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History of English

Thomas Ohse
Overview

History of English
omas Ohse
University of Paderborn

January

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History of English Why Bother?


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Overview
Why Bother? Synchronic Diachronic Family Tree Periods Important Terms Questions

How did English become the language it is today? Semantics/Lexis: Modern English: to starve Old English: steorfan German: sterben

Grammar: past tense: to go went Phonology: Modern English: knight /nait/ Old English: cniht /knit/ German: Knecht

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Synchronic? Diachronic?
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Overview
Why Bother? Synchronic Diachronic Family Tree Periods Important Terms Questions

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In this Class ..
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Overview
Why Bother? Synchronic Diachronic Family Tree Periods Important Terms Questions

A diachronic perspective ree periods of English:


Old English Middle English Early modern English

ree branches of linguistics


Semantics / Lexis Grammar: Morphology and Syntax Phonology

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Family Tree
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Overview
Why Bother? Synchronic Diachronic Family Tree Periods Important Terms Questions

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Periods of the English Language


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Overview
Why Bother? Synchronic Diachronic Family Tree Periods Important Terms Questions

Old English ( Middle English (

) )

) ) )

Early Modern English ( Modern English (from

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Important Terms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Overview
Why Bother? Synchronic Diachronic Family Tree Periods Important Terms Questions

family tree periods Old English Middle English Early Modern English Modern English

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Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Overview
Why Bother? Synchronic Diachronic Family Tree Periods Important Terms Questions

1. Name the four periods of the English language! 2. Give the dates of these four periods!
Old English Middle English Early Modern English Modern English ( )from

3. Are the dates xed? Why?


Its hard to determine the exact date of the beginning of a process.

4. To which branch of the Germanic languages does the


English language belong?
West Germanic languages

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How can we access Old English?


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

Manuscripts
Autograph Copy

Facsimiles
Exactly the same laout

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Editions:
Pros:
Accessible Legible Standardized

Cons:
Transparency of decisions Trust in Source? Rely on the editor(s) di erent editions?

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Historical Background
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

BC: Celts are the rst settlers with Indo-European language BC: Caesar tries to conquer England AD Claudius conquers England Picts and Scots in the North of British Isles Hadrians Wall AD: End of almost years of Roman settlement Picts and Scots attack Celts : Germanic Tribes come to England
a.) Angles b.) Saxons c.) Jutes

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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around 449 AD
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Historical Background
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

: Treaty of Wedmore (near Glastonburg) Vikings in the North (north of Chester - London) DANELAW Danelaw as the area where Danish law was valid

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Historical Background
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

Language of the Germanic tribes was dominant Anglecynn Angle-kin, later England since missionaries from Ireland; from missionaries from Rome from attacks from Scandinavians / Vikings / Northmen and : plundering of Lindisfarne and Jarrow from many belligerent and aggressive attacks:
Danish ships alnded in England; staed there over winter capture of Canterbury and London (in spring) East Anglia, in York, later Wessex

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Historical Background
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Loan Words in English Vocabulary


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

Celtic in uence
only a few Celtic loan words loan word = a word borrowed from another language which has been integrated into the language places, names, names of rivers: Avon, Cumberland, Kent, London, ames, York other words in popular use: binn (basket), luh (lake)

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Latin in uence
three periods of Latin in uence on Old English (OE)

. .

Continental borrowings / Latin in uence on the Zero Period: cheap, cheese, mile, street, wine Latin through Celtic Transmission / First Period: -cester as in Worcester, Gloucester, Lancaster port, munt (=mountain), torr (tower, rock) and w c (=village) e Christianizing of Britain / Second Period: altar, candle, elephant, fennel, pop, priest, accent, cancer, history, paper, title etc.
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Loan Words in English Vocabulary


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

Scandinavian in uence
Words of Scandinavian origin: anger, bag, birth, call, at, get, gi , husband, ill, knife, same, take, want, weak etc. Function words: they, them and their Word beginning with /sk/: sk, skin, skill, skirt Place-names:
in the Danelaw: -by, = from a town Whitby, Derby, Rugby -thrope = village: Althrop or Linthrope -to = a peace ground: Brimto , Easto , Norto -son = family names: Davidson, Jackson, Henderson

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Old English Vocabulary


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

OE vocabulary is in uenced by other languages function words and core vocabulary are Germanic many words still exist today: btan (to bite), bl d, fder (father), niht (night), sumor o (summer) etc. words that have died out: blcan (shine, gleam), cyme (arrival), wita (a wise man), weoran (become, happen - werden), ele (edel, substituted by noble). semantic change: dor - OE: wild animal, deer - ME: Hirsch, Wild e Foreign in uences on OE:
b.) Latin c.) Scandinavian a.) Celtic (marginal) (important) (important)
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Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Written Language
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

OE was rst written in runes runic alphabet: "Futhorc" Oldest traces of English writing: durable material like stone Franks Casket Ruthwell Cross A er Christianizing: Insular Hand (special writing) Speci c versions of the Latin alphabet Di erences to todays alphabet: <> ash, from Latin stands for // and /:/ <> eth, from Irish, stands for // and /T/ <> thorn, from runic name, stands for // and /T/ < > wynn, from runic name, stands for <w> <Z> yogh, stands for /g/, /j/ or /7/
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Written Language
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

Only few written accounts before King Alfred, West Saxon dialect Prose: Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Translation of Bedes "Ecclesiasstical History of the English People", Beothius "Consolation of Philosophy" ("De consolatione philosophiae"). Texts from the Bible, Psalms Poetry: records of about " e Battle of Maldon", " e Phoenix", " e Panther", " e Wanderer", et c. . lines:

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Four main dialect areas: Dialect areas largely correspond with the settlement of the three Germanic tribes
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Important Terms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

Angles, Saxons, Jutes Bede: Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum Danelaw loan word function words core vocabulary Celtic, Latin and Scandinavian in uence on OE

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

1. From which date onwards do we have written documents


of the English language? from 700 onwards, the Anglo Saxon Chronicle Who lived on the British Isles before the Romans settled there? The Celts lived on the British Isles from 500 BC When did the Romans conquer England, when did they leave? 43 BC, the Romans conquered the Islands they left in 410 Why did the Germanic tribes come to England? ??? Where did the Germanic tribes come from (on the continent)? ??? When did the Christianisation take place? since 563 missionaries from Ireland, since
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2.

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

3.

4. 5. 6.

Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

7. Name three written symbols of the Old English writing


systems that are not used today. (ash), (thorn), (wynn) 8. Give the three phases of Latin in uence on Old English. Which words entered the English language during each phase and why?
. zero period: Continental Borrowings: cheap, cheese, mile etc. This is due to the Roman occupation from 43 BC to 410 AD. . first period: Celtig Transmission: These words came to existence during the mixture of the Romans with the Celts. Words like Worcester, Gloucester, Lancester, port, munt, torr . second period: The Christianisation of Britain. We had these missionaries from Rome around 597. They brought words like altar, candle, priest et c.
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Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis
How can we access Old English? Historical Background Loan Words Vocabulary Written Language Important Terms Questions

9. What is the basis of the Old English core vocabulary?


What about function words? Function Word and core vocabulary is Germanic origin 10. Give typical features of Scandinavian loan words?
words beginning with /sk/ place names with -by, -thorpe, - toft family names ending with -son function words: they, them, their

Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Old English Grammar


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

Four main features of Old English Grammar:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Nouns, adjectives, pronouns and verbs were in ected Strong and weak declension of adjectives Strong and weak verbs Synthetic language

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

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Nouns
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

In ection of nouns Modern English in ections?


