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COMPARISON OF SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA

1. SPRINKLER INSTALLATION

NFPA 13

Sprinklers are needed wherever there are combustible materials either in the building construction or in its contents, including the following locations;

a. in noncombustible buildings wherever contents are combustible, including areas where flammable liquids are stored or used.

b. throughout all buildings of combustible construction or those having appreciable amounts of combustible componenets.

c. as the basic protection at hazardous processes such as those involving flammable liquids, even though protected with fixed extinguishing system.

d. in concealed spaces of combustible construction such as floors, roofs and low attics except where the ceiling is attached

directly to the underside of the supporting beams of a combustible roof or floor and fire stopping is provided.

e. in vacant spaces under the first story of building with combustible floors and under the combustible floors of exterior docks, platform and piers

f. under roofs over outside loading platforms or docks and under other exterior canopies except where construction is noncombustible and the area under the canopy is not used for storage

g. in enclosed equipment such as ovens, dryers, dust collectors, large ducts, spray booths, paper machine hoods, paper

machine economizers, part of textile preparatory machines and similar enclosures where combustible materials are processed or combustible wastes or deposits may accumulate

h. in small enclosed structures such as a penthouses, stairways, passageways, small offices, stockrooms, closets or similar

enclosures of combustible construction or containing combustible material.

i. in elevator towers, including in and under penthouses and in elevator machine rooms.

j. under cutting tables regardless of with and under ducts and storage shelves including slatted decks that are over 4ft (1.20m) wide, where there are combustible beneath. Sprinklers are needed under ducts of less width if distribution from ceiling sprinklers is obstructed.

k. at exposed steelwork supporting process equipment such as large tanks, stills, pipelines or equipment containing flammable

chemicals or liquids so constructed or located that the steel would not be well protected by the usual installation of building sprinklers

l. where combustible storage or construction is introduced in areas where buildings and contents are otherwise noncombustible

m. telephone equipment rooms

BS EN 12845

where a building is to be protected, all areas of that building or of a communicating building shall be sprinkler protected except in some cases indicated

sprimkler protection shall be considered in the following cases, but may be omitted after due consideration of the fire load in each cases;

a. washrooms and toilets (but not cloakroom) of non combustible materials and which are not used to store combustible mat'ls

b. enclosed staircases and enclosed vertical shafts (i.e lift or service shafts) containing no combustible material and construc-

ted as a fire resistant separation

c. rooms protected by other automatic extinguishing systems (i.e gas, powder and water spray)

d. wet processes such as the wet end of paper making machines

sprinkler protection shall not be provided in the following areas of a building or plant;

a. silos or bins containing substances which expand on contact with water

b. in the vicinity of industrial furnaces or kilns, salt baths, smelting ladles or similar equipment if the hazard would be increased

by the use of water in extinguishing a fire

c. areas, rooms or places where water discharge might present a hazard. In these cases other automatic extinguishing system should be considered(i.e gas or powder)

the separation between a sprinkler protected area and a non protected area shall have a fire resistance specified by the authority but in no case less than 60 minutes. Door shall be self closing or be closed automatically in case of fire.

2 SPRINKLER SYSTEM TYPES

NFPA 13

Antifreeze sprinkler system - a wet pipe sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system that contains an antifreeze solution and that are connected to a water supply. The antifreeze solution is discharged followed by water, immediately upon operation of sprinklers opened by heat from a fire.

Circulating closed looped sprinkler system - a wet pipe sprinkler system having non-fire protection coonections to auto- matic sprinkler systems in a closed looped piping arrangement for the purpose of utilizing sprinkler piping to conduct water for heating or cooling, where water is not removed or used from the system but only circulated through the piping system.

Combined dry pipe - preaction sprinkler system - a sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air under pressure with a supplemental detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. operation of the detection system actuates tripping devices that open dry pipe valves simultaneously and withot loss of air pressure in the system. Operation of the detection system also opens listed air exhaust valves at the end of feed main which usually precedes the opening of sprinklers. The detection system also serves as an automatic fire alarm system.

