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STRATELLITES

ELECTONICS&COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

N.B.K.R INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


VIDYANAGAR

M.MALLIKARJUN 3/4- B.TECH


Email:mallikarjun.m07@gmail.com

B.VENU GOPAL 3/4-B.TECH


Email:balina.venugopal@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:

Wireless

communication

switches to fourth generation in wireless communications. The paper then discusses about High Altitude Airships, the STRATELLITES which are actually unmanned Kelvar balloons which towers filled are used for with helium of wireless instead

is simply data communication without the use of landlines. This may involve cellular telephone, two-way radio, fixed wireless (broadband wireless), laser satellite (freespace optics) or communications.

Mobile wireless technologies are going to act as glue towards bringing together the wired and wireless to share and distribute information seamlessly across each others areas of reference. The paper firstly introduces the and wireless then communications

communication, each of which replace hundreds of towers and reduce the cost of wireless communications. They also overcome the disadvantage of simple towers which could not provide proper coverage in the hilly areas

I. INTRODUCTION Wireless communication is simply data communication without the use of landlines. This may involve cellular telephone, two-way radio, fixed wireless (broadband wireless), laser (freespace optics) or satellite Mobile communication systems.

wired and wireless to share and distribute information seamlessly across each others areas of reference. Since from the beginning of wireless communications, there have been a number of developments in each generation. i.e; 4G. Considering the future generation of wireless communication

wireless technologies are going to act as glue towards bringing together the

II.4GENERATION
capacity, with low bit cost, high To achieve the goals of true broadband cellular service, the systems have to make the leap to a fourthgeneration (4G) network. 4G is intended to provide high speed, high capacity, low cost per bit, IP based services. The goal is to have data rates up to 20 Mbps. Most probable the 4G network would be a network which is a combination of different technologies (current cellular networks, 3G cellular network, wireless LAN, etc.) 4G-cellular systems should not only be high-speed but also highcapacity with reasonable frequency bandwidth, the cell radius of 4Gcellular systems shall be decreased from that of present cellular systems.

III.4G Mobile Communication Systems


Some of the systems for future mobile communications are: 1. Broad-Band Wireless Systems 2. Intelligent Transport Systems 3. High Altitude Stratospheric Platform Station Systems.

IV. High Altitude Stratospheric Platform Station Systems (HAPS) HAPS has the potential to become the third communications infrastructure after terrestrial and

satellite communications. The platforms keep their positions at about 20 km high in the stratosphere. By optical intercommunication links, they make a mesh-like network in the sky. A broadband access link is the link between the platform station and the user station. The typical bit rate of the access link is 25 Mb/s for most fixed and portable terminals, while a several

hundred megabits per second link is available for limited fixed terminals with antennas larger than the typical ones. Because of using millimeter-wave bands, a small antenna with high gain is feasible. For example, a bit rate of 144 kb/s can be provided for vehicles by only a 5 cm dish antenna with 20 dB gain.

Simple HAPS System

V.STRATELLITE

positioned in the stratosphere A stratellite is a high-altitude airship (HAA) 25 times larger than the Goodyear blimp employed much like a satellite for remote sensing, navigation, and communications. Instead of being stationed on orbit, stratellites are American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) projects that eleven such airships could provide radar coverage of the entire maritime and southern borders of the United States approximately 13 miles above the Earth. This altitude places the airships above both commercial air traffic and weather effects but significantly lower than standard low earth orbits. From this height stratellites can service a 300,000square-mile-area. The North

VI. Construction Of Stratellite The initial Stratellite was 188 feet long, 60 feet wide and 42 feet high. It is provided with a new steering method which uses a hybrid electric system that drives large, slow-turning propellers. This gives the airship helicopterlike agility by being able to move both up and down, and side to side. The outside layer, or "envelope," is made out of a hightech material called Spectra - a fabric used in bullet-proof vests and parts of space shuttles. Spectra contains fibre 10 times as strong as steel of the same weight and has the unique feature of being easy to cut but virtually impossible to tear.

The inside layer, made from a thin but strong polyester film called Mylar, is fitted inside the envelope and filled with a mixture of helium and air as helium is an inert gas and is therefore not flammable. With this design, the helium expands as the airship rises, forcing air out and lifting the airship. The cycle continues, allowing the airship to gain more and more altitude until the helium has expanded to fill the envelope completely. Because the pressure is so low inside the envelope, a puncture would only result in a very slow leak, taking a long time to totally deflate.

drives propellers that work with GPS technology to keep the stratellite positioned over one spot on the Earths surface. Prototype airships are projected to carry payloads as large as 4,000 pounds, and later models are expected to carry over 20,000 pounds of radars and other remote imaging equipment, navigational aids, and telecommunications relays. Stratellites are planned to remain on station for a year at a time and will cost a fifth as much as a comparable satellite VIII.Drawbacks Of Satellites These firms are becoming involved with stratellites because they avoid the two main drawbacks of satellites. The first is signal latency, which can cause problems in establishing broadband links.Most telecommunications satellites are in geostationary orbit to remain above a certain point on the Earths surface. That orbit, however, is 22,240 miles above the Earth, (i.e; in the area called CLARKES BELT), which means that a signal going up to the satellite(uplink) and back to the of a second delay. Even users of satellite voice links notice the delay.