Morphology Grammatical bound morphemes

Grammatical categories of Modern English nouns? Example:


day, king foot ox

Grammatical categories relevant in Old English:


Number: singular plural dual Case: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

Declension classes of Old English nouns according to their gender (masculine feminine neuter) several declensions each according to
Number: singular plural Case: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental

most frequent declension: a-stem (masculine or neuter)


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Declension of nouns
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

A-stem, both masculine DAY se dg s dges m dge one dg y dge dagas a ra daga a m dagum dagas a KING se cyning s cyninges m cyninge one cyning y cyninge cyningas a ra cyninga a m cynimgum caningas a

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

Nominative Singular Genitive Singular Dative Singular Accusative Singular Instrumental Singular Nominative Plural Genitive Plural Dative Plural Accusative Plural

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Nouns Declension of nouns N-Stem


History of English
Thomas Ohse

N-stem, masculine
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

Nominative Singular Genitive Singular Dative Singular Accusative Singular Nominative Plural Genitive Plural Dative Plural Accusative Plural

OX se oxa s oxan m oxan one oxan oxan a ra oxena a m oxum oxan a

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Nouns Cons.-Declension
History of English
Thomas Ohse

Consonant-declination, masculine
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

Nominative Singular Genitive Singular Dative Singular Accusative Singular Nominative Plural Genitive Plural Dative Plural Accusative Plural

FOOT se f t o s f tes o e m ft one f t o ft a e ra f ta a o o m f tum ft a e

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Nouns Plural
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

Plural in Old English dagas, cyningas a a oxan a ft a e

declension a-stem declension n-stem consonant declension

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

plural in Modern English days, kings regular plural oxen irregular plural feet irregular plural (vowel change)

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Adjectives
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

weak declension (with article) strong declension (without article)

der dumme Knig dummer Knig

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

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Adjectives Syncretism
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

Adjective declension:
Nominative Singular Genitive Singular Dative Singular Accusative Singular Instrumental Singular Nominative Plural Genitive Plural Dative Plural Accusative Plural weak declension se dolacyning s dolan cyninges m dolan cyninge one dolan dolan cyninge dolan cyningas a ra dolena cyninga a m dolum cynimgum dolan caningas a strong declension dol cyning doles cyninges dolum cyninge dole cyning dole cyninge dole cyningas dolra cyninga dolum cynimgum dole caningas

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

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Verbs
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

c m o ws

geherde eart

gehlgod a s

Old English: two forms of the past tense:

1. adding a dental su x 2.
e.g. geherde, gehlgod a weak verbs change of the stem vowel = vowel gradation / Ablaut e.g. c m o strong verbs

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

Modern English:

1. regular verbs: Morpheme {D} (=dental su x) 2. irregular verbs: (vowel change and other endings)

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Verb forms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

classes of strong verbs four verb forms for each class (compare: in Modern English we have three forms: see saw seen):
a) b) c) d) In nitive Past Tense st + rd person singular Past Tense nd persons singular and all persons plural past participle

each of the seven classes of strong verbs forms the verb forms with a change in the stem vowel (vowel) gradation / "Ablaut"

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

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Verbs
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

Verb Class I III IV

In nitive drfan drive bindan bind scacan shake

& rd Pers. Sing. Past drf a band sc c o

st

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

Pers. Past Sing. & Participle All Pers. Plr. Past drifon gedrifen drove driven bundon gebunden bound bound sc con o gescacen shook shaken

nd

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Verbs
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

other verbs Class I: Class II: Class III: Class IV: Class V: Class VI: Class VII:

bite, glide, hide, ride, shine, write choose, creep, y, freeze begin, ght, nd, sing, sink, swim, wind bear, break, come, steal, swear eat, give, lie, see, sit, speak draw, shake, stand, swear beat, blow, fall, grow, hold, know, throw

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

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Word Order
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

Old English:
position of words within the sentence is arbitrary relation of words to each other is expressed by in ectional endings

syntheticlanguage Modern English:

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

analytic language

position of words within a sentence is xed realtion of words to each other is expressed by position in the sentence

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Word Order English vs. German


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

e police catches the thief Die Polizei fngt den Dieb, Den Dieb fngt die Polizei. e thief catches the police. possible word order in Old English AVS SVA SOV VSV Word order in Modern English

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

SVO

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Old English Grammar Main Features


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

Main Features of Old English Grammar:


1. 2. 3. 4.
Nouns, adjectives, pronouns and verbs were in ected Strong and weak declension of adjectives strong and weak verbs synthetic language

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

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Important terms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

synthetic language analytic language Syncretism weak declension strong declension weak verbs strong verbs Ablaut / vowel gradation

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

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Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

1. Is Old English a synthetic or an analytic language?


Give reasons! It is a synthetic language:
position of words within the sentence is arbitrary relation of words to each other is expressed by inflectional ending

2. Is one dolan cyning an example for a weak or a strong


adjective declension? weak declension (with article)

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

3. Does Modern English have strong and weak verbs?


no, just regular and irregular verbs

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Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar
Main Features Nouns Declension of Nouns A-Stem Declension of nouns N-Stem Nouns Plural Adjectives Verbs Verb Forms Verb Classes Other Verbs Word Order Main Features Important Terms Questions

4. Which two groups of Old English verbs are di erentiated


when considering the formation of the past tense? Old English: Two forms of past tense:
. adding a dental suffix weak verbs . change of the stem vowel (Ablaut) strong verbs

5. Give the order of the clause elements in Modern English.

How could they be ordered in Old English? The order in modern English is S V O. In old English, there are a lot more possibilities:
. . . . A S S V V V O S S A V V

Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology

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The Phoneme Inventory of Old English


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology
Phoneme Inventory I-Mutation Consonants Pronunciation of <C> Pronunciation of <g> Pronunciation of <f> Pronunciation of <s> and <> Important Terms Questions

Grapheme <i> <y> <e> <> <a> <o> <u> <ea> <eo> <p> <m> <f> << <> <s> <S> <c> <h> <g> <Z> <sc>

Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Phoneme in Old English /I/; /i:/ /Y/; /y:/ /E/; /e:/ //; /:/ /A/; /A: /O/; /o:/ /U/; /u:/ /A /; /A/ /EO /; /o/ e / p/ /m/ [f] or [v] [T] or [] [s] or [z] /k/ or // /h/ or // or /X/ /g/ or /j/ or /G/ /S/ or /sk/

Old English Word mihtig, td cyning, hran y cent, h e ws, gemru Angle, hten a nor, t scde o a hund, s u eahte, strmes e heofon, od e pund mn fder, heofon , elbeorth a siex, cosan e cyning, micel hten, mihtig, hte a o gn, gar, dagum a e scip, ascian

Example in Modern English/ Modern German sit, see like, grn helmet, legen hat, zh clam, Hast hot, Bohne put, moon no equivalents no equivalents pound mine father, heaven Ethan, there six, choose King, much heien, mchtig, dachte go, year, ship, ask

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Vowels: I-Mutation
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology
Phoneme Inventory I-Mutation Consonants Pronunciation of <C> Pronunciation of <g> Pronunciation of <f> Pronunciation of <s> and <> Important Terms Questions

regular plural: -iz irregular plural, e.g. via vowel change: m s / ms, f t / ft, man / men u y o e i-mutation (i-Umlaut), front mutation (Palatalumlaut) change in the vowel caused by <i>or<j> in the following syllable <i> or <j> occurred in the following syllable in some words in Early Old English: Early Old English: m s *m si z f t *f ti z u u o o Late Old English: m s *ms u y f t *ft o e

Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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I-Mutation
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology
Phoneme Inventory I-Mutation Consonants Pronunciation of <C> Pronunciation of <g> Pronunciation of <f> Pronunciation of <s> and <> Important Terms Questions

Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Vowels: I-Mutation
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology
Phoneme Inventory I-Mutation Consonants Pronunciation of <C> Pronunciation of <g> Pronunciation of <f> Pronunciation of <s> and <> Important Terms Questions

regular process: a back vowel is changed by the in uence /I, i:, j/, occurring in the following syllable vowel change partly is assimilated to the vowel of the following syllable (assimilation) Assimilation does not only explain irregular plurals via vowel change but also:
di erence adjective noun (strong strength) comparative and superlative (old elder eldest) di erence verb noun / adjective (tale tell & full ll)

Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Consonants
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology
Phoneme Inventory I-Mutation Consonants Pronunciation of <C> Pronunciation of <g> Pronunciation of <f> Pronunciation of <s> and <> Important Terms Questions

Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

<c> is produced either as /k/ or // Examples: cuman cin (chin) cald (cold) cosan (choose) e cyssan (kiss) cowan (chew) e cyning (king) cse (cheese) e Rule: <c> = /k/ before velar vowels = <a, o, u, y> <c> = // before platal vowels = <e> and <i> same rules for <g>: <g> = /g/ before <a, o, u, y> = velar vowels <g> = /j/ before <e> and <i> = palatal vowels Examples: gst (ghost) a geard (yard) gylden (golden) geolu (yellow) gldan (glide) dg (day) fugol (Vogel)
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Consonants
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology
Phoneme Inventory I-Mutation Consonants Pronunciation of <C> Pronunciation of <g> Pronunciation of <f> Pronunciation of <s> and <> Important Terms Questions

proof /f/ proofs /fs/ vs. loaf /f/ loaves /vs/ Old English: <f> is pronounced either /f/ or /v/ /f/ and /v/ were allophones; pronunciation depends on surrounding Rule: /f/ = word initial or word nal position fst (fast), hlaf (loaf), wf (wife) /v/= between vowels or voiced sounds drfan (drive), wfes (wives) same holds for pronunciation of <s, S, ,T> is explains todays irregularities in:
/f v/ hoof hooves wife wives /f fs/ hoof hoofs T path paths /s z/ house houses

Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Important Terms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology
Phoneme Inventory I-Mutation Consonants Pronunciation of <C> Pronunciation of <g> Pronunciation of <f> Pronunciation of <s> and <> Important Terms Questions

Grapheme Phoneme Allophone i-Mutation (front mutation, i-Umlaut, Palatalumlaut) Assimilation Palatalisation (pronunciation of Old English <c> and <g>)

Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology
Phoneme Inventory I-Mutation Consonants Pronunciation of <C> Pronunciation of <g> Pronunciation of <f> Pronunciation of <s> and <> Important Terms Questions

1. What is special about the grapheme-phoneme relation


for vowels in Old English? In old English, graphemes and phonemes are identical. 2. How can you explain the plural of mouse in ModE? What happened in OE? i-mutation caused by an <i> or <j> in the following syllable. ms had the plural u msiz which became ms through i-mutation u y and later transformed to the irregular plural mice in modern English. 3. How can you explain the change in the vowel in ModE from the adjective full to the verb ll? Assimilation does explain differences in adjective and verb. A back vowel is partly assimilated to the vowel of the following syllable.
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Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology
Phoneme Inventory I-Mutation Consonants Pronunciation of <C> Pronunciation of <g> Pronunciation of <f> Pronunciation of <s> and <> Important Terms Questions

4. Why is the OE word gylden pronounced with a /f/ at the


beginning of the word, and the OE word geard with /i/? <g> 0 /g/ before velar vowels like <a,o,u,y> and /j/ before the palatal vowels <e> and <i>. So gylden is pronounced with a /g/ and geard is pronounced with a /j/. 5. Why do we have in ModE the singular wife but the plural wives? Relate this to OE pronunciation! Old English: /f/ and /v/ were allophones; their pronunciation depended on their surrounding. The Rule is: <f> is pronounced /f/ in word initial and word final position and pronounced /v/ between vowels or voiced sounds. The plural of wif was wifes. The latter was pronounced /wi:vs/ which must have become the written form later.
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Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Timeline: Middle English


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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History and Culture


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

Nor(th)men = Vikings = Men from the North in the North of England in Normandy : King thelred the Unready marries a wife from Normandy Edward, thelreds son is King of England : Edward the Confessor dies childless Harold, eldest son of the Earl of Wessex, was elected king William, Duke of Normandy in close family relation to the late Edward challenges Harold Battle of Hastings William becomes King of England King of England is also King of Normandy

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Events of 1066
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

January:
Edward the Confessor dies Harold Godwinson becomes king

September
Harald of Norway attacks

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

October
William of Normandy attacks

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Middle English Timeline


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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History and Culture


History of English
Thomas Ohse
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History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

: John Lackland becomes King : marriage with Isabel of Angoulm : Loss of Normandy Normans = ruling class, upper class
their language was that of the government, law, administration, literature, the Church

Who spoke Anglo-Norman?


upper class sales people clergy language of administration

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

great in uence of French on the English languages Anglo-Norman: Language of the upper class English: Language or the major part of the population from the second half of the th century, Anglo-Norman loses in uence
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History and Culture


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

in the th century, Anglo-Norman had status of a foreign language Why did Anglo-Norman not keep its status as the language of the upper class, of administration etc? Why was English language favoured?
a) Loss of Normandy ( ) b) Many members of the upper class considered themselves as Englishmen and not Normans c) Anglo-Norman was not a popular dialect; Central French d) Hundred Years War ( ) e) English-speaking middleclass grows and has in uence f) the Black Death g) growth of the cities; social development

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

: Parliament was opened in English

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Vocabulary
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

Core vocabulary and function words Germanic Loan words were not immediately taken over from French into English a er the Norman Conquest Most words entered English a er the Norman Conquest French loans mirror Anglo-French culture, especially in the following areas:
. . . . . . . . Church (e.g. confession, temptation) Jurisdiction (e.g. rule, judgement) Military (e.g. army, navy) Sciences & Arts (painting, medicine) Fashion & Food (e.g. gown, beef, mutton, veal, pork) Food (claf veal, sheep mutton) Professions (smith, baker, OE: grocer, tailor: French) Family Relations (mother, father OE: aunt uncle: French)

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Vocabulary
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

and th century: Latin Words important areas:


. . . . Religion (secular, pulpit) Medicine (immune, tincture, ulcer) Jurisdiction (custody, legal, prosecute, testify) Literature (allegory, picture)

th

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Doublets
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

Two words in a language that are connected etymologically to the same word. e two words come from di erent sources. source: Old French (garden / guarden) warden vs. guardian

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Anglo-Norman Central French similarities in their meaning di erence in initial letter: <w> vs. <g> loan words from two di erent French dialects: Anglo-Norman Central French <w> <g>

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Doublets
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

another example: catch vs.

chase

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

/k/ // Anglo-Norman Central French Etymology: Old French - chacier

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Synonyms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

di erentiation of synonyms: historical process related to ModE near-synonyms English is a mixed language; in uence on vocabulary from di erent languages equivalent words from di erent languages example: to ask something
West Germanic verb ascian Old French verb questionner (in Latin: quaerere) Latin verb interrogate

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

all verbs express something similar / identical when words enter the English language the process of meaning di erentiation begins

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Synonyms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

ModE:
to ask: speak or write to someone in order to get an answer to question: to ask questions in order to get information (police) to interrogate: ask a lot of questions for a long time

Ferdinand de Saussure Dichotomy the linguistic sign signi ant signi form arbitrary content

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Synonyms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

ascian questionner speak to get answer interrogare Loan words with similar or identical meaning from French and Latin many synonyms in Modern English Germanic French Latin ask question interrogate kingly royal regal rise mount ascend time age epoche

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Spelling and Text


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

Development of Middle English st text:


End of the th century (Early Middle English) Dialect: West Midlands LaZamons Brut Name of the author: LaZamon Brut = Legend of Brutus Troyovant = London legend/tale of King Arthur was told for the rst time in English in LaZamons Brut

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Spelling and Text


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

Indications for changes in the spelling <ch> substitutes OE <c> for /k/ in chierchen
OE: cyrican

<k> or <ck> substitue OE <c> for /k/ in bock


OE: bock

<o> substitutes OE <u> for /v/ in Rone,


OE: sunu also in: come, some, monk, son, wolf OE: cuman, sum, munic, sunu, wulf reason: letter <u> in book hand writing could be confused with <m> and <n>

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

<a> substitutes OE <> in radde


OE: rd / rdan

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spelling and text


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

nd

text
End of the th century Geo rey Chaucer: Canterbury Tales Dialects: London English, East Midlands Frame narration: pilgrimage: told in frame Pilgrims in all social strata tell stories: knight, nun, farmer, miller, cook, lawyer, wife of Bath, friar, summoner, merchant etc.

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Spelling and Text


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

Comparison of the two texts: st text


End of th century Contains no French words Anglo-Norman in uences in spelling In uences of Norman in vocabulary / lexis is not present in written sources

nd

text
End of th century Contains many French words typical Anglo-Norman features in spelling

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Important Terms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

Doublet Di erentiation of synonyms Anglo-Norman Central French minim problem core vocabulary function words content words Dichotomy signi signi ant linguistic sign arbitrary dates: , , French words in English: areas

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

1. When did the Normans lose their kingdom in


Normandy? What in uence did this have on the English language? 1204

2. Give the names of the Middle English dialect areas!


West Midland, East Midland, Northern, Southern, Kentish

3. Which of the Middle English dialects is considered as the


standard? Give reasons! West Midlands, because of LaZs Brut

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

4. Name at least three lexical elds in which the French


language had an in uence on English! church, jurisdiction, military, science, arts, food, fashion, professions, family relations
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Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis
History & Culture Vocabulary Doublets Synonyms Spelling and Text Important Terms Questions

5. Which term has to be used to explain how the words


warden and guardian came into the English language? Which principle is applicable to royal and regal? Warden and garden are doublets, loan words from different French dialects. Royal and regal are synonyms. Royal is a French loan word, regal is a Latin loan word.

Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Middle English Grammar


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax
Nouns Adjectives Verbs Pronouns Pronouns Important Terms Questions

How did the grammatical system change during the Middle English period?
change from synthetic to analytic language Reduction of vowels Loss of unstressed syllables at the end of the word Fixed order of words in the sentence More prepositions were used

Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Nouns
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax
Nouns Adjectives Verbs Pronouns Pronouns Important Terms Questions

Old English: various classes of nouns:


a-declension consonant declension et c.

Middle English: simpli cation of the declension classes


Singular: Nominative, Dative, Accusative Singular: Genitive Plural: HOUSE hous hous(e)s hous(e)s

Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Old English: di erent plurals


Plural in en: ox oxen child children other plural forms feet, geese, mice, sheep, deer

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Adjectives
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax
Nouns Adjectives Verbs Pronouns Pronouns Important Terms Questions

strong and weak declension only in adjectives with one syllable ending in a consonant (e.g.yong (=young)) no di erence in case only di erence in number (singular, plural) strong decl. weak decl. Singular yong younge Plural yonge yonge all other adjectives in Middle English: no di erence between strong and weak declension

Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Verbs
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax
Nouns Adjectives Verbs Pronouns Pronouns Important Terms Questions

Simpli cation of In ections. only three forms for a verb in Middle English
Old English . In nitive ndan . past fand . past fundon . past participle gefunden Middle English .In nitive nden . past . past participle founde(n) founde(n)

only one form for the past where does it come from?
Mod English Old English Singular sing, sang, sung singan sang sungon gesungen Plural find, found, found findan fand fundon gefunden

Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Verbs
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax
Nouns Adjectives Verbs Pronouns Pronouns Important Terms Questions

past participle: Pre x Ze became y- or iDifferences in the dialect in the past participle:
North: ending: -en South: participle without ending reasons for variation in ModE: drink drank drunk vs. drive get got got or get

drove got

driven gotten

many strong OE verbs developed a weak / reagular past form in Middle English:
Old English: Mod. English: Old English: Mod. English: helpan help bacan bake healp hulpon helped b c b c o o baked Zeholpen helped

Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Zebacen baked

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Pronouns
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax
Nouns Adjectives Verbs Pronouns Pronouns Important Terms Questions

Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Case Nominative Subjective Accusative Objective Genitive Possessive

Person Singular Plural Ich, Ic, I We I we me us me us mi, min(e) our(e), oures, ure my / mine ou / ours

st

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Pronouns
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax
Nouns Adjectives Verbs Pronouns Pronouns Important Terms Questions

Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Case Nominative Subjective Accusative Objective Genitive Possessive

Person Singular Plural thou u ye, ge you you thee, e gou, eu, giu, gou you you thi, thir(e), in(e) your(e), gur(e), yours your / yours your / yours

nd

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Pronouns
History of English
Thomas Ohse

Person Singular Masculine Neuter Case Feminine Plural

rd

Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax
Nouns Adjectives Verbs Pronouns Pronouns Important Terms Questions

Nominative Subjective Accusative Objective Genitive Possessive

he he him him his his

heo, he, ho she, sche, so e hire, hure, her, heore her hir(e), her(e), heore her/heres

hit, it it hit, it it his its

hi, he, ho they ei, thai hem, heoam them thaim, em her(e), heore their(e), air their/theirs

Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Important Terms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax
Nouns Adjectives Verbs Pronouns Pronouns Important Terms Questions

Case Number Gender Personal pronoun Possessive pronoun

Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax
Nouns Adjectives Verbs Pronouns Pronouns Important Terms Questions

1. Which forms in the declension system of Middle English


nouns exist? various classes of nouns: a-declension, consonant declension et c. . Simplification: singular (nominative, dative, accusative), singular (genitive), plural. 2. Give the verb forms of a verb in Old English and in Middle English! Old English: infinitive, past, past, past participle. Middle English: infinitive, past past participle 3. Which pronouns from the North-Germanic languages where introduced into the English language and why? Possessive pronoun, because there was no way to say its mine before the Germans
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Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax
Nouns Adjectives Verbs Pronouns Pronouns Important Terms Questions

4. Identify the verbs in the examples! Determine which


verb forms are weak and which are strong! e examples are taken from Chaucer who used both. (Source: Fischer, : / )
a) He walked = weak/regular in the feeldes, for to prye (= gaze). b) at in a forest faste he welk =strong to wepe. c) erwith he weep =strong form that pitee was to heere. d) But soore (=sorely) wepte = strong she if oon (= one) of hem (=them) were deed= regular. e) But fort he moore (=greater) part they loughe = strong and pleyde =strong. f) For he had lawghed = weak, had he loured = weak (=frowned).

Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Spelling & Pronunciation


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology
Spelling & Pronunciation Phoneme Inventory Vowels Consonants Spelling and Pronunciation Important Terms

Spelling became xed from

th

century onwards

important in uence: printing press since th century hardly any change in the spelling ModE Middle English Middle English = = spelling spelling pronunciation from Middle English onwards: major changes in the pronunciation discrepancy between ModE spelling and pronunciation Example: Pronunciation of <o>: /U/ wolf /u:/ move /2/ son /@/ oblige /6/ dog /@U/ old

EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

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Vowels in Old English (Monophthongs)


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology
Spelling & Pronunciation Phoneme Inventory Vowels Consonants Spelling and Pronunciation Important Terms

i(:)

y(:)

u(:)

o(:) e(:) @

EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

(:)

a(:)

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Vowels in Middle English


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology
Spelling & Pronunciation Phoneme Inventory Vowels Consonants Spelling and Pronunciation Important Terms

i: I

u: U o:
Sohlen caught sollen

e: Ehre E Kette E: hre

O: O a A:

EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

car kann

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The Phoneme Inventory - Vowels


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology
Spelling & Pronunciation Phoneme Inventory Vowels Consonants Spelling and Pronunciation Important Terms

cyssan kissen s se hm hom a Sdhumbrische Verdumpfung /a:/ to /O:/ change stn (OE) st n (ME) stone (EME) a o BUT: words in middle English with /A:/ why no change to /O:/ ? two reasons:
. French words with similar vowel quality Middle English blame from French blmer (ModE to blame) Middle English lac from French lac (ModE lake) . ????????????????????? Old English /A/ Old English bacan Old English lana Old English nama Middle English /A:/ Middle English bakan Middle English lane Middle English name

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The Phoneme Inventory Vowels


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology
Spelling & Pronunciation Phoneme Inventory Vowels Consonants Spelling and Pronunciation Important Terms

Diphthong /eI/ in ModE is indication for Middle English /a:/ Mod E.: child children Why the vowel change? Changes between OE and ME Lengthening of short vowels
Before certain consonant combinations Liquid and nasal + homorganic consonant Homorganic: same place of articulation
Liquid: /l/ + /d/ Nasal: /m/ + /b/ , /n/ and /d/

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The Phoneme Inventory Vowels


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology
Spelling & Pronunciation Phoneme Inventory Vowels Consonants Spelling and Pronunciation Important Terms

feld child climban grindan

fld e chld clmbe grnde

Mod e. child /aI/ in the singular, children /I/ in the plural Old English plural childru /I/ Middle English plural childrene /I/ Lengthening did not take place if a third consonant followed in childrene the two homorganic sound /ld/ are followed by /r/

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The Phoneme Inventory Consonants


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology
Spelling & Pronunciation Phoneme Inventory Vowels Consonants Spelling and Pronunciation Important Terms

bilabial

Plosives p b Fricatives S A ricates Nasals m n Lateral l Approximant r Semi- Vowels <f v >: Old English: ofer, Middle English: over /o:v@r/ Old English: wif , Middle English: wives /waIvz

Old English labiodental alveolar dental t d f v T s z

Middle English palatoalveolar palatal velar k x g G glotal h

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The Phoneme Inventory Consonants


History of English
Thomas Ohse
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Spelling & Pronunciation Phoneme Inventory Vowels Consonants Spelling and Pronunciation Important Terms

<h> in word initial clusters as <hw<, <hl>, <hn>, or <hr> was not pronounced any longer Old English Middle English Modern English hwt wat what hlfdige ladi lady hnecca necke neck hrfn raven raven

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Spelling and Pronunciation


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology
Spelling & Pronunciation Phoneme Inventory Vowels Consonants Spelling and Pronunciation Important Terms

knowledge of historical, diachronic changes helps to understand Modern English Modern English spelling represents pronunciation of Middle English
Source OE: /a:/ in stn, ald a OE /o:/ in l sian French: o movir OE swol, a cnwan a Middle English pronunciation /O:/ Middle English spelling <o> Modern E. spelling and pronunciation stone, old /@U/

EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

/o:/

<o>

lose, move /u:/

/@U/

<ou> <ow>

/@U/

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Important Terms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology
Spelling & Pronunciation Phoneme Inventory Vowels Consonants Spelling and Pronunciation Important Terms

Phoneme Allophone /A:/ to /O:/ change sdhumbrische Verdumpfung homorganic (same place of articulation) group/sounds discrepancy between spelling and pronunciation

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How can we access EMoE?


