You are on page 1of 17

Automatic Power Factor Regulators

A P.F.C. system for a tecnical plant must be planned considering the features of its plant. First of all, you have to decide the type of P.F.C. equipment, in practice if you think it is better an automatic or a manual P.F.C. equipment. The automatic P.F.C. equipment is composed of capacitors, for a power overall equal to the one necessary for P.F.C. at the cosfi you need, split up into batteries, which power has to be thought in function of the features of the plant. These batteries are put through some contactors conveniently dimensioned, driven by a sensible appliance to the reactive power that qualifies, with a certain delay, the feeding to the coil of the contactors. For the choice of the number and of the power with whom you can realize the single batteries, it is necessary to choose between two contrasting exigences. The realization of the automatic P.F.C. system, through a division of the power in several batteries of little power allows a good accuracy in following the the fluctuations of the load, in comparison you have a bigger complexity of the system because it is realized with several parts. Furthermore, you risk that the delay with whom are inserted the batteries lead the system to have a time of regulation too high, and not to reach in time to compensate the peak points. To realize some batteries of too high power, towards the usual load variation (and therefore of cos), can bring the a not efficace power factor correction because the battery can not be put by the regulator being of too high power according to the one you need. In fact, the automatic regulator can have a calibration dispositive (called C/K) that esblishes the intervention sensibility of the regulator itself avoiding dangerous "weighing" of the P.F.C; practically, it is established, through the definition of a value for the C/K parameter, a zone of not intervention of the regulator, which width is linked to the power of the 1st battery of the system. The connection of the battery from the regulator occurs when the power required to reach the cos stated exceeds 70% of the power of the first step of the P.F.C. system, and the disconnection when the power supplied exceeds 40% of the one of the first step. To better understand the function of the band of not intervention of the regulator and the logic of intervention of the same, please consider the above drawing: 1) Assume that the functionning point of the plant is the one marked by F1. This functionning is not acceptable, because the power factor is lower than the one set. The regulator will therefore insert the battery, and the functionning point will shift to F2, inside the band of not intervention and at a cos close to the settled one. 2) Now suppose to work with functionning point in position F3 of the diagramm, with the first battery of the P .F.C. system already set and with the second one double of the first one. In this condition, the power factor is not suitable, therefore the regulator will provide to insert the second battery of capacitors. The functionning point of the plant will then move to F4, at a too high cos, and the regulator will disconnect the first battery, leading the cos to a value close to the one set, with the functionning point among the band of not intervention and placed in F5. From the above, it is easy to understand why the powers of the batteries that forms the P.F.C. equipment are multiples of the power of the first battery: only in this way the regulator can insert the entire power available with other increases corresponding to the power of the 1st step.

The best composition of an automatic P.F.C. equipment, for what the division of the total power in batteries concerns, shows the first step of an adequate limited power, but with the other power batteries more and more increasing, up to a composition like 1-2-4 (the number shows the multiple of the first battery). In this way, the aim to raise the cos of the plant in case of a considerable loss of the same, due to insertions of great power loads, is reached without losing in sensibility. Assuming to have two P.F.C. plants of the same power but with a different distribution in batteries:

Equipment A: power 70kVAr batteries 10-20-40 kVAr Equipment B: power 70kVAr batteries 10-10-10-10-10-10-10kVAr If the starting of an equipment leads the functionning point to F6 (see the drawing), the equipment A will take 3 insert cycles to reach the cos settled (F7-F8-F9), while the equipment B will take 7 cycles (F10-F11-F12-F13-F14-F15-F16).

Q [kVAr]

F6

F7

F10

F11

F8

F12 1st BATTERY width

F13

LOW cos AREA

F14 F3 F1 F15 F5 F9 F16 F2


0.7 x 1st battery 0.4 x 1st battery

PRE-SET cos STRAIGHT LINE

F4

HIGH cos AREA

non-intervention band

P [kW]

advanced technology for electrical installations

PFRMD Intelligent m

CESI approved

The PFRMD is a microprocessor controlled automatic power factor regulator, assembled in a 144x144 mm format container for flush mounting (DIN standard 43700). It can operate on three-phase low voltage systems at 220, 380, 415 VAC and also on high voltage systems by taking the voltage and current measurement signals from transformers (voltage transformer and current transformer). A version configured for performing single-phase measurements is available. The PFRMD measures permanently the reactive power consumption in the load, and according to the control logic, it can connect or disconnect the required amount of capacitor steps needed to obtain the preset cos value by means of a microprocessorcontrolled logic.

