

wonld be very desirable


in the great

the artist

and
as

scientist could

be induced to regard one another

fellow

workmen

workshop of the
of

world.

The

scientist

showing how the laws

nature could be so adapted that the genius of the


artist

could more readily produce a thing of beauty.


let

Now

us consider the subject before us.


salts

The bichromate

or

chromic acid are the

light sensitive agents in this process.

A bichromatic
amount of base
chromic acid
is
:

salt is
;

chromic acid with a small

and the action of light upon

CrA +
Cr.Oa

light.
O3.

So yon see the molecule of chromic acid


into

is split

up
of
its
is

refractory

oxide

called
at the

sesquioxide

chromium and oxygen, which


liberation is
in
is

moment

of

a very active state, and which

probably what
is

known

as ozone.

Now the question

oflf?

what becomes of the O3 which light has thrown It must have been drawn away by some other
which
is

attraction
It is

ready to combine with

it.

my

belief (and 1

am

quite ready to be con-

vinced by any better theory) that in the ordinary


carbon process where the chromic salt ated with the gelatine, the nascent
liberated
is

incorpor-

newlyoxygen combines with and changes the


or

94

Ozotype.

nature of the gelatine,

and the
the
to

sesquioxide

of
it

chromium
structure

formed

at

same
resist

time

gives

and strength

the prolonged

action

of

hot water when minute quantities of

gelatine are dealt with.

In Ozotype we
in

another way.
salt

make the active oxygen do work We make a solution of a bichrosalt

mate

and a manganous

and coat paper


this case,

therewith.

The manganous

salt is, in

the sensitiser, being the agent which receives the


eliminated element.
process the gelatine

In the bichromated gelatine


is

the sensitiser.

The

action

of light upon a surface consisting of a

manganous

and a bichromate

salt

would be that the eliminated


producing an' image in a high

oxygen would enter the molecule of the manganous


salt

and decompose

it,

oxide of manganese, namely, the sesquioxide or

manganic

oxide,
dioxide.

perhaps

partly

consisting

of

manganese

So you see we have captured our active oxygen which has been placed by light in the position we
desire,

and we have locked

it

up

for future use

at

the same

time we have made our image visible


all

and insoluble, so that

our unchanged salts can

be easily washed out of the paper.


It

light-sensitive

must be borne in mind that only the acid compounds of chromium can be
If the

used.

neutral

chromates are added to a

Ozotype.

95

manganous

salt,

decomposition immediately takes


in the

place, so there

must be an excess of acid


I

sensitive solution.

Having now produced what


print of a light

may call

a pleasing

brown

colour, the question arises,


to get

"

How

are

we going

the

constituting the image to take " gelatine of our tissue ?


I will

manganic oxide up the pigmented

show you a homely but very interesting

experiment.

We

have heard a good deal lately of

the policy of pin-pricks

am

going to show you


I

an experiment in needle-pricks.

have here some


have stuck
to dry.

carbon tissue which I have soaked in a 2 per cent,


solution of acetic acid,

and into

this 1

some needles and have allowed the gelatine


I will

plunge

it

into hot water

and develop

it.

You

will see that a ring of insoluble gelatine is

formed

round each needle.

The iron has been oxidised and

the contiguous gelatine has been rendered insoluble.


If
is

we

use high metallic oxides the

phenomenon
If

the same.

The gelatine

is

changed and has

been rendered comparatively insoluble.

we dip

our carbon tissue into a dilute solution of acetic


acid
print,

and squeegee

it

on to our manganic oxide


;

we

shall get a picture

but the very minute

portions of gelatine constituting the details will be

washed away by the continued action of hot water.

We

must, therefore, seek for something that acts

96
in the
in the

Ozotfjpe.

same manner
referred

as the sesqiiioxide of

chromium
I

ordinary carbon process to which

have
sub-

already

something

that will give

stance and strength to the changed gelatine, so that


it

may

be able to resist the rough treatment of

development in hot water.


the

For

this

purpose we

have at our command some very useful compounds,


viz.,

now widely-used phenol-derived photopyrogallol,


etc.,

graphic developers, such as hydroquinone, pyrocatechin, metol,

which have strong

tanning properties in the presence of oxygen.

Very

small quantities of such substances added to about


one-half per cent, solution of acetic acid will
a bath, in which

make
tissue

we can immerse our carbon

and lay

it

down on our print, and feel

sure that if the

proportions of the ingredients and the

amount of

oxide in the print are correctly judged, we shall

produce a picture possessing


details of our negative.

all

the half tones and

solution into

For want of a better term I will refer to the which we immerse our carbon tissue,

as the acetic solution.