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis
How can we access EMoE? History and Culture Lexis Hard words and inkhorn terms Hard Words & Inkhorn Terms Malapropisms Spelling and Pronunciation Dictionaries OED Important Term Questions

Prints
Invented: In England: Gutenberg Caxton

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History & Culture


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis
How can we access EMoE? History and Culture Lexis Hard words and inkhorn terms Hard Words & Inkhorn Terms Malapropisms Spelling and Pronunciation Dictionaries OED Important Term Questions

Renaissance: . printing press

Five important features:


William Caxton introduced printing press in England books, folios, newspapers, etc. reproduction of the same work in the same form standard

. rapid spread of popular education


Education at schools Literacy becomes more common Need for grammars, dictionaries, textbooks general interest to read new professions: journalist, author

. increased communication
expansion of British Empire (Colonialisation) Colonies: Foundation of the English East India Company : rst permanent settlement in North America: Jamestown : the Caribbean Africa, India Trade New words from other languages entered into the English language Foreign Cultures
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History & Culture


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis
How can we access EMoE? History and Culture Lexis Hard words and inkhorn terms Hard Words & Inkhorn Terms Malapropisms Spelling and Pronunciation Dictionaries OED Important Term Questions

4. growth of specialised knowledge


new knowledge new vocabulary Translations of Latin and Greek works into English: e.g. Herodotus, Caesar, Plato, Cicero etc, Latin lost its in uence as the language of science Role of the English language in science

5. emergence of various forms of self-consciousness about


language
Consciousness about the language individual consciousness vs. public consciousness individual consciousness: social and economic groups are not closed, accommodation of the language public consciousness: awareness of a standard: spelling, style, vocabulary

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Lexis
History of English
Thomas Ohse
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How can we access EMoE? History and Culture Lexis Hard words and inkhorn terms Hard Words & Inkhorn Terms Malapropisms Spelling and Pronunciation Dictionaries OED Important Term Questions

Need for new words:


Interest in classical languages and their literary works science, medicine, arts

about . new words entered the English language during the Early Modern English period Words usually came via the written language into English typically formal terms which were again used in the written medium Which languages did the new words come from?
Latin biology, technology,medicine,law,theology, arts et c. Examples: accommodation, appropriate, complex, nervous, expectation, et c. French: military, life style Examples: ballet, champagne, colonel, machine, sauce, trophy, vase Greek: Examples: anonymous, catastrophe, enthusiasm Italian, Spanish, Portuguese: Italian: balcony, grotto, opera, piazza Spanish / Portuguese: apricot, amingo,hurricane, mosquito, tobacco Dutch: brandy,landscape, yacht
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Lexis
History of English
Thomas Ohse
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How can we access EMoE? History and Culture Lexis Hard words and inkhorn terms Hard Words & Inkhorn Terms Malapropisms Spelling and Pronunciation Dictionaries OED Important Term Questions

Dissociation: Words of a word family that do not have the same stem are formally not identical or connected Example: mouth and oral vs. Mund and mndlich Other examples: tooth dentist (Zahn Zahnarzt) ride bicycle (fahren Fahrrad) Consociation: hand, handful, underhand, handy, to hand, handily Old English: vocabulary was formal identity of words Example: faran, faru (Fahrt), ofer faran etc. Due to the in uence of other languages words were replaced loss of formal identity among words of the same word family
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Lexis
History of English
Thomas Ohse
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Old English b c o b ceras o cirice ciriclic cirict n ciricsang u

Modern English book scribe church ecclesiastical cemetery hymn

Modern English is a dissociated language

Hard words and inkhorn terms


Words typically of Latin origin that were di cult to learn and to remember hard words , e.g. ingenious, mundane, extol, con dence, contemplate Why were hard words used? they express a meaning (signifs) for which there is no form (signigiant in the English language Sir omas Elyot was the rst to use the word education. inkhorn terms: terms from the classic languages that are taken over without any consideration as to their usefulness
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Hard words and inkhorn terms


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis
How can we access EMoE? History and Culture Lexis Hard words and inkhorn terms Hard Words & Inkhorn Terms Malapropisms Spelling and Pronunciation Dictionaries OED Important Term Questions

Examples: furibunnd (furious), labrical (smooth, slippery), turgidous (swollen) some of these words exist in ModE Use of inkhorn terms was ridiculed change in meaning of words since EModE
sensible pathetic familiar emergency realize EModE what can be felt or perceived with passion belonging to the family rising of a body above the water to give real existence to something ModE intelligent reasonable causing sadness or compassion well known a sudden dangerous event to understand or become aware of

EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision

Shakespeare: knowledge of change of meaning is important to understand the text


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Malapropism
History of English
Thomas Ohse
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How can we access EMoE? History and Culture Lexis Hard words and inkhorn terms Hard Words & Inkhorn Terms Malapropisms Spelling and Pronunciation Dictionaries OED Important Term Questions

hard words are di cult to understand wrong use / application = Malapropism

Spelling and Pronunciation


Need for spelling reform spoken language is the model which should be decoded in written form Problem: there is not one grapheme for one phoneme John Hart: three forms of corruptness :
. Super uity: more graphemes than phonemes in a word <b> in doubt, <g> in eight, <h> authority, <o> in people . usurpation: use of wrong graphemes for phoneme Example: grapheme <g> is used in gentle and together wither di erent phoneme quality . misplacing: wrong ordering of graphemes in a word: fable, circle
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Dictionaries
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis
How can we access EMoE? History and Culture Lexis Hard words and inkhorn terms Hard Words & Inkhorn Terms Malapropisms Spelling and Pronunciation Dictionaries OED Important Term Questions

Meaning of loan words was di cult to detect only educated readers knew the meaning Proposal by Mulcaster: A Dictionary of English A Table Alphabeticall of Hard Words ( ) by Robert Cawdrey explanations of . hard words Samuel Johnson ( ) A Dictionary of the English Language more than . words

1. to x the English language 2. to preserve the parity and ascertain the meaning of the
English idiom

3. dictionary for everyone

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Oxford English Dictionary


History of English
Thomas Ohse
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How can we access EMoE? History and Culture Lexis Hard words and inkhorn terms Hard Words & Inkhorn Terms Malapropisms Spelling and Pronunciation Dictionaries OED Important Term Questions

aim of the Oxford Dictionary


record every English word from about . document the etymology, forms, meanings and uses of every word

rst volume: containing letter A last volume: containing letter Z second edition: now: internet edition; regularly updated How man words are in the OED?
.

How many quotations?


. .

Why quotations?
Because

Who is quoted?
Shakespeare and other famous authors newspaper articles (mostly e Times) King James Bible
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Important Terms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis
How can we access EMoE? History and Culture Lexis Hard words and inkhorn terms Hard Words & Inkhorn Terms Malapropisms Spelling and Pronunciation Dictionaries OED Important Term Questions

hard words inkhorn terms Dissociation Consociation Word family Malapropism OED

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Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
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How can we access EMoE? History and Culture Lexis Hard words and inkhorn terms Hard Words & Inkhorn Terms Malapropisms Spelling and Pronunciation Dictionaries OED Important Term Questions

1. Give the ve characteristics that Baugh/Cable mention


with relation to the Early Modern English period!
. . . . . printing Press rapid spread of popular education increased communication growth of specialized knowledge emergence of various forms of self-consciousness about language

2. Was the English spelling ever reformed?


no proposal to reform the spelling of English language succeeded. 3. Which suggestions did John Hart make to improve the English spelling? His goal was to introduce a spelling system with a one-to-one relationship between sounds and symbols ("to vse as many letters in our writing, as we doe voyces or breathes in speaking, and no more
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Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis
How can we access EMoE? History and Culture Lexis Hard words and inkhorn terms Hard Words & Inkhorn Terms Malapropisms Spelling and Pronunciation Dictionaries OED Important Term Questions

4. What does the term dissociation refer to? Give the term
that describes the opposite! words of a word family that do not have the same stem and that are formally not connected like mouth and oral. The opposite is consosciation. Here, both word belong to one family.

5. What are hard words?


Words that are typically of Latin origin and that were difficult to learn and to remember.