The PFRMD optimizes the use of the capacitor elements in a bank. The steps are rotated in order to obtain in the shortest time, and with the minimum number of operations, any desired combination. The "Top-up" function reduces considerably the number of operations, while the power factor correction is guaranteed. The regulation procedure and alarm management functions are the intelligent type, thanks to the microprocessor and software developed entirely by ELCONTROL ENERGY. The PFRMD optimizes the use of the system's components, obtaining the necessary combinations in the least possible time with fewer movements. By means of the capacitor bank functions it signals and disconnects the defective steps.

microprocessor-based power factor regulators


Keep your power factor correction system under control and operating efficiently. From 3 to 14 steps. Microprocessor-controlled intelligent logic. Measurements in True RMS. Lengthen the life of your power factor correction system. Ideal for power factor correction in the presence of harmonics. Maintains optimum control of P.F. system even under fault conditions.

PFRMD

Cos

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

V, I Sampling Regulation
of the phases, temperature set Cos

Cos V I Cos V I

Cyclic management of functions every


1
C

Cos

Harmonic Sampling
for measurement of the harmonic I rms current in the capacitors

Alarm Management

Cos V I Cos V I

Cos V I Cos V I

for "real time" operation


fr

Management of display and LEDs

Resonance Control
resonance control between capacitors and transformer

kvar
Calculation:
V, I, rms, active power P, reactive power Q, Cos, reactive power to be supplied for P.F.C., temperature

advanced technology for electrical installations

PFRMD Intelligent
Display of data
Cos V I Cos
The PFRMD normally displays the system's Cos measurement.

Current
Pressing the pushbutton Cos V a second time I the secondary current of the CT is displayed

Cos V I

Cos V I
Automatic C/K

Voltage
press the pushbutton to display the mains voltage

Temperature
Cos V I

pressing the pushbuttons + simultaneously, the temperature of the P.F.C.system is displayed.


Cos V I
AUT MAN

Cos V I

With this new function the regulator determines, by means of the measurements themselves, the power of each capacitor step and eliminates the need for manual setting of the C.T. ratio. The measurement is performed automatically and stored during the first hours of operation. The regulation logic takes into account the real power of each step and the power necessary to correct the power factor, using only the power steps strictly necessary, closest to the power required.

Harmonic overload protection


Il PFRMD il primo regolatore al mondo che effettua le misure in vero valore efficace (RMS) ossia in grado di determinare costantemente il contenuto armonico della rete elettrica. Il PFRMD pertanto vigila costantemente affinch non vengano superati limiti di armoniche pericolosi per i condensatori. Nel caso che la corrente efficace superi per almeno 2 minuti il 120% della fondamentale per l'effetto delle armoniche, il regolatore disattiva automaticamente e rapidamente tutti i banchi di condensatori presenti e riprende a funzionare normalmente al ritorno delle condizioni di normalit. Nel caso di 6 interventi nel giro di 60 minuti, l'apparecchio scollega permanentemente i condensatori attivando nel contempo il rel di allarme. Un LED sul frontale segnala l'allarme.

Lengthens the life of the p.f.c. system


The connect and disconnect logic was studied taking into account three principal objectives which are decisive for the long life of the system: Equalization of the number of step operations The PFRMD reaches this objective by counting the number of operations of each step and always connecting those steps that have worked the least. This translates into a considerable reduction in the number of maneuvers with resulting longer service life of the entire system. Capacitors "resting" The PFRMD connects a step only if it has been out of circuit for at least two minutes, in order to reduce the stress on the partially loaded capacitors. "Top-up" function The PFRMD constantly monitors the actual power factor and compares it with the desired pre-set value. Any spare capacity is utilised to maintain the power factor at a level between cos 1 and the preset value. This ensures that reactive energy consumption is kept to a minimum and unnecessar y switching operations are completely eliminated.

Resonance control Resonance risk signalling


Again, thanks to RMS measurements, the PFRMD also makes it possible to avoid either phenomena which are destructive to the P.F.C. system. The PFRMD signals the danger of resonances, specifically, abnormal amplifications of the 5th and 7th harmonic, which, even if they are not necessarily dangerous to the plant, are nonetheless an indication of danger and a warning to the user to carry out a more in-depth study. If either the 5th or 7th harmonic goes beyond 60% of the fundamental, the LED will flash every second to indicate the 5th harmonic and every 1/2 second to indicate the 7th harmonic.

