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BreezeMAX Functional Description

February 2004

Alvarion Ltd. All rights reserved.


The material contained here in is proprietary, privileged, and confidential. No disclosure thereof shall be made to third parties without the express permission of Alvarion Ltd. Alvarion Ltd. Reserves the right to alter the equipment specifications and descriptions in this publication with prior notice. No part of this publication shall be deemed to be part of any contract or warranty unless specifically incorporated by reference into such contract
Proprietary and Confidential information of Alvarion Ltd.

Revision: 1.3

Table of Contents
1 Introduction .....................................................................................3 2 System Components........................................................................4 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 General ...................................................................................4 Subscriber Unit (Customer Premise Equipment).................4 Base Station Equipment ........................................................7 Management Systems..........................................................11

3 BreezeMAX Specification............................................................13 3.1 Specifications.......................................................................13

4 Functional Description..................................................................21 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 IEEE 802.16 Based Design.................................................21 Applications .........................................................................23 Services ................................................................................24 Connections, Scheduling Services and SLAs ....................27 Automated Network Entry..................................................29 Radio Link Control..............................................................30 Security ................................................................................31 High Availability .................................................................31 Diversity and Radio Link Redundancy ..............................33 Increased Sector Capacity ...............................................35

5 Appendix A: Terms and Abbreviations........................................36

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1 Introduction
Alvarion's BreezeMAX product line is a state of the art Broadband Wireless Access system designed for the needs of Established Carriers operating in the licensed 3.5 GHz frequency band. The system is based on the IEEE 802.16 WirelessMAN standard, designed specifically to solve the unique problem of the wireless metropolitan area network (MAN) environment and to deliver broadband access services to a wide range of customers, including residential, SOHO, SME and multi-tenant customers. Its Media Access Control (MAC) protocol was designed for point-tomultipoint broadband wireless access applications, providing a very efficient use of the wireless spectrum and supporting difficult user environments. The access and bandwidth allocation mechanisms accommodate hundreds of subscriber units per channel, with subscriber units that may support different services to multiple end users. The system uses OFDM radio technology, which is robust in adverse channel conditions and enables NLOS operation that allows easy installation and improves coverage, while maintaining a high level of spectral efficiency. Modulation and coding can be adapted per burst, ever striving to achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency in accordance with prevailing link conditions. BreezeMAX supports a wide range of network services, including IP Access, PPPoE tunneling, IP VPN, Layer 2 VPN and Voice over IP. Service recognition and multiple classifiers that can be used for generating various service profiles enable operators to offer differentiated SLAs with committed QoS for each service profile. AlvariSTAR carrier-class network management system provides the network OA&M staff and managers with all the required network surveillance, monitoring and configuration capabilities. Embedded with all the knowledge base of BWA networks operations, AlvariSTAR is a unique state-of-the-art power multiplier at the hands of the service provider that enables the provisioning of satisfied customers. AlvariSTAR dramatically extends the abilities of the service provider to provide a rich portfolio of services and to support rapid customer base expansion. This document outlines BreezeMAX system elements and specifications and highlights its functionality.

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2 System Components
2.1 General
The BreezeMAX is comprised of the following system elements: Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) Base Station Equipment (BS) Management System

2.2 Subscriber Unit (Customer Premise Equipment)


Several Customer Premises Equipments are offered with the BreezeMAX platform in order to provide operators the ultimate flexibility to serve a variety of business and residential customers cost effectively. BreezeMAX CPEs are based on high integration of VLSI design that provides high reliability and serves as an efficient platform for a wide range of services. The BreezeMAX system provides its subscribers with fast access at a burst data rate up to 12.7 Mbps over a 3.5 MHz channel. The BreezeMAX CPE is comprised of an Indoor Unit (IDU) and an Outdoor Unit (ODU). The ODU contains all the active components and an integral high-gain flat antenna. The indoor unit is powered from the mains. The IDU is connected to the ODU via a category 5 Ethernet cable. This cable carries the Ethernet data between the two units as well as power (54VDC) to the ODU. It also carries Ethernet link status indications from the ODU and reset control from the IDU.

Figure 1 - BreezeMAX CPE ODU with Integrated Antenna

BreezeMAX CPE ODU are available in models with integrated antennas (vertical or horizontal polarization) or with a connector to an external antenna, as shown in the table below:

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Table 2-1: BreezeMAX CPE ODU Types


ODU Type Description

BMAX-CPE-ODU-AV-3.5

Subscriber Outdoor Unit supporting the 3.5a1 and 3.5b bands with an integrated vertically polarized antenna

BMAX-CPE-ODU-AH-3.5

Subscriber Outdoor Unit supporting the 3.5a1 and 3.5b bands with an integrated horizontally polarized antenna Subscriber Outdoor Unit supporting the 3.5a1 and 3.5b bands with a connection to an external antenna

BMAX-CPE-ODU-E-3.5

The BreezeMAX CPE IDU is available in multiple configurations of network interfaces that optimally serve a wide variety of market segments and applications. The IDU is connected to the ODU via a category 5 Ethernet cable that carry the data traffic, power and control signals between the IDU and ODU. BreezeMAX CPE IDU types includes

2.2.1 Data Bridge CPE


The BreezeMAX data bridge CPE acts as a bridge between the wireless and wireline media, supporting up to 512 MAC Addresses. It connects the subscriber's data equipment via a standard IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 10/100-BaseT (RJ 45) interface. The use of packet switching technology provides the user with a connection to the network that is always on, allowing for immediate access to services.

Figure 2 - BreezeMAX Data Bridge CPE IDU

2.2.2 Voice Gateway CPE


The voice gateway CPE provides integrated voice and data services for residential and SOHO users and is available in two models: With one 10/100 Base-T data port and one RJ-11 voice POTS port. With four 10/100 Base-T data ports (switched) and two RJ-11 voice POTS ports. Featuring advanced voice and data functions such as VLAN tagging, traffic prioritization by 802.1p and IP DiffServ, H.323 and SIP protocols support, Class 5 voice services (3-Party conference, call

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waiting, call hold), integrated management and more, the voice gateway CPE presents an ideal single box solution for operators seeking to serve combined broadband voice and data services.

