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1

(FITL)

WHY FIBRE OPTICS


. DIGITALISATION OF LOCAL NETWORK . MEETING FUTURE CUSTOMER NEEDS
(BOARD BANDWITH SERVICE)

. POTENIAL COST-EFFECTIVENESS . BETTER QUALITY, RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY . WIDER COVERAGE FOR EXCHANGES . INFORMATION SECURITY . REDUCE CONGESTION OF UNDERGROUND FACILITIES
3

DISADVANTAGES
. DELICATE TO HANDLE . CRAFT SENSITIVE - SPLICING - EQUIPMENT . GENERALLY STILL EXPENSIVE - EQUIPMENT - TOOLS AND TEST EQUIPMENT . REQUIREMENT FOR FIELD EQUIPMENTS POWERING

SYSTEM AND FACILITIES REQUIREMENTS

. CABLE AND ACCESSORIES . TERMINAL EQUIPMENTS . EQUIPMENT SPACE AND RACKING . POWER SUPPLY . SKILLED MANPOWER

TYPES OF APPLICATION
i) FIBRE TO THE OFFICE (FTTO)
- FIBER IS TERMINATED DIRECT IN THE CUSTOMERS PREMISES, CATERING TO DEMANDS OF COPPORATE SECTOR.

ii)

FIBRE TO THE STREET (FTTS)


- FIBER IS TERMINATED AT A POINT WHERE THERE IS A CONCENTRATION OF DEMAND. THE DISTRIBUTION CABLE WILL BE ON COPPER.

iii)

FIBRE TO THE CURB (FTTC)


- SIMILAR TO THE FTTS BUT FIBRE IS BROUGHT NEARER TO CUSTOMERS AND THE LAST APPROXIMATE 100M IS UNDERTAKEN BY COPPER
6

TYPES OF APPLICATION iv) FIBRE TO THE HOME (FTTH)


- FIBER IS LAID DIRECT INTO INDIVIDUAL HOMES.

v)

FIBRE TO THE ZONE (FTTZ)


- FIBER IS TERMINATED AT A POINT WHERE THERE IS A CENTRA .

TYPICAL SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF ACCESS NETWORK LOCAL EXCHANGE B MULTI-STOREY BLDG. RESIDENTIAL HSES. AERIAL CABLE

DROP WIRE LOCAL EXCHANGE A

SDF DISTRIBUTION POINT

PSTN CABINET
MDF DUCT

EXCHANGE TUNNEL

MAINHOLE U/G COPPER CABLE SHOP HSE OR LOW-RISE APARTMENT 8

JOINT BOX

TYPICAL SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF LOCAL NETWORK LOCAL EXCHANGE B MULTI-STOREY BLDG. RESIDENTIAL HSES. AERIAL CABLE

DROP WIRE LOCAL EXCHANGE A (FTT0) SDF RT FIBRE CABINET (FTTS) COT DUCT RT DISTRIBUTION POINT

PSTN

MDF

EXCHANGE TUNNEL

MAINHOLE FIBRE CABLE SHOP HSE OR LOW-RISE APARTMENT 9

JOINT BOX

10

SYSTEM FOR OPTICAL TRANSMISSION

Optical transmission system are used for transmission of electrical signal via an optical fibre. The component are:(i) electro- optic transducer as the light transmitter at the beginning of the route. (ii) The fibre optic transmission medium.

(iii) Optic electric transducer as the light receiver at the end of the route.
11

Electrical signal from the Exchange is converted to Optical (using light as carrier) by Optical equipment (DLC) at the COT. From the equipment, the light signal is injected into the optical fibre. The light signal is guided by the fibre to its destination where it is detected and converted back into electrical signal again.

12

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM FOR DIGITAL SIGNALS


Bit Rate (rounded Mbps)

Number of 64 kbps channel 30


120 480 1920 7680

2
8 34 140 565

PDH System with higher number of channels transmit bit rates of 8, 34, 140, 565 Mbps signals of the PCM 30 multiplexing unit.
13

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM FOR DIGITAL SIGNALS


SDH (SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERACHY)

SDH SYSTEM STM1 STM4 STM16

MAX.2M 63 252 63 X 2M X 16

MAX. CHANNEL. 1890 (63X30C) 7560 (252X30C) 30240 (1008X2M)


14

15

NETWORK TOPOLOGY
3 BASIC TYPES ARE:I) STAR II) BUS III) LOOP - STAR TOPOLOGY ADOPTED BY TELEKOM MALATSIA BHD. :I) STAR II) LOOP - STAR
16

NON-REDUCTIONAL LOOP + SWITCHSTAR WITH SHARED RESOURCE

EXCHANGE

EXCHANGE

Practical way to change the configuration


17

18

STAR NETWORK CONFIGURATION

EXCHANGE

EXCHANGE

19

LOOP NETWORK
EXCHANGE

CONFIGURATION (1+1)

20

21

Basic Structure of an optical fiber

22

Basic Structure of an optical fiber

THE CORE PERFORMS THE FUNCTION OF TRANSMITTING THE LIGHT WAVES, WHILE THE CLADDING IS TO MINIMIZE SURFACE LOSSES AND TO GUIDE THE LIGHT WAVES.

23

OPTICAL FIBRE CONSTRUCTION

LOW REFRACTIVE INDEX

HIGH REFRACTIVE INDEX

24

Basic Structure of an optical fiber


Core 10 um

Cladding 125 um

Secondary coating

Primary coating 250 um

25

TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBRE


TYPE REFRACTIVE INDEX PROFILE LIGHT PROPAGATION

STEP - INDEX MULTIMODE

100-200

50 - 100

LS

GRADED INDEX MULTIMODE

125

50

LS

SINGLE MODE

10 125 LS

DIMENSION IN um

LS = LIGHT SOURCE

26

OPTICAL FIBRE PULSE DISTRORATION


TYPE INPUT PULSE LIGHT PROPAGATION OUTPUT PULSE

STEP - INDEX MULTIMODE

LS

GRADED INDEX MULTIMODE

LS

SINGLE MODE

LS

PULSE DISTRORATION DETERMINE THE BANDWIDTH OF OPTICAL FIBRES.