6. Which types of dictionaries existed in Early Modern


English? prescriptive ones

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Verbs
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax
Verbs Pronouns Questions

Ending of . Person Singular


EModE: eth or e for ModE -s where does the -s for the rd Person Singular come from?
Middle English: -s in the North, -eth or -e in the South South is more conservative and keeps OE ending -s rst in spoken language from about standard form in writing

Early Modern English : both endings in one text: Shakespeare: Macbeth: e Earth hath bubble, as the Water has

grammatical category: tense and aspect


di erentiates between Present tense and past tense Old English: two tenses; present tense and past tense Middle English: extension of grammatical categories
(present perfect), perfective aspect develops

EMoE: Phonology Revision

EModE: perfective aspect is used more frequently


Shakespeare: As you like it:
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Verbs
History of English
Thomas Ohse
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Verbs Pronouns Questions

men haue died from time to time, and wormes haue eaten them

BUT: many examples in EModE where past tense instead of present perfect
Henry VI, Part : Belieue me Lords, for ying at the Brooke, I saw not better sport these seuen yeeres day. ModE: I havent seen better sport for years (exception)

EMoE: Phonology Revision

ModE: operator do
used for
Question: transport ? Negation: Emphasis: Do you have a car or do you rely on public We do not know her name. Now do tell me what you did in Amsterdam.
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Verbs
History of English
Thomas Ohse
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Verbs Pronouns Questions

ModE: xed rules for operator do EMoE: no xed rules at the beginning of the period
Speakers decision how to use do

Shakespeares Richard III:


Questions: Negation: Ho dost thou feele thy selfe now? O do not slander him

EMoE: Phonology Revision

do used for emphasis only rarely in EModE around only in of all question and negations around : do in of all questions and negations

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Pronouns
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax
Verbs Pronouns Questions

Early Modern English (


Person . . . . . . . . .
nd

)
Singular I me my,mine thou thee thy, thine sche hit, it her hit,it,him hers his Plural we us our, ours ye you your, yours they them,hem their, theirs

Case Nominative Accusative Possessive Nominative Accusative Possessive Nominative Accusative Possessive

he him his

EMoE: Phonology Revision

person plural: you vs. ye


Beginning of EModE: ye in nominative, you in accusative th century: rst instances of you in nominative th / early th century: may authors make ye / you distinction th century: you used for the nominative
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Pronouns
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax
Verbs Pronouns Questions

Shakespeares time: you = form for nominative and accusative late th century: ye is used infrequently (hardly) you only form for nd person plural
nd

person singular and plural: thou vs you / ye


Number: thou = singular and you / ye = plural Introduction of a further distinction in the Middle English period due to French in uence: you / ye: polite form in singular (compare Du and Sie in German or tu and vous in French) Usage of the Pronouns:

EMoE: Phonology Revision

1. social class
you = polite form used e.g. by lower ranked persons to address people of higher social class /standing Examples: servant to master, child to parent you was used in the upper class as a neutral and normal form of address (e.g. between couples)
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Pronouns
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax
Verbs Pronouns Questions

thou = used to address persons of lower social class / standing Examples: master to servant, parent to child thou as a polite form Examples: husband to wife (wife answered with you) thou among people of lower social classes

2. emotions
thou in emotional situations, where one would expect use of you:
thou to express anger and annoyance
rd

EMoE: Phonology Revision

person :::::: singular possessive pronoun neuter


: his around : his and it Forms are ambiguous; relations are not clear
his = possessive form of it neuter his = possessive form of he masculine

avoidance of his in neuter; instead of it or thereof


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Pronouns
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax
Verbs Pronouns Questions

new form: its assumed to develop in the second half of the th century it + possessive ending {es} OED rst citation from Shakespeare: his, not its Polonius says to Hamlet: Giue thy thoughts no tonue, Nor any yunproportiond thought his act. s: its normal form, his rare form

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Important Terms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax
Verbs Pronouns Questions

Verb ending grammatical category Tense Perfective aspect operator do pronouns ye/you/thou/thee its prepositions

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Questions
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax
Verbs Pronouns Questions

1. Shakespeare says:

EMoE: Phonology Revision

e Earth hath bubbles, as the Water has. Explain the endings of the verbs Both endings were possible. Early Modern English had the verb ending -th or efor 3rd person singular. The North had already the -s ending which would succeed in the end. Shakespeares example shows, that both forms existed parallel in the London dialect. 2. Which tense and aspect are known in Old English? Which ones in Early Modern English? OE: present & past, EMoE: present, past & past perfective 3. What are the functions of the operator do in Modern English? How did the functions of this operator develop in Early Modern English? Slowly from 10 - 20% in 1500 to around 80 % in 1700. It was used in questions and
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The Great Vowel Shift


History of English
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Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels From to

massive changes concerning vowels minor changes concerning consonants growing discrepancy between spelling and pronunciation Great Vowel Shi a ects Middle English long vowels all seven vowels changed their quality at every point in the development of the GVS a distinction between the vowels existed a very general description of the Great Vowel Shi :
long vowels were raised this means that the vowels moved from the open area to the close area of the vowel chart closed vowels became diphthongs

Other Vowel Changes Consonants Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/

Revision

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Great Vowel Shift


History of English
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Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels From to

i: I

u: U o: e: E: E @ O: O a A:

Other Vowel Changes Consonants Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/

Revision

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History of English
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Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology
Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels From to

Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels in Middle English


i: u:

o: e: E: O:

Other Vowel Changes Consonants Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/

A:

Revision

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Great Vowel Shift


History of English
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Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology
Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels From to

From

to

Other Vowel Changes Consonants Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/

Revision

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History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology
Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels From to

Phoneme in ME /i:/ /e:/ /E:/ /O:/ /o:/ /u:/

Phoneme in EModE /@I/ /aI/ /i:/ /E:/ /e:/ /i:/ /O:/ /o:/ /u:/ /@U/ /aU/

Phoneme in ModE /aI/ /i:/ /i:/ /@U/ /u:/ /aU/

Spelling in ModE <i,y,iCe> child, y, tide <ee, ie> meet, eld <ea, eCe> make <oa,oCe> boat, hope <oo> food, goose <ou, ow> house, how

Other Vowel Changes Consonants Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/

Revision

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Vowel Shift
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology
Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels From to

Why did the ME long vowels change? Language-internal reasons:


if the vowel quality of one vowel changes, this has e ects on neighbouring vowels Hypothesis:
/e:/ and/o:/ pushed to the close area, close vowels /i:/ and /u:/ were pushed away (push-chain reaction) empty slot was occupied by /e:/ and/o:/ (drag-chain reaction)

Language external reasons:


Sociolinguistics: Middle and upper class wanted to distance themselves from the lower class by using a distinct pronunciation

Other Vowel Changes Consonants Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/

Revision

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Other Changes of Vowels


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology
Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels From to

th

century: but-sound (/2/) developed

ModE examples: cut (but: butcher); blood (but book) Why same spelling (<u>, <oo>) but di erent pronunciation ? Two sources for /2/:

1. ME /U/(<u>) lost rounding and was lowered


/2/
Word cut just sun love ME /kUt/ /dZUst/ /sUn/ /lUv/ EModE /k2t/ /dZ2st/ s2n/ /l2v/

Examples:

Other Vowel Changes Consonants Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/

Revision

But certain surroundings: no development to /2/:


if /U/ was followed by /l/: bull or pull if /U/was preceded by /w, p, b, f/: wolf,put, butcher, full

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Other Changes of Vowels


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology
Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels From to

2. ME /o:/; spelling frequently with <oo>


in Great Vowel Shi : /o:/ is raised to /u:/ /u:/ is sometimes shortened to /U/ Two time slots for shortening:
. early shortening: /U/ was lowered to /2/ . late shortening: /U/ did not change

this explains todays discrepancies: /2/ /U/ blood look good spelling <oo> ood foot book

Other Vowel Changes Consonants Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/

Revision

Pronunciation of fast in BrE and AmE? Middle English /a/ became // Examples hat, cat, fat th century: // became /A:/ in front of voiceless fricatives: Example:
fast, path, sta , class half
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Other Changes of Vowels


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology
Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels From to

American English kept pronunciation with // BE AmE fast /fA:st/ /fst sta /stA:f/ /stf/

Other Vowel Changes Consonants Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/

Revision

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Consonants
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology
Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels From to

Consonants that were no longer produced:


word- nal /b/ and /g/: thumb, long voiceless palatal fricative: //: bright, sigh voiceless velar fricative /x/:thought, bough /k/ and /g/ before /n/: knee latereal /l/ in some words: talk, half /w/ in some words: sword, answer, write