Protection from resonance


hen the rms current exceeds 150% of the fundamental, the regulator identifies the presence of resonance and after a maximum of 1 second activates the quick disconnection of all of the capacitor banks. The regulator begins to function again normally when it returns within normal conditions. If the situation is repeated 6 times during a period of 60 minutes, the PFRMD permanently disconnects the capacitors and simultaneously activates the alarm relay. The harmonic overload LED signals the alarm.

Continuous check of the condition of the sytem (option-selectable)


The PFRMD logic carries out a check of the steps at each connection and disconnection, comparing these measurements with those initially stored. The PFRMD is thus able to: Indicate defective steps whose power is reduced by 20% or more. Single out contactors with poor contact performance. In both cases the PFRMD automatically eliminates the defective step from the configuration, and does not reconnect it.

Additional alarms
Lack of P.F. correction - Any condition which for more than 30 minutes impedes the power factor compensation of the electrical system to the preset Cos, the PFRMD activates the alarm relay while the regulation function continues. Mains failure - The PFRMD immediately disconnects the capacitor steps and the alarm relay activates the alarm. "Weighing" not possible - If one or both of the first two steps is not serviceable, the PFRMD is not able to determine the basic capacity, and after repeated attempts it signals the problem. High applied voltage (optional) - In cases where the voltage exceeds 110% of the rated voltage, the PFRMD disconnects the steps (in 3 seconds) and the output relay signals the alar m condition.

Temperature Control

A sensor located inside the equipment constantly monitors the temperature. When it exceeds a threshold of 40C., an output relay for ventilation control is automatically activated. Should the temperature exceed 60C., it automatically disconnects the capacitor banks within 3 seconds, simultaneously activating an alarm relay. When the temperature reenters nor mal limits,the equipment automatically begins to operate again. The two LEDs located on the front panel of the PFRMD indicate that the two temperature thresholds have been exceeded. The temperature in centigrade is shown on the display.

On request
For special system requirements the PFRMD can be set at the factory with alarm thresholds different from the standard ones, in addition to a maximum voltage alarm.

microprocessor-based power factor regulators


Front panel
LED signalling of connected steps Measurement Display

Harmonic overload LED Resonance LED LED - Temperature threshold one LED - Temperature threshold two Inductive load LED Capacitive load LED Automatic / manual LED

Indicator of the measurement selected and displayed Potentiometer for Cos regulation

Mains supply LED

Multi-function pushbuttons

Only four pushbuttons for all functions and regulations


Cos V I AU T MAN
Measurement display This pushbutton enables the display of the three parameters displayed in the following order: cos, V, I. Automatic/Manual Selects the type of function: AUTOMATIC (by default when it is turned on) or MANUAL (selected by pushbutton).

Cos V I

AU T MAN

Temperature To display the temperature within the P.F.C. panel, press these two pushbuttons simultaneously. (The temperature is in degrees C.).

+
Manual connection This pushbutton connects the steps in sequential order starting from step one.

Programmed Cos To display the cos set by the potentiometer located on the front panel, press these two pushbuttons simultaneously;

Manual disconnection This pushbutton disconnects the steps in sequential order starting from step one.

AU T MAN

Reset To reset the "weight" of the steps stored, press these two pushbuttons in succession and keep them pressed simultaneously for about ten seconds.

Rear
Contactor command outputs of capacitor banks 1 to 7

Alarm command outputs

Power supply input

Contactor command outputs of capacitor banks 8 to 14

Current inputs Connection board without screws Voltage inputs Harmonic measurement inputs

advanced technology for electrical installations

PFRMD Intelligent
Technical features
General specifications Voltage measurement input: max 750 VAC 10% (50/60 Hz selectable) Current measuring input: max 5 Amp. (50/60 Hz selectable) Input impedance: 4 MOhm Current consumption: max 0,2 VA Supply also possible from HV network. VT secondary connects to 100 - 120 VAC supply input terminals. HV CT secondary must be connected to terminals S1 - S2 of the PFRMD (VT connected phase-to phase - CT connected to third phase). Zeroing device in absence of voltage measuring signal A built-in filter provides normal operation of the regulator even in the presence of disturbances. A number of output contacts equal to the number of capacitor steps. Output contact rating: 5 Amperes- 250 VAC; or 2A-440VAC (for higher these ratings an auxiliary relay must be used). Maximum rating of relay common terminal: 10A at 40C. Mechanical specifications Mechanical dimensions of the equipment: front panel 144x144 mm. according to standard DIN43700. Insulated self-extinguishing container for flush mounting Panel cut-out: 138x138 mm. (tolerance -0mm./ + 1mm.); maximum panel thickness: 12 mm. Weight: from 1,45 to 1,6 Kg. (according to the version). Transparent protective mask for the front panel Connection board: screw connections Screw brackets for mounting to panel. Maximum panel thickness 12 mm. Power Mains: 100 120 VAC +/- 10% 50/60 Hz 200 240 VAC +/- 10% 50/60 Hz 346 415 VAC +/- 10% 50/60 Hz Consumption 15 .VA max Measurements of the fundamental quantities Measurement technique: Fixed sampling A/D Sampling frequency: 2,5 KHz Number of samples per phase: 250 (100 msec) Repetition rate of measurement: 1 sec. Environmental conditions Protection rating for the front panel with mask: IP 50 Operating temperature: from -10C to + 70C Storage temperature: from -25C to + 70C Relative humidity (maximum): 90 % at 20C Maximum altitude: 2000 meters. To be installed internally, away from heat sources Ordering information STANDARD TYPES: PFRMD3/4/5/6/7/10/12/14. N.B. For special uses the PFRMD can be supplied with alarm PROGRAMMING different from the standard programming