Figure 3 - BreezeMAX Voice Gateway CPE IDU

2.2.3 Networking Gateway CPE


With (list specific ports and performance speed, etc.), The BreezeMAX Networking Gateway CPE is the ideal integrated networking solution for both home and small business users. It features an advanced integrated broadband router with comprehensive IP sharing and security capabilities, available in two configurations: With four port 10/100 Base-T switch. With four port 10/100 Base-T switch and 802.11b/g Wireless Access Point. The powerful networking solution not only enables comprehensive high-speed connection sharing for multiple users, but also brings the freedom of high-speed, wireless broadband connectivity to home and SOHO networks with integrated 802.11b/g Wireless LAN functionality. With features such as Static & Dynamic routing, NAT functionality, built-in firewall and an indoor coverage range of 35-100 meters, the NRG presents operators with a compelling carrier-class home networking solution.

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Figure 4 - BreezeMAX Networking Gateway CPE IDU

2.3 Base Station Equipment


The BreezeMAX Base Station Equipment features a Multi Carrier, High Power, Full Duplex Base Station. It has a central networking and management architecture and is designed for high availability, advanced redundancy and a variety of diversity schemes. The Base Station provides all the functionality necessary to communicate with the Subscriber Units and to connect to the backbone of the Service Provider. The Base Station is comprised of the following elements:

2.3.1 Base Station Chassis


The Base Station Equipment is based on an 8U high cPCI (compact Peripheral Component Interconnect) shelf designed for installation in 19 or 22 (ETSI) racks. This chassis has a total of nine double Euro (6U high) slots and six single Euro (3U high) slots. All the modules are hot swappable, and high availability can be provided through multiple redundancy schemes. The six single Euro slots are intended for one or two redundant Power Interface Units (PIU) and up to four redundant Power Supply Units (PSUs). One of the double Euro slots is dedicated to the Network Processing Unit (NPU) module. Another double Euro slot is reserved for an optional redundant NPU (NPU redundancy is not supported in BreezeMAX version 1.0). The remaining seven double Euro slots are dedicated mainly for Access Unit (AU) indoor modules, thus enabling various future redundancy configurations. Each of these slots will also be capable to host a Network Interface Unit (NIU) to allow in future releases for NxE1 or ATM backbone connectivity. Additionally, the Base Station chassis contains an air convection and ventilation fan tray (AVU).

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Figure 5 - BreezeMAX Base Station Shelf

2.3.2 Network Processing Unit (NPU)


The Network Processing Unit is the heart of the BreezeMAX Base Station. The NPU module serves as the central processing unit that manages the base stations components and the SUs served by it. It aggregates the traffic from the AU modules and transfers it to the IP Backbone through a dedicated Gigabit/Fast Ethernet interface. The NPU main functions are:

Aggregate backbone Ethernet connectivity via a 100/1000 Base-T network interface. Traffic classification and connection establishment initiation. Policy based data switching. Service Level Agreements management. Centralized agent in the Base Station to manage all cell sites AUs and all registered SUs. Base Station overall operation control, including AU diagnostic and control, PSU monitoring, AVU management and redundancy support. Alarms management, including external alarm inputs and activation of external devices. Synchronization, including GPS antenna interface (future option), clock and IF reference generation and distribution to the Base Station modules as well as to other collocated Base Station chassis
Figure 6 - BreezeMAX BST NPU Module

An SNMP agent incorporated into the NPU enables extensive In Band (IB) management of the Base Station and all its registered SUs. Out Of Band (OOB) management is supported through a dedicated 10/100 Base-T interface. A serial RS-232 port supports local debugging and monitoring. Two NPU modules can be used to provide a 1+1 redundancy scheme. The data and control plane connectivity (via the backplane) is double star, which means that each of the two NPUs is connected to all interface card slots. The redundancy mechanism, to be supported in future releases, will be based on Master <-> Slave principle, where the slave is in passive mode and is constantly updating all the learning tables and networking parameters of the master card.

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2.3.3 Access Unit (AU)


The Access Unit is comprised of an Indoor Unit (IDU) and an Outdoor Unit (ODU). The double Euro IDU module connects to the ODU via an Intermediate Frequency (IF) cable. The IF cable carries full duplex data, control and management signals between the IDU and the ODU, as well as power (48VDC) and 64 MHz synchronization reference clock from the IDU to the ODU. The IF Tx and Rx frequencies are 240 MHz and 140 MHz, respectively. IDU-ODU service channel at 14 MHz serves for bi-directional control, status and management signaling.

2.3.3.1 AU-IDU
The double Euro Access Unit IDU module contains the wireless IEEE 802.16a MAC and modem and is responsible for the wireless network connection establishment and for bandwidth management. Each AU-IDU connects to the NPU via the back plane over a dual star 100 Base-T bus for IP traffic connectivity. Each AU-IDU includes two 3.5/1.75 MHz PHY channels that provide provisioning to the planned support for a future release of 2nd order of diversity and IF and radio link redundancy. In the current release, a single channel is supported.

Figure 7 - BreezeMAX AU IDU

2.3.3.2 AU-ODU
The AU-ODU is a high power, full duplex multi-carrier radio unit that connects to an external antenna. It is designed to provide high system gain and interference robustness utilizing high transmit power and low noise figure. It supports up to 14 MHz bandwidth and can support multichannels functionality for increased capacity (to be supported in future versions).

Figure 8 - BreezeMAX AU ODU

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2.3.4 Power Interface Unit (PIU)


The single Euro PIU module is the interface between the Base Station sites DC power source and the Base Station Chassis Power Supply Units and external ODUs, which receive power via the IDUs. The PIU filters and stabilizes the Base Station input power and protects the system from power problems such as over voltage, surge pulses, reverse polarity connection and short circuits. It also filters high frequency interference (radiated emissions) and low frequency interference (conducted emissions) to the external power source. Each Base Station chassis contains two slots for an optional 1+1 PIU redundancy. One PIU is sufficient to support a fully populated chassis: the use of two PIU modules allow redundant power feeding (two input sources) while avoiding current flow between the two input sources.

Figure 9 - BreezeMAX PIU Module

2.3.5 Power Supply Unit (PSU)


The single Euro PSU module is a standard off the shelf cPCI (48VDC) power supply unit. Each Base Station chassis can contain up to four PSU modules providing N+1 redundancy configurations. The table below displays the number of PSU modules (excluding redundant units) required for various Base Station configurations:

Figure 10 - BreezeMAX PSU Module

BreezeMAX PSU Requirements (excluding redundancy)


Base Station Configuration Number of AUs Required Number of PSUs

Entry Level Half Populated Fully Populated

1 3 6

1 2 3

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2.3.6 Air Ventilation Unit (AVU)


The 2U high AVU includes a 1U high integral chamber for inlet airflow and a 1U high fan tray with an internal alarm module. To support high availability Base Station, the fan tray includes 10 brushless fans, where 9 fans are sufficient for cooling a fully loaded chassis. To further support high availability, the chassis may operate with the hot-swappable fan tray extracted from it for a period of time sufficient for replacing it.