Deluge sprinkler system - a sprinkler system employing open sprinklers that are attached to a piping system that is connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. When the valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto.

Dry pipe sprinkler system - a sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system containing air or nitrogen under pressure, the release of which permits the water pressure to open a valve known as a dry pipe valve and the water then flows into the piping system and out of the opened sprinklers.

Gridded sprinkler system - a sprinkler system in which parallel cross mains are connected by multiple branch lines. An operating sprinkler will receive water from both ends of its branchline while other branch line help transfer water between crossmains.

Looped sprinkler system - a sprinkler system in which multiple crossmains are tied together so as to provide more than one path for water to flow to an operating sprinkler and branchline that are not tied together

Preaction sprinkler system - a sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system that contains air that might or might not be under pressure, with a supplemental detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers

Wet pipe sprinkler system - a sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to piping system containing water and connected to water supply so that water discharges immediately from sprinklers opened by heat from a fire

BS EN 12845

Wet pipe are installation that are permanently charged with water under pressure. Wet pipe installation shall be installed only in premises where there is no possibility of frost damaged to the installation and where the ambient temperature will not exceed 95 deg C. Installation subject to freezing may be protected by anti-freeze liquid or trace heating.

Dry pipe are installation that are normally charged with air or inert gas under pressure downstream of dry alarm valve and water under pressure upstream of the dry alarm valve. A permanent air/inert gas supply to maintain the pressure in the pipe- work shall be installed. The installation shall be pressurized to fall within the pressure range recommended by the alarm valve supplier.

Alternate installation incorporate either and alternate alarm valve or a composite set comprising a wet alarm valve and a dry alarm valve. During winter

Pre-action installations shall be one of the following types; Type A pre-action installation is normal dry pipe installation in which the control valve set is activated by automatic fire detection system but not by the operation of the sprinklers. The gas/inert gas pressure in the installation shall be monitored at all times. A t least one quick opening manually operated valve shall be installed in an appropriate position to enable the pre-action valve to be activated in an emergency.

Type B installation is otherwise normal dry pipe installation in which the control valve set is activated either by an automatic fire detection system or by the operation of the sprinklers. Independently of the response of the detectors, a pressure drop in the pipework causes the opening of the alarm valve. Type B pre-action installation may be installed wherever a dry pipe is called for and the spread of fire is expected to be rapid. They may also be used instead of ordinary dry pipe systems with or without an accelarator or exhauster

Where a sprinkler system includes more than one pre-action sprinkler installation, a risk assessment shall be undertaken to establish wether simultaneous operation of more than one pre-action installation could occur. Where simultaneous charging of pre-action sprinkler installations may occur, the following shall be implemented

a) the volume of stored water supplies shall be increased by the volume of the pre-action installations b) the time between multiple pre-action installations tripping and water discharging from any remote test valve on the installa- tions under consideration shall not exceed 60 sec.

3. CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPANCY

Classification of occupancy relate to sprinkler installation and their water supply. These occupancy classification should be used to develop criteria for maximum allowable sprinkler spacing.

NFPA 13

BS EN 12845

Light hazard occupancies occupancies or portion of other occupancies where the qty and/or combustibility contents is low and fires with relatively low rate of heat release are expected. Light hazard occupancies includes occupancies having similar to:

Light hazard occupancies schools and other educational institutions prison offices (with no single compartment greater than 126m2 with a fire resistance of at least 30 min)

churches club eaves and overhang educational hospitals institutional libraries, except large stack rooms museums nursing or convalescent room office including data processing residential restaurant seating area theater and auditorium unused attic

Ordinary hazard 1 occupancies cement works sheet metal product factories hospitals hotels libraries (excluding bookstores) restaurants schools offices data processing (computer room excluding tape storage)

Ordinary hazard 2 occupancies photographic film factories metal working abattoirs,meat factories bakeries biscuit factories