27

CONSTRUCTION OF SLOTTED CORE OPTICAL FIBER CABLE


28

Hard UV

CONSTRUCTION OF SLOTTED CORE OPTICAL FIBER CABLE

Soft UV

125um 190um

250um

Silica Fiber Ultra Violet Curable Acrylate Coated Fiber


29

CONSTRUCTION OF SLOTTED CORE OPTICAL FIBER CABLE

Nylon Silicon Resin


125um 400um 900um

Silica Fiber Nylon Coated Fiber


30

FIBER NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

4 FIBER

6 FIBER

8 FIBER 12 FIBER

BLUE BLUE BLUE BLUE YELLOW YELLOW YELLOW YELLOW GREEN GREEN GREEN GREEN RED RED RED RED VOILET VOILET VOILET WHITE BROWN BROWN WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE
31

OPTICAL FIBRE FILLING COMPOUND SLOT

WRAPPING
SHEATH CENTRAL STRENGTH MEMBER

32

33

34

Cross-section of four (4) fiber Ribbon


Primary coating Jacketing ( u v cured material) Optical fiber

0.4mm

1.1mm

35

CROSS-SECTION OF COMPLETED CABLE 24 FIBER RIBBON 4 - FIBRE RIBBON RIB IDENTIFICATION MARKING FILLING COMPOUND SLOT WRAPPING SHEATH

CENTRAL STRENGTH MEMBER

36

CROSS-SECTION OF COMPLETED CABLE 48 FIBER RIBBON

37

CROSS-SECTION OF 4 FIBER RIBBON IN A GROOVE OF SLOT


TAPE A TAPE B

FOR CORE NO. 1 - 24


FOR CORE NO. 25 - 48 FOR CORE NO. 49 - 72

TAPE C

TAPE D

FOR CORE NO. 73 - 96

38

AMOURED FIBRE CABLE

LOOSE TUBE FIBRE CABLE

39

CONSTRUCTION OF LOOSE BUFFERED TUBE OPTICAL FIBER CABLE

Petroleum Jelly Two Ripcords

Filler
Core wrapping Strength member Buffered Tube Thixotropic Jelly Fiber Outer PE sheath 6 core
40

CONSTRUCTION OF LOOSE BUFFERED TUBE OPTICAL FIBER CABLE

PE Coating

Stranded wire PE web

Buffered Tube

36 core

41

CONSTRUCTION OF LOOSE BUFFERED TUBE OPTICAL FIBER CABLE

Outer PE sheath Two Ripcords Core wrapping

Petroleum Jelly PE Coating Strength member


Buffered Tube Thixotropic Jelly Fiber 96 core
42

FIBER NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

FIBER COLOUR BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN

TUBE NO. 1

TUBE COLOUR BLUE

YELLOW

GREEN

FIBER NO. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

FIBER COLOUR BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN

TUBE NO. 4

TUBE COLOUR RED

VOILET

BROWN

43

FIBER NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

FIBER COLOUR BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY

TUBE NO.

TUBE COLOUR

BLUE

YELLOW

GREEN

FIBER NO. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

FIBER COLOUR BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY

TUBE NO.

TUBE COLOUR

RED

VOILET

BROWN

44

FIBER NO. 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

FIBER COLOUR BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY

TUBE NO.

TUBE COLOUR

PINK

GREY

BLACK

FIBER NO. 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

FIBER COLOUR BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY BLUE YELLOW GREEN RED VOILET BROWN PINK GREY

TUBE NO.

TUBE COLOUR

10

LIGHT BLUE

11

WHITE

12

ORANGE

45

46

INSTALLATION OF SUB-DUCT
Two types of sub-duct :-

i) PVC Sub-duct 32mm X 6M length, one end side with spigot for jointing purpose.

ii) Corrugated sub-duct 32mm X 600M length per coil complete with nylon string.
47

Existing copper duct route (Main duct) :M/H copper duct route

M/H

M/H

180 220M

New duct route for 100% optical fibre cable can goes up to 300M to 500M per section C/W concrete encasement.

48

SPECIAL CONDITIONS BEFORE INSTALLING A CABLE INTO THE MAIN DUCT/SUB-DUCT

i)

Cable must always be installed in an empty duct

ii) Under no circumstance may a second cable be drawn into the duct later iii) Max allowable only 60% of duct space use for cable

49

PURPOSED OF MAIN-DUCT
100mm

PVC Main - duct 100mm X 6M length, one end side with spigot for jointing purpose.

i)

For pulling cable

ii) Easy for maintenance ( cable breakdown) iii) For recovery of cable (easy drawing in/out cables without opening the ground) iv) Additional duct space allow future cabling to be drawn in without opening ground for new duct installation v) Manholes and joint boxes at interval of duct route enable easier maintenance
50

PURPOSED OF SUB - DUCT

i)

To increase the capacity of the duct route system inside the main-duct.

ii) To provide the fibre cable with protection/safety

iii) Also provide the fibre cable with additional protection from the environment
iv) Ameans for fiture cable installation and removal v) To allow additional cables to be place in the same route vi) Economical, to reduce the duct cost per cable
51

SELECTION OF MAIN DUCT FOR CARRYING THE SUB-DUCTS:i) Should be at least at the second layer of the main duct (to avoid possible damage due to cave in and etc.)