2.4 Management Systems


The end-to-end IP-based architecture of the system enables full management of all components, from any point in the system. BreezeMAX components can be managed using standard management tools through SNMP agents that implement standard and proprietary MIBs for remote setting of operational modes and parameters. The same SNMP management tools can also be used to manage other system components including switches, routers and transmission equipment. Security features incorporated in BreezeMAX units restrict the access for management purposes. In addition, the Ethernet WAN can be used to connect to other Operation Support Systems including servers, Customer Care systems and AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Admission) tools.

2.4.1 AlvariSTAR
AlvariSTAR is a comprehensive Carrier-Class network management system for Alvarions Broadband Wireless Access products-based Networks. AlvariSTAR is designed for todays most advanced Service Provider network Operation Centers (NOCs), providing the network OA&M staff and managers with all the network surveillance, monitoring and configuration capabilities that they require in order to effectively manage the BWA network while keeping the resources and expenses at a minimum. AlvariSTAR is designed to offer the networks OA&M staff with a unified, scalable and distributable network management system. AlvariSTAR system uses a distributed client-server architecture, which provides the service provider with a robust, scalable and fully redundant network management system in which all single point of failures can be avoided. AlvariSTAR provides the following BWA network management functionality: Device Discovery. Device Inventory. Topology. Fault Management. Configuration Management. Performance Monitoring.

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Device embedded software upgrade. Security Management. Northbound interface to other Network Management Systems or OSS. Embedded with the entire knowledge base of BWA network operations, AlvariSTAR is a unique state-of-the-art power multiplier in the hands of the service provider that enables the provisioning of satisfied customers. AlvariSTAR dramatically extends the abilities of the service provider to provide a rich portfolio of services and to support rapid customer base expansion.

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3 BreezeMAX Specification
3.1 Specifications
3.1.1 Radio specifications
Table 3-2: Radio Specifications
Item Description

Frequency

Unit/Band AU-3.5a1 AU-3.5b SU-3.5

Uplink (MHz) 3399.5-3453.5 3450-3500 3399.5-3500

Downlink (MHz) 3499.5-3553.5 3550-3600 3499.5-3600

Operation Mode

AU SU

FDD, Full duplex FDD, Half Duplex

Channel Bandwidth

3.5 MHz 1.75 MHz

Central Frequency Resolution CPE-ODU-AV/H Integral Antenna Antenna Port (CPE-ODU-E, AUODU) Output Power (typical values at antenna port) AU

0.125 MHz

17dBi, 20o, vertical/horizontal polarization, compliant with EN 302 085, Class TS 3 N-Type, 50 ohm

28dBm +/-1dB maximum. Power control range: 15dB 18-28dBm @ +/-1dB, 13-18dBm @ +/-2dB 20dBm +/-1dB ATPC dynamic range: 50dB minimum

SU

Modulation

OFDM modulation, 256 FFT points; BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

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Table 3-2: Radio Specifications


Item Description

FEC Sensitivity Typical values (PER=1%) Channel Spacing Modulation & Coding BFSK 1/2 BFSK 3/4 QPSK 1/2 QPSK 3/4 QAM16 1/2 QAM16 3/4 QAM64 2/3 QAM64 3/4

Convolutional Coding: 1/2, 2/3, 3/4 3.5MHZ 1.75MHZ

Bit rate (Mbps) 1.41 2.12 2.82 4.23 5.64 8.47 11.29 12.71

Sensitivity (dBm) -100 -98 -97 -94 -91 -88 -83 -82

Bit rate (Mbps) 0.71 1.06 1.41 2.12 2.82 4.24 5.65 6.35

Sensitivity (dBm) -103 -101 -100 -97 -94 -91 -86 -85

3.1.2 SU IDU/ODU Communication


Table 3-3: SU IDU/ODU Communication
Item Description

Cable Type Maximum Length

Category 5, Outdoor Data Cable, Double Jacket, 4x2x24# FTP 100 meter

3.1.3 AU IDU/ODU Communication


Table 3-4: AU IDU/ODU Communication
Item Description

IF Frequency

Tx: 240 MHz Rx: 140 MHz

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Table 3-4: AU IDU/ODU Communication


Item Description

Ref Synchronization Frequency ASK Bi-Directional Control Frequency IF cable Impedance Maximum IF cable Attenuation 17dB @ 240MHz 12dB @ 140MHz 8dB @ 64MHz Maximum IF cable DC Resistance

64 MHz 14 MHz 50 ohm

1.5 ohm

3.1.4 Data Communication (Ethernet Ports)


Table 3-5: Data Communication (Ethernet Ports)
Item Description

Standard Compliance

IEEE 802.3CSMA/CD NPU Data Port: 100/1000 Mbps NPU Management Port: 10/100 Mbps SU Data Port(s): 10/100 Mbps

Speed

3.1.5 Configuration and Management


Table 3-6: Configuration and Management
Item Description

Local Management (OOB)

SU: Telnet via Ethernet port NPU: Telnet via Management port, Monitor port

Remote Management (IB)

SNMP Telnet

SNMP Agents

SNMPv1 client MIB II (RFC 1213), Private BreezeMAX MIBs

Authentication & Key Management

X509v3 digital certificate

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Table 3-6: Configuration and Management


Item Description

Software upgrade Configuration upload/download

Using FTP via NPU Using FTP via NPU

3.1.6 Standards Compliance, General


Table 3-7: Standards Compliance, General
Type Standard

EMC Safety EN 60950 (CE)

ETS 300 385

IEC 60 950 US/C (TUV) Environmental ETS 300 019: Part 2-1 T 1.2 & part 2-2 T 2.3 for indoor & outdoor Part 2-3 T 3.2 for indoor Part 2-4 T 4.1E for outdoor Radio ETSI EN 301 021 V.1.5.1 ETSI EN 301 753 V.1.1.1

3.1.6.1 Environmental
Table 3-8: Environmental Specifications
Type Unit Details

Operating temperature Operating humidity

Outdoor units Indoor equipment Outdoor units Indoor equipment

-40 o C to 55 o C 0 o C to 40 o C 5%-95% non condensing, Weather protected 5%-95% non condensing

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3.1.7 Physical and Electrical


3.1.7.1 Subscriber Unit
3.1.7.1.1 Mechanical Table 3-9: Mechanical Specifications, Subscriber Unit
Unit Structure Dimensions (cm)

CPE-IDU-1D

Plastic box, desktop or wall mountable Plastic box, desktop or wall mountable Plastic box, desktop or wall mountable Metal box plus an integral antenna in a plastic enclosure, poll or wall mountable

14 x 6.6 x 3.5

CPE-IDU-VG-1D1V

17x21x8

CPE-IDU-VG-4D2V

17x21x8

CPE-ODU-AV/AH

31.5 x 11 x 31.5

CPE-ODU-E 3.1.7.1.2 Electrical

Metal box, poll or wall mountable

31.5 x 8.8 x 15.7

Table 3-10: Electrical Specifications, Subscriber Unit


Item Unit

AC Power Input

CPE-1D CPE-1D1V CPE-2D4V

100-240 VAC, 47-63 Hz 100-240 VAC, 50-60 Hz, 2A max. 100-240 VAC, 50-60 Hz, 2A max.