NFPA 13

BS EN 12845

Ordinary hazard grp-1 occupancies occupancies or portions of other occupancies where com- bustibility is low, quantity of combustible is moderate, stockpiles of combustibles do not exceed 2.40m high and fires with moderate rates of heat release are expected.

breweries chocolate factories confectionery dairies factories laboratories (physical)

Ordinary hazard grp-1 occupancies include occupancies having conditions similar to:

automobile parking and showrooms bakeries and beverage naufacturing canneries dairy products manufacturing and processing electronic plants glass and glass product manufacturing laundries restaurant service areas

Ordinary hazard grp-2 occupancies occupancies or portion of occupancies where quantity and combustibility is moderate to high. Stockpiles do not exceed 3.70m high and fire with moderate to high rates of heat release are expected. Ordinary hazard grp-2 occupancies includes occupancies having conditions similar to:

laundries car parks museums leather goods factories

Ordinary hazard 3 occupancies glass factories dyers work soap factories photographic laboratories paint application shops with water based paint electronics factories radio equipment factories washing machine factories car workshops animal fodder factories corn mills sugar factories dehydrated vegetable and soup factories broadcasting studios railway stations plant (technical) room farm building book binding factories cardboard factories

cereal mills chemical plants-ordinary confectionary products distilleries dry cleaners feed mills horse stables leather goods manufacturing

NFPA 13

BS EN 12845

libraries-large stackroom areas machine shops metal working mercantile paper and pulp mills paper process plants pier and wharves post office printing and publishing repair garages stages textile manufacturing tire manufacturing tobacco product manufacturing wood machining wood product assembly

paper factories shopping centre carpet factories (excluding rubber and foam plastics) fibre board factories footwear factories (excluding plastics and rubber) knitting factories linen factories mattress factories (excluding foam plastics) sewing factories weaving mills woolen and worsted mills woodworking factories furniture factories (without foam, plastics) furniture showrooms upholstery (without foam and plastics) factories

Extra hazard grp-1 occupancies these occupancies includes occupancies similar to:

High hazard Process occupancies (HHP1)

upholstering with plastic foam aircraft hangar combustible hydraulic fluid use area die casting metal extruding plywood and particle board manufacturing printing rubber reclaiming saw mills textile picking burlap

floor cloth and linoleum manufacture resin, lamp black and turpentine manufacture rubber substitute manufacture wood wool manufacture paint application shops with solvent refrigerator factories printing works cable factories for PP/PE/PS or similar burning characteristics other than Ordinary hazard 3 (OH3) injection moulding (plastics) for PP/PE/PS or similar burning charac- teristics other than ordinary hazard 3 (OH3)

NFPA 13

BS EN 12845

Extra hazard grp-2 occupancies these occupancies includes occupancies similar to:

rubber good factories synthetic fibre factories (excluding acrylic) rope factories carpet factories including unexpanded plastics footwear factories including plastics and rubber

High hazard Process occupancies (HHP2)

asphalt saturating flammable liquid spraying flow coating manufactured home open oil quenching plastic processing solvent cleaning varnish and paint dipping

fire lighter manufacture tar distilling depots for buses, un-laden lorries and railway carriages candle wax and paraffin manufacturers paper machine halls carpet factories including rubber and foam plastics saw mill chipboard manufacturing (1) paint, colour and varnish manufacture

 

High hazard Process occupancies (HHP3)

cellulose nitrate manufacture rubber tires for cars and lorries manufacture of material factor M3 (material which are predominant- ly unexpanded plastic) foam plastics, foam rubber and rubber goods

High hazard Process occupancies (HHP4)

firework manufacture

4. SPRINKLER SPACING AND PROTECTION AREAS

NFPA 13

protection areas and maximum spacing of standard spray pendent and upright sprinklers

 

light hazard

ordinary hazard

extra hazard

high piled storage

protec-

spacing

protec-

spacing

protec-

spacing

protec-

spacing

tion area

max.

tion area

max.

tion area

max.

tion area

max.

