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Management and quality tools

Ola H. Elgaddar
MBChB, MSc, MD, CPHQ Lecturer of Chemical Pathology Medical Research Institute Alexandria University Ola.elgaddar@alex-mri.edu.eg

Quality
Fitness for use
Juran

Management
It is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively

Evolution of quality management


Level 1: Inspection: - Measure the characteristics of a product and compare them with its specifications; - The goal here is the fitness of standards. This is the passive "inspecting" attitude.

Evolution of quality management


Level 2: Quality Control: - Inspection performed by the workers themselves with a feedback loop to the production line; -Here we avoid the "inspector" effect and allow some learning to take place.

Evolution of quality management


Level 3: Quality Assurance (QA): - Set of (implemented) predefined and systematic activities necessary to give confidence in the process quality; - Quality procedures are designed and planned as a whole to ensure that no bad products be delivered. We do not just rely on everybody's work and control.

Evolution of quality management


Level 4: Total Quality Management (TQM):

- Management centered on quality and based on the participation of everybody which aims at the customer satisfaction and at the improvement of the company's personnel, of the company and of the society. - This is the ultimate step where workers and customers continuously interact to review / improve this plan.

Shewhart

Performance Improvement Tools

According to the Healthcare Quality Certification Board (HQCB):


I) Tools for planning: Hoshin planning Force field analysis Gantt chart

According to the Healthcare Quality Certification Board (HQCB):


II) Tools for team: Brainstorming Affinity diagram Selection grid Task list

According to the Healthcare Quality Certification Board (HQCB):


III) Tools for data collection: Indicators Check sheets

According to the Healthcare Quality Certification Board (HQCB):


IV) Tools for data analysis: Run / Control charts Histogram Scatter diagram

According to the Healthcare Quality Certification Board (HQCB):


IV) Tools for root cause analysis (RCA): Flow chart Cause - Effect diagram Pareto chart

Hoshin planning (Policy Deployment)


The process used to identify and address critical business needs and develop the capability of employees, achieved by aligning company resources at all levels and applying the PDCA cycle to consistently achieve critical results

Force field analysis


It is a powerful method of gaining a comprehensive overview of the different forces acting on a potential organizational change issue, and for assessing their source and strength.

Gantt Chart
A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project.

Brainstorming
Brainstorming is a tool used by teams to bring out the ideas of each individual and present them in an orderly fashion to the rest of the team.

Benefits of brainstorming

1) Encourages creativity 2) Equalizes involvement by all team members 3) Fosters a sense of ownership

Set a time limit for the session

-Brainstorming should be a rapid generation of ideas, so do it quickly; 5-15 minutes works well. If the time limit has expired and ideas are still being generated, you can extend the time limit at five-minute intervals. - Remember! facilitator You are just a

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Set a time limit for the session

State the topic to be brainstormed in the form of a written clear question, every body can see it

Set a time limit for the session

Collect everyones ideas; Structured or unstructured format for calling out ideas (Adv vs Disadv)

Set a time limit for the session

Record ideas and display them where everyone can see

- To avoid misinterpretation and duplication and stimulate creative thinking by others - Written down exactly as spoken by the team member, dont interpret -Try to generate a long list as possible

Set a time limit for the session

Clarify each idea to ensure that all members have the same understanding of it

Set a time limit for the session

Eliminate duplications, after asking participants, other wise they are kept separate

Follow the rules, or dont call it brainstorming!

Affinity Diagram
Usually, an affinity diagram is used to refine a brainstorm into something that makes sense and can be dealt with more easily. It is recommended to be used when facts or thoughts are uncertain and need to be organized, when preexisting ideas or paradigms need to be overcome, when ideas need to be clarified, and when unity within a team needs to be created.

Affinity diagram

Selection Grid
It is a quantitative technique used to rank the multi-dimensional options of an option set. A basic selection grid consists of establishing a set of criteria options which are scored and summed to gain a total score which can then be ranked.

Selection Grid
A weighted selection grid operates in the same way as the basic decision matrix but introduces the concept of weighting the criteria in order of importance. The more important the criteria the higher the weighting it should be given. Each of the potential options are scored and multiplied by the weighting given to each of the criteria in order to produce a result.

Task List

A simple to do list!

Indicators
Indicators are quantitative measures of a specific part of a process or of an outcome. By themselves, they dont directly measure quality, rather, they help provide data that when analyzed, give information about quality

Check list

A simple way of collecting data

Control charts
A control chart is a graph or chart with limit lines, called control lines. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process that would be evident by any abnormal points listed on the graph from the data collected. It is a method of control, monitoring and improvement.

Histogram
The purpose of a Histogram is to take the data that is collected from a process and then display it graphically to view how the distribution of the data, centers itself around the mean, or main specification. Histograms show the center of the data, the spread of the data and any data skewness or outliers.

Scatter diagram
The Scatter Diagram is a Quality Tool that can be used to show the relationship between "paired data, i.e: shows correlation.
Strong r = Higher correlation, in either sides

Flow chart