Consonants that were pronounced di erently:


voiceless velar fricative /x/ /f/ : enough, laugh

Vocalisation of /r/ a er vowels and word nally:


BrE: herb, birth, here, there, poor

Other Vowel Changes Consonants Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/

two new consonant phonemes in EModE -//and /Z/ already existed in ME, was only an allophone in EModE word- nal /g/ was lost
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Revision

Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology
Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels From to

reaches phoneme status; distinguishes meaning sing sin /sIng/ /sIn/ MiddleEnglish [sIg] Early Modern English /sI/ /sIn/ minimal pair /Z/ developed from /z/ + /j/ or /I/ Cluster /zj/ or /zI/ became palatised in the th century result: new phoneme /Z/ loan phoneme occurrences:
French loan words: rouge, prestige in cluster /zj/ od /zI/: measure, usual, occasion

Other Vowel Changes Consonants Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/

Revision

process is still active today:


ModE: di erent pronunciations for azure: /"zjU@ "Z@ "@IZ@/ development of /zj/ to /Z/
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Important Terms
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology
Great Vowel Shift Long Vowels From to

Great Vowel Shi Palatalisation Minimal pair Phoneme

Other Vowel Changes Consonants Palatalisation /zj/ and /zI/ to /Z/

Revision

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Revision Question 1
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

1. Name the periods of the English language and give their


starting date!

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Revision Question 1
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

1. Name the periods of the English language and give their


starting date! Old English 450 (700) - 1100

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Revision Question 1
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

1. Name the periods of the English language and give their


starting date! Old English Middle English 450 (700) - 1100 1000 1500

127/140

Revision Question 1
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

1. Name the periods of the English language and give their


starting date! Old English Middle English Early Modern English 450 (700) - 1100 1000 1500 1500 -1700

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Revision Question 1
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

1. Name the periods of the English language and give their


starting date! Old English Middle English Early Modern English Modern English 450 (700) - 1100 1000 1500 1500 -1700 from 1700

127/140

Revision Question 2
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

2. Sketch the development of the English language in terms


of its language typology. Comment on the function of in ectional endings as well as on word order.

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Revision Question 2
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

2. Sketch the development of the English language in terms


of its language typology. Comment on the function of in ectional endings as well as on word order. Old English: position of words within the
sentence is variable the relation of words to each other is expressed by inflectional ending synthetic language

128/140

Revision Question 2
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

2. Sketch the development of the English language in terms


of its language typology. Comment on the function of in ectional endings as well as on word order. Old English: position of words within the
sentence is variable the relation of words to each other is expressed by inflectional ending synthetic language Modern English: position of words within the sentence is fixed realtion of words to each other is expressed by position in the sentence analytic language

128/140

Revision Questions 3 - 5
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

3. Give the names of the three Germanic tribes that came to


England in . Indicate the area on the map where they came from and where they settled in England!

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Revision Questions 3 - 5
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

3. Give the names of the three Germanic tribes that came to


England in . Indicate the area on the map where they came from and where they settled in England! Saxons in the South-West, Angles in the East (Kent & Northumber land), the Jutes in the South-East in Kent

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Revision Questions 3 - 5
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

3. Give the names of the three Germanic tribes that came to


England in . Indicate the area on the map where they came from and where they settled in England! Saxons in the South-West, Angles in the East (Kent & Northumber land), the Jutes in the South-East in Kent

4. What is the Danelaw?

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Revision Questions 3 - 5
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

3. Give the names of the three Germanic tribes that came to


England in . Indicate the area on the map where they came from and where they settled in England! Saxons in the South-West, Angles in the East (Kent & Northumber land), the Jutes in the South-East in Kent

4. What is the Danelaw?


The area north of Chester London, where the Vikings settled around 878: in this area, the Danish law was valid.

129/140

Revision Questions 3 - 5
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

3. Give the names of the three Germanic tribes that came to


England in . Indicate the area on the map where they came from and where they settled in England! Saxons in the South-West, Angles in the East (Kent & Northumber land), the Jutes in the South-East in Kent

4. What is the Danelaw?


The area north of Chester London, where the Vikings settled around 878: in this area, the Danish law was valid.

5. Name the Old English dialect areas!

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Revision Questions 3 - 5
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

3. Give the names of the three Germanic tribes that came to


England in . Indicate the area on the map where they came from and where they settled in England! Saxons in the South-West, Angles in the East (Kent & Northumber land), the Jutes in the South-East in Kent

4. What is the Danelaw?


The area north of Chester London, where the Vikings settled around 878: in this area, the Danish law was valid.

5. Name the Old English dialect areas!


(Welsh), Wessex, Sussex, Kent, Essex, East Anglia, Mercia, Northumberland

129/140

Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover York street candle sky army Derby -

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Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover Celtic York street candle sky army Derby -

130/140

Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover Celtic York Celtic street candle sky army Derby -

130/140

Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover Celtic York Celtic street Latin - zero period (continental borrowings) candle sky army Derby -

130/140

Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover Celtic York Celtic street Latin - zero period (continental borrowings) candle Latin - second period (christianisation) sky army Derby -

130/140

Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover Celtic York Celtic street Latin - zero period (continental borrowings) candle Latin - second period (christianisation) sky Scandinavian influence (Words with sk-) army Derby -

130/140

Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover Celtic York Celtic street Latin - zero period (continental borrowings) candle Latin - second period (christianisation) sky Scandinavian influence (Words with sk-) army - French loan word around 1300 Derby -

130/140

Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover Celtic York Celtic street Latin - zero period (continental borrowings) candle Latin - second period (christianisation) sky Scandinavian influence (Words with sk-) army - French loan word around 1300 Derby - Scandinavian (Place names in Danelaw)

130/140

Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover Celtic York Celtic street Latin - zero period (continental borrowings) candle Latin - second period (christianisation) sky Scandinavian influence (Words with sk-) army - French loan word around 1300 Derby - Scandinavian (Place names in Danelaw)

7. Name the four periods of Latin in uence?

130/140

Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover Celtic York Celtic street Latin - zero period (continental borrowings) candle Latin - second period (christianisation) sky Scandinavian influence (Words with sk-) army - French loan word around 1300 Derby - Scandinavian (Place names in Danelaw)

7. Name the four periods of Latin in uence?


. continental borrowings

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Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover Celtic York Celtic street Latin - zero period (continental borrowings) candle Latin - second period (christianisation) sky Scandinavian influence (Words with sk-) army - French loan word around 1300 Derby - Scandinavian (Place names in Danelaw)

7. Name the four periods of Latin in uence?


. continental borrowings . Celtic transmission

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Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover Celtic York Celtic street Latin - zero period (continental borrowings) candle Latin - second period (christianisation) sky Scandinavian influence (Words with sk-) army - French loan word around 1300 Derby - Scandinavian (Place names in Danelaw)

7. Name the four periods of Latin in uence?


. continental borrowings . Celtic transmission . christianisation

130/140

Revision Questions 6 & 7


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

6. Name the languages from which the following words


were taken over into English!
Dover Celtic York Celtic street Latin - zero period (continental borrowings) candle Latin - second period (christianisation) sky Scandinavian influence (Words with sk-) army - French loan word around 1300 Derby - Scandinavian (Place names in Danelaw)

7. Name the four periods of Latin in uence?


. . . . continental borrowings Celtic transmission christianisation Norman transmission 14th - 15th century
130/140

Revision Questions 8 & 9


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

8. Give the two terms for the declension systems of Old


English nouns and adjectives where one dolan cyning is distinguished from dolne cyning!

131/140

Revision Questions 8 & 9


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

8. Give the two terms for the declension systems of Old


English nouns and adjectives where one dolan cyning is distinguished from dolne cyning! one dolan cyning is weak declension, with article and syncretism of the adjective, dolne cynin g is strong declesions with article

131/140

Revision Questions 8 & 9


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

8. Give the two terms for the declension systems of Old


English nouns and adjectives where one dolan cyning is distinguished from dolne cyning! one dolan cyning is weak declension, with article and syncretism of the adjective, dolne cynin g is strong declesions with article

9. How are strong verbs distinguished from weak verbs in


Old English?