144

93

14

138

144

138

Panel cut-out

Connection diagram for PFRMD steps 3-4-5-6-7

Connection diagram for PFRMD steps 10-12-14

Insert the Current Transformer C.T. in series to the line with the greater amount of the inductive load. The C.T. is always connected upstream of the reactive load and the power factor compensation capacitors. The line chosen for the C.T. becomes L1(R) in the connection diagram.

MODELS N. of Contactor Command Outputs Output relay contact rating Power supply voltage

PFRMD 3 3

PFRMD 4 4

PFRMD 5 5

PFRMD 6 6

PFRMD 7 7

PFRMD 10 10

PFRMD 12 12

PFRMD 14 14

5 A 250 VAC - 100 VDC 110 - 220 - 380 VAC 10 % - 50/60 Hz

microprocessor-based power factor regulators

PFRMD-OF
GENERAL FEATURES
The PFRMD OF regulator ca be connected by optic fibre (OF) to a remote personal computer for continuous control of the status of the power factor correction equipment. The VIPLINK software generally used ELCONTROL ENERGY instruments, allows in-line reading of the following measurements: - Phase-Phase voltage (V) - Current (A) - Active Power (W) - Power Factor P.F. - Reactive Power (VAr) - Reactive power necessary to correct the power factor to the preset value (VAr) - Frequency (Hz) - Step base weight (VAr) In addition, information is supplied on the generally operating status of the power factor correction equipment and the regulator: - Temperature - Present power factor - Status Byte di stato (allarm, man\auto mode...) - Steps connected - Faulty steps These readings are displayed on the screen with the option of regular saving on disk and/or printout, with the frequency set by the user.
PFRMD-OF INTERFACE (4AAND)

tratta OF 75 metri max. OF - OF AMPLIFIER (4AAF4)

tratta OF OF - OF AMPLIFIER (4AAF4)

CONVERTER OF-RS232-9P (4AAFQ)

Printing example:
05/08/96 15:59:18 INST: _OF PFRMD 14 steps V = 219.0 I = 4.16 W = 1469.00 P.F.= 0.93 VAr = 581.00 Frq = 50.10 DVAr = 213.00 Base weight = 2.0 Temperature = 29 C P.F.required = 0.97 Connected steps: 11111111111111 Faulty steps: 00000000000000 Status: 01000000 KA = 1.0 KV = 1.0

INST:-OF V = 222.0 P.F. = 0.90 Frq = 49.90

COM1 2400 Mode: Single Begin: Tue May 07 02:58:58 PM 05/07/96-14:59:07

PC VIPLINK

PFRMD 14 steps I = 768.00 DVAr = 22000.00

W = 266000.00 VAr = 128800.00 KA=200.0 KV=1.0

Step base weigh

t = 20

Temperature =

30C 84

P.F. required = 0. State byte 0100000

Connected connected):steps (1 if from #1 to #7 11000000 from #8 to #14 000000 Faulty steps (1 from #1 to #7 if faulty):

0000000 from #8 to #14 0000000

advanced technology for electrical installations

PFR Automatic Power Factor Regulators

CESI approved

TIPI E CARATTERISTICHE SPECIFICHE


STANDARD TYPES VARIABIABLE TIME DELAY FIXED TIME DELAY WITH COS DISPLAY FOR HIGH TEMPERATURES (-25 +70 C) HARMONIC OVERLOAD CONTROL

PFR-F

PFR-FI

PFR-T

PFR-TI

PFR-HTA

FOR ALL AUTOMATIC POWER FACTOR CORRECTION NEEDS


1 5

3 2 4

Insulated case in self-extinguishing material, for flus-mounting. Front panel 144x144 mm to DIN 43700 norms. Min. weight Kg 1,4 (PFR-4). Max. weight Kg 1,6 (PFR-14) Transparent front panel cover.