For well printed proofs from good negatives,


find the following formula useful
:

Water
Glacial acetic acid
...

,000 cubic centimetres.

3 to 5
i to 2

Hydroquinone

...

grammes.

Ozotype.

V7

variety of effects

may

be produced by modify-

ing the quantities of the ingredients

the

addition

of acetic acid in very small quantities producing


contrast,
effects,

and increase of hydroquinone giving


the

soft

or

hydroquinone

may

be decreased

instead of increasing the quantity of acetic acid and


so on.

The only apparatus necessary


such as
is

is

Developing tank with a small gas or


used for a kettle.

oil stove,

Squeegee.
Porcelain dish for acetic solution.

Flat surface oi papier mache or other material


for squeegeeing.

Dark room pins with which up to dry.

to

hang the prints

piece of zinc, a little larger than the print,


to

form a

stiff

backing during the opera-

tion of development.

The method of procedure


visible.

is

as follows

Print until the details in the high lights are

The

sensitive paper

is

quick in printing,

being, I should say, about the

same

rapidity as
all

platinotype

paper,

but of course you

know

everything depends upon the opacity of the negative.

The progress of printing out


nothing
is is left

is

distinctly

visible, so that

to guess-work.
it

When

the proof

printed,

may

be washed
7

98
at

Ozotype,
once,

or deferred until the

day's

printing

is

over.

The washing

is

very easy and certain, as the


is

colour of the water

a guide in this operation.

When
are

the water

is

quite colourless, the prints are

ready for drying.


usually
quite
salts.

About three changes of water


sufficient

to

dissolve
tissue,

out

the

unchanged
is

The carbon

cut to size,

now immersed under


remain one minute.

the surface of the acetic

solution contained in a porcelain dish,


to

and allowed The temperature of this

solution should

not be less than 65 Fahrenheit


75.

and not higher than

The print

is

then plunged

under the surface of the same solution and brought


into contact with the gelatine surface of the carbon

tissue

and both are drawn

out, clinging together,


flat surface.

and squeegeed down upon a

They

are

then surface-dried between blotting paper and hung

up

to dry.

When
is

dry, the print with its adherent

carbon tissue

placed in cold water for not more


it is

than half-an-hour, when


This
is

ready for development.

performed by taking the print out of the


it

cold water and plunging

in water at a tempera-

ture of about 102 to 105 Fahrenheit, and letting


it

remain for about one minute, when the backing


This operation differs somewhat from the ordinary

or the tissue can be removed.

carbon process, inasmuch as the backing requires

Ozotype.
to be peeled oiF with gentle force

99

but when once

the backing

is

got rid of the developnient proceeds


lines

upon the same


process.

as

in

the ordinary carbon

There are various methods by which we could

make

the process of development easier, for instance,


chloride,

we could add magnesium sulphate, calcium

barium chloride or glycerine to the acetic solution,


without in the least affecting the action, and the
tissue

would not require

so

much soaking

in cold

water, and the backing would be less difficult to

remove.
I

am

sorry that

owing

to the very small

amount
is

of leisure time at
to

my

disposal, I

have been unable


such

make many experiments, but

the subject

an important and interesting one that


anybody's while to

it is

worth

make

further investigations into

the oxidation of gelatine.

We

have in this process

the

same chemical
gelatine

actions occurring as in the bichromated


process, the nascent

oxygen changing the nature


both
cases,

of

the

gelatine

in

and

phenol

hydroxide enabling the oxidised gelatine to resist


the action of hot water in the same
sesquioxide of
process.

way

as the

chromium

in

the

present

carbon

The advantages of such a method as I have


brought to your notice are obvious.

100

Ozotype.
sensitive surface
is

The

on the paper which


observed,

will

form the permanent support of your picture.


progress
of printing

The
the

can be

and

print-out image in point of visibility comes next


to that obtained

from chloride of
it

silver.

After the

print

is

washed

will

keep almost

indefinitely.

The printing
will

is

rapid

and the sensitive paper


I

keep good for three months or more without

any special precaution.

may

say that I have

obtained a print on paper that has been kept in

a sensitive condition for eleven months.

You

can

pigment months

after

you

have

obtained

and

washed your
edge

print.

You You

get no reversal of the


left,

image in regard to right and


is

and no

safe

necessary.

can alter the character

of your print by varying the quantity of the ingredients in the solution in which you soak your

carbon tissue

and

in the operation of

development

your hands and fingers do not come in contact with


a deleterious solution.