construction type

m2

m

m2

m

m2

m

m2

m

non combustible

               

obstructed and

unobstructed and

combustible un-

obstructed

20.9

4.5

12.1

4.5

9.3

3.6

9.3

3.6

combustible

obstructed

15.6

4.5

12.1

4.5

9.3

3.6

9.3

3.6

protection areas and maximum spacing of standard sidewall spray sprinklers

   

light hazard

ordinary hazard

combustible finish

non combustible or limited or limited combustible fin.

combustible finish

non combustible or limited or limited combustible fin.

max.distance along the wall(S) max.room width (L) max.protection area

4.26

4.26

3

3

3.65

3.65

3

3

11.15

18.2

7.4

9.3

protection areas and maximum spacing of extended coverage spray pendent and upright sprinklers

 

light hazard

ordinary hazard

extra hazard

high piled storage

protec-

spacing

protec-

spacing

protec-

spacing

protec-

spacing

tion area

max.

tion area

max.

tion area

max.

tion area

max.

construction type

m2

m

m2

m

m2

m

m2

m

   

37.18

6

   

30

5.48

37.18

6

23.98

4.87

30

5.48

18.21

4.26

18.21

4.26

18.21

4.26

unobstructed

23.98

4.87

13.38

3.65

13.38

3.65

13.38

3.65

 

37.18

6

   

obstructed non- combustible(when specifically listed for such use)

30

5.48

37.18

6

23.98

4.87

30

5.48

18.21

4.26

18.21

4.26

18.21

4.26

23.98

4.87

13.38

3.65

13.38

3.65

13.38

3.65

obstructed combus- ble

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

protection areas and maximum spacing of extended coverage sidewall spray sprinklers

 

light hazard

ordinary hazard

construction type

protection area (m2)

spacing (ft)

protection area (m2)

spacing (ft)

unobstructed, smooth, flat

37.18

8.5

37.18

7.3

BS EN 12845

maximum coverage and spacing for sprinkler other than sidewall

hazard class

max. area/sprinkler

maximum distances, m

 

m2

standard layout

staggered layout

LH

21

4.6

4.6

OH

12

4

4.6

HHP

9

3.7

3.7

maximum coverage and spacing for sidewall sprinklers

hazard

max. area

spacing along walls

room

room

rows of

spacing

class

per sprin-

between

sprinklers to end of

width,w

length, l

sidewall

pattern

kler (m2)

sprinklers

sprinklers

(m)

wall (m)

(m)

(m)

       

W≤3.7

any

1

single line

3.7< w≤7.4

≤9.2

2

standard

3.7< w≤7.4

≤9.2

2

standard

LH

17

4.6

2.3

w>7.4

any

2

staggered

W≤3.7

any

1

single line

3.7< w≤7.4

≤6.8

2

standard

3.7< w≤7.4

≤6.8

2

staggered

OH

9

3.4

1.8

w>7.4

any

2

standard

5. WATER DEMAND REQUIREMENT AND TANK CAPACITY

NFPA 13

Used in Pipe schedule method

Water supply requirement for Pipe schedule sprinkler system

occupancy

min. residual

acceptable flow

duration in

min. tank size

classification

pressure req'd

at base of riser

minutes

ft3 (m3)

light hazard

15 psi (1.034 bar)

500-750 gpm

30-60 min

2010 (57)

ordinary hazard

20 psi (1.38 bar)

850- 1500 gpm

60-90 min

6809 (193)

Used in Hydraulic Calculation method (values shall be added to the sprinkler water demand) Hose stream demand and water supply duration requirement

 

occupancy

Inside hose

total

duration in

classification

(gpm)

minutes

light hazard

0,50,100

100

30

ordinary hazard

0,50,100

250

60

extra hazard

0,50,100

500

90

BS EN 12845

Pressure and flow requirements for pre-calculated LH and OH systems

hazard

flow

pressure at the

max. demand

pressure at the

class

(lpm)

control valve set

flow (lpm)

control valve set

LH

(bar)

(bar)

(wet

&preaction)

225

2.2+

p s

………

…………

OH1

(wet

&preaction)