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Revision Questions 8 & 9


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

8. Give the two terms for the declension systems of Old


English nouns and adjectives where one dolan cyning is distinguished from dolne cyning! one dolan cyning is weak declension, with article and syncretism of the adjective, dolne cynin g is strong declesions with article

9. How are strong verbs distinguished from weak verbs in


Old English? weak verbs are declined by adding a dental suffix, strong verbs are declined by a change of the stem vowel

131/140

Revision Question 10
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

10. Why do we have irregular plurals such as mice? Which


phonological change is responsible? Give the exact term and explain the process by commenting on the change of m s *m siz to ms! u u y

132/140

Revision Question 10
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

10. Why do we have irregular plurals such as mice? Which


phonological change is responsible? Give the exact term and explain the process by commenting on the change of m s *m siz to ms! u u y The term is called i-mutation. The reular plural of ms, *msiz is changed to ms y u y because the following syllable has an <i> or <j>. So, the <u> is changed to <y> because of the <i>. This is called i-mutation.

132/140

Revision Questions 11 & 12


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

11. Which languages were spoken in England in


why?

and

133/140

Revision Questions 11 & 12


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

11. Which languages were spoken in England in

and

why? The upper class was speaking Anglo-Norman, because England had been occupied by William the Conqueror and his (French) ancestors from 1066 to 1204. Anglo-Norman was the language of the upper class and English was the language of the major population. Anglo-Norman is a foreign language as late as 1500.

133/140

Revision Questions 11 & 12


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

11. Which languages were spoken in England in

and

why? The upper class was speaking Anglo-Norman, because England had been occupied by William the Conqueror and his (French) ancestors from 1066 to 1204. Anglo-Norman was the language of the upper class and English was the language of the major population. Anglo-Norman is a foreign language as late as 1500.

12. Name the dialect regions in Middle English!

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Revision Questions 11 & 12


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

11. Which languages were spoken in England in

and

why? The upper class was speaking Anglo-Norman, because England had been occupied by William the Conqueror and his (French) ancestors from 1066 to 1204. Anglo-Norman was the language of the upper class and English was the language of the major population. Anglo-Norman is a foreign language as late as 1500.

12. Name the dialect regions in Middle English! West


Midland, East Midland, Southern, Northern and Kentish

133/140

Revision Questions 13 & 14


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

13.

e Modern English words warden and guardian go back to one and the same etymological root in Old French: guarden. Explain their development and given the relevant linguistic term.

134/140

Revision Questions 13 & 14


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

13.

e Modern English words warden and guardian go back to one and the same etymological root in Old French: guarden. Explain their development and given the relevant linguistic term. Doublets: Two words that are connected etymologically to the same word. The two word come from different sources. In this case, guardian is a Central French loan word, whereas warden is Anglo-Norman dialect.

134/140

Revision Questions 13 & 14


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

13.

e Modern English words warden and guardian go back to one and the same etymological root in Old French: guarden. Explain their development and given the relevant linguistic term. Doublets: Two words that are connected etymologically to the same word. The two word come from different sources. In this case, guardian is a Central French loan word, whereas warden is Anglo-Norman dialect. ascend taken over into English?

14. From which languages where the words rise, mount and

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Revision Questions 13 & 14


History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

13.

e Modern English words warden and guardian go back to one and the same etymological root in Old French: guarden. Explain their development and given the relevant linguistic term. Doublets: Two words that are connected etymologically to the same word. The two word come from different sources. In this case, guardian is a Central French loan word, whereas warden is Anglo-Norman dialect. ascend taken over into English? rise is Germanic, mount is French and ascend is Latin. They are all synonyms.

14. From which languages where the words rise, mount and

134/140

Revision Question 16
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

16. Brie y account for the meaning of the three words rise,
mount and ascend and explain what happened to them during the development of the English language. Which term describes the process?

135/140

Revision Question 16
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

16. Brie y account for the meaning of the three words rise,
mount and ascend and explain what happened to them during the development of the English language. Which term describes the process? They are synonyms which derived from different languages all loan word to describe the same signified (Saussure). English is a mixed language. When new words entered the English language, a process of meaning differentiation begins.

135/140

Revision Question 17
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

17.

e following text extract taken from Cursor Mundi (written towards the end of the th century) exists in a southern and in a northern version. Comment on the underlined words. Which development has taken place from Old English, which forms are in use in Modern English?
North: Of all ere liif spend ai e stage South: Spende mony her goue & her age ModE: ey spend the period of all their life

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Revision Question 17
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
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17.

e following text extract taken from Cursor Mundi (written towards the end of the th century) exists in a southern and in a northern version. Comment on the underlined words. Which development has taken place from Old English, which forms are in use in Modern English?
North: Of all ere liif spend ai e stage South: Spende mony her goue & her age ModE: ey spend the period of all their life

North: ere: third person plural possessive pronoun, ai: nominative plural pronoun, third person. South: No difference between nominative and possessive pronoun.

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Revision Questions 18 - 20
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
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18. What does the term "Sdhumbrische Verdumpfung"


refer to?

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Revision Questions 18 - 20
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

18. What does the term "Sdhumbrische Verdumpfung"


refer to? the change of the Old English a (/a:/) to the Middle English o (/O/) in areas south of the river Humber in 12th century (aka southern rounding).

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Revision Questions 18 - 20
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

18. What does the term "Sdhumbrische Verdumpfung"


refer to? the change of the Old English a (/a:/) to the Middle English o (/O/) in areas south of the river Humber in 12th century (aka southern rounding).

19. Which term is given to words such as mundane or


contemplate in Early Modern English?

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Revision Questions 18 - 20
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

18. What does the term "Sdhumbrische Verdumpfung"


refer to? the change of the Old English a (/a:/) to the Middle English o (/O/) in areas south of the river Humber in 12th century (aka southern rounding).

19. Which term is given to words such as mundane or


contemplate in Early Modern English? hard words or inkhorn terms (Thomas Wilson).

20. Give the linguistic terms that describe the relation


between the words tooth and dental and hand and handful.

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Revision Questions 18 - 20
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

18. What does the term "Sdhumbrische Verdumpfung"


refer to? the change of the Old English a (/a:/) to the Middle English o (/O/) in areas south of the river Humber in 12th century (aka southern rounding).

19. Which term is given to words such as mundane or


contemplate in Early Modern English? hard words or inkhorn terms (Thomas Wilson).

20. Give the linguistic terms that describe the relation


between the words tooth and dental and hand and handful. tooth dental: dissociation; hand handful: consosciation
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Revision Questions 21 - 23
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
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21. Who published "A dictionary of the English language"


and when?

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Revision Questions 21 - 23
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
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21. Who published "A dictionary of the English language"


and when? Samuel Johnson, 1755

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Revision Questions 21 - 23
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
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21. Who published "A dictionary of the English language"


and when? Samuel Johnson, 1755

22. Which grammatical category developed during Early


Modern English?

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Revision Questions 21 - 23
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

21. Who published "A dictionary of the English language"


and when? Samuel Johnson, 1755

22. Which grammatical category developed during Early


Modern English? The perfective aspect.

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Revision Questions 21 - 23
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

21. Who published "A dictionary of the English language"


and when? Samuel Johnson, 1755

22. Which grammatical category developed during Early


Modern English? The perfective aspect.

23. Describe what is di erent in the quote given below from


a Modern English perspective: Why lookes your Grace so heauily to day?

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Revision Questions 21 - 23
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
Question Question Questions Question Question Question Questions Questions Question Question Questions Questions Question & & & &

21. Who published "A dictionary of the English language"


and when? Samuel Johnson, 1755

22. Which grammatical category developed during Early


Modern English? The perfective aspect.

23. Describe what is di erent in the quote given below from


a Modern English perspective: Why lookes your Grace so heauily to day? The operator do is missing.

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Revision Question 24
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
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24. Explain the development of the vowel in child from


Middle English to Modern English!

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Revision Question 24
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
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24. Explain the development of the vowel in child from


Middle English to Modern English! There was the Great Vowel Shift. The Middle English chld, became child, because all long vowel were shifted upwards. Since /i:/ is already very closed it could not be raised any more and so it became the diphthong /@I/ in Early Modern English and /aI/ in todays child (/aIld/).

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Revision Question 25
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
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25. In Modern English see and sea are spelt di erently but
pronounced identical. Explain what happened during the GVS!

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Revision Question 25
History of English
Thomas Ohse
Old English: Lexis Old English: Grammar Old English: Phonology Middle English: Lexis Middle English: Syntax Middle English: Phonology EMoE: Lexis EMoE: Syntax EMoE: Phonology Revision
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25. In Modern English see and sea are spelt di erently but
pronounced identical. Explain what happened during the GVS! The Phonemes /e:/ and /E:/ were both raised to the same phoneme in Modern English: /i:/, writte with <ee> in the case of /e:/ and with <ea> in the case of /E:/.

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