VII.Stratellite Technology and Advantages


Stratellites are actually unmanned Kevlar balloons filled with helium. They use thin-film photovoltaic cells sprayed on their surfaces to generate electricity, which Earth(downlink) travels nearly 45,000 miles, which equates to about a quarter

The second drawback is that satellites are in space, requiring expensive space launches, an additional level of regulation by national space authorities, and an orbital allotment by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Stratellites remain in national airspace and are Stratellites remain in national airspace and are therefore not subject to these licensing and technology requirements. However, they do make use of space technology and, as stated above, are in development by at least one space industry firm. IX.Services At an altitude of 13 miles, each Stratellite will have clear line-ofsite communications capability to an entire major metropolitan area as well

as being able to provide coverage across major rural areas. The idea, if successful, would be revolutionary for underserved areas where broadband is not as popular because the areas are too expensive to reach by telephone or cable network. Existing satellites provide easy download capabilities, but because of their high altitude are not practical or commercially viable for a two-way high speed data communication. The Stratellite will allow subscribers to easily communicate in both directions using readily available wireless technology. This means that subscribers can send and receive information using the network, like the current broadband internet system but, without the wires, cables and cellular towers.

provide voice, video, and broadband X.

Applications it

internet access to all parts of the country. By linking several Stratellites together they can provide a wireless broadband network that will cover thousands of miles. With a Stratellite network, subscribers will be

Enables
Once a Stratellite network is in place, it will provide a national broadband wireless network that will

able to sit in their homes and be connected on their laptops to the internet at high speed. If subscribers need to go to the office, across town, or even to another city, they can close their laptop and take off, reopening the laptop at their new destination and still be connected to the internet. This would allow subscribers the ease of not having to find local access numbers, tie up phone lines, deal with modem hassles, and more importantly, slow speeds. In addition to internet use, proposed telecommunications uses include cellular, 3G/4G mobile, MMDS, fixed wireless telephony, HDTV, real-time surveillance and others.

Stratellites offer a window of telecommunications opportunity. Effectively, a Stratellite positioned over a major metropolitan area could act as a cell tower thirteen miles high. A Stratellite, equipped with the appropriate transponders, could manage the wireless needs of that entire metropolitan area. Transponder access could be leased to broadband users such as Internet Service Providers (ISPs), cell phone companies, television networks, radio stations, various levels of government, and to corporations with large broadband requirements. These consumers could then resell access to end users, for residential Internet access, for example.

XI.Stratellites and Telecommunication


None of this type of business or wireless use is innovative, communications. In fact, Stratellites employed in this manner would make use of existing spectrum allocations, at marketing of such links would be virtually identical to current marketing. By increasing the utility and availability of the type of link that has, until now, been restricted to satellites,

so existing regulatory schemes and business models cover Stratellite least initially, and not require expensive bandwidth acquisition. Additionally, the firms can bring broadband links to new areas, provide for increased usage, and service larger markets without any fundamental change in operations.

XII.Stratellite Challenges and Business Opportunities

Though the opportunities for increasing broadband links and for

profit are enormous, Stratellites are still in their infancy. They present several problems that have yet to be fully addressed. The public may be concerned about such large, unmanned payloads stationed above metropolitan areas and recent developments in suborbital flight could eventually lead to traffic problems in the stratosphere. More importantly, critics question whether technology really exists that can keep Stratellites on station for such long periods of time. Once these concerns are overcome and working Stratellites are available, the potential exists for vastly expanding broadband links. Some telecommunications providers, such as Sanswire Technologies, have recognized this marketing opportunity and already have formed joint ventures with the Stratellites will be bringing the Internet, cell phone access, radar monitoring, and radio and television service to all corners of the globe.

space industry and balloon-makers. However, in addition to marketing, Stratellites will require ground control and maintenance, and used Stratellites will require refurbishment before redeployment, tasks which the manufacturers and marketers may well lack the capacity or desire to perform. As broadband requirements increase, Stratellites present a mobile, low-cost, high-capacity alternative to satellite relays and cell towers. In remote areas, over the oceans, in metropolises, and in areas stricken by disaster, Stratellites will immediately provide broadband access and broadcast capacity. Prototypes are in testing and development now. The potential benefits of Stratellites are so great that it is not a question of whether the technological problems will be solved, but when. Soon huge ugly cellular towers, since they are in orbit, and (2) they are far cheaper to launch, maintain and upgrade than satellites. However, there are still two big concerns: if Stratellites will actually work, and their cost as launching things into space (or near space) can be costly. Using wireless equipment, a company would have to install over 14,000 cellular towers to cover the same area as Snaswires proposed

XIII.Marketability and Costs


In addition to providing two-way communication, Stratellites make more sense than wireless systems and satellites: (1) there is no use of

Stratellite based national wireless network. That means that there will be over 14,000 more ugly towers to

hide. In addition, this technology will make the need for expensive cabling obsolete. Overall, the idea of a Stratellite

One of the many advantages our High Altitude Airships have over satellite technology is that the payload can easily be recovered, upgraded, and re-launched in a matter of hours. Thus, each airship can be retrieved and re-used. Even if these costs are kept down Stratellites do not come without problems or doubters. They have to float inside 200 to 300 meter box and thats hard for an airship. After you solve that problem, you have to create a service that can perform better and cheaper than DSL. In addition, Stratellites are susceptible to the same kinds of interferences that satellite systems currently are. Stratelites provide the required facilities of wireless communication more efficiently than the ordinary towers. The Stratellite will allow subscribers to easily communicate in both directions using readily available wireless technology. They minimise the cost of communication. .

wireless network seem to be marketable in the sense that they would be more cost effective than satellites and cellular towers, and with the proper testing they potentially have the ability to turn the whole country in one giant hot spot. This is something that from judging by the popularity and use of hotspots the nation is ready for.

XIV.Conclusion

Stratellites present a mobile, low-cost, high-capacity alternative to satellite relays and cell towers. Once the defects of Stratellites have been overcome and become more reliable, they play a vital role in the future generation wireless communication

XV.References

1. www.google.co.in 2. www.yahoosearch.com 3. howstuffworks.com 4. 21st Century Airships, Inc., High Altitude Platforms, at http://www.21stcenturyairships.com/