ii) For loop network configuration when using the same duct route, chose the lowest and the second lowest layer of the main duct route iii) Can be installed in duct already occupied by existing cables, only for short distance <50M

iv) Occupy the duct closest to the wall then work towards the centre of the manhole at each level

52

2. Installation procedure 1. Preparation of duct a. Cleared of obstruction b. Roding- use rod sweep cane, pvc rod c. Cleaning mandrel cutting,brushes and cleaning disc best mandrel is 457 mm long x 83 mm diameter and cylindrical brush 108 mm in diameter 2. Preparation of sub duct prior laying a. Jointing of sub duct b. Bunches of sub duct c. Cutting of sub duct 3. Laying of sub duct Manually as sesame as cable pulling

53

4. Installation of corrugated sub duct 1. Preparation of sub duct bunch together with 3 layer adhesive tape at every 1.5 meter interval long 2. Fit 1 meter pulling rod to every sub duct 3. Hold the end of sub duct, tightly together 800 mm 4. Pass the cable grip over + swivel 5. Laying of sub duct 1. manually pulling 2. Max.Pulling force 80 KN(8160kg) 3. Max pulling speed is 15 meter/minute 4. Use swivel to avoid twittering during hauling 5. 3 sub duct (34 mm )to be installed simultaneously in 107 mm duct

54

6. After pulling in 1. cut 60 mm from the sub duct mouth 2. Install O ring 3. Install flange holder (B plate) 4. Install another O ring 5. Make I slit to secure the nylon rope 6. Fit end cap
7. Marking of sub duct. 1 st sub duct white 2 nd sub duct yellow 3 rd sub duct Green 8. Jointing sub duct 1. cut both sub duct perpendicularly 2. Remove all burr 3. Jointing sleeve 250 mm piece of sub duct 4. Wrap 10-12 turn 5. Pull one of the sub duct 50 mm out of the jointing sleeve 6. Wrap another 12-15 turn
55

PULLING ROD TO BE INSERTED INTO SUBDUCT 1000mm

1000 mm pulling rod

56

Wrap the sub-duct with four turns of colour tape 100mm from duct end.

1st Sub-duct colour white

2nd Sub-duct colour yellow


3rd Sub-duct colour green
57

Bunching of three sub-ducts with adhesive tape

1.5m

Use of cable grip, swivel, D shackle and pulling rope for pulling sub-duct into the main duct.

58

Terminating corrugated sub-duct in manhole


Rubber O ring End Cap

Optic fibre cable


Bolt Expansion (Iron Raw plug)

60mm

Sub-duct inserted into the PVC Plate B 122mm X 122mm X 5mm


59

INSTALLATION OPTICAL FIBER CABLE SUB DUCTS

60

1. TOOLS AND MATERIAL


Tool name
1. Safety cones 2. Barrier & barricades 3. Flashing Light 4. Flag 5. Canvas Tent &frame GI 6. Manhole key 7. Gas detector 8. Water pump 9. Portable generator 10. Exhaust fan/blower 11. Cable jack

Usage
Safety/traffic warning Safety/traffic warning Safety/traffic warning Safety/traffic warning Provide shade for workman For opening the manhole cover To detect dangerous gases To remove water in manhole To supply electrical power To ventilate manhole For cable drum jacking

61

Tool name
12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. roding tools (PVC Type) Cable cutter Cable grip Shackle D Swivel Pulling rope Cable roller Cable guide Dynamometer PVC Sheeting Cable winch Pulley Cable trailer

Usage
For rodding or sub duct To cut the cable Grip cable for pulling As a connector To prevent cable twisting For pulling the cable To guide the cable into duct To protect the cable against damage To measure the pulling tension Cable protection while forming F8 Pulling cable To pull pulling rope out of manhole To hold cable drum
62

2. MAXIMUM PULLING TENSION


Contract No of core Max.pulling force
1.7 KN(170kg)

TOMEN

UP TO 48 CORE

MARCONI/HESFIBEL

UP TO 96 CORE

1.1 KN(110kg)

OPCOM

UP TO 96 CORE

2KN(200kg)

PERWIRA ERICSON

UP TO 96 CORE

2.5KN(250kg)
63

2. LAYING SPEED : 15 METER / MINUTE


3. BENDING RADIUS : 10 D WHILE SETTING 20 D WHILE PULLING 4. LAYING MATHOD : 1. unidirectional pulling 2. Bi-directional pulling 3. Intermediate pulling 5. Diameter of figure 8 is min.1 meter

64

UNIDIRECTIONAL PULLING METHOD

Cable drum Manhole

Pulled in a continuous operation in one direction only ( < 1 km) In this case, the cable drum is placed at one of the manhole, and cable is pulled in a continuous operation in one direction only.

65

BI - DIRECTIONAL PULLING METHOD

In this case, the cable drum is placed at one of the manhole, and cable is pulled in a continuous operation in one direction only.

66

Bi-directional Pulling Method


When it is difficult to lay the whole cable length in one continuous operation due to geographical configuration of cable route bidirectional pulling is used. This method is mainly adopted for complicated cable route having curves or level differences of ducts at pull-through manholes.

67

Bi-directional Pulling Method


This method is recommended for complicated cable routes having curves or level differences of sub-duct at pull through manholes and or cable lengths greater than 1km. a) Place the cable drum at the midpoint of the section. b) Pull the cable towards one directions until it reaches its destination. c) Uncoil the balance of the cable in the drum for the second pull. A PVC sheet placed on the ground to protect the cable while forming the Figure 8. d) A suitable space measuring about 6m x 3m is necessary for uncoiling the cable. This operation is shown in figure 8. Pull the cable end of the uncoiled cable in the other direction.
68

As illustrated in figure 6. A cable is placed at the corner of the cable route and the cable is laid in two steps. In the first pull, a longer length is laid into duct in continuous operation. The remaining shorter cable on the same cable drum is uncoiled for the second pull. The cable should be coiled on the ground in the form of figure 8. This will be enable the remaining cable to pull in the other direction easily. The diameter of figure 8 should be greater than 1 meter. Fig 7 show the uncoiling of the remaining cable in the drum.