375

1.0+

p s

540

0.7+ p s

OH1

(dry&alternate)

 

OH2

(wet &preaction)

725

1.4+

p s

1000

1.0+ p s

OH2

(dry&alternate)

 

OH3

(wet &preaction)

1100

1.7+

p s

1350

1.4+ p s

OH3

(dry&alternate)

 

OH4

(wet &preaction)

1800

2.0+ p s

2100

1.5+ p s

notes; p s =

LH water duration is 30 min. OH water duration is 60 min. HHP water duration is 90 min

is the static head loss due to the height of the highest sprinkler in the array concerned above the control valve set, in bar

BS EN 12845

minimum effective capacity of reduced capacity tanks

hazard class

minimum effective capacity, m3

LH (wet or pre-action)

5

OH1 (wet or pre-action)

10

OH1 (dry or alternate)

20

OH2 (wet or pre-action)

20

OH2 (dry or alternate)

30

OH3 (wet or pre -action)

30

OH3 (dry or alternate)

50

OH4 (wet or pre -action)

50

HHP and HHS

70, but in no case less than 10% of the full capacity

the following conditions shall be met for reduced capacity tanks;

1. the inflow shall be from a town main and shall be automatic, via at least two (20) mechanical float valves

the inflow shall not adversely influence the pump suction. The failure of a single float valve shall not impair the required infill rate

2. the effective capacity of the tank shall be no less than the figure above

3. the tank capacity plus the inflow shall be sufficient to supply the system at full capacity

4.it shall be possible to check the capacity of the inflow

5. the inflow arrangement shall be accessible for inspection

6. AREAS OF SPRINKLER OPERATION AND DENSITY

NFPA 13

occupancy

areas of sprinkler operation (m2)

density

classification

(l/min)m2

light hazard

139

4.1

ordinary hazard

139

6.1 (ord.haz.1) 8.1 (ord.haz.2)

extra hazard

232

12.2 (ext. haz 1) 16.3 (ext.haz 2)

BS EN 12845

hazard

design density

area of operation (m2)

class

mm/min

wet or preaction

dry or alternate

LH

2.25

84

not allowed used OH1

OH1

5.00

72

90

OH2

5.00

144

180

OH3

5.00

216

270

OH4

5.00

360

not allowed used HHP1

HHP1

7.50

260

325

HHP2

10.00

260

325

HHP3

12.50

260

325

HHP4

deluge (see note)

7. SYSTEM PRESSURE

NFPA 13

6.90 bar is the minimum system pressure while 12.10 bar is the maximum pressure. 24 bar is the maximum shut off pressure

BS EN 12845

Except during testing, water pressure shall not exceed 12 bar at equipment connectios. The pressure in pumped system shall take into account any increase in driver speed and pressure due to closed valve condition

8. POCKET CEILING AND CONCEALED SPACES PROTECTION

NFPA 13

Sprinklers shall be required In all ceiling pockets. Sprinklers shall not be required in ceiling pockets if all the following are met ;

1. the total volume of the unprotected ceiling pocket does not exceed 1000 ft3 (28.3m3)

2. the depth of the unprotected ceiling pocket does not exceed 36 in. (914mm)

3. the entire floor under the unprotected ceiling pocket is protected by sprinklers at the lower ceiling elevation

4. the total size of all unprotected ceiling pockets in the same compartment within 10 ft (3.0m) of each other does not

exceed 1000ft3 (28.3m3)

5. the unprotested ceiling pocket has non combustible or limited-combustible finishes

6. quick response sprinklers are utilized throughout the compartment

BS EN 12845

1. if the height of the concealed space at roof and floor exceeds 0.80m measured between the underside of the roof and the top

of the suspended ceiling or between the floor and the underside of the rasised floor, these spaces shall be sprinkler protected.

2. if the height of the concealed space at roof and floor is no greater than 0.80m, the spaces shall be sprinkler protected only if they

contain combustible materials or are constructed with combustible materials. Electric cables with voltage less than 250V, single phase with a maximum of 15 cables per tray are allowed