3 4 5

Connection board - screw connections Tc. 3,5x5 mm. Safety panel protecting connections. Screw brackets for mounting to panel. Panel thickness approx 8 mm max.

OPERATION
"PFR" automatic power factor regulators provide constant control of the reactive power absorbed by the load and connect and disconnect capacitor banks as required to maintain the preset cos. Connection and disconnection commands are given only for power variations exceeding the minimum sensitivity threshold given by the preset C/K value. Connection and disconnection takes place after the command signal has continued without interruption for the preset delay time between steps (signal maintained). The sequence always starts from the first bank and works towards the last to ensure that any reactive power combination permitted by the proportion 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 . . / 1 - 2 - 2 - 2 . . / 1 - 2 - 4 - 4 . . / 1 - 2 - 4 - 8 . . between the power rating of the first bank and that of the lateral bank can be achieved as quickly as possible and with minimum switching (the recommended power proportion is 1 - 2 - 2 - 2 . .). The number of combinations available is given by the sum of the above proportions (For example: PFR-4 used with proportion 1 - 2 - 4 - 4 = N 1 + 2 + 4 = 7 combinations).

EXAMPLES OF PROPORTIONS BETWEEN BANKS


TYPES
1st BANK

PFR - 3
1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 4 1 1 1 1

PFR - 4
1 2 2 2 1 2 4 4

PFR - 5
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 4 4 4

PFR - 6
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 4 4 4 4

PFR - 7
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 13 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 23

PFR - 12
1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 4

PFR - 14
1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 4

B A

2nd BANK 3rd BANK

N
4th BANK

K S
5th BANK 6th BANK 7th BANK N OF COMBINATIONS OBTAINED 3 5 7 4 7 11 5 9 15 6 11 19

continue using same method as above

continue using same method as above

12

23

43

14

27

51

advanced technology for electrical installations

PFR Automatic Power Factor Regulators


FIXED TIME DELAY TYPES, FOR HIGH TEMPERATURES (-25 +70 C), WITH HARMONIC OVERLOAD CONTROL TYPES OF AUTOMATIC POWER FACTOR REGULATORS

PFR-HTA
PFR-3HTA PFR-4HTA
4

PFR-5HTA
5 5 A 250 VAC - 100 VDC

PFR-6HTA
6

PFR-7HTA
7

N OF OUTPUTS FOR CONTACTORS RELAY OUTPUT CONTACT RATING VOLTAGE INPUT VARIABLE TIME DELAY FIXED TIME DISPLAY WITH COS DISPLAY FOR HIGH TEMPERATURES (-10 +70 C) HARMONIC OVERLOAD CONTROL

110 - 120, 220 - 240, 380 - 415 VAC 10% - 50 Hz

STANDARD FIXED TIME DELAY TYPES


TYPES OF AUTOMATIC POWER FACTOR REGULATORS

FIXED TIME DELAY TYPES WITH COS DISPLAY

PFR-T
PFR -3T PFR -4T
4

PFR-TI
PFR -12T
12

PFR -5T
5

PFR -6T
6

PFR -7T
7

PFR -14T
14

PFR-3TI
3

PFR-4TI
4

PFR-5TI
5

PFR-6TI
6

PFR-7TI
7

N OF OUTPUTS FOR CONTACTORS RELAY OUTPUT CONTACT RATING VOLTAGE INPUT VARIABLE TIME DELAY FIXED TIME DISPLAY WITH COS DISPLAY FOR HIGHT TEMPERATURES (-10 +70 C) HARMONIC OVERLOAD CONTROL

5 A 250 VAC - 100 VDC 110 - 120, 220 - 240, 380 - 415 VAC 10% - 50 Hz

5 A 250 VAC - 100 VDC 110 - 120, 220 - 240, 380 - 415 VAC 10% - 50 Hz

STANDARD TYPES WITH VARIABLE TIME DELAY


TYPES OF AUTOMATIC POWER FACTOR REGULATORS

TYPE WITH VARIABLE TIME DELAY AND COS DISPLAY

PFR-F
PFR -3F PFR -4F
4

PFR-FI
PFR -12F
12

PFR -5F
5

PFR -6F
6

PFR -7F
7

PFR -14F
14

PFR-3FI
3

PFR-4FI
4

PFR-5FI
5

PFR-6FI
6

PFR-7FI
7

N OF OUTPUTS FOR CONTACTORS RELAY OUTPUT CONTACT RATING VOLTAGE INPUT VARIABLE TIME DELAY FIXED TIME DISPLAY WITH COS DISPLAY FOR HIGHT TEMPERATURES (-10 +70 C) HARMONIC OVERLOAD CONTROL