69

Pulling a long cable with sharp bends. Figure 8a and 8b shows how bi-directional pulling is used in route with sharp bends. a) Place the cable drum at the chosen corner manhole.

b) First pull in the direction indicated as (1)-fig 8a


c) Uncoil the balance of the cable in the drum in the form of a Figure 8 at the position (2) d) The second pull is in the opposite direction that toward (3) (Fig 8b) and (4)-(Fig 8b)

70

Methods OF CABLE LAYING INTO SUBDUCTS

Manhole

1) Direction of first pull 3) Direction of second pull 2) Making of Figure 8

BI - DIRECTIONAL PULLING METHOD


71

Intermediate Manual Pull


This method is recommended for pulling cable in straight route and with distance greater than 1 km.
a. Place the cable drum at the end of the cable length.

b. Pull the cable towards one of the splice location.


c. After pulling the cable through four or five manhole say 1 km, take the cable out of the manhole and coil it on the ground to form the figure 8. Continue this process until the cable in the drum as completely uncoiled. Turn the coiled figure 8 cable over to get the pulling end to continue with the cable pulling process.
72

Here we have a number of pull-through manholes assistance is needed in the intermediate manholes. A man is stationed in each intermediate manholes. A manholes manually assisting in the cable pulling process ( hand-over-hand) as it passes through. This reduce the effective tail load at the manhole. As a result, the maximum pulling tension is substantially reduced. Figure 9 shows the intermediate manual assisted cable pulling.

73

METHODs OF CABLE LAYING INTO SUBDUCTS

1) Direction of first pull

2) Making of Figure 8 3) Direction of second pull

4) The next drum of cable

Greater than 1 km
INTERMEDIATE PULLING METHOD

74

Colling Of Remaining Shorter Cable

Why figure 8..?


To reduce pulling tension

Manhole

Uncoil the balance of the cable in the drum for the second pull. A PVC sheet (6M X 3M) placed on the ground to protect the cable while forming the 75 Figure 8.

CABLE FEEDING END

ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING

Cable roller

Cable Jack

Cable Protecting Bend

76

CABLE FEEDING END

ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING

Cable Jack
Cable feeder tube or corrugated duct

77

CABLE PULLING END

ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING

Cable roller
Pulling rope Chains

Pulley Block The laying speed shall be less than 15 m/min.

78

CABLE PULLING END

ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING

After pulling the cable through four or five manhole say 1 km, take the cable out of the manhole and coil it on the ground to form the figure 8.

The laying speed shall be less than 15 m/min.

79

CABLE PULLING END

ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING

80

ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING AT INTERMIDIATE MANHOLE

Cable Protecting Bend

Corrugated sub-duct to replace the manpower.


81

ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING AT INTERMIDIATE MANHOLE

82

ARRANGEMENT OF MANPOWER FOR CABLE PULLING AT INTERMIDIATE MANHOLE

83

STORING EXCESS CABLE

No
1 2

Location
Jointing manhole Pull through manhole Pull through manhole (potential growth area

Formula
3L+ 2w + H 2H+ L

3L+ 2w + 2H
84

MIN. BENDING RADIUS 10 x DAI. OF CABLE

SETTING CABLE IN JOINTING MANHOLE


85

MIN. BENDING RADIUS 10 x DAI. OF CABLE

SETTING CABLE IN PULL-THROUGH MANHOLE


86

6. When bending the cable the following cable length should be kept straight : - minimum 6 cm from duct inlet - minimum 6 cm from a cable joint end

7. All cable passing through manholes must be tied to the cable bracket by using cable tie no.3
8. At jointing manhole, four additional cable bearer Must be installed at end wall to support cable , 9. The space between the end of cable joint and the duct inlet 60 cm

87

10.The jointing closure is tight to to supporting plate using cable tie no.6 11.To prevent the cable bearer bracket from floating install anti floating device. 12. In manhole constructed at both end of bridge, cable slack more than 100 cm to absorb cable creep caused by expansion & contraction of cable laid. 13. Important cable must be protected use helically coiled protector.

88

LABELLING 1. Should be fitted 7 cm away from the cable joint.

2. Labeling information
a. b. c. d. e. Type and cable size Route name Contract Number Installation date Cable section code

3. Cable section comprises of : a. Network code b. Cable section number


89

Sample of marking tag (label)

TELEKOM MALAYSIA BERHAD


TYPE SIZE ROUTE NAME CABLE SECTION CODE CONTRACT NUMBER DATE OF INSTALLATION SINGLE MODE 24 CORES TAR WISMA SEMARAK NO.2-8 K1322/04 20 DISEMBER 05

90

ERECTION OF AERIAL OPTICAL FIBER CABLE

91

Minimum clearance :
LOCATION MINIMUM CLEARANCE 4.5 Meter 5,5 Meter

1 2 3 4

Along road At road crossing

At railway crossing
From power cables a. Less than 600 Volt b. More than 600 Volt

6.7 Meter (not relevant)

600 mm 2000 mm
92

2.

The sag is 2% from span length (40 Meter-50 Meter = 1M)

93

3. MAXIMUM PULLING FORCE

CONTRACT

NO.OF CORES

MAX.PULLING FORCE 8 KN(800kg)

TOMEN

UP TO 36

MARCONI/HESF IBEL

UP TO 36

1.1 KN(110kg)

OPCOM

UP TO 36

15KN(1500kg

PERWIRA ERICSON

UP TO 48

9KN(900kg)

94

4. Termination of IB OFC a. Beginning and the end of route b. Distribution pole

c. Angle pole deviation of the route is greater than 400


d. All river and railway crossing e. Poles where two cables are jointing. f. Each end of isolated long span greater than 200 Meter.
95

6. Integral Bearer wire earthling system 1. The required grounding location : a. Dead end or terminal poles. b. Poles holding supporting wire for jointing closures. c. At every interval of approximately 250 M 2. Type of openable jointing connector : a. HD 10 b.HD 12 A 3. The max.earth system is 1 ohm .