3.1.7.1.3

CPE-ODU Connectors

54VDC from the IDU over the indoor-outdoor Ethernet cable

Table 3-11: Connectors, Subscriber Unit


Unit Connector Description

CPE-IDU-1D

ETHERNET

10/100Base-T (RJ-45) with 2 embedded LEDs. Cable connection to a PC: crossed Cable connection to a hub: Straight 10/100Base-T (RJ-45)

RADIO

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Table 3-11: Connectors, Subscriber Unit


Unit Connector Description

AC IN CPE-IDU-VG1D1V ETHERNET

3 pin AC power plug 10/100Base-T (RJ-45) Cable connection to a PC: crossed Cable connection to a hub: Straight 10/100Base-T (RJ-45) RJ-11 3 pin AC power plug 4 x 10/100Base-T (RJ-45) Cable connection to a PC: crossed Cable connection to a hub: Straight

RADIO PHONE AC IN CPE-IDU-VG4D2V LAN 1-4

RADIO PHONE1 - 2 110-220 VAC CPE-ODU-AV/AH INDOOR

10/100Base-T (RJ-45) 2 x RJ-11 3 pin AC power plug 10/100Base-T (RJ-45), protected by a waterproof sealing assembly 10/100Base-T (RJ-45), protected by a waterproof sealing assembly N-Type jack, 50 ohm, lightning protected

CPE-ODU-E

INDOOR

ANT

3.1.7.2 Modular Base Station Equipment


3.1.7.2.1 Mechanical Table 3-12: Mechanical Specifications, Modular Base Station Equipment
Unit Structure Dimensions (cm)

BST-SH

8U ETSI type shelf, 19" or 23 rack mounted or desktop

8U x 43.19 x 24

PIU PSU NPU

Power interface module Power supply module Network processing module

3U x 5HP x 16 3U x 8HP x 16 6U x 7HP x 16

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Table 3-12: Mechanical Specifications, Modular Base Station Equipment


Unit Structure Dimensions (cm)

AU-IDU AU-ODU AVU

Access Unit indoor module Metal box, poll or wall mountable Air ventilation fan tray

6U x 7HP x 16. 31.5 x 8.8 x 15.7 2U x 84HP x 16

* 1U=44.45 mm (1.75) ** 1HP=5.08 mm (0.2)


3.1.7.2.2 Electrical Table 3-13: Electrical Specifications, Modular Base Station Equipment
Unit Details

Pouer Source PIU PSU NPU AU-IDU AU-ODU AVU Connectors

-36 to -72 VDC 35W 200W 65W 28W 38W 24W

3.1.7.2.3

Table 3-14: Connectors, Modular Base Station Equipment


Unit Connector Description

PIU

-48V

3 pin/40A D-Type male Amphenol P/N 717TWA3W3PHP2V4RRM6

NPU

DATA

100/1000Base-T (RJ-45) with 2 embedded LEDs. Cable connection to a PC: crossed Cable connection to a hub: Straight 10/100Base-T (RJ-45) with 2 embedded LEDs. Cable connection to a PC: crossed Cable connection to a hub: Straight 15-pin micro D-Type jack 15-pin micro D-Type jack

MGMT

GPS/SYNC IN GPS/SYNC OUT

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Table 3-14: Connectors, Modular Base Station Equipment


Unit Connector Description

AL-IN AL-OUT MON AU-IDU AU-ODU ODU 1, ODU 2 IF ANT

9-pin micro D-Type jack 9-pin micro D-Type jack 3-pin low profile jack 2 x TNC jack, lightning protected TNC jack, lightning protected N-Type jack, 50 ohm, lightning protected

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4 Functional Description
4.1 IEEE 802.16 Based Design
BreezeMAX is based on the IEEE 802.16 WirelessMAN standard, designed specifically to solve the unique problem of the wireless metropolitan area network (MAN) environment and to deliver broadband access services to a wide range of customers, including residential, SOHO, SME and multi-tenant customers. It offers tremendous advantages over proprietary interfaces or those based on wireless local area network (LAN) or mobile telephone technology, as described in the following sections:

4.1.1 Air Interface Media Access Control (802.16.1)


The IEEE 802.16 Media Access Control (MAC) protocol was designed for point-to-multipoint broadband wireless access applications. It provides a very efficient use of the wireless spectrum and supports difficult user environments. The access and bandwidth allocation mechanisms accommodate hundreds of subscriber units per channel, with subscriber units that may support different services to multiple end users. To efficiently deliver a variety of services, the protocol supports both continuous and burst traffic. Through the WirelessMAN MAC, each base station allocates uplink and downlink bandwidth to satisfy, almost instantaneously, the prioritized bandwidth requirements of the subscribers. The MAC protocol controls the media so that Subscriber Units transmit only in allocated transmitting opportunities. This MAC method is based on MAPs which are broadcasted by the AU every time interval (frame) and define the timing and profiles of DL and UL bursts.