5 A 250 VAC - 100 VDC 110 - 120, 220 - 240, 380 - 415 VAC 10% - 50 Hz

5 A 250 VAC - 100 VDC 110 - 120, 220 - 240, 380 - 415 VAC 10% - 50 Hz

10

TECHNICAL FEATURES
Input voltage = 110 - 120, 220 - 240, 380 - 415 VAC 10%. Max. power consumption = 10 VA (Max 20 VA PFR-14). Max. current input 5 Amp. (Min. 250 mA). Current consumption = Max 1 VA Frequency = 50 Hz (on request 60 Hz). Possibility of supply from MV (medium voltage) by connecting the 100 V output of the VT (voltage transformer) to the PFR 0-110 connections and the CT (current transformer) 5 amp. output to the CT - CT connections (VT connections on two phases and CT connection on third phase). Zero-setting device for voltage failure. Filter ensuring normal operation even in case of considerable line interference. Cos adjustment from 0.8 inductive to 0.9 capacitive. Minimum connection value C/K adjustable from 0.05 to 1. Time delay between banks automatically regulated between 6 and 30 sec. (PFRF/FI). Hight reactive power requirements mean short time delays, lower requirements longer delays. Fixed time delay between banks 30 sec. (PFRT/TI/HT/HTA). Number of output contacts equal to numer of banks. Output contact rating 5 A - 250 VAC (100 VDC) (au auxilary relay should be added if highter is required). Max capacity of relay common contact is 8 A at 40 C.

EXAMPLES OF CONNECTION ON 400 V SYSTEM

CONTROL AND SIGNALLING GEAR ON FRONT PANEL


LED signalling of following functions: - mains-on condition - POWER - green LED; - inductive load - IND - red LED; - capacitive load - CAP - red LED; - bank of capacitors connected: 1-2-3...etc. - red LEDs; - capacitor disconnection following harmonic overload (only in HTA types) - red LED "High Harmonics rate". Selector switch for automatic (AUT) or manual (MAN) operation. Selector switch for manual connection (+) or disconnection (-) of capacitors. Cos adjustment from 0,8 inductive to 0,9 capacitive. Sensitivity adjustment: C/K adjustment from 0,05 to 1 (C = power of first bank, K = CT transformer ratio). This device prevents the system from hunting. The first capacitor step is connected when more than 70% of its reactive power is required to provide the preset cos and is disconnected when the load is receiving reactive power in excess of the preset cos by a value equal to or more than 40% of the first step output.

SPECIAL DEVICES
Cos DISPLAY: instantaneous, by means of a LED, for cos from 0,7 inductive to 0,98 capacitive (types PFR-FI/TI). Harmonic overload control device (types PFR/HTA). Operation: if the harmonic content exceeds the preset threshold the red LED illuminates and the capacitor banks are immediately discontected. This state lasts until, owing to the capacitors' disconnection or some other cause, the harmonic content falls back below the threshold. The system will then resume normal operation.

ENVIRONMENTAL WORKING CONDITIONS


Production degree of front panel with cover: IP 50. Operating temperature range: -10 + 40 C (-10 +70 C in HTA type). Max. relative humidity 90% at 20 C. Max. altitude 2000 m above sea level Indoor installation away from heat sources.

OVERALL SIZE AND PANEL CUT DIMENSIONS (in mm)

144

TRANSPARENT FRONT PANEL COVER

PANEL CUT 137

144

137

REAR PLASTIC COVER

advanced technology for electrical installations

11

PFCD Automatic Power Factor Regulators

CESI approved

"PFCD" automatic power factor regulators provide constant control of the reactive power required by the load and connect and disconnect capacitor banks as needed to maintain the selected cos. through the suitable trimmer. Adjustable sensitivity C/K eliminates unnecessary switching. Connection or disconnection takes place after the command signal has continued without interruption for the 30 sec. preset time delay between steps (signal maintained). The sequence always starst from the first bank and

works toward the last to ensure that any reactive power combination permitted by the proportion 1 - 1 1-1../1-2-2-2../1-2-4-4../1-2-4-8.. between the power rating of the first bank and that of the last bank can be achieved as quicky as possible and with minimum switching (the raccomended power proportion is 1 - 2 - 2 - 2 . .). The number of combinations available is given by the sum of the above proportions (For example: PFC3D used with proportions 1 - 2 - 4 = N combinations 1 + 2 + 4 = 7). See table below.