4. Earth wire size is 7/1.04 mm


96

Bracket tubular pole

Preformed grip
Thimble

PVC tape
Cable

Fig.1 Through Double Termination

97

L1 = Just sufficient to terminate bearer wire with correct size of preformed grip + 200 mm L2 = Just sufficient to terminate bearer wire with correct size of preformed grip + 50 mm
98

99

Precautions
When optical fibres are not handled properly, stress due to torsion and bending, will remain in the fibres. This stress may cause the fibre to break later. The presence of dust in splices will increase their losses. Keep the site where splicing is to be done clean and dry. To avoid contamination of the fibers while splicing keep your hands, tools and equipment clean.

The optical fibre, which is very fine and fragile to avoid injury all fibre clippings must be gathered and place into plastic bag/box/tin, for safe disposal do not leave them around the work site.
100

Precautions
The incident rays in the fibre are strong enough to damage your eyes, never look into the end of fibers. When cutting optical fibre cable, do not use a metallic saw, always use a cable cutter / bolt cutter. Minimum bend radius for fibre is 4 cm and minimum bend radius for optical fibre cable while setting is 10 D. Estimated splicing loss should be kept low,i.e within the recommended values of 0.01 0.05 db. All optical fibre cable equipment must be handled carefully.

101

NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Scissors

TOOL NAME Bolt cutter Optical Fibre Sheath Cutter Screw Driver Set Tape Measuring Allen Key Pliers Combination 8" Knife Trimming Torque Wrench Adapter Spanner Fibre Cleaver Fibre Stripper Buffer Tube Stripper SPLICING MACHINE

USE For cutting cable For cutting wrapping For removal of cable sheath For tightening screws For measurement For tightening nuts For cutting tension member, etc Removing slot For tightening nuts For tightening nuts For cutting glass fibre To remove secondary coating To remove PVC sheath of fibre cord/buffer tube For splicing fibre
102

NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

MATERIALS LIST Alcohol (Purity 95%) Cotton Gauze/Lint free cloth Cloth Abrasive Cotton Bud Methylated spirit Cotton Waste PVC Tape 20mm & 10mm Fibre Protection sleeve

103

CUTTING OF CABLE AND REMOVING OF THE CABLE SHEATH

CABLE SHEATH CUTTER

104

Clean the cable and fibres with methylated spirit after removing of cable sheath

Gauze soaked with Methylated spirit

105

Cut slot at the position of 55mm from end of cable sheath and strip (shave by knife) the end of slot 30mm. Wrap the end of the slot with pvc tape.
106

4. PREPARING FIBER FOR SPICING 1. Removing secondary coating 35 mm 2. Removing primary coating piece of gauge soaked with alcohol. 3. Fiber cleaving 16 mm

107

END FACE VIEW OF OPTICAL FIBRE

CRACK

LIP

INCLINE
If the CLEAVE ANGLE function is ON, the end face angles are checked and an error occurs if either is more than 3 to 5 degrees.
108

MAX. ESTIMATED SPLICING LOSS


Estimated splicing loss should be kept low within the recommended values of:i) Fibre In The Loop (Local Cable) is 0.05 dB loss/splice. ii) Junction Cable is 0.05dB loss/splice. iii)Trunk Cable is 0.03 dB loss/splice
109

OBSERVATION OF SPLICE POINT


CRACK

SEPARATION

BUBBLE

TOO THICK

TOO THIN
110

TREATMENT OF DEFECTIVE SPLICE RESULTS Improper cleaving of optical fibre. Dust on fibre end face. Cleave the fiber again or change the cleaver.

BUBBLE

TOO THICK (Barrel)

Mulfunction of fusion splice main body. Abnormal discharge. Mulfunction of fusion splice main body.

TOO THIN (Necking)

Adjust the splice programmed parameter. Adjust the splice programmed parameter. (ARC POWER, etc.) Change the arc power parameter
111

SEPARATION

Improper high racking power

Tighten the bolts of Bands further by a torque of 70Kgf-cm. After 10 minutes, tighten bolts again by same torque.
112

SPLICE CLOSURE KIT FOR OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FUJIKURA TYPE 113

SPLICE CLOSURE KIT FOR OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FUJIKURA TYPE


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Sleeve halves Centre band Side clamp Cable clamp Tension member clamp Slack tray End seal block Cable adapter End cap 11. Sealing tape 12. Sleeve gasket

13. Fibre protection tube


14. Closure scal

10. Tension member protector

114

SPLICE CLOSURE FOR OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FUJIKURA TYPE

ST joint

Y or Tap joint

X joint
115

RAYCHEM FOSC 400 A4 Fiber Optic Splice Closure

116

RAYCHEM FOSC 400 TYPE Fiber Optic Splice Closure

117

118

MIN. BENDING RADIUS 10 x DAI. OF CABLE

SETTING CABLE IN JOINTING MANHOLE


119

TESTING OPTICAL FIBER CABLE

120

121

INTERCONNECTION LOSS
Light Loss

Light Loss

Core diameter mismatch loss ( Core diameter of the TX Fibre is larger than the core diameter of the RX Fibre)

122

INTERCONNECTION LOSS

Numerical Aperture Mismatch Loss

123

INTERCONNECTION LOSS
Cladding
Core 2

Core 1

Concentricity and Ellipticity ( Alignment of the two cores connector loss)


124

ATTENUATION LOSS
Ray of light to partially scatter

Light Loss

Rayleigh Scattering

Caused by microscopic non uniformities in the optical fibre.