Owing

to the carbon tissue


is

being in a soluble condition the squeegeeing

very easy operation, and for the same reason air


bells imprisoned

between the print and tissue do

not produce blisters.

In the selection of paper for sensitising, I find


single transfer

paper
as

excellent,

and

moderately
or cart-

sized papers, such

Whatman, Arnold,
if

ridge

work admirably

the washed print be coated

Ozotype.

101

with a two per cent, solution of soluble gelatine,


the result being that only the deep shadows
a
gloss.

show
can

Thickly gelatinised baryta

paper

also

be sensitised, and of course the details on

such a surface are very delicate.


In working this process almost any effect can be
obtained.
If

you admire the green bichromate style

you can print on rough paper by adding a certain


quantity of calcium chloride to the acetic solution, you will get that " running down " effect which

some

artists

commend.
is

As
if

the gelatine

not so refractory as in the

present carbon method you can easily put in clouds

you have an

artistic finger, or

you can locally


obtain

wash away
high
cent,
lights.

gelatine with hotter water to


If

you want deep shadows, a one per

solution

of

alum brushed over the portion

of your picture which you wish to preserve will

give the desired effect.


I

am

sorry

have only had a few hours a

week

in the evening to devote to the subject, yet

my

experiments, conducted in
in

my own

little

dark-

room

a crude and homely fashion, with

no

special apparatus at

my command,

have revealed

several remarkable

chemical actions which have

quite
little

fascinated me, and when I have gained a more knowledge of the manipulation than I

possess at present, I

am

confident that a particu-

102
larly easy

Ozotype.

and certain process

for

producing photobe placed

graphic pictures in
within bands.

artist's colours, will

Some

questions and

comments which were


at

offered

by some of the members present


lecture elicited

the above

some further hints from the lecturer. The proportion of manganous salt to bichromate
:

for the sensitising solution is as follows

Manganous sulphate
Potassium bichromate

...
...

...
...

14 parts
7
,,

Water
Cobalt
it

100

may

be substituted for manganese, but image.

gave a less visible

The

sensitising

solution

may

be applied by a brush or by im-

mersing the paper.

The two per


after

cent,

gelatine

solution
is

is

only

necessary with rough i)aper, and


the
its

to be applied

manganic print has been washed and


object being to secure the adhesion of
;

dried;

the carbon tissue

in

such a case the print should

be rather darker than usual.

As

to developers, metal has been found to

work

very well, also pyrocatechin, but Mr. Manly does


not approve of the amido derivatives because of
their liability
to produce colour.

Pyrogallol has

Ozotype.
a fault which, however,

103

may

be turned to account,

and that
in

is

that

it

stains the

paper a

buff,

and

some

cases has been wonderfully successful in

imparting to the platinotype print the appearance


of an old print or engraving.

Chromic acid may be substituted


It

for bichromate.

has been remarked that one drawback to the

ordinary carbon process was the greasy appearance


of the surface of the print, especially in the shadows,

due to a great extent to the excess of gelatine


over the pigment in the tissue
;

and Mr. Manly

was asked

if

he had tried a tissue less thickly

coated with gelatine than that ordinarily obtainable


?

In reply, Mr. Manly said a thinly coated tissue

would be preferable, and


excessive
prints

it

must not contain an

proportion

of

pigment.

He

thought

might be made upon opal by gelatinising


before
sensitising.

the

opal

To remedy underit

exposure he would wash the print and treat

with a solution of chloride of lime, which would


probably convert the sesquioxide into
oxide yielding a
acetic

higher

stronger print

or

a stronger

solution

might be employed.

The

prints

were amenable to reduction by


hotter water.

local treatment with

Whilst of course Mr. Manly has protected

his

process from piracy by provisional patent, and will

104

Ozotype.

in all probability at a later date take steps to place

the manufacture of

the

manganic paper
it

on

commercial basis in order that


a popular price, yet in the

may

be sold at
is

meantime he

very

willing to help those interested in experimenting

with the paper, and will be glad for amateurs and


investigators to

he

has

published and

paper in order
benefit of

make every use of the formulse make and scrutinise the that the process may receive the full
is

numerous experiences.
fully dealt with in Mr. Thomas
{No.
'").

The process

Manhfs
cloth.

book

" Ozotype "

20

of

" The
8vo,

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Bi

Sole Man-

url.

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photo M-VTERIALS
[19051,

::

LTD.,
E.G.

Roman Wall House,"

I,

Crutched Friars,

LONDON,

FACTORY

LETO WORKS, EDGWARE.


/