12

PFCD POWER SUPPLY

CT INPUTS

CONTACTOR COMMAND OUTPUTS

LED SIGNALLING OF CONNECTED STEPS

COS SELECTABLE FROM 0,8 IND. TO 0,9 CAP. C/K REGULATION from 0,05 to 1

MAINS SIGNALLING

EXCESS TEMPERATURE CONTROL

MAINS POWER SUPPLY 400 VAC 10 % OUTPUT 18 - 0 - 18 VAC

SWITCH FOR MANUAL CONNECTION (IN) or DISCONNECTION (OUT) of CAPACITOR BANKS in middle position (0) blocks capacitor banks already connected PRESENT FOR AUTOMATIC (AUT) or MANUAL (MAN) COMMAND

LED SIGNALLING OF INDUCTIV E LOAD (IN), CONNECTED CAPACITOR BANKS AND CAPACITIVE LOAD (OUT), DISCONNECTED CAPACITOR BANKS

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER 400 / 18 - 0 - 18 VAC - 9 VA (supply with PFCD)

EXAMPLE OF POWER PROPORTIONS BETWEEN CAPACITOR BANKS


TYPES
1st STEP 1 1 1

PFC3D
1 2 2 1 2 4 1 1 1 1

PFC4D
1 2 2 2 1 2 4 4 1 1 1 1 1

PFC5D
1 2 2 2 2 1 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1

PFC6D
1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

PFC7D
1 2 2 2 2 2 2 13 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 23

S
2nd STEP

T
3rd STEP

E
4th STEP

P S
5th STEP 6th STEP 7th STEP N OF COMBINATIONS OBTAINED 3 5 7 4 7 11 5 9 15 6 11 19

advanced technology for electrical installations

13

PFCD Automatic Power Factor Regulators

SIMPLE "NO FRILLS" DESIGN


The PFCD was developed with the purpose in mind of supplyng the full performance expected of a power factor regulator: to connect and disconnect the capacitors in relation to the pwer factor correction requirements of the load. It is possible to carry out a suitable regulation by means of the trimmer for the cos selection.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL
Overvoltages, harmonics, ambient temperature, etc, can cause overheating of the PF capacitor banks. When this occurs it is desiderable to disconnect the capacitors and to reconnect them when normal operating conditions are restored in order to not damage the P.F.C. equipment. The temperature control device of the PFCD performs this automatically, ensuring longer capacitor life.

DEPENDABILY AT LOW COST


The PFCD DIN rail mounting power factor regulator utilises the same electronics that have formed the heart of our 30,000 automatic PFC units sold by Elcontrol Energy worldwide. Its track record is therefore is second to none, and makes the PFCD ideally placed to fulfill the market requirement for a simple low cost controller for small to medium sized PFC equipment. It was this role that the PFCD was designed for.

14

VERSATILE MOUNTING
- DIN rail mounting. - Panel Mounting with the "C. VIPD3", (Frame KIT) available on request.

185

C.VIPD3 FRAME KIT AND ACCESSORIES FOR PANEL MOUNTING OF THE PFCD (Optional)
72

The KIT includes: 1 plastic frame, 2 plastic frame clamps, 2 threaded bars, 2 blocking nuts, 1 pre-drilled DIN rail. The panel cut dimensions for inserting the frame are 46x180 mm.

TYPES AND PERFORMANCE TABLE PFC3D


TA TA C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

PFC4D
TA TA C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20V~ 0 20V~ S1 S2 20V~ 0 20V~

PFC5D
TA TA C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S1 S2 20V~ 0 20V~

PFC6D
TA TA C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S1 S2 20V~ 0 20V~

PFC7D
TA TA C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S1 S2

TYPES OF AUTOMATIC POWER FACTOR CORRECTION REGULATORS

20V~ 0 20V~

S1

S2

PFCD
1
0.1 0.2 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.5 1 0.7 0.9 0.9

PFCD
2 AUT 3 IN ALARM 0
0.9 CAP. 0.8 IND.

PFCD
1 2 AUT 3 4 IN ALARM 0
0.9 CAP. 0.8 IND.

PFCD
1 2 AUT 3 4 IN ALARM 0
0.9 CAP. 0.8 IND.

PFCD
1 2 AUT 3 4 IN ALARM 0
0.9 CAP. 0.8 IND.