DL UL

DL first burst MAP

DL Burst 2

DL Burst 3

DL burst 4

DL burst 5

The MAC protocol is designed to carry any data or multimedia traffic with highly flexible Quality of Service (QoS) support. The connection-oriented protocol allows flexible QoS attributes definition for each connection. Capability negotiation allows for seamless support of wide variety of terminals.

preamble

preamble

MAP UL Burst 2 UL Burst 3 UL Burst 3 UL burst 4 Contention period


preamble

MAINT Period

Unicast Scheduled period

Multi cast Scheduled period

Figure 11: Scheduled and Synchronized Transmissions

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The 802.16 MAC can also support a variety of backhaul requirements, using convergence sublayers to map the transport layer specific traffic to a MAC that is flexible enough to efficiently carry any traffic type. It also supports real-time adaptive modulation and coding so that, in each burst, communication in the link to each subscriber unit is optimized at that instant. The MAC makes use of bandwidthefficient burst profiles under favorable link conditions, but shifts to more reliable, although less efficient alternatives in hostile environment to ensure high link availability at all times. BreezeMAX supports the use of a full-duplex AU with half-duplex SUs. Although this capability increases the complexity of the protocol, it provides significant cost-performance advantages. The request-grant mechanism is designed to be scalable, efficient, and self-correcting. The 802.16 access system does not lose efficiency when presented with multiple connections per subscriber units, multiple QoS levels per subscriber units, and a large number of statistically multiplexed users. It takes advantage of a wide variety of request mechanisms, balancing the stability of contention-less access with the efficiency of contention-oriented access. BreezeMAX utilizes a block ARQ mechanism to control retransmissions, with cumulative blocks acknowledgements. An enhanced retransmissions control algorithm enables dynamically adapting the size and profile of retransmitted fragment to the prevailing channel conditions to increase efficiency. The 802.16 MAC includes a privacy sub-layer that provides authentication of network access and connection establishment to avoid theft of service. It also supports key exchange and encryption for data privacy.

4.1.2 Air interface Physical Layer (802.16a)


The system uses OFDM radio technology. For Broadband Wireless Access applications in frequencies below 11 GHz, the channel characteristics favor OFDM, as it allows for more flexible deployments because it doesnt suffer from some of the restrictions of other systems, such as short link distances, LOS requirement and antenna limitations. NLOS operation allows for easy installation and improves coverage. OFDM is robust in adverse channel conditions and allows NLOS operation while maintaining a high level of spectral efficiency. It effectively mitigates performance degradations due to multipath and is capable of combating deep fades in part of the spectrum. The OFDM waveform can be easily modified to adjust to the delay spread of the channel enabling easy handling of large delay spreads, and it allows efficient operation as very short or no pre-ambles are needed. The use of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) allows simultaneous transmission from several users, with only a fraction of the sub-carriers assigned to each user. In this way the benefits of large FFT size are combined with the granularity advantage of small FFT size. An additional advantage of OFDMA is an improved upstream link budget, due to smaller effective bandwidth of each user. BreezeMAX is planned to support uplink OFDMA in future releases.

4.1.3 Coexistence (802.16.2)


IEEE 802.16 also provides recommended practices for the design and coordinated deployment of Broadband Wireless Access systems to minimize interference so as to maximize system performance and/or service quality. These recommendations will allow a wide range of equipment to coexist in a shared environment with minimum mutual interference and enable operators to make

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good use of the available spectrum. This will allow coexistence of systems deployed across geographic boundaries in the same frequency band and systems deployed in overlapping geographic areas in different frequency bands (including different systems deployed by a single license-holder in sub-bands of the licensees authorized bandwidth).

4.2 Applications
BreezeMAX is designed to meet the business needs of Established Carriers, supporting a wide range of applications and delivery of quality services to the following customer groups:

4.2.1 Residential Home Networking and SOHO Customers


In typical residential and SOHO applications the SU is connected to a number of PCs to provide data services using the data bridge CPE. Voice and fax services can be provided with the BreezeMAX voice gateway CPE. A larger number of voice lines can be supported by external residential gateways. Advanced IP suite features as well wireless connectivity (802.11b/g) can be provided with the BreezeMAX networking gateway.

4.2.2 Multi Dwelling Unit (MDU)/Multi Tenant Unit (MTU)


In MDU/MTU applications the SU is located in an apartment/office building. It can be located either near the roof, in the cellar or in another place in the building. For such applications, the multi data port voice or networking gateway can provide differentiated data services to some or all of the apartments in the building. Voice and fax services can be provided with the BreezeMAX voice gateway CPE.

4.2.3 Small Medium Enterprise (SME)


In SME applications the SU is located at the customers office. It is connected to a router/switch for data services (typically up to 40 workstations). Future release will also support Leased Line E1 and Fractional E1 voice and data services, as well as full PBX telephony services.

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4.3 Services
4.3.1 Network Reference Model
SU LAN

Subscriber 1
SU LAN

Subscriber 2
SU LAN

Fax

Subscriber 3

Provider's Backbone BST Shelf 3rd Party Router

Resource (e.g. Internet)

LAN

Subscriber 4
SU

LAN

Subscriber 5

VLAN Bridge

LAN

Subscriber 6

BS

AC

TRM S/T

SU U

AU

NPU V

Reference Model

Figure 12: Network Reference Model

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Resource

3d party Router

Reference Protocols' options Point S Ethernet T Ethernet + VLAN tags

Comments

U V

Without VLAN tags If the Subscriber equipment (TRM) is a VLAN aware switch. VLANs are used to identify different users connected to the same SU. IEEE 802.16 MAC/PHY The traffic is classified onto IEEE 802.16 Connections. Ethernet + VLAN tags AC is a router with a WAN port (e.g. ATM, PoS, FR, etc.). It is assumed that it turns the VLAN tags into WAN connections (e.g. ATM VCs, MPLS LSPs, FR DLCPs, etc.), called Virtual Private Links (VPLs). VLAN tags represent the VPLs. Ethernet Without VLAN tags. In this case it is assumed that there is only one VPL. WAN Serial Protocols (e.g. Conversion to/from Ethernet/VLAN by the AC. ATM, PoS, FR)

4.3.2 Service Pipes


BreezeMAX supports a wide range of network services. The capability to recognize different service types enables operators to offer appropriate SLAs with committed QoS for each Service Pipe. Service Pipe is a virtual connection, which links a users application (behind the SU) and the network resources. The network resource might be Internet, Content Provider, Corporate Network, etc. The Subscriber Services are configured as Service Pipes with different properties. The Service Pipes are implemented as IEEE 802.16 connections within the wireless domain (between reference points U and V) and as e.g. ATM VCs, MPLS LSPs, FR DLCPs within the Providers Backbone domain (beyond reference point G).

4.3.3 Properties of Service Pipes


4.3.3.1 Forwarding and Switching Control
Data is forwarded or switched only between the Service Pipes that belong to the same Forwarding Rule (identified by the Forwarding Rule ID). Each Forwarding Rule also specifies certain policy attributes like Unknown Address Forwarding Policy (Reject or Forward) for Layer 2 services and Multicast Address Forwarding Policy (Reject or Forward) for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 Services. This property achieves privacy of the Service Pipes.

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4.3.3.2 Addressing Control


When Address Distribution Control (e.g. DHCP) is applied data is forwarded or switched only between the known (allowed) addresses or address blocks (e.g. CIDR Blocks).