125

ATTENUATION LOSS

Obsorption
Caused by the molecular structure of the material, impurities in the fibre, metal ions, OH ions (water) and atomic defects (unwanted oxidized elements in glass composition). 126

ATTENUATION LOSS MICROBENDING LOSS

CHANGES OF THE CORE DIAMETER, ROUGH BOUNDARIES BETWEEN THE CORE AND CLADDING, MECHANICAL STRESS, PRESSURE, TENSION OR TWISTING.
127

CHECK FOR MICROBENDING LOSS

128

FIBRE TRAY

CHECK FOR MICROBENDING LOSS

129

CHECK FOR MICROBENDING LOSS

130

ATTENUATION LOSS MACROBENDING LOSS

(i) Min. BENDING RADIUS OF CABLE 10 X DIA. OF CABLE

(ii) Min. BENDING RADIUS OF FIBRE


40MM
131

50cm

CHECK FOR MACROBENDING LOSS

132

CHECK FOR MACROBENDING LOSS

133

CHECK FOR MACROBENDING LOSS

MIN. BENDING RADIUS 10 x DAI. OF CABLE

SETTING CABLE IN JOINTING MANHOLE


134

CHECK FOR MACROBENDING LOSS

MIN. BENDING RADIUS 10 x DAI. OF CABLE

SETTING CABLE IN PULL-THROUGH MANHOLE


135

MEASURING EQUIPMENT REQURIED FOR FIBRE OPTIC CABLE TEST


NO 1 MEASURING EQUIPMENT OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) Stabilized Light Source Optical Power Meter USE For measuring the splice loss, cable loss, locate cable fault. Use for transmitting light. For measuring the optical output power. Connnected to the power meter, serves to convert light signal to electrical signal. Use for terminating connectors at the FDF.

2 3

Sensor Module

Connector Adaptor

136

MATERIALS FOR FIBRE OPTIC CABLE TEST


NO 1 MATERIAL NAME COTTON BUD USE For cleaning the connectors and optical detector. For cleaning the connectors and optical detector. For pacthing at the test eguipment and Fibre Distribution Frame. REMARKS

ALCOHOL

Minimum 95% pure. FC type connector


137

PACTH CORD

TESTING AND COMMISSIONING OPTICAL FIBRE SCHEME

1.

Testing Optical Fibre Cable

The test to be conducted shall be as follows:

a.

Cable End to End Loss

Maximum allowable loss between sending and receiving stations

= aL +bN +C
138

where, a = Cable Loss dB/km, which is 0.40 or 1300 nm region and 0.25 for 1550 nm region
b = Average Loss per slice, which is 0.20 dB for RT and 0.1dB for Fokus and trunk lines. C = Constant of 1 for Connector Loss (i.e 0.5 dB per connector). L = Cable Length (km).

N = Number of splice.
139

Cable End to End Loss


When measured using the light source/power meter method, the loss measured shall be less than that stipulated formula.

140

Splice loss
The maximum loss allowed shall be less than or equal to 0.20 dB for RT and 0.1dB for Fokus and Trunk lines. This value shall be average value (measured from both sides of the link using an OTDR).

141

The measured value at 1550 nm region shall not exceed that measured at 1300 nm region by 0.15 db. The rationale of this requirement is to ensure that the macro-bending and microbending loses at 1550 nm is not excessive as a result of poor installation practices at a jointing closures.

Any splices failing to meet the above criteria shall be respliced.


The acceptance test format used is as shown in App.1.

142

Core Reversal Test


This test is to ensure that the correct fibre cores are spliced together. It is to be tested at both sides of the optical fibre link specifically at the FDF by using Fibre Identifier.

143

Testing Method
i) Light source is sent from upper station and lower station.

ii) Detect light signal in fibre cores starting from the center fibres using Fibre Identifier. This is to ensure fibre core numbers are matched and spliced together at both ends of the link.
iii) If fibre core reversal is not detected, repeat the same process ( I & ii) at first joint (FTB joint of upper station ) and last joint (FTB joint of lower station ) until signal is detected at both FDFs. iv) If signal is detected at the different core numbers from DFD in the above procedure, this shows that there could be a core reversal at any joint along the link. Repeat the above process at all the joints until the error at the joint is rectified

144

Checking cable routing and connection


The Superintendence Officer (S.O) shall ensure that the cables installed below are carefully inspected and checked for acceptance and commissioning of optical fiber links:

i) On poles. ii) In manholes, in cable chamber, in MDF room, is on cable tray up to FDF.
iii) Fibre cords are neatly arranged from FTB to FDF. vi) Collets are tagged onto fibre cables with complete identification of link.
145

COMMISIONING
After testing have been successfully completed in the presence of Superintendent Officer (S.O) or his appointed representative, test results shall be certified by both contractor and TMs S.O.

146

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF TO FDF CONTRACT NO: ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVELENGHT: 1300nm / 1550nm INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO. OF SPLICING: +(TB X 2)

CABLE LOSS MEASUREMENT BY OTDR


CORE NO 1-2 LOSS (dB) REMARKS

1 2 3 4 5 6

PREPARED BY NAME SIGNATURE

CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM MALAYSIA

147
DATE

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE (EVERY SPLICING POINT)
CONTRACT NO: ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVELENGHT: 1300nm / 1550nm INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO. OF SPLICING: +(TB X 2)

CORE NO.
SPLICEP OINT

TESTING 5 6 DATE BY

EQUIPMENT USED PREPARED BY CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM MALAYSIA

O.T.D.R. SERIAL NO:

148

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF TO FDF CONTRACT NO: ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVELENGTH: INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO OF SPLICING:

CABLE LOSS MEASUREMENT BY OTDR CORE NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1-2 LOSS (dB) REMARKS

PREPARED BY NAME SIGNATURE DATE

CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM MALAYSIA

149

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE (EVERY SPLICING POINT) CONTRACT NO: ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVELENGTH: 1300nm/1550nm SPLICE POINT INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO OF SPLICING: +(TBX2)

10

11

12

TESTING DATE BY

EQUIPMENT USED OTDR: SERIAL NO:

PREPARED BY

CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM

150

BASIC TERMS - OTDR

151

The tests that an OTDR may perform on a fibre cable are as follows:
Distance measurement to an event Distance measurement of a cable length Loss measurement at an event Loss measurement of a cable length Recognitions of various trace events Return loss measurement of events Return loss measurement of cables
152

153

NEAR-END FRESNAL REFLECTION

CONNECTOR LOSS

SPLICE LOSS

FAR-END FRESNAL REFLECTION

OTDR

154

OTDR TRACES

The 'fibre' itself is produced by light that is backscattered as the pulse from the OTDR travels along the fibre. This backscatter is produced by (mainly) impurities in the fibres material. The backscatter slopes down to the right due to the pulse of light being attenuated as it travels away from the OTDR.
155

156

Fibre Crack

Mechanical Splice or Connector

AIR GAP 157

A reflection combined with a loss (as shown at the point of the bold vertical bar labeled C) is usually either a mechanical splice or a connector, but could also be a crack in the fibre. As the locations of connectors and mechanical splices is normally known the identification of the type of event should be easy.
158

This is a reflective feature that has no loss. This is due to a double reflection, normally where light reflected back towards the OTDR is reflected back into the fibre from the OTDR's front connector, only to be re-reflected back to the OTDR by a reflective event. 'Ghost busting' techniques are used by experienced technicians to get rid of ghosts.
159

Fibre Bend

Fusion Splice A B
160

A point loss which has no reflection is usually either a fusion splice or a bend. Again splice locations should be known so differentiating between splices and bends is normally easy. Note that if a good splice is testing really bad it can mean that their is a bend nearby and the OTDR is not able to split the two close together events.
161

The real splice loss is very small

Backscatter coefficient Fibre B > A


B
162

Here the level of backscatter before and after a fusion splice shows a upwards trend, usually called a 'gainer splice' or simply a 'gain'. This is not due to the splice having an actual gain but is instead a result of the second fibre have a higher backscatter. If the OTDR was placed at the far end of the fibre (so that we view from the higher backscatter fibre to the lower one) then we would see a large loss through the same splice. The actual splice loss is the average of the splice loss measured in both directions. 163

Cleaver end or open connector

Perpendicular cut 90 dig.


164

The end of this fibre shows a strong reflection as it is terminated in a polished connector. If the end was shattered or immersed in water (as can happen in a broken cable situation) then there may be a smaller reflection or no reflection at all.
165

Broken fibre end

166

Mismatch of Fibre Types

Single Mode Fibre

Multi Mode Fibre

You can use the OTDR to locate features or breaks for a larger fibre core diameter, but not to measure loss accurately.
167

Mismatch of Fibre Types

Position of features is OK

Attenuation and loss is wrong!

168

Mismatch of Fibre Types

Single Mode Fibre

Multi Mode Fibre

You can use the OTDR to locate features or breaks for a larger fibre core diameter, but not to measure loss accurately.
169

SETTING LIGHT SOURCE & POWER METER

1. WARM UP THE METER SET AT LEAST 30 MIN.


2. SETTING LIGHT SOURCE:SET THE WAVE LENGTH ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF FIBER LINK.

174

SETTING LIGHT SOURCE & POWER METER - Press Mode Param right wave length. - Press Mode Param then Modify to select the to set Attenuation to 0.00.

- Press wave.

Mode

Param

set to CW for complete

175

3. SETTING POWER METER: - Set the wave length according to Light Source setting. - Press Param until you get T to set Average Time , press Modify to set 200ms. - Press Auto to set into Auto.

- Press

dBm

to set Unit into dBm


to place decimal point XX.XX

- Press N Dig

176

CALIBRATION OF TWO POWER METERS :

To make the two power meters same reading. - Press Mode Param until you get CAL , then press Modify soft key to do calibration.

177

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF CONTRACT NO:
ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVE LENGTH: (1) REPRESENTATIVE CALIBRATION VALUE OF THE POWER METER P1 DESCRIPTION dBm 1ST 2ND 3RD DEVIATION V (E=MAX - MIN) REP. CALIBRATION VALUE E+ (P1-P2)/3 dBm dBm PP2 E=P1-P2 REMARKS INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO OF SPLICING:

(2) OPTICAL LOSS OF END TO END DESCRITION 1 INPUT LEVEL P IN: (1) OUTPUT LEVEL P OUT: (2) REP. CALIB. VALUE "E": (3) OPTICAL LOSS: (2)-(1)+(3) (3) ALLOWANCE VALUE ALLOWANCE VALUE (dB) AVERAGE VALUE (dB) MAXIMUM VALUE (dB) OPTICAL POWER METER AT UPPER EXCH: OPTICAL POWER METER AT LOWER EXCH: STABILIZED LIGHT SOURCE: PREPARED BY NAME SIGNATURE DATE 2 3 4 Core No. (unit:dB) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

FORMULA(4) ALLOWANCE VALUE IS CALCULATED BY THE FOLLOWING FORMULA : ALLOWANCE VALUE dB 0.4L+0.2N+1.0(const)

CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM

178

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF CONTRACT NO:
ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVE LENGTH: (1) REPRESENTATIVE CALIBRATION VALUE OF THE POWER METER P1 DESCRIPTION dBm 1ST 2ND 3RD DEVIATION V (E=MAX - MIN) REP. CALIBRATION VALUE E+ (P1-P2)/3 dBm dBm P2 E=P1-P2 REMARKS INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO OF SPLICING:

179

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF CONTRACT NO:
ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVE LENGTH: * 1300nm / 1550nm (1) REPRESENTATIVE CALIBRATION VALUE OF THE POWER METER P1 DESCRIPTION dBm 1ST 2ND 3RD DEVIATION V (E=MAX - MIN) REP. CALIBRATION VALUE E+ (P1-P2)/3 dBm dBm P2 E=P1-P2 REMARKS INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO OF SPLICING:

180

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF CONTRACT NO:
ROUTE: ACTUAL DISTANCE: WAVE LENGTH: * 1300nm / 1550nm (1) REPRESENTATIVE CALIBRATION VALUE OF THE POWER METER P1 DESCRIPTION dBm 1ST 2ND 3RD DEVIATION V (E=MAX - MIN) REP. CALIBRATION VALUE E= (P1-P2)/3 20.4 20.42 20.48 dBm 19.85 20.32 20.34 dBm 0.55 0.1 0.14 P2 E=P1-P2 REMARKS INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE: STATE: CORE: NO OF SPLICING:

0.45
61.3 60.51 0.26

181

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF CONTRACT NO:
ROUTE:WERE RD. - IPK ACTUAL DISTANCE: 4.623km WAVE LENGTH: * 1300nm / 1550nm (1) REPRESENTATIVE CALIBRATION VALUE OF THE POWER METER P1 DESCRIPTION dBm 1ST 2ND 3RD DEVIATION V (E=MAX - MIN) REP. CALIBRATION VALUE E= (P1-P2)/3 20.35 20.32 20.3 dBm 20.32 20.29 20.27 dBm P2 E=P1-P2 REMARKS INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE:4.624km STATE: CORE:6 NO OF SPLICING: 3+(TBx2)

182

THE LOSS DATA OF THE SINGLE MODE OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE FROM FDF CONTRACT NO:
ROUTE:WERE RD. - IPK ACTUAL DISTANCE: 4.623km WAVE LENGTH: * 1300nm / 1550nm (1) REPRESENTATIVE CALIBRATION VALUE OF THE POWER METER P1 DESCRIPTION dBm 1ST 2ND 3RD DEVIATION V (E=MAX - MIN) REP. CALIBRATION VALUE E= (P1-P2)/3 20.35 20.32 20.3 dBm 20.32 20.29 20.27 dBm 0.03 0.03 0.03 P2 E=P1-P2 REMARKS INDENT NO: REGION: OTDR DISTANCE:4.624km STATE: CORE: 6 NO OF SPLICING:3+(TBX2)

0
60.97 60.88 0.03

183

(2) OPTICAL LOSS OF END TO END DESCRITION 1 INPUT LEVEL P IN: (1) OUTPUT LEVEL P OUT: (2) REP. CALIB. VALUE "E": (3) OPTICAL LOSS: (2)-(1)+(3) (3) ALLOWANCE VALUE ALLOWANCE VALUE (dB) AVERAGE VALUE (dB) MAXIMUM VALUE (dB) OPTICAL POWER METER AT UPPER EXCH: OPTICAL POWER METER AT LOWER EXCH: STABILIZED LIGHT SOURCE: PREPARED BY NAME SIGNATURE DATE FORMULA(4) ALLOWANCE VALUE IS CALCULATED BY THE FOLLOWING FORMULA : aL+bN+C ALLOWANCE VALUE dB 0.4L+0.2N+1.0(const) Wlength 1300nm CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM 2 3 4 Core No. (unit:dB) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

20.30 20.35 20.32 20.30 20.35 20.30 23.65 23.55 23.70 23.58 23.71 23.54

184

(2) OPTICAL LOSS OF END TO END DESCRITION 1 INPUT LEVEL P IN: (1) OUTPUT LEVEL P OUT: (2) OPTICAL LOSS: (2)-(1)+(3) 2 3 4 Core No. (unit:dB) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

20.30 20.35 20.32 20.30 20.35 20.30 23.65 23.55 23.70 23.58 23.71 23.54 3.38 3.23 3.41 3.31 3.39 3.27 FORMULA(4) ALLOWANCE VALUE IS CALCULATED BY THE FOLLOWING FORMULA : aL+bN+C ALLOWANCE VALUE dB 0.4L+0.2N+1.0(const) Wlength 1300nm CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM

REP. CALIB. VALUE "E": (3) 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

(3) ALLOWANCE VALUE ALLOWANCE VALUE (dB) 3.44dB AVERAGE VALUE (dB) 3.33dB MAXIMUM VALUE (dB) 3.41 coreno.3 OPTICAL POWER METER AT UPPER EXCH: OPTICAL POWER METER AT LOWER EXCH: STABILIZED LIGHT SOURCE: PREPARED BY NAME SIGNATURE DATE

185

(2) OPTICAL LOSS OF END TO END DESCRITION 1 INPUT LEVEL P IN: (1) OUTPUT LEVEL P OUT: (2) REP. CALIB. VALUE "E": (3) OPTICAL LOSS: (2)-(1)+(3) (3) ALLOWANCE VALUE ALLOWANCE VALUE (dB) AVERAGE VALUE (dB) MAXIMUM VALUE (dB) OPTICAL POWER METER AT UPPER EXCH: OPTICAL POWER METER AT LOWER EXCH: STABILIZED LIGHT SOURCE: PREPARED BY NAME SIGNATURE DATE FORMULA(4) ALLOWANCE VALUE IS CALCULATED BY THE FOLLOWING FORMULA : aL+bN+C ALLOWANCE VALUE dB 0.25L+0.1N+1.0(const) Wlength 1550nm CONFIRMED BY TELEKOM 2 3 4 Core No. (unit:dB) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

186