POWER
0.1 0.2 0.07 0.06 0.05

POWER
0.1 0.2 0.07 0.06 0.05

POWER
0.1 0.2 0.07 0.06 0.05

POWER
0.1 0.2 0.07 0.06 0.05

1
0.5 1 0.7 0.9 0.9

2 AUT

4 IN

POWER

0.5 1 0.7 0.9 0.9

0.5 1 0.7 0.9 0.9

0.5 1 0.7 0.9 0.9

ALARM 0
0.9 CAP. 0.8 IND.

C/K

COS

MAN

OUT

C/K

COS

MAN

OUT

C/K

COS

MAN

OUT

C/K

COS

MAN

OUT

C/K

COS

MAN

OUT

N CONTACTOR COMMAND OUTOUTS RELAY OUTPUT CONTACT RATING POWER SUPPLY VOLTAGE INTERVAL BETWEEN STEPS COS CALIBRATION FOR HIGHT TEMPERATURE CONTROL WEIGHT (gr.)

5 5 A 250 VAC - 2 A 440 VAC

400 V 10% with trasformer 400 / 18 - 0 - 18 VAC supplied with PFCD (230 VAC on request) Fixed at 30 sec. (signal maintained) Selectable from 0,8 IND to 0,9 CAP Alarms and step release above 55 C; steps reconnected below 45 C 940 960 980 990 1000

OVERALL SIZE AND PANEL CUT DIMENSIONS in mm


TA TA C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20V~ 0 20V~ S1 S2

PANEL CUT

PFCD
1
0.1 0.2 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.5 1 0.7 0.9 0.9

2 AUT

4 IN

POWER

ALARM 0
0.9 CAP. 0.8 IND.

45

90

45

62

46

C/K

COS

MAN

OUT

159

158

33 38 58

20

advanced technology for electrical installations

15

PFCD Automatic Power Factor Regulators


TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
- Input voltage = 400 VAC 10% by transformer 400 / 18 - 0 - 18 VAC - 9 VA - Max. power consumption = Max 9 VA - Max. current input = Max 5 Amp. (Min. 250 mA) - Assorbimento amperometrica = Max 1 VA - Frequency = 50 Hz - High temperature shut-down device - Zero resetting device for voltage failure. - Filter ensuring normal operation even in case of considerable line interference. - Selectable Cos from 0,8 IND. to 0,9 CAP.. - Minimum connection value C/K adjustable from 0.05 to 1. - Time delay between banks = 30 sec. (5 sec. on request). - Number of output contacts equal to numer of banks. - Output contact rating = 5 Amp - 250 VAC or 2 Amp 440 VAC.

EXAMPLES OF CONNECTION ON 400 V SYSTEM


RETE N L1 L2 L3 (R) (S) (T)

TA

TA

20V~ 0 20V~

S1

S2

P1 S1 P2 S2 400 18 0 18 TV - 9VA IN DOTAZIONE


0.06 0.05

PFCD
1
0.1 0.2 0.07 0.5 1 0.7 0.9 0.9

2 AUT

4 IN

POWER

ALARM 0
0.9 CAP. 0.8 IND.

C/K

COS

MAN

OUT

N.B. The PFCD supplied on request with power supply 440 V, 60 Hz frequency.
R R R R R R R R R

CARICO

....

CONTROL AND SIGNALLING GEAR ON FRONT PANEL


- LED signalling of following functions: mains-on condition - POWER - green LED. inductive load - IN - red LED; capacitive load - OUT - red LED; bank of capacitors connected: 1-2-3...etc. - red LEDs; High temperature alarm - red Led. - Selector switch for automatic (AUT) or manual (MAN) functioning. - Selector switch for manual connection (IN) or disconnection (OUT) manual of capacitors - C/K selector switch: values from 0,05 a 1. (C = power of the step, K = overall ratio of C.T.) This device prevents the system from hunting. The first capacitor step is connected when more than 70% of its reactive power is required to provide the selected cos and is disconnected when the load is receiving reactive power in excess of the selected cos by a value equal to or more than 40% of the first step output.

SPECIAL DEVICES
- Temperature control with disconnection of the capacitor banks when the second threshold of 55 C. is exeeded (red alarm LED ON). Normal functioning resumes when the temperature goes below the first threshold of 45 C (alarm Led off).

ENVIRONMENTAL WORKING CONDITIONS


- Production degree of front panel with cover = IP40 - Operating temperature range = -10 +70 C (storage temperature range = -25 +40 C) - Max. relative humidity = 90% at 20 C - Max. altitude = 2,000 mt - Indoor installation away from heat sources.e.

advanced technology for electrical installations

16