4.3.3.3 Auto-configuration
This feature allows certain service parameters, for example the users PCs IP addresses, to be learned automatically without any configuration.

4.3.3.4 Quality of Service


Each Service Pipe can be assigned a Quality of Service profile, which guarantees the Service Pipes performance. Within the wireless domain the Quality of Service is achieved by the IEEE 802.16protocol. Outside of the wireless domain the Quality of Service should be achieved by the applicable techniques used by the network resources (e.g. ATM, MPLS, FR).

4.3.3.5 Aggregation of Service Pipes


The Service Pipes are implemented via various means that may change between the different reference points. Not all the techniques allow the same level of granularity (for instance, there hardly will ever be as many ATM VCs as IEEE 802.16 connections). Thus multiple Service Pipes might be aggregated into one between certain reference points. For example, multiple IEEE 802.16 connections may be aggregated into a single ATM VC. In this case the mapping back onto connections is achieved via Switching and Forwarding algorithms (i.e. based on the Ethernet or IP addresses)

4.3.4 Service Types


The currently supported services include:

4.3.4.1 IP Access
The IP Access service connects the subscriber's LAN to the Internet and/or subscribers' networks in the same Base Station. The IP Access service transports IP datagrams between subscriber's site and a resource located behind the Providers Backbone. The resource is assumed to be Internet, but may be also another resource type such as a corporate network.

4.3.4.2 PPPoE Tunneling Access


PPPoE Access service provides connectivity between a PPPoE enabled workstations at the subscriber's site and PPPoE aware Access Concentrator at the Base Station..

4.3.4.3 VPN Type 2 (LAN Access)


The LAN Access service transports Layer 2 (Ethernet) frames between subscriber's site and a resource located behind the Providers Backbone using VLAN. It is assumed that the backbone either supports encapsulation of the Layer 2 frames or routes the frames according to the Layer 3 protocol, which might be different than IP. The resource in general is assumed to be a corporate network.

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4.3.4.4 VoIP Telephony


The Voice over IP service provides POTS connectivity to the PSTN via a 3rd party VoIP Gateway: a. Through the voice ports in the voice gateway CPE b. Through an external residential gateway connected to the Subscriber Units data port. In future releases the system will also support E1 and Fractional E1 TDM voice and data services, including V5.X signaling support.

4.4 Connections, Scheduling Services and SLAs


The air protocol of BreezeMAX is connection oriented. All services, including inherently connection-less services, are mapped to a connection. This provides a mechanism for requesting bandwidth, associating QoS and traffic parameters, transporting and routing data to the appropriate convergence sub-layer, and all other actions associated with the contractual terms of the Service Level Agreements (SLA). Connections are referenced with connection identifiers (CID), and may require continuously granted service or bandwidth on demand.

4.4.1 Connection Types


4.4.1.1 Management Connections
Upon entering the network, the SU is assigned three management connections in each direction. These three connections reflect the three different QoS requirements used by different management levels. The first of these is the basic connection, which is used for the transfer of short, time-critical MAC and radio link control (RLC) messages. The primary management connection is used to transfer longer, more delay-tolerant messages such as those used for authentication and connection setup. The secondary management connection is used for the transfer of standards-based management messages such as DHCP, TFTP, and SNMP.

4.4.1.2 Transport Connections


SUs are allocated transport connections for the contracted services. Transport connections are unidirectional to facilitate different uplink and downlink QoS and traffic parameters; they are typically assigned to services in pairs. The MAC reserves some additional connections for other purposes.

4.4.2 Scheduling Services


BreezeMAX supports Grant Per Connection (GPC) operation, where bandwidth is granted explicitly to each connection. Each connection is mapped to a scheduling service. Each scheduling service is associated with a set of rules. The supported scheduling services are: Unsolicited Grant Services (UGS), also called Continuous Grant (CG), is tailored for carrying constant bit- rate (CBR) real-time services characterized by fixed size data packets on a periodic basis such as VoIP or E1/T1. The Base Station schedules regularly, in a preemptive manner, grants of the size defined at connection setup, without an explicit

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request from the Subscriber Unit. This eliminates the overhead and latency of bandwidth requests in order to meet the delay and jitter requirements of the underlying service. This service contract is reserved in BreezeMAX version 1.0 for voice services using the BreezeMAX voice gateway. Real-time Polling Services (rtPS) is designed to meet the needs of Real Time Variable Bit Rate (RT-VBR) like services characterized by requirements for guaranteed rate and delay such as streaming video or audio. These services are dynamic in nature, but offer periodic dedicated requests opportunities to meet real-time requirements. Because the Subscriber Unit issues explicit requests, the protocol overhead and latency is increased, but capacity is granted only according to the real needs of the connection. Service parameters include Committed Burst (CB) and Committed Time (CT), which define the rate. Rate =CB/CT. Non-real-time Polling Services (nrtPS) is very similar to the real-time polling service except that connections may utilize random access transmit opportunities for sending bandwidth requests. These Non Real Time Variable Bit Rate (NRT-VBR) services, such as file transfer and Internet access with a minimum guaranteed rate, are characterized by requirement for a guaranteed rate, but can tolerate longer delays and are rather insensitive to jitter. Service parameters include Committed Information Rate (CIR) and Maximum Information Rate (MIR). Best Effort (BE) service is also available for services where neither throughput nor delay guarantees are provided. The Subscriber Unit sends requests for bandwidth in either random access slots or dedicated transmission opportunities. The occurrence of dedicated opportunities is subject to network load, and the Subscriber Unit cannot rely on their presence. Service parameters include Maximum Information Rate (MIR).

4.4.3 Classification
Differentiated SLAs to various services can be based on a number of classifiers. The service provider can define certain service profiles. Each profile figures a complete set of parameters of certain service type. The available classifiers vary according to the specific services properties, and include: Traffic type Classifier parameter Data IP traffic PPPoE traffic Voice using Alvarion Residential Gateway External voice VLAN ID, 802.1p and DiffServ Ethertype value IP address and UDP port VLAN ID, 802.1p and DiffServ

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4.5 Automated Network Entry


The air protocol of BreezeMAX includes an initialization procedure designed to simplify the SUs installation process by eliminating the need for manual configuration. The Automated Network Entry process is executed after each power up or new link establishment. The Automated Network Entry process includes the following steps:

4.5.1 Channel Acquisition


Upon power up, the SU begins scanning its frequency list to find an operating channel, starting with the last frequency it used. In dense deployments it may be useful to configure the SU to register with a specific Base Station (BS), referring to a programmable BS ID broadcasted by each BS. After deciding on which channel pair to attempt communication, the SU tries to synchronize to the downlink transmissions. Once the physical is synchronized, including fine tuning of carrier frequency and symbol timing, the SU will look for periodically broadcast messages that enable to SU to learn the modulation and coding schemes used on the carrier.

4.5.2 Initial Ranging


Upon learning what parameters to use for initial ranging request transmissions, the SU will look for initial ranging request opportunities using an exponential back-off algorithm to determine which initial ranging transmitting opportunity slot it will use. The SU will send the burst using the minimum power setting and will continue trying with increasingly higher transmission power until it receives a ranging response. Based on the arrival time of the initial ranging request and the measured power of the signal, the BS transmits a ranging response that includes timing and power adjustment information. The response also includes the Connection IDs (CID) for basic and primary management connections.

4.5.3 Authentication and Key Exchange


Each SU contains both a manufacturer issued X.509 based digital certificate and the manufacturers certificate. These certificates, which establish a link between the MAC address of the SU and its public RSA key, are sent to the BS in the Authentication Request message. If the SU is authorized to join the network after its identity has been verified, the BS will respond with an Authorization Reply containing a Key Encryption Key (KEK) encrypted with the SUs public key and used to secure further Traffic Encryption Key (TEK) transmissions. TEKs (RC4 128 bit) are used to encrypt the transmitted data packets.

4.5.4 Registration
Upon successful authorization, the SU will register with the network. This will establish the secondary management connection.

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4.5.5 Establish IP Connectivity and Time of Day


After registration, the SU obtains an IP address via DHCP and establishes the time of day via an Internet Time Protocol server whose address is provide by the DHCP server. The DHCP server provides also the address of the LOG Server, to which all error messages will be sent.

4.5.6 Download Configuration File


The DHCP server also provides the Configuration file name and the IP address of the TFTP server from which the SU can request the specified configuration file. The configuration file provides all the information required for proper operation of the SU, including the correct firmware version that should run on the SU and other parameters related to MAC and PHY performance. If necessary, the SU can also download an updated firmware file, thus automating the upgrade process.

4.6 Radio Link Control


The advanced technology of the PHY requires equally advanced radio link control (RLC), particularly the capabilities to shift from one burst profile to another and to control transmit power.

4.6.1 Adaptive Modulation and Coding Scheme


After initial determination of uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) burst profiles, the links quality is continuously monitored to control the modulation and coding schemes. Harsher environmental conditions, such as rain fades, can force a more robust burst profile. Alternatively, exceptionally good weather may allow temporary operation with a more efficient burst profile. The RLC continues to adapt each SUs current UL and DL burst profiles, ever striving to achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency and optimize tradeoff between capacity and error rate. Most of the links, most of the time, use high order modulation to maximize capacity. Bad links, use lower modulation maximizes availability. The Proprietary algorithm is based on link quality information, such as packet error rate, SNR and multi path. Under certain link conditions, link quality estimation based on multi-path is much better than relying on SNR, enabling to optimize trade offs between modulation scheme and coding rate. The adaptation algorithm is highly dynamic, with the ability to change the burst profile on a per frame basis.

4.6.2 Automatic Transmit Power Control (ATPC)


The Automatic Transmit Power Control (ATPC) algorithm simplifies the installation process and ensures optimal performance while minimizing interference to other units. The dynamic control of SUs transmit power avoids BS Rx saturation, reduces near/far and ACI effects and improves frequency reuse. Furthermore, the use of OFDMA requires tighter uplink power control to reduce interference between OFDMA channels. This is achieved by automatically adjusting the power level transmitted by each SU according to the actual level at which it is received by the AU. The algorithm is based on RSSI, link attenuation, and SUs capabilities. Power commands can be sent by the BS every frame, and the time constant for power changes is less than 1 second. BreezeMAX SUs have a dynamic range in excess of 50 dB to efficiently support a very wide range of distances and link qualities.

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4.7 Security
Upon joining the access network, the SU identifies itself to the Base Station using a unique X.509 based digital signature. The Base Station generates an Authorization Key and transfers it to SU using public key encryption. This Authorization Key is used for triple DES (DES3) encryption of Traffic Key sets that are sent periodically by the Base Station to its subscribers. This Traffic Keys set can be unique per SU or shared per cell, thereby allowing for enhanced/basic security modes respectively. Data encryption using RC4 is done with a 128-bit key generated by a selected Traffic Key, and the key is changed every configurable number of MAC frames. The Key Encryption Key used for decrypting the Traffic Encryption Keys is refreshed automatically after a certain configurable time. The enhanced RC4, combined with periodical key changes, result in an exceptionally robust encryption scheme. The encryption functionality in BreezeMAX is planned for support in future versions.

4.8 High Availability


A carrier grade system that provides critical services to numerous subscribers must guarantee high base station availability to ensure uninterrupted services to its customers. BreezeMAX is designed to support multiple redundancy schemes to ensure high base station availability at all times. PICMG 2.1 R.2 compliant Hot Swap and Redundancy Control busses on the back plane support hot-swap insertion/extraction of cards, dynamic system/units configuration and redundancy schemes. The staged (multi-length) make-break pins in the CompactPCI connector of all cards, together with on-board sophisticated power supply management and Hot Swap ready indicators of the NPU and AU-IDU cards, support full hot-swap capability. The system recognizes insertion/extraction of cards and acts accordingly to update the configuration and ensure smooth continued operation.

4.8.1 PIU Redundancy


Each Base Station chassis contains two PIU slots for 1+1 redundancy. One PIU is sufficient to support a fully populated chassis: the use of two PIUs allows redundant power feeding (two input sources), avoiding current flow between the two input sources.

4.8.2 PSU Redundancy


Each Base Station chassis can contain up to four PSUs providing N+1 redundancy configurations up to 3+1 redundancy for a fully populated Base Station chassis. All PSUs work in current sharing mode: when one PSU fails, the rest take over (accepting extra load) and continue operation without interruption. In the event of a PSU failure, the NPU receives an alarm and reports to the NMS. The following table displays the number of PSUs (including PSU redundancy) required for various Base Station configurations:

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AU Entry Level Half Populated Fully Populated 1 3 6

NPU 1 1 2

PSU 1+1 2+1 3+1

A higher order of redundancy, e.g. 2+2, can also be used.

4.8.3 NPU redundancy


NPU redundancy scheme is 1+1. The data and control plane connectivity (via the backplane) is double star, which means that each of the two NPU slots is connected to all AU/NIU interface card slots. The redundancy mechanism is based on Master <-> Slave principle, where the slave is in passive mode and is constantly keeping up to data all the learning tables and networking parameters of the master card. Upon failure of the master NPU card, the slave card will take over with practically no interruption to the on-going operation of the Base Station. Full support of NPU redundancy is planned for future release.

4.8.4 ACU Fans Redundancy


To support high availability Base Station, the fan tray includes 10 brush-less fans, where 8 fans are sufficient for cooling a fully loaded chassis. To further support high availability, the chassis may operate with the hot-swappable fan tray extracted from it for a period that is sufficient for replacing the fan tray.

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4.8.5 AU Redundancy
Full AU redundancy support, such as the redundancy scheme described below, is planned for future release:

4.8.5.1 4+2 Full AU Redundancy with Diversity


In this option, illustrated in Figure 13 every two AU-IDUs are backed up by one redundant AU-IDU using IF MUXes, thus achieving 4+2 [2 x (2+1)] redundancy using six slots. Each sector uses two AU-ODUs for 2nd order diversity and full radio link redundancy. In this redundancy scheme, the redundant AU-IDU takes over in case of an AU-IDU failure. In case of an AU-ODU or IF Channel failure, the remaining AU-ODU will continue to operate without diversity.
IF Channel #1 AU-IDU #1 IF Channel #2 AU-ODU #2

IF MUX #1

AU-ODU #1

AU-IDU #2

IF Channel #1 IF Channel #2 IF Channel #1 IF Channel #2

IF MUX #2

AU-ODU #3 AU-ODU #4

Redundant AU-IDU

Figure 13: 4+2 Full AU Redundancy with Diversity

4.9 Diversity and Radio Link Redundancy


Paragraph 4.8.5.1, 4+2 Full AU Redundancy with Diversity on page 33, described a possible redundancy scheme that in addition to AU-IDU redundancy supports also 2nd order diversity with radio link redundancy. Additional diversity options with inherent IF + RF radio link redundancy are described in the following sections. The current AU-IDU card has two IF channels, and 2nd order diversity and redundancy support for these cards is planned for future release. Future BreezeMAX releases plan to introduce AU-IDU cards with 4 IF channels, that will support 4th order diversity with various redundancy schemes.

4.9.1 2nd Order Diversity with Radio Link Redundancy


This diversity and redundancy scheme, illustrated in Figure 14, uses two IF channels, each connected to a different AU-ODU to deliver both transmit and receive antenna diversity. If one AUODU or one IF channel fails, the other radio link continue to function without diversity.

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AU-IDU MAC + Modem IF


CH1 CH2

AU-ODU #1
RF1

AU-ODU #2
RF2

Figure 14: 2nd order diversity with radio link redundancy

4.9.2 4th Order Diversity with Radio Link Redundancy


This diversity and redundancy scheme, illustrated in Figure 15, uses four IF channels, each connected to a different AU-ODU to deliver both transmit and receive antenna 4th order diversity. If one or more AU-ODUs or one IF channels fails, the other radio links continue to function with a lower order of diversity.

AU-IDU IF
CH1 CH2

AU-ODU #1
RF1

AU-ODU #2
RF2

MAC + Modem
CH3 CH4

AU-ODU #3
RF3

AU-ODU #4
RF4

Figure 15: 2nd order diversity with radio link redundancy

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4.10 Increased Sector Capacity


In addition to supporting various redundancy schemes, The IF MUX (planned for future release) can also be used to increase sector capacity to up to 14 MHz. Figure 16 illustrates using the IF MUX for connecting up to four 3.5 MHz channels to a single 14 MHz AU-ODU.

AU#1

AU#2 IF MUX

AU-ODU
RF1

AU#3

AU#4

Figure 16: 4 x 3.5 MHz Channels Connected to a Single 14 MHz AU-ODU

Using the other IF channels of the same AU-IDUs with additional IF MUXes and AU-ODUs, up to a 4th order diversity with radio link redundancy can be provided for the 14 MHz radio channels.

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5 Appendix A: Terms and Abbreviations


ACI ACU ARQ ASK ATM ATPC AU BE BFSK BS BWA CB CBR CG CID cPCI CPE CSMA/CD CT DES DHCP DL DOCSIS DSCP EB ETSI FEC FFT FTP GPC GPS IB IDU IF IEEE Adjacent Channel Interference Air Cooling Unit Automatic Repeat reQuest Amplitude-Shift Keying Asynchronous Transfer Mode Automatic Transmit Power Control Access Unit Best effort Binary Frequency-Shift Keying Base Station Broadband Wireless Access Committed Burst Constant Bit Rate Continuous Grant Connection ID Compact Peripheral Component Interface Customer Premise Equipment Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Committed Time Data Encryption Standard Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Down Link Data Over cable Service Interface Specification Differentiated Service Code Point Excess Burst European Telecommunications Standards Institute Forward Error Correction Fast Fourier Transform File Transfer Protocol Grant Per Connection Global Positioning System In Band Indoor Unit Intermediate Frequency Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

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IP IPSec KEK LAN MAC MAN MDU MIB MTU MUX NAT NIU NOC NPU NRTPS NRT-VBR OA&M ODU OFDM OFDMA OOB OSS PBX PER PHY PICMG PIU POTS PPPoE PSTN PSU PtMP QAM QPSK RC4 REN RLC Rx

Internet Protocol IP Security protocol Key Encryption Key Local Area Network Media Access Control Metropolitan Area Network Multi Dwelling Unit Management Information Base Multi Tennant Unit MUltipleXer Network Address Translation Network Interface Unit Network Operations Center Network Processing Unit Non-Real-Time Polling Service Non-Real-Time Variable-Bit-Rate Operations, Administration & Maintenance Outdoor Unit Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Out Of Band Operations Support Systems Private Brunch eXchange Packet Error Rate PHYsical layer PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group Power Interface Unit Plain Old Telephone System Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet Public Switched Telephone Network Power Supply Unit Point to Multi Point Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Rivest Cipher # 4 Ringer Equivalency Number Radio Link Control Receive

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RFU RT-VBR RTPS SAP SLA SME SNMP SOHO SU TDM TEK TFTP ToS Tx UDP UGS UL VLSI VPL VPN VoIP

Radio Frequency Unit Non-Real-time Variable-Bit-Rate Non-Real-Time Polling Service Service Access Point Service Level Agreement Small Medium enterprise Simple Network Management Protocol Small Office Home office Subscriber Unit Time Division Multiplexing Traffic Encryption Key Trivial File Transfer Protocol Type of Service Transmit User Datagram Protocol Unsolicited Grant Service Up Link Very Large Scale Integration Virtual Private Link Virtual Private Network Voice over Internet Protocol

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